ROBERT ALLAN PARENT V BARBARA LEIGH PARENTAnnotate this Case
STATE OF MICHIGAN
COURT OF APPEALS
ROBERT ALLAN PARENT,
January 22, 2009
Oakland Circuit Court
LC No. 2006-726808-DM
BARBARA LEIGH PARENT,
Advance Sheets Version
Before: Saad, C.J., and Davis and Servitto, JJ.
Defendant appeals as of right the trial court’s order granting plaintiff’s motion to enroll
the parties’ minor daughter in public school. We remand for further proceedings.
The parties were divorced on May 31, 2007, pursuant to a consent judgment of divorce.
The parties share joint legal custody of their two children, and defendant received sole physical
custody of the children. The consent judgment of divorce contained a provision regarding the
The parties agree that the minor children are currently being home
schooled. They further agree that they will decide by August 15, 2007, whether
they will continue to home school Emily and the details of her home schooling
should they continue to do so. In addition, they agree that if they cannot agree
that they will mediate the issue with [Ellen M. Craine]. If mediation fails, the
parties will mutually agree upon an arbitrator.
Defendant began homeschooling Emily after the parties separated in December 2005, and
continued to do so through Emily’s kindergarten year. Plaintiff then filed a motion to enroll
Emily in public school. The trial court granted that motion, and from that grant defendant now
Only the education plan of the older child, Emily, is at issue in this case; the younger child is
not yet of school age.
Defendant first argues that the trial court should have made a determination regarding
Emily’s established custodial environment in order to determine plaintiff’s burden of proof. We
In custody cases, all orders and judgments by the trial court shall be affirmed unless “the
trial judge made findings of fact against the great weight of evidence or committed a palpable
abuse of discretion or a clear legal error on a major issue.” MCL 722.28. Statutory
interpretation is a question of law that this Court reviews de novo. Shinholster v Annapolis
Hosp, 471 Mich 540, 548; 685 NW2d 275 (2004). The issue of what burden of proof is to be
applied in the instant situation is also a question of law. Pickering v Pickering, 253 Mich App
694, 698; 659 NW2d 649 (2002). Defendant did not preserve this issue for appeal by failing to
raise it in the trial court; however, because it is a question of law that can be decided on the facts
presented, we will consider it.
A court may modify or amend a child custody order “for proper cause shown or because
of a change of circumstances.” MCL 722.27(1)(c); Vodvarka v Grasmeyer, 259 Mich App 499,
508; 675 NW2d 847 (2003). Further, a court may not change a child’s established custodial
environment unless the moving party proves by clear and convincing evidence that the change is
in the child’s best interest. MCL 722.27(1)(c); Berger v Berger, 277 Mich App 700, 710; 747
NW2d 336 (2008). There appears to be no serious dispute that Emily has an established
custodial environment with defendant. However, plaintiff appears to be seeking only a change in
Emily’s educational environment, not her custodial environment. We are unable to find any
Michigan law referring to an “established custodial/educational environment,” which defendant
contends the trial court should have considered.
Rather, MCL 722.27(1)(c) provides, in part:
The court shall not modify or amend its previous judgments or orders or
issue a new order so as to change the established custodial environment of a child
unless there is presented clear and convincing evidence that it is in the best
interest of the child. The custodial environment of a child is established if over an
appreciable time the child naturally looks to the custodian in that environment for
guidance, discipline, the necessities of life, and parental comfort. The age of the
child, the physical environment, and the inclination of the custodian and the child
as to the permanency of the relationship shall also be considered. [Emphasis
Plainly, not all modifications to previous judgments or orders require the heightened “clear and
convincing evidence” standard of proof; rather, the burden of proof is heightened for only those
modifications that change the child’s established custodial environment. Berger, supra at 706.
Changing the child’s school does not constitute a change of custodial environment under the
above definition. Therefore, the modification at issue here did not require the moving party to
demonstrate clear and convincing evidence that the change is in the child’s best interest; rather,
the burden of proof in such circumstances is a preponderance of the evidence that the change is
in the child’s best interest. The trial court did not plainly err by failing to make a determination
regarding an established custodial environment.
Defendant next argues that the trial court erred by failing to consider all the statutory best
interest factors in making its determination on this custody issue. On the basis of what we can
discern from the record, we agree.
This Court stated in Bowers v VanderMeulen-Bowers, 278 Mich App 287, 295-296; 750
NW2d 597 (2008):
When parents have joint legal custody of a child, the parents shall share
decision-making authority as to the important decisions affecting the welfare of
the child. Because [the child’s] placement in a particular school district is an
important decision affecting his welfare, both [parents] must agree on that
decision. If they are unable to agree, the trial court must resolve the dispute
according to [the child’s] best interest. [Citations and quotation marks omitted.]
Further, when making a determination regarding a child’s best interest, a trial court is required to
state its factual findings and conclusions with regard to each relevant statutory best interest factor
listed in MCL 722.23. Rittershaus v Rittershaus, 273 Mich App 462, 472-475; 730 NW2d 262
(2007). If a trial court fails to make reviewable findings of fact, the proper remedy is a remand
for a new hearing. Id. at 475-476; Lombardo v Lombardo, 202 Mich App 151, 160; 507 NW2d
The trial court expressly stated that it did not believe that it had to address all the best
interest factors in this case because the custody modification pertained only to education. This is
not an unreasonable, or even necessarily incorrect, view: the modification at issue does not, as
discussed, change the child’s custodial environment, and some of the factors may not even be
relevant. Thus, the trial court was partially correct in holding that such a limited change as the
one at bar would not require exhaustive consideration of all factors or that all those factors are of
equal weight. However, in a child custody dispute, the “best interests of the child” is defined by
statute as including a consideration of all factors enumerated in MCL 722.23. The trial court
must at least make explicit factual findings with regard to the applicability of each factor.
This matter must be remanded to the trial court to afford the trial court the opportunity to
place on the record its findings regarding the best interest factors enumerated in MCL 722.23, or,
if necessary, a new hearing that may include consideration of up-to-date evidence. In the
interests of maintaining as stable an environment for the child as possible, the trial court’s
present order shall remain in effect until the trial court has the opportunity to issue a new order
based on the above analysis or hearing. We do not retain jurisdiction.
/s/ Henry William Saad
/s/ Alton T. Davis
/s/ Deborah A. Servitto