2007 California Vehicle Code Article 3. Offenses Relating To Traffic Devices

CA Codes (veh:21450-21468)

VEHICLE CODE
SECTION 21450-21468



21450.   Whenever traffic is controlled by official traffic control
signals showing different colored lights, color-lighted arrows, or
color-lighted bicycle symbols, successively, one at a time, or in
combination, only the colors green, yellow, and red shall be used,
except for pedestrian control signals, and those lights shall
indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles, operators of bicycles, and
pedestrians as provided in this chapter.



21450.5.  (a) A traffic-actuated signal is an official traffic
control signal, as specified in Section 445, that displays one or
more of its indications in response to the presence of traffic
detected by mechanical, visual, electrical, or other means.
   (b) Upon the first placement of a traffic-actuated signal or
replacement of the loop detector of a traffic-actuated signal, the
traffic-actuated signal shall, to the extent feasible and in
conformance with professional traffic engineering practice, be
installed and maintained so as to detect lawful bicycle or motorcycle
traffic on the roadway.
   (c) Cities, counties, and cities and counties shall not be
required to comply with the provisions contained in subdivision (b)
until the Department of Transportation, in consultation with these
entities, has established uniform standards, specifications, and
guidelines for the detection of bicycles and motorcycles by
traffic-actuated signals and related signal timing.
   (d)  This section shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2018, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted
statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2018, deletes or extends
that date.


21451.  (a) A driver facing a circular green signal shall proceed
straight through or turn right or left or make a U-turn unless a sign
prohibits a U-turn.  Any driver, including one turning, shall yield
the right-of-way to other traffic and to pedestrians lawfully within
the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk.
   (b) A driver facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in
combination with another indication, shall enter the intersection
only to make the movement indicated by that green arrow or any other
movement that is permitted by other indications shown at the same
time.  A driver facing a left green arrow may also make a U-turn
unless prohibited by a sign.  A driver shall yield the right-of-way
to other traffic and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection
or an adjacent crosswalk.
   (c) A pedestrian facing a circular green signal, unless prohibited
by sign or otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as
provided in Section 21456, may proceed across the roadway within any
marked or unmarked crosswalk, but shall yield the right-of-way to
vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that signal is
first shown.
   (d) A pedestrian facing a green arrow turn signal, unless
otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in
Section 21456, shall not enter the roadway.



21452.  (a) A driver facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow
signal is, by that signal, warned that the related green movement is
ending or that a red indication will be shown immediately
thereafter.
   (b) A pedestrian facing a steady circular yellow or a yellow arrow
signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as
provided in Section 21456, is, by that signal, warned that there is
insufficient time to cross the roadway and shall not enter the
roadway.



21453.  (a) A driver facing a steady circular red signal alone shall
stop at a marked limit line, but if none, before entering the
crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then
before entering the intersection, and shall remain stopped until an
indication to proceed is shown, except as provided in subdivision
(b).
   (b) Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, a driver,
after stopping as required by subdivision (a), facing a steady
circular red signal, may turn right, or turn left from a one-way
street onto a one-way street.  A driver making that turn shall yield
the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk
and to any vehicle that has approached or is approaching so closely
as to constitute an immediate hazard to the driver, and shall
continue to yield the right-of-way to that vehicle until the driver
can proceed with reasonable safety.
   (c) A driver facing a steady red arrow signal shall not enter the
intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow and, unless
entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another
signal, shall stop at a clearly marked limit line, but if none,
before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection,
or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain
stopped until an indication permitting movement is shown.
   (d) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as
provided in Section 21456, a pedestrian facing a steady circular red
or red arrow signal shall not enter the roadway.



21454.   When lane use control signals are placed over individual
lanes, those signals shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles
as follows:
   (a) Green indication:  A driver may travel in any lane over which
a green signal is shown.
   (b) Steady yellow indication:  A driver is thereby warned that a
lane control  change is being made.
   (c) Steady red indication:  A driver shall not enter or travel in
any lane over which a red signal is shown.
   (d) Flashing yellow indication:  A driver may use the lane only
for the purpose of making a left turn to or from the highway.



