2018 California Code
Penal Code - PEN
PART 1 - OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS
TITLE 9 - OF CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON INVOLVING SEXUAL ASSAULT, AND CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC DECENCY AND GOOD MORALS
CHAPTER 4 - Child Abduction
(a) At the sentencing hearing following a conviction for a violation of Section 278 or 278.5, or both, the court shall consider any relevant factors and circumstances in aggravation, including, but not limited to, all of the following:
(1) The child was exposed to a substantial risk of physical injury or illness.
(2) The defendant inflicted or threatened to inflict physical harm on a parent or lawful custodian of the child or on the child at the time of or during the abduction.
(3) The defendant harmed or abandoned the child during the abduction.
(4) The child was taken, enticed away, kept, withheld, or concealed outside the United States.
(5) The child has not been returned to the lawful custodian.
(6) The defendant previously abducted or threatened to abduct the child.
(7) The defendant substantially altered the appearance or the name of the child.
(8) The defendant denied the child appropriate education during the abduction.
(9) The length of the abduction.
(10) The age of the child.
(b) At the sentencing hearing following a conviction for a violation of Section 278 or 278.5, or both, the court shall consider any relevant factors and circumstances in mitigation, including, but not limited to, both of the following:
(1) The defendant returned the child unharmed and prior to arrest or issuance of a warrant for arrest, whichever is first.
(2) The defendant provided information and assistance leading to the child’s safe return.
(c) In addition to any other penalties provided for a violation of Section 278 or 278.5, a court shall order the defendant to pay restitution to the district attorney for any costs incurred in locating and returning the child as provided in Section 3134 of the Family Code, and to the victim for those expenses and costs reasonably incurred by, or on behalf of, the victim in locating and recovering the child. An award made pursuant to this section shall constitute a final judgment and shall be enforceable as such.
(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 988, Sec. 9. Effective January 1, 1997.)