2005 California Penal Code Sections 186.20-186.33 ACT

PENAL CODE
SECTION 186.20-186.33

186.20.  This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the
"California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act."
186.21.  The Legislature hereby finds and declares that it is the
right of every person, regardless of race, color, creed, religion,
national origin, gender, age, sexual orientation, or handicap, to be
secure and protected from fear, intimidation, and physical harm
caused by the activities of violent groups and individuals.  It is
not the intent of this chapter to interfere with the exercise of the
constitutionally protected rights of freedom of expression and
association.  The Legislature hereby recognizes the constitutional
right of every citizen to harbor and express beliefs on any lawful
subject whatsoever, to lawfully associate with others who share
similar beliefs, to petition lawfully constituted authority for a
redress of perceived grievances, and to participate in the electoral
process.
   The Legislature, however, further finds that the State of
California is in a state of crisis which has been caused by violent
street gangs whose members threaten, terrorize, and commit a
multitude of crimes against the peaceful citizens of their
neighborhoods.  These activities, both individually and collectively,
present a clear and present danger to public order and safety and
are not constitutionally protected.  The Legislature finds that there
are nearly 600 criminal street gangs operating in California, and
that the number of gang-related murders is increasing.  The
Legislature also finds that in Los Angeles County alone there were
328 gang-related murders in 1986, and that gang homicides in 1987
have increased 80 percent over 1986.  It is the intent of the
Legislature in enacting this chapter to seek the eradication of
criminal activity by street gangs by focusing upon patterns of
criminal gang activity and upon the organized nature of street gangs,
which together, are the chief source of terror created by street
gangs.  The Legislature further finds that an effective means of
punishing and deterring the criminal activities of street gangs is
through forfeiture of the profits, proceeds, and instrumentalities
acquired, accumulated, or used by street gangs.
186.22.  (a) Any person who actively participates in any criminal
street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged
in a pattern of criminal gang activity, and who willfully promotes,
furthers, or assists in any felonious criminal conduct by members of
that gang, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for a
period not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison
for 16 months, or two or three years.
   (b) (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5), any person
who is convicted of a felony committed for the benefit of, at the
direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with
the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal
conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in
addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony
or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be
punished as follows:
   (A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the person
shall be punished by an additional term of two, three, or four years
at the court's discretion.
   (B) If the felony is a serious felony, as defined in subdivision
(c) of Section 1192.7, the person shall be punished by an additional
term of five years.
   (C) If the felony is a violent felony, as defined in subdivision
(c) of Section 667.5, the person shall be punished by an additional
term of 10 years.
   (2) If the underlying felony described in paragraph (1) is
committed on the grounds of, or within 1,000 feet of, a public or
private elementary, vocational, junior high, or high school, during
hours in which the facility is open for classes or school-related
programs or when minors are using the facility that fact shall be a
circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under
paragraph (1).
   (3) The court shall order the imposition of the middle term of the
sentence enhancement, unless there are circumstances in aggravation
or mitigation. The court shall state the reasons for its choice of
sentencing enhancements on the record at the time of the sentencing.
   (4) Any person who is convicted of a felony enumerated in this
paragraph committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in
association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent
to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang
members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, be sentenced to an
indeterminate term of life imprisonment with a minimum term of the
indeterminate sentence calculated as the greater of:
   (A) The term determined by the court pursuant to Section 1170 for
the underlying conviction, including any enhancement applicable under
Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 1170) of Title 7 of Part 2, or
any period prescribed by Section 3046, if the felony is any of the
offenses enumerated in subparagraph (B) or (C) of this paragraph.
   (B) Imprisonment in the state prison for 15 years, if the felony
is a home invasion robbery, in violation of subparagraph (A) of
paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 213; carjacking, as
defined in Section 215; a felony violation of Section 246; or a
violation of Section 12022.55.
   (C) Imprisonment in the state prison for seven years, if the
felony is extortion, as defined in Section 519; or threats to victims
and witnesses, as defined in Section 136.1.
   (5) Except as provided in paragraph (4), any person who violates
this subdivision in the commission of a felony punishable by
imprisonment in the state prison for life, shall not be paroled until
a minimum of 15 calendar years have been served.
