2018 California Code
Corporations Code - CORP
TITLE 1 - CORPORATIONS
DIVISION 1 - GENERAL CORPORATION LAW
CHAPTER 2 - Organization and Bylaws
The articles of incorporation may set forth:
(a) Any or all of the following provisions, which shall not be effective unless expressly provided in the articles:
(1) Granting, with or without limitations, the power to levy assessments upon the shares or any class of shares.
(2) Granting to shareholders preemptive rights to subscribe to any or all issues of shares or securities.
(3) Special qualifications of persons who may be shareholders.
(4) A provision limiting the duration of the corporation’s existence to a specified date.
(5) A provision requiring, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in Section 303, subdivision (b) of Section 402.5, subdivision (c) of Section 708 and Section 1900) the vote of a larger proportion or of all of the shares of any class or series, or the vote or quorum for taking action of a larger proportion or of all of the directors, than is otherwise required by this division.
(6) A provision limiting or restricting the business in which the corporation may engage or the powers which the corporation may exercise or both.
(7) A provision conferring upon the holders of any evidences of indebtedness, issued or to be issued by the corporation, the right to vote in the election of directors and on any other matters on which shareholders may vote.
(8) A provision conferring upon shareholders the right to determine the consideration for which shares shall be issued.
(9) A provision requiring the approval of the shareholders (Section 153) or the approval of the outstanding shares (Section 152) for any corporate action, even though not otherwise required by this division.
(10) Provisions eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director for monetary damages in an action brought by or in the right of the corporation for breach of a director’s duties to the corporation and its shareholders, as set forth in Section 309, provided, however, that (A) such a provision may not eliminate or limit the liability of directors (i) for acts or omissions that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing and culpable violation of law, (ii) for acts or omissions that a director believes to be contrary to the best interests of the corporation or its shareholders or that involve the absence of good faith on the part of the director, (iii) for any transaction from which a director derived an improper personal benefit, (iv) for acts or omissions that show a reckless disregard for the director’s duty to the corporation or its shareholders in circumstances in which the director was aware, or should have been aware, in the ordinary course of performing a director’s duties, of a risk of serious injury to the corporation or its shareholders, (v) for acts or omissions that constitute an unexcused pattern of inattention that amounts to an abdication of the director’s duty to the corporation or its shareholders, (vi) under Section 310, or (vii) under Section 316, (B) no such provision shall eliminate or limit the liability of a director for any act or omission occurring prior to the date when the provision becomes effective, and (C) no such provision shall eliminate or limit the liability of an officer for any act or omission as an officer, notwithstanding that the officer is also a director or that his or her actions, if negligent or improper, have been ratified by the directors.
(11) A provision authorizing, whether by bylaw, agreement, or otherwise, the indemnification of agents (as defined in Section 317) in excess of that expressly permitted by Section 317 for those agents of the corporation for breach of duty to the corporation and its stockholders, provided, however, that the provision may not provide for indemnification of any agent for any acts or omissions or transactions from which a director may not be relieved of liability as set forth in the exception to paragraph (10) or as to circumstances in which indemnity is expressly prohibited by Section 317.
Notwithstanding this subdivision, in the case of a close corporation any of the provisions referred to above may be validly included in a shareholders’ agreement. Notwithstanding this subdivision, bylaws may require for all or any actions by the board the affirmative vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors. Nothing contained in this subdivision shall affect the enforceability, as between the parties thereto, of any lawful agreement not otherwise contrary to public policy.
(12) (A) In the case of a corporation that does not have outstanding securities listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the NYSE Amex, the NASDAQ Global Market, or the NASDAQ Capital Market, a provision authorizing records administered by or on behalf of the corporation in which the names of all of the corporation’s stockholders of record, the address and number of shares registered in the name of each of those stockholders, and all issuances and transfers of stock of the corporation to be recorded and kept on or by means of blockchain technology, provided that all of the following requirements are met:
(i) The encrypted information in the records can be decrypted and converted into a clearly readable format within a reasonable period of time.
(ii) The records can be used to prepare the list of shareholders.
(iii) The records can be used to record information required to be included on stock certificates.
(iv) The records can be used to record required transfers of stock.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, “blockchain technology” means a mathematically secured, chronological, and decentralized consensus ledger or database.
(b) Reasonable restrictions upon the right to transfer or hypothecate shares of any class or classes or series, but no restriction shall be binding with respect to shares issued prior to the adoption of the restriction unless the holders of such shares voted in favor of the restriction.
(c) The names and addresses of the persons appointed to act as initial directors.
(d) Any other provision, not in conflict with law, for the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including any provision which is required or permitted by this division to be stated in the bylaws.
(e) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2022, and as of that date is repealed.
(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 889, Sec. 1. (SB 838) Effective January 1, 2019. Repealed as of January 1, 2022, by its own provisions. See later operative version added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 889.)