21455.  When an official traffic control signal is erected and
maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of
this article shall be applicable except those provisions which by
their nature can have no application.  Any stop required shall be
made at a sign or crosswalk or limit line indicating where the stop
shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the
stop shall be made at the signal.



21455.5.  (a) The limit line, the intersection, or a place
designated in Section 21455, where a driver is required to stop, may
be equipped with an automated enforcement system if the governmental
agency utilizing the system meets all of the following requirements:

   (1) Identifies the system by signs that clearly indicate the
system's presence and are visible to traffic approaching from all
directions, or posts signs at all major entrances to the city,
including, at a minimum, freeways, bridges, and state highway routes.

   (2) If it locates the system at an intersection, and ensures that
the system meets the criteria specified in Section 21455.7.
   (b) Prior to issuing citations under this section, a local
jurisdiction utilizing an automated traffic enforcement system shall
commence a program to issue only warning notices for 30 days.  The
local jurisdiction shall also make a public announcement of the
automated traffic enforcement system at least 30 days prior to the
commencement of the enforcement program.
   (c) Only a governmental agency, in cooperation with a law
enforcement agency, may operate an automated enforcement system.  As
used in this subdivision, "operate" includes all of the following
activities:
   (1) Developing uniform guidelines for screening and issuing
violations and for the processing and storage of confidential
information, and establishing procedures to ensure compliance with
those guidelines.
   (2) Performing administrative functions and day-to-day functions,
including, but not limited to, all of the following:
   (A) Establishing guidelines for selection of location.
   (B) Ensuring that the equipment is regularly inspected.
   (C) Certifying that the equipment is properly installed and
calibrated, and is operating properly.
   (D) Regularly inspecting and maintaining warning signs placed
under paragraph (1) of subdivision (a).
   (E) Overseeing the establishment or change of signal phases and
the timing thereof.
   (F) Maintaining controls necessary to assure that only those
citations that have been reviewed and approved by law enforcement are
delivered to violators.
   (d) The activities listed in subdivision (c) that relate to the
operation of the system may be contracted out by the governmental
agency, if it maintains overall control and supervision of the
system.  However, the activities listed in paragraph (1) of, and
subparagraphs (A), (D), (E), and (F) of paragraph (2) of, subdivision
(c) may not be contracted out to the manufacturer or supplier of the
automated enforcement system.
   (e) (1) Notwithstanding Section 6253 of the Government Code, or
any other provision of law, photographic records made by an automated
enforcement system shall be confidential, and shall be made
available only to governmental agencies and law enforcement agencies
and only for the purposes of this article.
   (2) Confidential information obtained from the Department of Motor
Vehicles for the administration or enforcement of this article shall
be held confidential, and may not be used for any other purpose.
   (3) Except for court records described in Section 68152 of the
Government Code, the confidential records and information described
in paragraphs (1) and (2) may be retained for up to six months from
the date the information was first obtained, or until final
disposition of the citation, whichever date is later, after which
time the information shall be destroyed in a manner that will
preserve the confidentiality of any person included in the record or
information.
   (f) Notwithstanding subdivision (d), the registered owner or any
individual identified by the registered owner as the driver of the
vehicle at the time of the alleged violation shall be permitted to
review the photographic evidence of the alleged violation.
   (g) (1) A contract between a governmental agency and a
manufacturer or supplier of automated enforcement equipment may not
include provision for the payment or compensation to the manufacturer
or supplier based on the number of citations generated, or as a
percentage of the revenue generated, as a result of the use of the
equipment authorized under this section.
   (2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract that was entered
into by a governmental agency and a manufacturer or supplier of
automated enforcement equipment before January 1, 2004, unless that
contract is renewed, extended, or amended on or after January 1,
2004.



21455.6.  (a) A city council or county board of supervisors shall
conduct a public hearing on the proposed use of an automated
enforcement system authorized under Section 21455.5 prior to
authorizing the city or county to enter into a contract for the use
of the system.
   (b) (1) The activities listed in subdivision (c) of Section
21455.5 that relate to the operation of an automated enforcement
system may be contracted out by the city or county, except that the
activities listed in paragraph (1) of, and subparagraphs (A), (D),
(E), or (F) of paragraph (2) of, subdivision (c) of Section 21455.5
may not be contracted out to the manufacturer or supplier of the
automated enforcement system.
   (2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a contract that was entered
into by a city or county and a manufacturer or supplier of automated
enforcement equipment before January 1, 2004, unless that contract is
renewed, extended, or amended on or after January 1, 2004.
   (c) The authorization in Section 21455.5 to use automated
enforcement systems does not authorize the use of photo radar for
speed enforcement purposes by any jurisdiction.