   (c) If the court grants probation or suspends the execution of
sentence imposed upon the defendant for a violation of subdivision
(a), or in cases involving a true finding of the enhancement
enumerated in subdivision (b), the court shall require that the
defendant serve a minimum of 180 days in a county jail as a condition
thereof.
   (d) Any person who is convicted of a public offense punishable as
a felony or a misdemeanor, which is committed for the benefit of, at
the direction of or in association with, any criminal street gang
with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any
criminal conduct by gang members, shall be punished by imprisonment
in the county jail not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the
state prison for one, two, or three years, provided that any person
sentenced to imprisonment in the county jail shall be imprisoned for
a period not to exceed one year, but not less than 180 days, and
shall not be eligible for release upon completion of sentence,
parole, or any other basis, until he or she has served 180 days. If
the court grants probation or suspends the execution of sentence
imposed upon the defendant, it shall require as a condition thereof
that the defendant serve 180 days in a county jail.
   (e) As used in this chapter, "pattern of criminal gang activity"
means the commission of, attempted commission of, conspiracy to
commit, or solicitation of, sustained juvenile petition for, or
conviction of two or more of the following offenses, provided at
least one of these offenses occurred after the effective date of this
chapter and the last of those offenses occurred within three years
after a prior offense, and the offenses were committed on separate
occasions, or by two or more persons:
   (1) Assault with a deadly weapon or by means of force likely to
produce great bodily injury, as defined in Section 245.
   (2) Robbery, as defined in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 211)
of Title 8 of Part 1.
   (3) Unlawful homicide or manslaughter, as defined in Chapter 1
(commencing with Section 187) of Title 8 of Part 1.
   (4) The sale, possession for sale, transportation, manufacture,
offer for sale, or offer to manufacture controlled substances as
defined in Sections 11054, 11055, 11056, 11057, and 11058 of the
Health and Safety Code.
   (5) Shooting at an inhabited dwelling or occupied motor vehicle,
as defined in Section 246.
   (6) Discharging or permitting the discharge of a firearm from a
motor vehicle, as defined in subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section
12034.
   (7) Arson, as defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 450)
of Title 13.
   (8) The intimidation of witnesses and victims, as defined in
Section 136.1.
   (9) Grand theft, as defined in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section
487.
   (10) Grand theft of any firearm, vehicle, trailer, or vessel.
   (11) Burglary, as defined in Section 459.
   (12) Rape, as defined in Section 261.
   (13) Looting, as defined in Section 463.
   (14) Money laundering, as defined in Section 186.10.
   (15) Kidnapping, as defined in Section 207.
   (16) Mayhem, as defined in Section 203.
   (17) Aggravated mayhem, as defined in Section 205.
   (18) Torture, as defined in Section 206.
   (19) Felony extortion, as defined in Sections 518 and 520.
   (20) Felony vandalism, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision
(b) of Section 594.
   (21) Carjacking, as defined in Section 215.
   (22) The sale, delivery, or transfer of a firearm, as defined in
Section 12072.
   (23) Possession of a pistol, revolver, or other firearm capable of
being concealed upon the person in violation of paragraph (1) of
subdivision (a) of Section 12101.
   (24) Threats to commit crimes resulting in death or great bodily
injury, as defined in Section 422.
   (25) Theft and unlawful taking or driving of a vehicle, as defined
in Section 10851 of the Vehicle Code.
   (26) Felony theft of an access card or account information, as
defined in Section 484e.
   (27) Counterfeiting, designing, using, attempting to use an access
card, as defined in Section 484f.
   (28) Felony fraudulent use of an access card or account
information, as defined in Section 484g.
   (29) Unlawful use of personal identifying information to obtain
credit, goods, services, or medical information, as defined in
Section 530.5.
   (30)  Wrongfully obtaining Department of Motor Vehicles
documentation, as defined in Section 529.7.
   (f) As used in this chapter, "criminal street gang" means any
ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons,
whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities
the commission of one or more of the criminal acts enumerated in
paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive, of subdivision (e), having a
common name or common identifying sign or symbol, and whose members
individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern
of criminal gang activity.
