2010 Arkansas Code
Title 12 - Law Enforcement, Emergency Management, And Military Affairs
Subtitle 2 - Law Enforcement Agencies And Programs
Chapter 12 - Crime Reporting And Investigations
Subchapter 17 - Adult and Long-Term Care Facility Resident Maltreatment Act
§ 12-12-1703 - Definitions.

12-12-1703. Definitions.

As used in this subchapter:

(1) (A) "Abuse" means with regard to any long-term care facility resident or any patient at the Arkansas State Hospital by a caregiver:

(i) Any intentional and unnecessary physical act that inflicts pain on or causes injury to an endangered person or an impaired person, excluding court-ordered medical care or medical care requested by the patient or long-term care facility resident or a person legally authorized to make medical decisions on behalf of the patient or long-term care facility resident;

(ii) Any intentional act that a reasonable person would believe subjects an endangered person or an impaired person, regardless of age, ability to comprehend, or disability, to ridicule or psychological injury in a manner likely to provoke fear or alarm, excluding necessary care and treatment provided in accordance with generally recognized professional standards of care;

(iii) Any intentional threat that a reasonable person would find credible and nonfrivolous to inflict pain on or cause injury to an endangered person or an impaired person except in the course of medical treatment or for justifiable cause; or

(iv) Any willful infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish.

(B) "Abuse" means with regard to any person who is not a long-term care facility resident or a patient at the Arkansas State Hospital:

(i) Any intentional and unnecessary physical act that inflicts pain on or causes injury to an endangered person or an impaired person;

(ii) Any intentional act that a reasonable person would believe subjects an endangered person or an impaired person, regardless of age, ability to comprehend, or disability, to ridicule or psychological injury in a manner likely to provoke fear or alarm; or

(iii) Any intentional threat that a reasonable person would find credible and nonfrivolous to inflict pain on or cause injury to an endangered person or an impaired person except in the course of medical treatment or for justifiable cause;

(2) "Adult maltreatment" means abuse, exploitation, neglect, or sexual abuse of an adult;

(3) "Caregiver" means any of the following that has the responsibility for the protection, care, or custody of an endangered person or an impaired person as a result of assuming the responsibility voluntarily, by contract, through employment, or by order of a court:

(A) A related person or an unrelated person;

(B) An owner, an agent, or a high managerial agent of a public or private organization; or

(C) A public or private organization;

(4) "Department" means the Department of Human Services;

(5) "Endangered person" means:

(A) A person eighteen (18) years of age or older who:

(i) Is found to be in a situation or condition that poses a danger to himself or herself; and

(ii) Demonstrates a lack of capacity to comprehend the nature and consequences of remaining in that situation or condition; or

(B) A long-term care facility resident who:

(i) Is found to be in a situation or condition that poses an imminent risk of death or serious bodily harm to the long-term care facility resident; and

(ii) Demonstrates a lack of capacity to comprehend the nature and consequences of remaining in that situation or condition;

(6) "Exploitation" means the:

(A) Illegal or unauthorized use or management of an endangered person's or an impaired person's funds, assets, or property;

(B) Use of an adult endangered person's or an adult impaired person's power of attorney or guardianship for the profit or advantage of one's own self or another;

(C) The fraudulent or otherwise illegal, unauthorized, or improper act or process of a person, including a caregiver or fiduciary, that uses the resources of an endangered person, impaired person, or long-term care facility resident for monetary or personal benefit, profit, or gain, or that results in depriving the endangered person, impaired person, or long-term care facility resident of rightful access to or use of benefits, resources, belongings, or assets; or

(D) Misappropriation of property of a long-term care facility resident, that is, the deliberate misplacement, exploitation, or wrongful, temporary, or permanent use of a long-term care facility resident's belongings or money without the long-term care facility resident's consent;

(7) (A) "Fiduciary" means a person or entity with the legal responsibility to:

(i) Make decisions on behalf of and for the benefit of another person; and

(ii) Act in good faith and with fairness.

(B) "Fiduciary" includes without limitation:

(i) A trustee;

(ii) A guardian;

(iii) A conservator;

(iv) An executor;

(v) An agent under financial power of attorney or health care power of attorney; or

(vi) A representative payee;

(8) "Imminent danger to health or safety" means a situation in which death or serious bodily harm could reasonably be expected to occur without intervention;

(9) (A) "Impaired person" means a person eighteen (18) years of age or older who as a result of mental or physical impairment is unable to protect himself or herself from abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, or exploitation.

(B) For purposes of this subchapter, a long-term care facility resident is presumed to be an impaired person;

(10) "Long-term care facility" means:

(A) A nursing home;

(B) A residential care facility;

(C) A post-acute head injury retraining and residential facility;

(D) An assisted living facility;

(E) An intermediate care facility for individuals with mental retardation; or

(F) Any facility that provides long-term medical or personal care;

(11) "Long-term care facility resident" means a person, regardless of age, living in a long-term care facility;

(12) "Long-term care facility resident maltreatment" means abuse, exploitation, neglect, or sexual abuse of a long-term care facility resident;

(13) "Maltreated adult" means an adult who has been abused, exploited, neglected, physically abused, or sexually abused;

(14) "Maltreated person" means a person, regardless of age, who has been abused, exploited, neglected, physically abused, or sexually abused;

(15) "Neglect" means:

(A) An act or omission by an endangered person or an impaired person, for example, self-neglect; or

(B) An act or omission by a caregiver responsible for the care and supervision of an endangered person or an impaired person constituting:

(i) Negligently failing to provide necessary treatment, rehabilitation, care, food, clothing, shelter, supervision, or medical services to an endangered person or an impaired person;

(ii) Negligently failing to report health problems or changes in health problems or changes in the health condition of an endangered person or an impaired person to the appropriate medical personnel;

(iii) Negligently failing to carry out a prescribed treatment plan; or

(iv) Negligently failing to provide goods or services to a long-term care facility resident necessary to avoid physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness as defined in rules promulgated by the Office of Long-Term Care;

(16) (A) "Physical injury" means the impairment of a physical condition or the infliction of substantial pain on a person.

(B) If the person is an endangered person or an impaired person, there is a presumption that any physical injury resulted in the infliction of substantial pain;

(17) "Serious bodily harm" means sexual abuse, physical injury, or serious physical injury;

(18) "Serious physical injury" means physical injury to an endangered person or an impaired person that creates a substantial risk of death or that causes protracted disfigurement, protracted impairment of health, or loss or protracted impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ;

(19) "Sexual abuse" means deviate sexual activity, sexual contact, or sexual intercourse, as those terms are defined in 5-14-101, with another person who is not the actor's spouse and who is incapable of consent because he or she is mentally defective, mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless; and

(20) "Subject of the report" means:

(A) The endangered person or impaired person;

(B) The adult's legal guardian;

(C) The natural or legal guardian of a long-term care facility resident under eighteen (18) years of age; and

(D) The offender.

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