Vermont Supreme Court Decisions 2022

In re E.S., Juvenile  
Date: September 30, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 47
Docket Number: 21-AP-250

Justia Opinion Summary: The State appealed a family division’s order granting juvenile E.S.’s motion to suppress a statement given to law enforcement in this delinquency proceeding. In July 2021, the state’s attorney filed a delinquency…

Worrall v. Department of Labor (Snowfire Ltd., Employer)  
Date: September 23, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 46
Docket Number: 2021-164

Justia Opinion Summary: Claimant Joseph Worrall challenged an Employment Security Board decision finding him ineligible for unemployment compensation and liable to the Vermont Department of Labor for an overpayment. In November 2020, a claims…

Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. et al. v. Ace American Insurance Company et al.  
Date: September 23, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 45
Docket Number: 2021-173

Justia Opinion Summary: Insured Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. and insurer Huntington Ingalls Industries Risk Management LLC seek a declaratory judgment stating there is coverage under a property insurance policy for certain losses…

State v. Bradley J. Robtoy
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 25
Docket Number: 21-AP-293
In re Castine Mountain Road LLC CU (Michael Seaberg, Appellant)
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2009 VT 76
Docket Number: 22-AP-028
Hale Resources, LLC v. Peter Levin et al.
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2015 VT 108
Docket Number: 22-AP-036
James H. Hart et al.* v. Town of Bradford et al.
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2008 VT 20
Docket Number: 22-AP-073
In re C.H. & A.H., Juveniles
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2013 VT 79
Docket Number: 22-AP-101
Karen L. Babcock v. Richard N. Babcock, Sr.
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 96
Docket Number: 22-AP-103
Samantha R. Angstman v. Department of Labor
Date: September 16, 2022
Docket Number: 22-AP-107
State v. Justin Gamache
Date: September 16, 2022
Citation: 2012 VT 58
Docket Number: 22-AP-123
In re S.D.  
Date: September 9, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 44
Docket Number: 2021-094

Justia Opinion Summary: The State of Vermont appealed a family division court's dismissal of three juvenile delinquency petitions against S.D. for lack of subject-matter jurisdiction. The State argued the family division retained jurisdiction…

In re Katzenbach A250 Permit #7R1374-1  
Date: September 9, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 42
Docket Number: 21-AP-189

Justia Opinion Summary: Applicants Christian and Clark Katzenbach appealed the Environmental Division’s decision granting but imposing certain conditions on an Act 250 permit for operating their sand- and gravel-extraction project. Applicants…

Beatty v. Keough  
Date: September 2, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 41
Docket Number: 21-AP-263

Justia Opinion Summary: Plaintiff and defendant worked in the same location. Defendant was the wife of plaintiff’s employer. In late July 2021, plaintiff sought relief under 12 V.S.A. § 5133 following a workplace confrontation with defendant.…

Bacigalupo v. Bacigalupo  
Date: September 2, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 43
Docket Number: 21-AP-284

Justia Opinion Summary: The issue this case presented for the Vermont Supreme Court's review centered on whether a non-resident plaintiff could obtain a relief-from-abuse (RFA) order under Vermont’s Abuse Prevention Act. Mother and father were…

Vermont v. E.C.  
Date: August 26, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 40
Docket Number: 2021-179

Justia Opinion Summary: In a consolidated appeal, petitioner E.C. challenged two trial court orders denying his requests to expunge his criminal-history records. Petitioner’s criminal-history records included several felony and misdemeanor…

eo22-214.pdf
Date: August 23, 2022
Citation: 2014 VT 123
Docket Number: 22-AP-214
eo21-203.pdf
Date: August 22, 2022
Citation: 2016 VT 9
Docket Number: 21-AP-203
In re Burns 12 Weston Street NOV  
Date: August 19, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 37
Docket Number: 2021-131

Justia Opinion Summary: Neighbors appealed an Environmental Division order vacating a municipal notice of violation (NOV) alleging owners were using a two-unit building as an unpermitted duplex. The Environmental Division concluded that a 2006…

In re Benoit Conversion Application  
Date: August 19, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 39
Docket Number: 21-AP-247