   (g) Notwithstanding any other law, the court may strike the
additional punishment for the enhancements provided in this section
or refuse to impose the minimum jail sentence for misdemeanors in an
unusual case where the interests of justice would best be served, if
the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the
circumstances indicating that the interests of justice would best be
served by that disposition.
   (h) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for each person
committed to the Division of Juvenile Facilities for a conviction
pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) of this section, the offense shall
be deemed one for which the state shall pay the rate of 100 percent
of the per capita institutional cost of the Division of Juvenile
Facilities, pursuant to Section 912.5 of the Welfare and Institutions
Code.
   (i) In order to secure a conviction, or sustain a juvenile
petition, pursuant to subdivision (a), it is not necessary for the
prosecution to prove that the person devotes all, or a substantial
part of his or her time or efforts to the criminal street gang, nor
is it necessary to prove that the person is a member of the criminal
street gang.  Active participation in the criminal street gang is all
that is required.
   (j) A pattern of gang activity may be shown by the commission of
one or more of the offenses enumerated in paragraphs (26) to (30),
inclusive, of subdivision (e), and the commission of one or more of
the offenses enumerated in paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive of
subdivision (e). A pattern of gang activity cannot be established
solely by proof of commission of offenses enumerated in paragraphs
(26) to (30), inclusive, of subdivision (e), alone.
186.22a.  (a) Every building or place used by members of a criminal
street gang for the purpose of the commission of the offenses listed
in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22 or any offense involving
dangerous or deadly weapons, burglary, or rape, and every building or
place wherein or upon which that criminal conduct by gang members
takes place, is a nuisance which shall be enjoined, abated, and
prevented, and for which damages may be recovered, whether it is a
public or private nuisance.
   (b) Any action for injunction or abatement filed pursuant to
subdivision (a), including an action filed by the Attorney General,
shall proceed according to the provisions of Article 3 (commencing
with Section 11570) of Chapter 10 of Division 10 of the Health and
Safety Code, except that all of the following shall apply:
   (1) The court shall not assess a civil penalty against any person
unless that person knew or should have known of the unlawful acts.
   (2) No order of eviction or closure may be entered.
   (3) All injunctions issued shall be limited to those necessary to
protect the health and safety of the residents or the public or those
necessary to prevent further criminal activity.
   (4) Suit may not be filed until 30-day notice of the unlawful use
or criminal conduct has been provided to the owner by mail, return
receipt requested, postage prepaid, to the last known address.
   (c) Whenever an injunction is issued pursuant to subdivision (a),
or Section 3479 of the Civil Code, to abate gang activity
constituting a nuisance, the Attorney General may maintain an action
for money damages on behalf of the community or neighborhood injured
by that nuisance.  Any money damages awarded shall be paid by or
collected from assets of the criminal street gang or its members that
were derived from the criminal activity being abated or enjoined.
Only persons who knew or should have known of the unlawful acts shall
be personally liable for the payment of the damages awarded.  In a
civil action for damages brought pursuant to this subdivision, the
Attorney General may use, but is not limited to the use of, the
testimony of experts to establish damages suffered by the community
or neighborhood injured by the nuisance.  The damages recovered
pursuant to this subdivision shall be deposited into a separate
segregated fund for payment to the governing body of the city or
county in whose political subdivision the community or neighborhood
is located, and that governing body shall use those assets solely for
the benefit of the community or neighborhood that has been injured
by the nuisance.
   (d) No nonprofit or charitable organization which is conducting
its affairs with ordinary care or skill, and no governmental entity,
shall be abated pursuant to subdivisions (a) and (b).
   (e) Nothing in this chapter shall preclude any aggrieved person
from seeking any other remedy provided by law.
   (f) (1) Any firearm, ammunition which may be used with the
firearm, or any deadly or dangerous weapon which is owned or
possessed by a member of a criminal street gang for the purpose of
the commission of any of the offenses listed in subdivision (e) of
Section 186.22, or the commission of any burglary or rape, may be
confiscated by any law enforcement agency or peace officer.
