2016 Colorado Revised Statutes
Title 12 - Professions and Occupations
Article 40.5 - Occupational Therapy Practice Act
§ 12-40.5-110. Grounds for discipline - disciplinary proceedings - judicial review
(1) The director may take disciplinary action against a licensee if the director finds that the licensee has represented himself or herself as a licensed occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant after the expiration, suspension, or revocation of his or her license.
(2) The director may revoke, suspend, deny, or refuse to renew a license; place a licensee on probation; issue a letter of admonition to a licensee; or issue a cease-and-desist order to a licensee in accordance with this section upon proof that the licensee:
(a) Has engaged in a sexual act with a person receiving services while a therapeutic relationship existed or within six months immediately following termination of the therapeutic relationship. For the purposes of this paragraph (a):
(I) "Sexual act" means sexual contact, sexual intrusion, or sexual penetration, as defined in section 18-3-401, C.R.S.
(II) "Therapeutic relationship" means the period beginning with the initial evaluation and ending upon the written termination of treatment.
(b) Has falsified information in an application or has attempted to obtain or has obtained a license by fraud, deception, or misrepresentation;
(c) Is an excessive or habitual user or abuser of alcohol or habit-forming drugs or is a habitual user of a controlled substance, as defined in section 18-18-102, C.R.S., or other drugs having similar effects; except that the director has the discretion not to discipline the licensee if he or she is participating in good faith in a program to end such use or abuse that the director has approved;
(d) (I) Has failed to notify the director, as required by section 12-40.5-114.5, of a physical or mental condition or illness that impacts the licensee's ability to provide occupational therapy services with reasonable skill and safety or that may endanger the health or safety of individuals receiving services;
(II) Has failed to act within the limitations created by a physical or mental illness or condition that renders the person unable to practice occupational therapy with reasonable skill and safety or that may endanger the health or safety of persons under his or her care; or
(III) Has failed to comply with the limitations agreed to under a confidential agreement entered pursuant to section 12-40.5-114.5;
(e) Has violated this article or aided or abetted or knowingly permitted any person to violate this article, a rule adopted under this article, or any lawful order of the director;
(f) Had a license or registration suspended or revoked for actions that are a violation of this article;
(g) Has been convicted of or pled guilty or nolo contendere to a felony or committed an act specified in section 12-40.5-111. A certified copy of the judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction of the conviction or plea shall be conclusive evidence of the conviction or plea. In considering the disciplinary action, the director shall be governed by section 24-5-101, C.R.S.
(h) Has fraudulently obtained, furnished, or sold any occupational therapy diploma, certificate, license, or renewal of a license or record, or aided or abetted such act;
(i) Has failed to notify the director of the suspension or revocation of the person's past or currently held license, certificate, or registration required to practice occupational therapy in this or any other jurisdiction;
(j) Has refused to submit to a physical or mental examination when ordered by the director pursuant to section 12-40.5-114;
(k) Has engaged in any of the following activities and practices:
(I) Ordering or performing, without clinical justification, demonstrably unnecessary laboratory tests or studies;
(II) Administering treatment, without clinical justification, that is demonstrably unnecessary; or
(III) An act or omission that is contrary to generally accepted standards of the practice of occupational therapy;
(l) Has failed to provide adequate or proper supervision of a licensed occupational therapy assistant, of an aide, or of any unlicensed person in the occupational therapy practice; or
(m) Has otherwise violated this article or any lawful order or rule of the director.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) of this section, the director need not find that the actions that are grounds for discipline were willful but may consider whether such actions were willful when determining the nature of disciplinary sanctions to be imposed.
(4) (a) The director may commence a proceeding to discipline a licensee when the director has reasonable grounds to believe that the licensee has committed an act enumerated in this section or has violated a lawful order or rule of the director.
(b) In any proceeding under this section, the director may accept as evidence of grounds for disciplinary action any disciplinary action taken against a licensee or registrant in another jurisdiction if the violation that prompted the disciplinary action in the other jurisdiction would be grounds for disciplinary action under this article.