21455.7.  (a) At an intersection at which there is an automated
enforcement system in operation, the minimum yellow light change
interval shall be established in accordance with the Traffic Manual
of the Department of Transportation.
   (b) For purposes of subdivision (a), the minimum yellow light
change intervals relating to designated approach speeds provided in
the Traffic Manual of the Department of Transportation are mandatory
minimum yellow light intervals.
   (c) A yellow light change interval may exceed the minimum interval
established pursuant to subdivision (a).



21456.  Whenever a pedestrian control signal showing the words "WALK"
or "WAIT" or "DONT WALK" or other approved symbol is in place, the
signal shall indicate as follows:
   (a) "WALK" or approved "Walking Person" symbol.  A pedestrian
facing the signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of
the signal, but shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully
within the intersection at the time that signal is first shown.
   (b) Flashing or steady "DONT WALK" or "WAIT" or approved "Upraised
Hand" symbol.  No pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the
direction of the signal, but any pedestrian who has partially
completed crossing shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety zone or
otherwise leave the roadway while the "WAIT" or "DONT WALK" or
approved "Upraised Hand" symbol is showing.



21456.1.  Whenever an official traffic control signal exhibiting an
approved "Walking Person" symbol, an approved "Upraised Hand" symbol,
or the words "WALK" or "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" is shown concurrently
with official traffic control signals exhibiting the words "GO" or
"CAUTION" or "STOP" or exhibiting different colored lights
successively, one at a time or with arrows, a pedestrian facing those
traffic control signals shall obey the "Walking Person," "Upraised
Hand," "WALK" or "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" control signal as provided in
Section 21456.


21456.2.  (a) Unless otherwise directed by a bicycle signal as
provided in Section 21456.3, an operator of a bicycle shall obey the
provisions of this article applicable to the driver of a vehicle.
   (b) Whenever an official traffic control signal exhibiting
different colored bicycle symbols is shown concurrently with official
traffic control signals exhibiting different colored lights or
arrows, an operator of a bicycle facing those traffic control signals
shall obey the bicycle signals as provided in Section 21456.3.



21456.3.  (a) An operator of a bicycle facing a green bicycle signal
shall proceed straight through or turn right or left or make a
U-turn unless a sign prohibits a U-turn. An operator of a bicycle,
including one turning, shall yield the right-of-way to other traffic
and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent
crosswalk.
   (b) An operator of a bicycle facing a steady yellow bicycle signal
is, by that signal, warned that the related green movement is ending
or that a red indication will be shown immediately thereafter.
   (c) Except as provided in subdivision (d), an operator of a
bicycle facing a steady red bicycle signal shall stop at a marked
limit line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near
side of the intersection, or, if none, then before entering the
intersection, and shall remain stopped until an indication to proceed
is shown.
   (d) Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, an operator
of a bicycle, after stopping as required by subdivision (c), facing
a steady red bicycle signal, may turn right, or turn left from a
one-way street onto a one-way street. An operator of a bicycle making
a turn shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within
an adjacent crosswalk and to traffic lawfully using the intersection.

   (e) A bicycle signal may be used only at those locations that meet
geometric standards or traffic volume standards, or both, as adopted
by the Department of Transportation.



21457.  Whenever an illuminated flashing red or yellow light is used
in a traffic signal or with a traffic sign, it shall require
obedience by drivers as follows:
   (a) Flashing red (stop signal):  When a red lens is illuminated
with rapid intermittent flashes, a driver shall stop at a clearly
marked limit line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the
near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest
the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching
traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it, and the
driver may proceed subject to the rules applicable after making a
stop at a stop sign.
   (b) Flashing yellow (caution signal):  When a yellow lens is
illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, a driver may proceed
through the intersection or past the signal only with caution.