Justia Opinion Summary: The Benoits sought to set aside a 2008 judgment under Vermont Rule of Civil Procedure 60(b)(5). The Benoits owned real property in the City of St. Albans, Vermont, which they purchased from the Hayfords in 2003. The…

eo21-251.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2011 VT 81
Docket Number: 21-AP-251
eo21-270.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2013 VT 48
Docket Number: 21-AP-270
eo22-006.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Docket Number: 22-AP-006
eo22-013.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2008 VT 52
Docket Number: 22-AP-013
eo22-033.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2007 VT 15
Docket Number: 22-AP-033
eo22-052.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 122
Docket Number: 22-AP-052
In re D.K., Juvenile
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 36
Docket Number: 22-AP-074
eo22-083.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Docket Number: 22-AP-083
eo22-089.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2009 VT 84
Docket Number: 22-AP-089
eo22-105.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2013 VT 39
Docket Number: 22-AP-105
eo22-118.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Citation: 2019 VT 48
Docket Number: 22-AP-118
eo22-126.pdf
Date: August 12, 2022
Docket Number: 22-AP-126
State v. Hieheem Kirkland
Date: August 9, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 38
Docket Number: 22-AP-173
Vermont v. Therrien  
Date: August 5, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 35
Docket Number: 2021-059

Justia Opinion Summary: Twelve years after a trial court ordered defendant Randy Therrien to pay restitution, he moved to vacate the order. The trial court denied the motion as untimely. The Vermont Supreme Court agreed the motion was untimely,…

Daiello v. Town of Vernon, et al.  
Date: July 22, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 32
Docket Number: 2021-017

Justia Opinion Summary: Defendants Brenda and Dale Merritt (neighbors) challenged a superior court’s decision granting summary judgment to plaintiff Steven Daiello (landowner) and defendant Town of Vernon in a dispute over a road in Vernon,…

de Macedo Soares v. Barnet Fire District #2 et al.  
Date: July 22, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 34
Docket Number: 21-AP-290

Justia Opinion Summary: Plaintiff Theodore de Macedo Soares challenged the process by which defendant, the Prudential Committee for Barnet Fire District No. 2, obtained approval for a municipal bond. The trial court denied plaintiff’s request…

Vermont v. Sinquell-Gainey, Vaz  
Date: July 18, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 19
Docket Number: 2020-306

Justia Opinion Summary: The State appealed a trial court order granting defendants Michael Sinquell-Gainey and David Vaz's motion to suppress evidence obtained by law enforcement after an automobile stop. The State argued a Newport police…

In re Paul Kulig (Office of Disciplinary Counsel, Appellant)
Date: July 15, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 33
Docket Number: 21-AP-230
State of Vermont v. Ashley Goodrich
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 46
Docket Number: 2021-175
New Penn Financial LLC v. Stephen W. Burke et al.
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 9
Docket Number: 21-AP-252
Lloyd J. Weinstein v. Jennifer Weinstein
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2006 VT 2
Docket Number: 21-AP-295
State v. Kyle Warner
Date: July 14, 2022
Docket Number: 22-AP-016
Melissa DeGuise-Hendershot v. Charles Hendershot
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 77
Docket Number: 22-AP-035
Alison Wallis-Buxton v. Garrison H. Buxton
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2006 VT 70
Docket Number: 22-AP-037
In re A.C., Juvenile
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2004 VT 40
Docket Number: 22-AP-040
In re D.C., Juvenile
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2019 VT 10
Docket Number: 22-AP-041
In re A.K., Juvenile
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2013 VT 39
Docket Number: 22-AP-066
Justin Ames Gamache v. Thomas Mozzer
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 93
Docket Number: 22-AP-067
In re B.T., Juvenile
Date: July 14, 2022
Citation: 2012 VT 100
Docket Number: 22-AP-068
In re Appeal of M.V.  
Date: July 8, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 31
Docket Number: 21-AP-249

Justia Opinion Summary: Petitioner M.V. appealed a Human Services Board order granting summary judgment to the Department for Children and Families (DCF) regarding DCF’s decision to substantiate him for child abuse. Petitioner argued the same…

Vermont v. Burnett  
Date: July 1, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 30
Docket Number: 2021-031

Justia Opinion Summary: Defendant Austin Burnett appealed the Vermont criminal division’s order revoking his probation. After review, the Vermont Supreme Court affirmed the court’s determination that defendant violated probation conditions…

Hoffer v. OneCare Accountable Care Organization, LLC, d/b/a OneCare Vermont  
Date: July 1, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 29
Docket Number: 21-AP-271

