2016 Colorado Revised Statutes
Title 12 - Professions and Occupations
Article 37 - Direct-Entry Midwives
§ 12-37-105. Prohibited acts - practice standards - informed consent - emergency plan - risk assessment - referral - rules
(1) A direct-entry midwife shall not dispense or administer any medication or drugs except in accordance with section 12-37-105.5.
(2) A direct-entry midwife shall not perform any operative or surgical procedure; except that a direct-entry midwife may perform sutures of perineal tears in accordance with section 12-37-105.5.
(3) A direct-entry midwife shall not provide care to a pregnant woman who, according to generally accepted medical standards, exhibits signs or symptoms of increased risk of medical or obstetric or neonatal complications or problems during the completion of her pregnancy, labor, delivery, or the postpartum period. Such conditions include but are not limited to signs or symptoms of diabetes, multiple gestation, hypertensive disorder, or abnormal presentation of the fetus.
(4) A direct-entry midwife shall not provide care to a pregnant woman who, according to generally accepted medical standards, exhibits signs or symptoms of increased risk that her child may develop complications or problems during the first six weeks of life.
(5) (a) A direct-entry midwife shall keep appropriate records of midwifery-related activity, including but not limited to the following:
(I) The direct-entry midwife shall complete and file a birth certificate for every delivery in accordance with section 25-2-112, C.R.S.
(II) The direct-entry midwife shall complete and maintain appropriate client records for every client.
(III) Before accepting a client for care, the direct-entry midwife shall obtain the client's informed consent, which shall be evidenced by a written statement in a form prescribed by the director and signed by both the direct-entry midwife and the client. The form shall certify that full disclosure has been made and acknowledged by the client as to each of the following items, with the client's acknowledgment evidenced by a separate signature or initials adjacent to each item in addition to the client's signature at the end of the form:
(A) The direct-entry midwife's educational background and training;
(B) The nature and scope of the care to be given, including the possibility of and procedure for transport of the client to a hospital and transferral of care prenatally;
(C) A description of the available alternatives to direct-entry midwifery care, including a statement that the client understands she is not retaining a certified nurse midwife or a nurse midwife;
(D) A description of the risks of birth, including those that are different from those of hospital birth and those conditions that may arise during delivery;
(E) A statement indicating whether or not the direct-entry midwife is covered under a policy of liability insurance for the practice of direct-entry midwifery; and
(F) A statement informing the client that, if subsequent care is required resulting from the acts or omissions of the direct-entry midwife, any physician, nurse, prehospital emergency personnel, and health care institution rendering such care shall be held only to a standard of gross negligence or willful and wanton conduct.
(IV) (A) Until the liability insurance required pursuant to section 12-37-109 (3) is available, each direct-entry midwife shall, before accepting a client for care, provide the client with a disclosure statement indicating that the midwife does not have liability insurance. To comply with this section, the direct-entry midwife shall ensure that the disclosure statement is printed in at least twelve-point bold-faced type and shall read the statement to the client in a language the client understands. Each client shall sign the disclosure statement acknowledging that the client understands the effect of its provisions. The direct-entry midwife shall also sign the disclosure statement and provide a copy of the signed disclosure statement to the client.
(B) In addition to the information required in sub-subparagraph (A) of this subparagraph (IV), the direct-entry midwife shall include the following statement in the disclosure statement and shall display the statement prominently and deliver the statement orally to the client before the client signs the disclosure statement: "Signing this disclosure statement does not constitute a waiver of any right (insert client's name) has to seek damages or redress from the undersigned direct-entry midwife for any act of negligence or any injury (insert client's name) may sustain in the course of care administered by the undersigned direct-entry midwife."
(b) As used in this subsection (5), "full disclosure" includes reading the informed consent form to the client, in a language understood by the client, and answering any relevant questions.
(6) A direct-entry midwife shall prepare a plan, in the form and manner required by the director, for emergency situations. The plan must include procedures to be followed in situations in which the time required for transportation to the nearest facility capable of providing appropriate treatment exceeds limits established by the director by rule. A copy of such plan shall be given to each client as part of the informed consent required by subsection (5) of this section.
(7) A direct-entry midwife shall prepare and transmit appropriate specimens for newborn screening in accordance with section 25-4-1004, C.R.S., and shall refer every newborn child for evaluation, within seven days after birth, to a licensed health care provider with expertise in pediatric care.
(8) A direct-entry midwife shall ensure that appropriate laboratory testing, as determined by the director, is completed for each client.
(9) (a) A direct-entry midwife shall provide eye prophylactic therapy to all newborn children in the direct-entry midwife's care in accordance with section 25-4-301, C.R.S.
(b) A direct-entry midwife shall inform the parents of all newborn children in the direct-entry midwife's care of the importance of critical congenital heart defect screening using pulse oximetry in accordance with section 25-4-1004.3, C.R.S. If a direct-entry midwife is not properly trained in the use of pulse oximetry or does not have the use of or own a pulse oximeter, the direct-entry midwife shall refer the parents to a health care provider who can perform the screening. If a direct-entry midwife is properly trained in the use of pulse oximetry and has the use of or owns a pulse oximeter, the direct-entry midwife shall perform the critical congenital heart defect screening on newborn children in his or her care in accordance with section 25-4-1004.3, C.R.S.
(10) A direct-entry midwife shall be knowledgeable and skilled in aseptic procedures and the use of universal precautions and shall use them with every client.
(11) To assure that proper risk assessment is completed and that clients who are inappropriate for direct-entry midwifery are referred to other health care providers, the director shall establish, by rule, a risk assessment procedure to be followed by a direct-entry midwife for each client and standards for appropriate referral. Such assessment shall be a part of each client's record as required in section 12-37-105 (5) (a) (II).
(12) At the time of renewal of a registration, each registrant shall submit the following data in the form and manner required by the director:
(a) The number of women to whom care was provided since the previous registration;
(b) The number of deliveries performed;
(c) The Apgar scores of delivered infants, in groupings established by the director;
(d) The number of prenatal transfers;
(e) The number of transfers during labor, delivery, and immediately following birth;
(f) Any perinatal deaths, including the cause of death and a description of the circumstances; and
(g) Other morbidity statistics as required by the director.
(13) A registered direct-entry midwife may purchase, possess, carry, and administer oxygen. The department of regulatory agencies shall promulgate rules concerning minimum training requirements for direct-entry midwives with respect to the safe administration of oxygen. Each registrant shall complete the minimum training requirements and submit proof of having completed such requirements to the director before administering oxygen to any client.
(14) A registrant shall not practice beyond the scope of his or her education and training.
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