MAUREEN D TAYLOR V JACKIE CURRIEAnnotate this Case
STATE OF MICHIGAN
COURT OF APPEALS
MAUREEN D. TAYLOR,
October 25, 2007
JACKIE CURRIE and the DETROIT ELECTION
Wayne Circuit Court
LC No. 05-524513-AW
MAUREEN D. TAYLOR,
JACKIE CURRIE, DETROIT CITY CLERK, and
the DETROIT ELECTION COMMISSION,
Wayne Circuit Court
LC No. 05-524513-AW
Official Reported Version
Before: Smolenski, P.J., and Whitbeck, C.J., and Kelly, J.
In these consolidated appeals arising from an action for declaratory judgment, defendants
Jackie Currie and the Detroit Election Commission (hereafter defendants) appeal as of right
several trial court orders. In Docket Number 269684, defendants claim that the trial court (1)
erred when it permanently enjoined defendants from mailing unsolicited applications for absent
voter ballots to qualified voters, (2) improperly entered an order holding defendant Jackie Currie
in criminal contempt of court, and (3) lacked the authority to appoint monitors and coreceivers
over the November 2005 election proceedings. In Docket Number 271559, defendants contend
that the trial court erred in its determination that plaintiff was entitled to attorney fees associated
with Currie's contempt proceedings. We affirm the trial court's permanent injunction against the
mass mailing of unsolicited applications for absent voter ballots. We also affirm the trial court's
ruling that plaintiff was entitled to attorney fees, but we vacate the order awarding attorney fees
and remand for recalculation of the award.
I. FACTS AND PROCEDURAL HISTORY
2005 was a regularly scheduled election year in the city of Detroit's four-year cycle.
Currie, who was the Detroit City Clerk and a member of the Detroit Election Commission, was a
candidate for reelection. In prior election years, Currie authorized a mass mailing of absent
voter ballot applications to potential absentee voters. In addition to the application, Currie
enclosed a cover letter, signed by her and referring to herself as "the City Clerk and Chairperson
of the Election Commission."
Plaintiff Maureen D. Taylor, a candidate for the Detroit City Council, appeared on the
ballot for the August 2, 2005, primary, but she did not obtain enough votes to qualify for the
November 2005 general election. In August 2005, plaintiff sued Currie, the commission, and
defendant Marino Taylor (Marino), alleging multiple election improprieties.1 Plaintiff alleged
that Marino was a false candidate wrongfully certified by the commission to confuse voters and
dilute plaintiff 's votes. Plaintiff also alleged that Currie and the commission improperly mailed
approximately 150,000 applications for absent voter ballots. Plaintiff further claimed that the
elections staff failed to properly process the submitted absent voter ballots. Plaintiff asserted
that these irregularities prevented her from qualifying to appear on the general election ballot.
On August 26, 2005, plaintiff filed a motion for a preliminary injunction or temporary
restraining order to prevent defendants from mailing approximately 150,000 applications for
absent voter ballots, which were scheduled to be mailed on Monday, August 29, 2005. The trial
court determined that Currie, as the Detroit City Clerk, was statutorily precluded from sending
out unsolicited absent voter ballot applications. Accordingly, the trial court granted plaintiff 's
motion and enjoined "the City of Detroit from using a bulk mailing and from allowing the
unsolicited mailing of absentee voter ballot applications in the general election." The court gave
the parties until 2:00 p.m. on Tuesday, September 6, 2005, to submit an order.
In April 2006, the parties stipulated the dismissal of the claims against Marino. Marino did not
participate in this appeal.
After learning that the mailing had nonetheless occurred, plaintiff moved for an order to
show cause why defendants should not be held in contempt for violating the court's injunction.
Plaintiff also asked the trial court to appoint a receiver over the commission and order various
other forms of relief. In response to plaintiff 's motion, defendants argued that the court lacked
authority to appoint a receiver over the office of City Clerk and that plaintiff was not entitled to
the requested alternative forms of relief. Defendants argued that Michigan law provides
sufficient safeguards and remedies to redress the allegations. Defendants also argued that,
because the trial court never entered a written injunction prohibiting the mailing, there was no
order to enforce through contempt proceedings.2
On September 28, 2005, the court granted plaintiff 's request for a show cause hearing
and secured Currie's presence for a contempt proceeding. After taking evidence and testimony,
the trial court found that Currie had acted in contempt of the trial court's injunction against the
mailing. On the following day, the trial court conducted a hearing to determine a remedy for
Currie's contempt. The trial court ultimately fined Currie $250,3 ordered a proposed plan for
oversight of the November election by the Secretary of State and the Wayne County Clerk, and
ordered the appointment of two monitors to conduct an investigation into the circumstances
surrounding the mailing and review the handling of the absent voter ballots from the August
Defendants applied for leave to appeal this order on October 24, 2005. This Court
granted defendants' motion for immediate consideration and ordered:
As to the imposition of a $250 fine in the October 11, 2005, order of
criminal contempt, the Court orders that the application for leave to appeal is
DENIED for lack of merit in the grounds presented.