(5) Disciplinary proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S., and the hearing and opportunity for review shall be conducted pursuant to that article by the director or by an administrative law judge, at the director's discretion. The director has the authority to exercise all powers and duties conferred by this article during the disciplinary proceedings.
(6) (a) No later than thirty days following the date of the director's action, an occupational therapist disciplined under this section shall be notified by the director, by a certified letter to the most recent address provided to the director by the occupational therapist, of the action taken, the specific charges giving rise to the action, and the occupational therapist's right to request a hearing on the action taken.
(b) Within thirty days after notification is sent by the director, the occupational therapist may file a written request with the director for a hearing on the action taken. Upon receipt of the request the director shall grant a hearing to the occupational therapist. If the occupational therapist fails to file a written request for a hearing within thirty days, the action of the director shall be final on that date.
(c) Failure of the occupational therapist to appear at the hearing without good cause shall be deemed a withdrawal of his or her request for a hearing, and the director's action shall be final on that date. Failure, without good cause, of the director to appear at the hearing shall be deemed cause to dismiss the proceeding.
(7) (a) The director may request the attorney general to seek an injunction, in any court of competent jurisdiction, to enjoin a person from committing an act prohibited by this article. When seeking an injunction under this paragraph (a), the attorney general shall not be required to allege or prove the inadequacy of any remedy at law or that substantial or irreparable damage is likely to result from a continued violation of this article.
(b) (I) In accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S., and this article, the director is authorized to investigate, hold hearings, and gather evidence in all matters related to the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the director.
(II) In order to aid the director in any hearing or investigation instituted pursuant to this section, the director or an administrative law judge appointed pursuant to paragraph (c) of this subsection (7) is authorized to administer oaths, take affirmations of witnesses, and issue subpoenas compelling the attendance of witnesses and the production of all relevant records, papers, books, documentary evidence, and materials in any hearing, investigation, accusation, or other matter before the director or an administrative law judge.
(III) Upon failure of any witness or licensee to comply with a subpoena or process, the district court of the county in which the subpoenaed person or licensee resides or conducts business, upon application by the director with notice to the subpoenaed person or licensee, may issue to the person or licensee an order requiring that person or licensee to appear before the director; to produce the relevant papers, books, records, documentary evidence, or materials if so ordered; or to give evidence touching the matter under investigation or in question. If the person or licensee fails to obey the order of the court, the court may hold the person or licensee in contempt of court.
(c) The director may appoint an administrative law judge pursuant to part 10 of article 30 of title 24, C.R.S., to conduct hearings, take evidence, make findings, and report such findings to the director.
(8) (a) The director, the director's staff, any person acting as a witness or consultant to the director, any witness testifying in a proceeding authorized under this article, and any person who lodges a complaint pursuant to this article shall be immune from liability in any civil action brought against him or her for acts occurring while acting in his or her capacity as director, staff, consultant, or witness, respectively, if such individual was acting in good faith within the scope of his or her respective capacity, made a reasonable effort to obtain the facts of the matter as to which he or she acted, and acted in the reasonable belief that the action taken by him or her was warranted by the facts.
(b) A person participating in good faith in making a complaint or report or in an investigative or administrative proceeding pursuant to this section shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability that otherwise might result by reason of the participation.
(9) A final action of the director is subject to judicial review by the court of appeals pursuant to section 24-4-106 (11), C.R.S.
(10) An employer of an occupational therapist shall report to the director any disciplinary action taken against the occupational therapist or the resignation of the occupational therapist in lieu of disciplinary action for conduct that violates this article.
(11) When a complaint or an investigation discloses an instance of misconduct that, in the opinion of the director, warrants formal action, the complaint shall not be resolved by a deferred settlement, action, judgment, or prosecution.
(12) (a) If it appears to the director, based upon credible evidence as presented in a written complaint by any person, that a licensee is acting in a manner that is an imminent threat to the health and safety of the public, or a person is acting or has acted without the required license, the director may issue an order to cease and desist the activity. The director shall set forth in the order the statutes and rules alleged to have been violated, the facts alleged to have constituted the violation, and the requirement that all unlawful acts or unlicensed practices immediately cease.