Justia Opinion Summary: In February 2021, the Vermont State Auditor of Accounts, Douglas Hoffer, filed a complaint alleging that defendant OneCare Accountable Care Organization, LLC, had breached various provisions in its contract with the…

Vermont v. Kuhlmann  
Date: June 24, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 28
Docket Number: 2020-041

Justia Opinion Summary: Defendant Roy Kuhlmann appealed the denial of his pro se motion for a new trial filed during the pendency of his appeal of his sentence and final judgment. The Vermont Supreme Court concluded the trial court did not have…

Brian Mace v. Department of Labor (Punger Enterprises LLC)
Date: June 24, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 104
Docket Number: 22-AP-003
Fox v. Fox  
Date: June 17, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 27
Docket Number: 2021-095

Justia Opinion Summary: Father appealed a sanctions order imposed by the family division enjoining him from submitting filings in this case unless the filing was signed by a licensed attorney or he first obtained permission from the court. The…

State v. Robert Dragon III
Date: June 17, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 108
Docket Number: 2021-170
Lori Levering v. Mark Downer / Thomas Doogan v. Mark Downer
Date: June 17, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 99
Docket Numbers: 21-AP-268, 21-AP-269
In re G.L., Juvenile
Date: June 17, 2022
Citation: 2011 VT 110
Docket Number: 22-AP-004
In re G.D. & R.P., Juveniles
Date: June 17, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 25
Docket Number: 22-AP-005
In re C.S., Juvenile
Date: June 17, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 38
Docket Number: 22-AP-065
Kelly v. University of Vermont Medical Center  
Date: June 10, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 26
Docket Number: 21-AP-264

Justia Opinion Summary: Plaintiff Sean Kelly appealed the grant of summary judgment to the University of Vermont Medical Center (UVMMC) on employment discrimination and breach-of-contract claims arising from UVMMC’s decision not to extend his…

State v. Neal Joseph
Date: June 10, 2022
Docket Number: 22-AP-160
In re William Cobb
Date: June 6, 2022
Citation: 2017 VT 48
Docket Number: 22-AP-156
Vermont v. Caballero  
Date: May 20, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 25
Docket Number: 2020-262

Justia Opinion Summary: Defendant Jayveon Caballero was convicted by a jury of second- degree murder. On appeal, he argued: (1) the evidence was insufficient to prove that he acted intentionally or in knowing disregard of a deadly risk to the…

Vance v. Locke  
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 23
Docket Number: 2021-132

Justia Opinion Summary: Mother appealed a family division order modifying legal parental rights and responsibilities and parent-child contact as to son. The court first issued a parental rights and responsibilities order in 2015, based on the…

Gates v. Mack Molding Company, Inc.  
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 24
Docket Number: 2021-176

Justia Opinion Summary: Plaintiff Angela Gates appealed a trial court’s decision granting summary judgment to defendant, her former employer, on plaintiff’s claims for disability discrimination under the Vermont Fair Employment Practices Act…

Sanville v. Town of Albany  
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 22
Docket Number: 21-AP-206

Justia Opinion Summary: The Town of Albany, Vermont, appealed an order granting summary judgment to a surviving relative of the grantors who had quitclaimed undeveloped property to the Town subject to certain conditions. The civil division…

State of Vermont v. Richard A. Morrell
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 60
Docket Number: 21-AP-218
Matthew Piantoni v. Kathleen Daley
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 96
Docket Number: 21-AP-233
Dorothy Aarseth v. Kimberly Clark
Date: May 13, 2022
Docket Number: 21-AP-254
Holly Billado v. Daniel Billado
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 1
Docket Number: 21-AP-277
Justin Ames Gamache v. State of Vermont
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2014 VT 107
Docket Number: 22-AP-017
In re J.P., Juvenile
Date: May 13, 2022
Citation: 2015 VT 94
Docket Number: 22-AP-029
In re Denise Bailey, Esq. (Office of Disciplinary Counsel)
Date: May 11, 2022
Docket Number: 21-AP-217
Vermont v. Sinquell-Gainey & Vaz  
Date: May 6, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 19
Docket Number: 2020-306

Justia Opinion Summary: At about 1:40 a.m. on March 24, 2018, defendants Michael Sinquell-Gainey and David Vaz were in a vehicle that pulled into a gas station in Newport, Vermont. The officers parked nearby were having a conversation, noticing…

