2016 Colorado Revised Statutes
Title 19 - Children's Code
Article 2 - the Colorado Juvenile Justice System
Part 5 - Entry Into System
§ 19-2-517. Direct filing
(1) A juvenile may be charged by the direct filing of an information in the district court or by indictment only if:
(a) The juvenile is sixteen years of age or older at the time of the commission of the alleged offense and:
(I) Is alleged to have committed a class 1 or class 2 felony; or
(II) Is alleged to have committed a sexual assault that is a crime of violence pursuant to section 18-1.3-406, C.R.S., or a sexual assault under the circumstances described in section 18-3-402 (5) (a), C.R.S.; or
(III) (A) Is alleged to have committed a felony enumerated as a crime of violence pursuant to section 18-1.3-406, C.R.S., other than a sexual assault as described in subparagraph (II) of this paragraph (a), or is alleged to have committed sexual assault pursuant to section 18-3-402, C.R.S., sexual assault on a child pursuant to section 18-3-405, C.R.S., or sexual assault on a child by one in a position of trust pursuant to section 18-3-405.3, C.R.S.; and
(B) Is found to have a prior adjudicated felony offense; or
(IV) Has previously been subject to proceedings in district court as a result of a direct filing pursuant to this section or a transfer pursuant to section 19-2-518; except that:
(A) If the juvenile is found not guilty in district court of the prior felony or any lesser included offense, the subsequent charge shall be remanded to the juvenile court; and
(B) If the juvenile is convicted in district court in the prior case of a lesser included or nonenumerated offense for which criminal charges could not have been originally filed by information or indictment in the district court pursuant to this section, the subsequent charge may be remanded to the juvenile court.
(V) to (VII) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2012.)
(b) and (c) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2012.)
(1.5) If, after a preliminary hearing, the district court does not find probable cause for an offense that may be charged by direct filing, or if the direct file eligible offense is dismissed at a later date, the court shall remand the case to the juvenile court.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 19-2-518, after filing charges in the juvenile court but before the juvenile court conducts a transfer hearing, the district attorney may file the same or different charges against the juvenile by direct filing of an information in the district court or by indictment pursuant to this section. Upon the filing or indictment in the district court, the juvenile court shall no longer have jurisdiction over proceedings concerning the charges.
(3) (a) After a juvenile case has been charged by direct filing of information or by an indictment in district court, the juvenile may file in district court a motion to transfer the case to juvenile court. The juvenile must file the motion no later than the time to request a preliminary hearing. Upon receipt of the motion, the court shall set the reverse-transfer hearing with the preliminary hearing. The court shall permit the district attorney to file a response to the juvenile's motion to transfer the case to juvenile court. The district attorney shall file the response no later than fourteen days before the reverse-transfer hearing.
(b) In determining whether the juvenile and the community would be better served by adjudicative proceedings pursuant to this article or by proceedings under title 16, C.R.S., the court shall consider the following factors:
(I) The seriousness of the alleged offense and whether the protection of the community requires response or consequence beyond that afforded by this article;
(II) Whether the alleged offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated, or willful manner;
(III) Whether the alleged offense was against persons or property, greater weight being given to offenses against persons;
(IV) The age of the juvenile and the maturity of the juvenile as determined by considerations of the juvenile's home, environment, emotional attitude, and pattern of living;
(V) The record and previous history of the juvenile in prior court-related matters;
(VI) The current and past mental health status of the juvenile as evidenced by relevant mental health or psychological assessments or screenings that are made available to both the district attorney and defense counsel;
(VII) The likelihood of the juvenile's rehabilitation by use of the sentencing options available in the juvenile courts and district courts;
(VIII) The interest of the community in the imposition of a punishment commensurate with the gravity of the offense;
(IX) The impact of the offense on the victim;
(X) Whether the juvenile was previously committed to the department of human services following an adjudication for a delinquent act that constitutes a felony; and
(XI) Whether the juvenile used, or possessed and threatened the use of, a deadly weapon in the commission of the delinquent act.
(c) If the district court determines pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subsection (3) that the juvenile and the community would be better served by adjudicative proceedings pursuant to this article, the court shall enter an order directing that the offenses against the juvenile be adjudicated in juvenile court pursuant to the provisions of this article.
(4) and (5) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2012.)
(6) (a) If a juvenile is convicted following the filing of criminal charges by information or indictment in the district court pursuant to this section, the district judge shall sentence the juvenile either:
(I) As an adult; except that a juvenile is excluded from the mandatory minimum sentencing provisions in section 18-1.3-406, C.R.S., unless the juvenile is convicted of a class 1 felony or a sex offense that is subject to part 9 of article 1.3 of title 18, C.R.S.; or
(II) To the youthful offender system in the department of corrections in accordance with section 18-1.3-407, C.R.S.; except that a juvenile shall be ineligible for sentencing to the youthful offender system if the juvenile is convicted of:
(A) A class 1 felony;
(B) Any sexual offense described in section 18-6-301 or 18-6-302, C.R.S., or part 4 of article 3 of title 18, C.R.S.; or
(C) A second or subsequent offense, if the juvenile received a sentence to the department of corrections or to the youthful offender system for the prior offense.
(III) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2012.)
(b) The district court judge may sentence a juvenile pursuant to the provisions of this article if the juvenile is convicted of a lesser included or nonenumerated felony offense for which criminal charges could not have been originally filed by information or indictment in the district court pursuant to this section. If the juvenile is convicted of only a misdemeanor offense or misdemeanor offenses, the court shall adjudicate the juvenile a delinquent and sentence the juvenile pursuant to this article.
(c) If a juvenile is convicted of an offense that is not eligible for district court jurisdiction under either this section or section 19-2-518, the juvenile shall be remanded to juvenile court.
(7) In the case of a person who is sentenced as a juvenile pursuant to subsection (6) of this section, the following provisions shall apply:
(a) Section 19-2-908 (1) (a), regarding mandatory sentence offenders;
(b) Section 19-2-908 (1) (b), regarding repeat juvenile offenders;
(c) Section 19-2-908 (1) (c), regarding violent juvenile offenders; and
(d) Section 19-2-601, regarding aggravated juvenile offenders.
(8) The court in its discretion may appoint a guardian ad litem for a juvenile charged by the direct filing of an information in the district court or by indictment pursuant to this section.
(9) When a juvenile is sentenced pursuant to the provisions of this article, the juvenile's conviction shall be adjudicated as a juvenile delinquency adjudication.
(10) For purposes of this section, "violent juvenile offender" has the same meaning as defined in section 19-2-516 (3).
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