21458.  (a) Whenever local authorities enact local parking
regulations and indicate them by the use of paint upon curbs, the
following colors only shall be used, and the colors indicate as
follows:
   (1) Red indicates no stopping, standing, or parking, whether the
vehicle is attended or unattended, except that a bus may stop in a
red zone marked or signposted as a bus loading zone.
   (2) Yellow indicates stopping only for the purpose of loading or
unloading passengers or freight for the time as may be specified by
local ordinance.
   (3) White indicates stopping for either of the following purposes:

   (A) Loading or unloading of passengers for the time as may be
specified by local ordinance.
   (B) Depositing mail in an adjacent mailbox.
   (4) Green indicates time limit parking specified by local
ordinance.
   (5) Blue indicates parking limited exclusively to the vehicles of
disabled persons and disabled veterans.
   (b) Regulations adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) shall be
effective on days and during hours or times as prescribed by local
ordinances.


21459.  (a) The Department of Transportation in respect to state
highways and a local authority with respect to highways under its
jurisdiction, is authorized to place and maintain upon highways
distinctive roadway markings as described and with the effect set
forth in Section 21460.
   (b) The distinctive roadway markings shall be employed to
designate any portion of a highway where the volume of traffic or the
vertical or other curvature of the roadway renders it hazardous to
drive on the left side of the marking or to indicate no driving to
the left as provided in Section 21460, and shall not be employed for
any other purpose.
   (c) Any pavement marking other than as described in this section
placed by the Department of Transportation or any local authority
shall not be effective to indicate no driving over or to the left of
the marking.


21460.  (a) When double parallel solid lines are in place, no person
driving a vehicle shall drive to the left thereof, except as
permitted in this section.
   (b) When the double parallel lines, one of which is broken, are in
place, no person driving a vehicle shall drive to the left thereof,
except as follows:
   (1) That the driver on that side of the roadway in which the
broken line is in place may cross over the double line or drive to
the left thereof when overtaking or passing other vehicles.
   (2) As provided in Section 21460.5.
   (c) Either of the markings as specified in subdivision (a) or (b)
does not prohibit a driver from crossing the marking when (1) turning
to the left at any intersection or into or out of a driveway or
private road, or (2) making a U-turn under the rules governing that
turn, and either of the markings shall be disregarded when authorized
signs have been erected designating offcenter traffic lanes as
permitted under Section 21657.
   (d) Raised pavement markers may be used to simulate painted lines
described in this section when the markers are placed in accordance
with standards established by the Department of Transportation.



21460.5.  (a) The Department of Transportation and local authorities
in their respective jurisdictions may designate a two-way left-turn
lane on a highway.  A two-way left-turn lane is a lane near the
center of the highway set aside for use by vehicles making left turns
in both directions from or into the highway.
   (b) Two-way left-turn lanes shall be designated by distinctive
roadway markings consisting of parallel double yellow lines, interior
line dashed and exterior line solid, on each side of the lane.  The
Department of Transportation may determine and prescribe standards
and specifications governing length, width, and positioning of the
distinctive pavement markings. All pavement markings designating a
two-way left-turn lane shall conform to the Department of
Transportation's standards and specifications.
   (c) A vehicle shall not be driven in a designated two-way
left-turn lane except when preparing for or making a left turn from
or into a highway or when preparing for or making a U-turn when
otherwise permitted by law, and shall not be driven in that lane for
more than 200 feet while preparing for and making the turn or while
preparing to merge into the adjacent lanes of travel.  A left turn or
U-turn shall not be made from any other lane where a two-way
left-turn lane has been designated.
   (d) This section does not prohibit driving across a two-way
left-turn lane.
   (e) Raised pavement markers may be used to simulate the painted
lines described in this section when those markers are placed in
accordance with standards established by the Department of
Transportation.



21461.  (a) It is unlawful for a driver of a vehicle to fail to obey
a sign or signal defined as regulatory in the federal Manual on
Uniform Traffic Control Devices, or a Department of Transportation
approved supplement to that manual of a regulatory nature erected or
maintained to enhance traffic safety and operations or to indicate
and carry out the provisions of this code  or a local traffic
ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to a local traffic
ordinance, or to fail to obey a device erected or maintained by
lawful authority of a public body or official.
   (b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to acts constituting violations
under Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 22500) of this division or
to acts constituting violations of a local traffic ordinance adopted
pursuant to Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 22500).