(b) Within ten days after service of the order to cease and desist pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (12), the respondent may request a hearing on the question of whether acts or practices in violation of this article have occurred. The hearing shall be conducted pursuant to sections 24-4-104 and 24-4-105, C.R.S.
(13) (a) If it appears to the director, based upon credible evidence as presented in a written complaint by any person, that a person has violated any other provision of this article, in addition to any specific powers granted pursuant to this article, the director may issue to the person an order to show cause as to why the director should not issue a final order directing the person to cease and desist from the unlawful act or unlicensed practice.
(b) A person against whom an order to show cause has been issued pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (13) shall be notified promptly by the director of the issuance of the order, along with a copy of the order, the factual and legal basis for the order, and the date set by the director for a hearing on the order. The notice may be served on the person against whom the order has been issued by personal service, by first-class, postage prepaid United States mail, or in another manner as may be practicable. Personal service or mailing of an order or document pursuant to this paragraph (b) shall constitute notice of the order to the person.
(c) (I) The hearing on an order to show cause shall be held no sooner than ten and no later than forty-five calendar days after the date of transmission or service of the notification by the director as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection (13). The hearing may be continued by agreement of all parties based upon the complexity of the matter, number of parties to the matter, and legal issues presented in the matter, but in no event shall the hearing be held later than sixty calendar days after the date of transmission or service of the notification.
(II) If a person against whom an order to show cause has been issued pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (13) does not appear at the hearing, the director may present evidence that notification was properly sent or served on the person pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subsection (13) and such other evidence related to the matter as the director deems appropriate. The director shall issue the order within ten days after the director's determination related to reasonable attempts to notify the respondent, and the order shall become final as to that person by operation of law. Such hearing shall be conducted pursuant to sections 24-4-104 and 24-4-105, C.R.S.
(III) If the director reasonably finds that the person against whom the order to show cause was issued is acting or has acted without the required license, or has engaged or is about to engage in acts or practices constituting violations of this article, the director may issue a final cease-and-desist order directing the person to cease and desist from further unlawful acts or unlicensed practices.
(IV) The director shall provide notice, in the manner set forth in paragraph (b) of this subsection (13), of the final cease-and-desist order within ten calendar days after the hearing conducted pursuant to this paragraph (c) to each person against whom the final order has been issued. The final order issued pursuant to subparagraph (III) of this paragraph (c) shall be effective when issued and shall be a final order for purposes of judicial review.
(14) If it appears to the director, based upon credible evidence presented to the director, that a person has engaged or is about to engage in an unlicensed act or practice; an act or practice constituting a violation of this article, a rule promulgated pursuant to this article, or an order issued pursuant to this article; or an act or practice constituting grounds for administrative sanction pursuant to this article, the director may enter into a stipulation with the person.
(15) If any person fails to comply with a final cease-and-desist order or a stipulation, the director may request the attorney general or the district attorney for the judicial district in which the alleged violation exists to bring, and if so requested such attorney shall bring, suit for a temporary restraining order and for injunctive relief to prevent any further or continued violation of the final order.
(16) A person aggrieved by the final cease-and-desist order may seek judicial review of the director's determination or of the director's final order as provided in subsection (9) of this section.
(17) (a) When a complaint or investigation discloses an instance of misconduct that, in the opinion of the director, does not warrant formal action but should not be dismissed as being without merit, the director may send a letter of admonition to the licensee.
(b) When the director sends a letter of admonition to a licensee, the director shall notify the licensee of the licensee's right to request in writing, within twenty days after receipt of the letter, that formal disciplinary proceedings be initiated to adjudicate the propriety of the conduct described in the letter of admonition.
(c) If the licensee timely requests adjudication, the director shall vacate the letter of admonition and process the matter by means of formal disciplinary proceedings.
(18) When a complaint or investigation discloses an instance of conduct that does not warrant formal action by the director and, in the opinion of the director, should be dismissed, but the director has noticed conduct by the licensee that could lead to serious consequences if not corrected, the director may send a confidential letter of concern to the licensee.
(19) Any person whose license is revoked or who surrenders his or her license to avoid discipline under this section is ineligible to apply for a license under this article for at least two years after the date the license is revoked or surrendered.
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