   (2) In those cases where a law enforcement agency believes that
the return of the firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon confiscated
pursuant to this subdivision, is or will be used in criminal street
gang activity or that the return of the item would be likely to
result in endangering the safety of others, the law enforcement
agency shall initiate a petition in the superior court to determine
if the item confiscated should be returned or declared a nuisance.
   (3) No firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon shall be sold or
destroyed unless reasonable notice is given to its lawful owner if
his or her identity and address can be reasonably ascertained.  The
law enforcement agency shall inform the lawful owner, at that person'
s last known address by registered mail, that he or she has 30 days
from the date of receipt of the notice to respond to the court clerk
to confirm his or her desire for a hearing and that the failure to
respond shall result in a default order forfeiting the confiscated
firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon as a nuisance.
   (4) If the person requests a hearing, the court clerk shall set a
hearing no later than 30 days from receipt of that request.  The
court clerk shall notify the person, the law enforcement agency
involved, and the district attorney of the date, time, and place of
the hearing.
   (5) At the hearing, the burden of proof is upon the law
enforcement agency or peace officer to show by a preponderance of the
evidence that the seized item is or will be used in criminal street
gang activity or that return of the item would be likely to result in
endangering the safety of others.  All returns of firearms shall be
subject to subdivision (d) of Section 12072.
   (6) If the person does not request a hearing within 30 days of the
notice or the lawful owner cannot be ascertained, the law
enforcement agency may file a petition that the confiscated firearm,
ammunition, or deadly weapon be declared a nuisance.  If the items
are declared to be a nuisance, the law enforcement agency shall
dispose of the items as provided in Section 12028.
186.23.  This chapter does not apply to employees engaged in
concerted activities for their mutual aid and protection, or the
activities of labor organizations or their members or agents.
186.24.  If any part or provision of this chapter, or the
application thereof  to any person or circumstance, is held invalid,
the remainder of the chapter, including the application of that part
or provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected
thereby and shall continue in full force and effect.  To this end,
the provisions of this chapter are severable.
186.25.  Nothing in this chapter shall prevent a local governing
body from adopting and enforcing laws consistent with this chapter
relating to gangs and gang violence.  Where local laws duplicate or
supplement this chapter, this chapter shall be construed as providing
alternative remedies and not as preempting the field.
186.26.  (a) Any person who solicits or recruits another to actively
participate in a criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (f)
of Section 186.22, with the intent that the person solicited or
recruited participate in a pattern of criminal street gang activity,
as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22, or with the intent
that the person solicited or recruited promote, further, or assist in
any felonious conduct by members of the criminal street gang, shall
be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two
or three years.
   (b) Any person who threatens another person with physical violence
on two or more separate occasions within any 30-day period with the
intent to coerce, induce, or solicit any person to actively
participate in a criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (f)
of Section 186.22, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state
prison for two, three, or four years.
   (c) Any person who uses physical violence to coerce, induce, or
solicit another person to actively participate in any criminal street
gang, as defined in subdivision (f) of Section 186.22, or to prevent
the person from leaving a criminal street gang, shall be punished by
imprisonment in the state prison for three, four, or five years.
   (d) If the person solicited, recruited, coerced, or threatened
pursuant to subdivision (a), (b), or (c) is a minor, an additional
term of three years shall be imposed in addition and consecutive to
the penalty prescribed for a violation of any of these subdivisions.
   (e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit
prosecution under any other provision of law.
186.28.  (a) Any person, corporation, or firm who shall knowingly
supply, sell, or give possession or control of any firearm to another
shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison, or in a
county jail for a term not exceeding one year, or by a fine not
exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and
imprisonment if all of the following apply:
   (1) The person, corporation, or firm has actual knowledge that the
person will use the firearm to commit a felony described in
subdivision (e) of Section 186.22, while actively participating in
any criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (f) of Section
186.22, the members of which engage in a pattern of criminal
activity, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22.
   (2) The firearm is used to commit the felony.
   (3) A conviction for the felony violation under subdivision (e) of
Section 186.22 has first been obtained of the person to whom the
firearm was supplied, sold, or given possession or control pursuant
to this section.