State v. Kory L. George
Date: May 6, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 21
Docket Number: 2021-089
State v. Mark A. Boutwell
Date: April 25, 2022
Citation: 2016 VT 120
Docket Number: 22-AP-075
State v. Larry L. Labrecque
Date: April 25, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 20
Docket Number: 22-AP-093
Mitchell v. NBT Bank, N.A.  
Date: April 22, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 17
Docket Number: 21-AP-185

Justia Opinion Summary: Employee Christie Mitchell appealed a summary judgment order in favor of NBT Bank, N.A. regarding its policy of deducting her overtime compensation from her commissions so that she was never paid more than gross…

Nijensohn v. Ring  
Date: April 8, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 16
Docket Number: 2021-159

Justia Opinion Summary: In dividing the divorcing parties’ assets, a Massachusetts court ordered a special master to sell the Vermont property. After the sale, plaintiff filed an action in a Vermont superior court to rescind the sale and quiet…

Ricky L. LaPrade* v. James Baker
Date: April 8, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 37
Docket Number: 21-AP-198
OCS/Misty Bowen v. Terrell Spearman
Date: April 8, 2022
Citation: 2005 VT 57
Docket Number: 21-AP-232
Jenny Sirkin v. John Zartarian
Date: April 8, 2022
Citation: 2009 VT 48
Docket Number: 21-AP-239
Rebecca Wood v. Ryan Wood
Date: April 8, 2022
Citation: 2007 VT 15
Docket Number: 21-AP-256
In re D.B., Juvenile
Date: April 8, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 86
Docket Number: 21-AP-296
State v. Terrance Humphries
Date: March 31, 2022
Citation: 2017 VT 18
Docket Number: 22-AP-046
State v. Joshua Gundrum
Date: March 21, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 14
Docket Number: 22-AP-069
Vermont v. Boyajian  
Date: March 18, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 13
Docket Number: 2021-056

Justia Opinion Summary: In an interlocutory appeal, the issue presented for the Vermont Supreme Court's review was whether the superior court erred by denying the State’s request to order a psychiatric evaluation of defendant Brent Boyajian…

Boyd, et al. v. Vermont  
Date: March 18, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 12
Docket Number: 2021-177

Justia Opinion Summary: In October 2017, plaintiffs Sadie Boyd (a student at Twin Valley Middle High School in Whitingham, Vermont) Madeleine Klein (a resident and property owner in Whitingham), and the Town of Whitingham filed a complaint for…

State v. Kory L. George
Date: March 16, 2022
Docket Number: 2021-089
Vincent Buro & Lena D. Pierce v. Heidi Levins
Date: March 11, 2022
Citation: 2019 VT 82
Docket Number: 2021-152
Alpine Haven Property Owners’ Association, Inc. v. Edward Deptula
Date: March 11, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 88
Docket Number: 2021-156
Mark Kelty v. Keith Davis
Date: March 11, 2022
Citation: 2016 VT 42
Docket Number: 2021-162
Brian Judd v. City of Barre
Date: March 11, 2022
Citation: 2010 VT 1
Docket Number: 2021-167
Jay Perron v. Department of Labor
Date: March 11, 2022
Docket Number: 2021-171
In re A.H., Juvenile
Date: March 11, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 126
Docket Number: 21-AP-260
In re Ambassador Insurance Company (Bestwall LLC, Appellant)  
Date: March 4, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 11
Docket Number: 2021-081

Justia Opinion Summary: In an interlocutory appeal, the issue this case presented for the Vermont Supreme Court's review was whether Vermont or Georgia law applied to a coverage dispute between claimant Bestwall LLC and insurer Ambassador…

Missisquoi Assoc. Hydro c/o Enel Green Power v. Town of Sheldon  
Date: March 4, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 8
Docket Number: 2021-172

Justia Opinion Summary: The Town of Sheldon appealed a hearing officer’s valuation of the subject property, a hydroelectric generating facility, as of April 1, 2019. It challenged the hearing officer’s application of the Income Approach to…

New England Phoenix Company, Inc. v. Grand Isle Veterinary Hospital, Inc. et al.  
Date: February 25, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 10
Docket Number: 2021-124

Justia Opinion Summary: New England Phoenix Company, Inc. appealed a trial court order denying its motion for a deficiency judgment following a foreclosure decree and an order confirming its purchase of a mortgaged property at a judicial sale.…

Rodrigue v. Illuzzi  
Date: February 25, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 9
Docket Number: 2021-136

