2021 Code of Alabama
Title 10A - Alabama Business and Nonprofit Entities Code.
Chapter 3 - Nonprofit Corporations.
Article 1 - General Provisions.
Section 10A-3-1.05 - This Section Was Assigned by the Code Commissioner in the 2021 Regular Session, Effective January 1, 2022. This Is Not in the Current Code Supplement.

Universal Citation: AL Code § 10A-3-1.05 (2021)

Section 10A-3-1.05

THIS SECTION WAS ASSIGNED BY THE CODE COMMISSIONER IN THE 2021 REGULAR SESSION, EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022. THIS IS NOT IN THE CURRENT CODE SUPPLEMENT.

(a) A notice under this chapter must be in writing unless oral notice is reasonable in the circumstances. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, words in a notice or other communication under this chapter must be in English.

(b) A notice or other communication may be given by any method of delivery, except that notice or other communication by electronic transmission must be in accordance with this section. If the methods of delivery are impracticable, a notice or other communication from the nonprofit corporation may be given by means of a broad non-exclusionary distribution to the public (which may include a newspaper of general circulation in the area where published; radio, television, or other form of public broadcast communication; or other methods of distribution that the nonprofit corporation has previously identified to its recipients).

(c) A notice or other communication to a nonprofit corporation or to a foreign nonprofit corporation registered to transact business in this state may be delivered to the nonprofit corporation's registered agent at its registered office or to the secretary at the nonprofit corporation's principal office shown in its most recent annual report or, in the case of a foreign nonprofit corporation that has not yet delivered an annual report, in its foreign registration under Chapter 1.

(d) A notice or other communication from the nonprofit corporation to a member may be delivered by electronic mail to an electronic mail address for that member as reflected in the books and records of the nonprofit corporation, unless that member has previously notified the nonprofit corporation in writing that the member objects to receiving notices and other communications by electronic mail. The notice or other communication may be delivered to a member by another form of electronic transmission if consented to by that member or if authorized by subsection (j). Any notice or other communication from the nonprofit corporation to any other person may be delivered by electronic transmission if consented to by the recipient or if authorized by subsection (j). Any consent under this subsection or subsection (j) may be revoked with respect to future notices or communications by the person who consented by giving written or electronic notice to the person to whom the consent was delivered.

(e) A notice or other communication may no longer be delivered to an electronic mail address or other electronic transmission address pursuant to subsection (d) if (i) the nonprofit corporation receives notice from the information processing system into which the notice or other communication was entered that two consecutive notices or other communications given by electronic transmission have not been delivered to the electronic mail address or other electronic transmission address to which the notice or other communication was directed, and (ii) the notice of non-delivery becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary, or another person responsible for the giving of notices or other communications for the nonprofit corporation; provided, however, that the inadvertent failure to recognize the notice of non-delivery as a cessation of authority to provide a member with notice by electronic mail or other electronic transmission shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

(f) Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, a notice or other communication by electronic transmission is received when:

(1) it enters an information processing system directed to (i) in the case of a member, the electronic mail address for the member as reflected in the books and records of the nonprofit corporation or other electronic transmission address at which the member has consented to receive notice or other communication by electronic transmission, or (ii) in the case of any other recipient, the electronic transmission address at which the recipient has consented to receive notice or other communication by electronic transmission; and

(2) it is in a form capable of being processed by that system.

(g) Receipt of an electronic acknowledgement from an information processing system described in subsection (f)(1) establishes that an electronic transmission was received but, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received.

(h) An electronic transmission is received under this section even if no person is aware of its receipt.

(i) A notice or other communication, if in a comprehensible form or manner, is effective at the earliest of the following:

(1) if in a physical form, the earliest of when it is actually received, or when it is left at:

(i) a member's address reflected in the books and records of the nonprofit corporation;

(ii) a director's residence or usual place of business; or

(iii) the nonprofit corporation's principal office;

(2) if mailed by United States mail postage prepaid and addressed to a member at the member's address reflected in the books and records of the nonprofit corporation, upon deposit in the United States mail;

(3) if mailed by United States mail postage prepaid and addressed to a recipient other than a member, at the address of the recipient reflected in the books and records of the nonprofit corporation, the earliest of when it is actually received, or:

(i) if sent by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, the date shown on the return receipt signed by or on behalf of the addressee; or

(ii) five days after it is deposited in the United States mail;

(4) if sent by a nationally recognized commercial carrier that issues a receipt or other confirmation of delivery, the earliest of when it is actually received or the date shown on the receipt or other confirmation of delivery issued by the commercial carrier;

(5) if an electronic transmission, when it is received as provided in subsection (f); and

(6) if oral, when communicated.

(j) A notice or other communication may be in the form of an electronic transmission that cannot be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice only if (i) the electronic transmission is otherwise retrievable in perceivable form, and (ii) the sender and the recipient have consented in writing to the use of that form of electronic transmission.

(k) If this chapter prescribes requirements for notices or other communications in particular circumstances, those requirements govern. If the certificate of incorporation or bylaws prescribe requirements for notices or other communications, not inconsistent with this section or other provisions of this chapter, those requirements govern. The certificate of incorporation or bylaws may authorize or require delivery of notices of meetings of directors by electronic transmission.

(l) In the event that any provisions of this chapter are deemed to modify, limit, or supersede the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. §§7001 et seq., the provisions of this chapter shall control to the maximum extent permitted by Section 102(a)(2) of that federal act.

(m) Whenever a notice or communication would otherwise be required to be given under any provision of this chapter to a member, the notice or communication need not be given if the nonprofit corporation is not permitted to deliver the notice or communication by electronic transmission pursuant to subsections (d) and (e) and:

(1) notices and communications to members of two consecutive annual meetings, and all notices and communications of meetings during the period between those two consecutive annual meetings, have been sent to that member at that member's address as reflected in the books and records of the nonprofit corporation and have been returned undeliverable or could not be delivered; or

(2) no address has been provided to the nonprofit corporation by or on behalf of a member and the nonprofit corporation has not otherwise obtained an address for that member it believes to be reliable.

In addition if any member to which this subsection (m) applies delivers to the nonprofit corporation a written notice or communication setting forth that member's then-current address, the requirement that notice and communication be given to that member shall be reinstated.

(n) Whenever a notice or communication is required to be given, under any provision of this chapter or of the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of any nonprofit corporation, to any person with whom notice to or communication with is unlawful, the giving of the notice or communication to that person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give the notice or communication to that person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice or communication to the person with whom notice to or communication with is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if the notice or communication had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the nonprofit corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate or other filing instrument under any of the other sections of this chapter, the certificate or other filing instrument shall state, if that is the fact and if notice or communication is required, that notice or communication was given to all persons entitled to receive notice or communication except those persons with whom notice to or communication with is unlawful.

(Act 2021-299, §4.)

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