   (b) This section shall only be applicable where the person is not
convicted as a principal to the felony offense committed by the
person to whom the firearm was supplied, sold, or given possession or
control pursuant to this section.
186.30.  (a) Any person described in subdivision (b) shall register
with the chief of police of the city in which he or she resides, or
the sheriff of the county if he or she resides in an unincorporated
area, within 10 days of release from custody or within 10 days of his
or her arrival in any city, county, or city and county to reside
there, whichever occurs first.
   (b) Subdivision (a) shall apply to any person convicted in a
criminal court or who has had a petition sustained in a juvenile
court in this state for any of the following offenses:
   (1) Subdivision (a) of Section 186.22.
   (2) Any crime where the enhancement specified in subdivision (b)
of Section 186.22 is found to be true.
   (3) Any crime that the court finds is gang related at the time of
sentencing or disposition.
186.31.  At the time of sentencing in adult court, or at the time of
the dispositional hearing in the juvenile court, the court shall
inform any person subject to Section 186.30 of his or her duty to
register pursuant to that section.  This advisement shall be noted in
the court minute order.  The court clerk shall send a copy of the
minute order to the law enforcement agency with jurisdiction for the
last known address of the person subject to registration under
Section 186.30.  The parole officer or the probation officer assigned
to that person shall verify that he or she has complied with the
registration requirements of Section 186.30.
186.32.  (a) The registration required by Section 186.30 shall
consist of the following:
   (1) Juvenile registration shall include the following:
   (A) The juvenile shall appear at the law enforcement agency with a
parent or guardian.
   (B) The law enforcement agency shall serve the juvenile and the
parent with a California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention
Act notification which shall include, where applicable, that the
juvenile belongs to a gang whose members engage in or have engaged in
a pattern of criminal gang activity as described in subdivision (e)
of Section 186.22.
   (C) A written statement signed by the juvenile, giving any
information that may be required by the law enforcement agency, shall
be submitted to the law enforcement agency.
   (D) The fingerprints and current photograph of the juvenile shall
be submitted to the law enforcement agency.
   (2) Adult registration shall include the following:
   (A) The adult shall appear at the law enforcement agency.
   (B) The law enforcement agency shall serve the adult with a
California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act
notification which shall include, where applicable, that the adult
belongs to a gang whose members engage in or have engaged in a
pattern of criminal gang activity as described in subdivision (e) of
Section 186.22.
   (C) A written statement, signed by the adult, giving any
information that may be required by the law enforcement agency, shall
be submitted to the law enforcement agency.
   (D) The fingerprints and current photograph of the adult shall be
submitted to the law enforcement agency.
   (b) Within 10 days of changing his or her residence address, any
person subject to Section 186.30 shall inform, in writing, the law
enforcement agency with whom he or she last registered of his or her
new address.  If his or her new residence address is located within
the jurisdiction of a law enforcement agency other than the agency
where he or she last registered, he or she shall register with the
new law enforcement agency, in writing, within 10 days of the change
of residence.
   (c) All registration requirements set forth in this article shall
terminate five years after the last imposition of a registration
requirement pursuant to Section 186.30.
   (d) The statements, photographs and fingerprints required under
this section shall not be open to inspection by any person other than
a regularly employed peace or other law enforcement officer.
   (e) Nothing in this section or Section 186.30 or 186.31 shall
preclude a court in its discretion from imposing the registration
requirements as set forth in those sections in a gang-related crime.
186.33.  (a) Any person required to register pursuant to Section
186.30 who knowingly violates any of its provisions is guilty of a
misdemeanor.
   (b) (1) Any person who knowingly fails to register pursuant to
Section 186.30 and is subsequently convicted of, or any person for
whom a petition is subsequently sustained for a violation of, any of
the offenses specified in Section 186.30, shall be punished by an
additional term of imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or
2, or 3 years.  The court shall order imposition of the middle term
unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation.   The
court shall state its reasons for the enhancement choice on the
record at the time of sentencing.
   (2) The existence of any fact bringing a person under this
subdivision shall be alleged in the information, indictment, or
petition, and be either admitted by the defendant or minor in open
court, or found to be true or not true by the trier of fact.


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