Justia Opinion Summary: Plaintiff Roger Rodrigue claimed defendant Attorney Vincent Illuzzi negligently advised plaintiff to sign a Vermont workers’ compensation settlement that contained a general release barring recovery otherwise available…

In re J.H., Juvenile
Date: February 17, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 25
Docket Number: 22-AP-020
State v. Kareem Johnson
Date: February 14, 2022
Citation: 2017 VT 9
Docket Number: 22-AP-026
In re Snowstone, LLC Act 250 Jurisdictional Opinion (Michael Harrington, et al., Appellants)  
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 72
Docket Number: 2020-197

Justia Opinion Summary: The Vermont Environmental Division concluded that Snowstone, LLC, did not need an Act 250 permit to operate a small dimensional-stone extraction operation on a 0.93-acre parcel of land to be purchased from landowners…

Beth Gray v. Michael S. Gray
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 38
Docket Number: 2021-161
Benjamin Luna v. City of Burlington
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2016 VT 71
Docket Number: 21-AP-201
In re M.H., Juvenile
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2017 VT 71
Docket Number: 21-AP-215
Joshua Many v. State of Vermont et al.
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 94
Docket Number: 21-AP-223
Steven Berlin v. Alison Berlin
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2005 VT 72
Docket Number: 21-AP-229
In re S.S., A.S., L.S., Juveniles
Date: February 11, 2022
Docket Number: 21-AP-231
In re M.C., Juvenile
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2014 VT 87
Docket Number: 21-AP-242
In re R.S., J.S., I.S., Juveniles
Date: February 11, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 25
Docket Number: 21-AP-262
State v. Paige Wilkins
Date: February 10, 2022
Citation: 2017 VT 9
Docket Number: 22-AP-025
In re Shawn T. Tao, Esq. (Office of Disciplinary Counsel)
Date: February 9, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 7
Docket Number: 22-AP-015
State v. Joseph Ferlazzo, Jr.
Date: February 4, 2022
Citation: 2018 VT 6
Docket Number: 22-AP-023
Vermont v. Vogel  
Date: January 28, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 5
Docket Number: 2021-105

Justia Opinion Summary: In January 2018, defendant Scott Vogel was charged with one count of luring a child. According to the charging affidavit, in September 2017, defendant was in an online chatroom dedicated to “daddaughtersex.” He began a…

State v. Larry L. Labrecque
Date: January 24, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 6
Docket Number: 22-AP-002
In re Joseph Bruyette  
Date: January 21, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 3
Docket Number: 2021-108

Justia Opinion Summary: Petitioner Joseph Bruyette appealed an April 2021 Department of Corrections ("DOC") declaratory ruling, made after his case staffing in June 2019, in which the DOC stated that it would “continue to rely on evaluations…

Mary Jane Miles v. Randal Miles
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2011 VT 105
Docket Number: 2021-071
Town of Pawlet v. Banyai  
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 4
Docket Number: 2021-096

Justia Opinion Summary: Landowner Daniel Banyai appealed an Environmental Division decision upholding a notice of violation, granting a permanent injunction, and assessing $46,600 in fines, relating to alleged zoning violations and the…

Tessa Lemieux v. Holly Hall (Rich)
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2008 VT 52
Docket Number: 2021-133
Town of Rutland v. F.A.S. Trucking, Inc. et al.
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2003 VT 69
Docket Number: 2021-144
The Estate of Richard S. Daniels, by and through Julie Lyford in her capacity as Executor et al.  
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 2
Docket Number: 2021-145

Justia Opinion Summary: Plaintiff Richard Daniels appealed a trial court's grant of summary judgment in favor of defendants Attorney James Goss, Attorney Matthew Hart, and law firm Facey Goss & McPhee P.C. (FGM), arguing the court erred when it…

John Martell, Jr. v. Liza Simpson
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2019 VT 82
Docket Number: 2021-146
In re Appeal of S.J.
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2021 VT 41
Docket Number: 2021-155
In re G.C., Juvenile
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2016 VT 23
Docket Number: 21-AP-183
In re N.R., N.R., N.R., Juveniles
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2007 VT 11
Docket Number: 21-AP-204
In re K.B., Juvenile
Date: January 14, 2022
Citation: 2020 VT 48
Docket Number: 21-AP-226
State v. Joshua Waterman
Date: January 5, 2022
Citation: 2022 VT 1
Docket Number: 21-AP-282
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