21461.5.  It shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to fail to obey
any sign or signal erected or maintained to indicate or carry out the
provisions of this code or any local traffic ordinance or resolution
adopted pursuant to a local traffic ordinance, or to fail to obey
any device erected or maintained pursuant to Section 21352.




21462.  The driver of any vehicle, the person in charge of any
animal, any pedestrian, and the motorman of any streetcar shall obey
the instructions of any official traffic signal applicable to him and
placed as provided by law, unless otherwise directed by a police or
traffic officer or when it is necessary for the purpose of avoiding a
collision or in case of other emergency, subject to the exemptions
granted by Section 21055.



21463.  No person shall operate a manually or traffic actuated
signal other than for the purpose of permitting a pedestrian or
vehicle to cross a roadway.


21464.  (a) A person, without lawful authority, may not deface,
injure, attach any material or substance to, knock down, or remove,
nor may a person shoot at, any official traffic control device,
traffic guidepost, traffic signpost, motorist callbox, or historical
marker placed or erected as authorized or required by law, nor may a
person without lawful authority deface, injure, attach any material
or substance to, or remove, nor may a person shoot at, any
inscription, shield, or insignia on any device, guide, or marker.
   (b) A person may not use, and a vehicle, other than an authorized
emergency vehicle or a public transit passenger vehicle, may not be
equipped with, any device, including, but not limited to, a mobile
infrared transmitter, that is capable of sending a signal that
interrupts or changes the sequence patterns of an official traffic
control signal unless that device or use is authorized by the
Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 21350 or by local
authorities pursuant to Section 21351.
   (c) A person may not buy, possess, manufacture, install, sell,
offer for sale, or otherwise distribute a device described in
subdivision (b), including, but not limited to, a mobile infrared
transmitter (MIRT), unless the purchase, possession, manufacture,
installation, sale, offer for sale, or distribution is for the use of
the device by a peace officer or other person authorized to operate
an authorized emergency vehicle or a public transit passenger
vehicle, in the scope of his or her duties.
   (d) Any willful violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c) that
results in injury to, or the death of, a person is punishable by
imprisonment in the state prison, or by imprisonment in a county jail
for a period of not more than six months, and by a fine of not less
than five thousand dollars (,000) nor more than ten thousand
dollars (,000).
   (e) Any willful violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c) that
does not result in injury to, or the death of, a person is punishable
by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars (,000).
   (f) The court shall allow the offender to perform community
service designated by the court in lieu of all or part of any fine
imposed under this section.



21465.  No person shall place, maintain, or display upon, or in view
of, any highway any unofficial sign, signal, device, or marking, or
any sign, signal, device, or marking which purports to be or is an
imitation of, or resembles, an official traffic control device or
which attempts to direct the movement of traffic or which hides from
view any official traffic control device.



21466.  No person shall place or maintain or display upon or in view
of any highway any light in such position as to prevent the driver
of a vehicle from readily recognizing any official traffic control
device.


21466.5.  No person shall place or maintain or display, upon or in
view of any highway, any light of any color of such brilliance as to
impair the vision of drivers upon the highway.  A light source shall
be considered vision impairing when its brilliance exceeds the values
listed below.
   The brightness reading of an objectionable light source shall be
measured with a 11/2-degree photoelectric brightness meter placed at
the driver's point of view.  The maximum measured brightness of the
light source within 10 degrees from the driver's normal line of sight
shall not be more than 1,000 times the minimum measured brightness
in the driver's field of view, except that when the minimum measured
brightness in the field of view is 10 foot-lamberts or less, the
measured brightness of the light source in foot-lambert shall not
exceed 500 plus 100 times the angle, in degrees, between the driver's
line of sight and the light source.
   The provisions of this section shall not apply to railroads as
defined in Section 229 of the Public Utilities Code.



21467.  Every prohibited sign, signal, device, or light is a public
nuisance, and the Department of Transportation, members of the
California Highway Patrol, and local authorities are hereby
authorized and empowered without notice to remove the same, or cause
the same to be removed, or the Director of Transportation, the
commissioner, or local authorities may bring an action as provided by
law to abate such nuisance.



21468.  This division does not modify or limit the authority of the
Public Utilities Commission to erect or maintain, or cause to be
erected and maintained, signs, signals or other traffic control
devices as authorized by law.

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