Pursuant to MCR 7.205(D)(2), in lieu of granting leave to appeal, the
Court VACATES the remainder of the October 11, 2005 order because the
contempt statute, MCL 600.1715, contains no authority for the additional
penalties imposed, and the plaintiff has not provided any additional law allowing
such penalties for criminal contempt. . . . Thus, to the extent that the penalties,
aside from the fine, are predicated on the contempt statute, MCL 600.1715, they
are null and void. The case is REMANDED to the circuit court for further
proceedings consistent with this order. [Taylor v Currie, unpublished order of the
Court of Appeals, entered October 28, 2005 (Docket No. 265982).]
In response to this order, plaintiff asked the trial court to enter a new temporary
restraining order compelling defendants to comply with the plan for supervision of the election
As a formality, the trial court signed a written preliminary injunction on October 3, 2005.
At that time, this was the maximum fine that could be imposed under MCL 600.1715(1). The
maximum fine has since been increased to $7,500. See 2006 PA 544.
process described in the order of October 11, 2005. On October 28, 2005, the trial court entered
a new temporary restraining order. The order enjoined defendants from "using clerks agents or
assistants, including Ambassadors or Building Managers, to contact voters or to provide voter
assistance unless first contacted by an individual voter." The order also barred the practice of
using building managers or third parties as clerk assistants for "the purpose of the delivery or
receipt of absentee ballot applications or absentee ballots." Additionally, the order imposed
several record-keeping requirements concerning persons who assist voters in voting by absent
On November 3, 2005, the trial court issued a preliminary injunction incorporating the
provisions of the temporary restraining order of October 28, 2005, and delineating the recordkeeping requirements for persons assisting voters with absent voter ballots. The order also
appointed the previously selected monitors to investigate the circumstances surrounding the
mass mailing, investigate the handling of absent voter ballots from the primary election, and
oversee compliance with the injunction.
On the following day, the trial court held an unscheduled hearing concerning "allegations
of violations of [the] preliminary injunction that was issued yesterday." After hearing testimony
by two witnesses concerning alleged election improprieties, the trial court concluded that there
was a violation of the temporary restraining order of October 28, 2005, and the preliminary
injunction entered on November 3, 2005. The trial court indicated that the violation required
remedial measures and agreed that the ambassador program should be suspended. In addition,
the court indicated that it would appoint coreceivers to supervise the absentee ballot portion of
the general election. On November 7, 2005, the trial court entered an order officially amending
the preliminary injunction to appoint coreceivers to oversee the absent voter ballot collection and
counting process during the November 8, 2005, general election.
On January 13, 2006, plaintiff moved for a final order adjudicating the rights of the
parties and imposing a permanent injunction against the mailing of unsolicited applications for
absent voter ballots. Plaintiff also requested an award of attorney fees incurred as a result of
defendants' contemptuous behavior. Because Currie was not reelected as city clerk, plaintiff
dropped all further requests for relief. On January 27, 2006, defendants responded by moving
for summary disposition. Defendants argued that because the election was now final and the
composition of the commission had changed, plaintiff 's requests for relief were mooted.
Defendants also argued that there was no authority supporting an award of attorney fees to
On February 17, 2006, the trial court conducted a hearing on plaintiff 's motion for a final
order and defendants' motion for summary disposition. At the close of the hearing, the trial court
indicated that it would issue a permanent injunction against the mailing of unsolicited
applications for absent voter ballots, but would dismiss all plaintiff 's remaining substantive
claims. The court also determined that plaintiff was entitled to an award of attorney fees under
On March 23, 2006, the trial court issued an opinion and order granting declaratory
relief, entering a permanent injunction, and granting in part defendants' motion for summary
disposition. On June 20, 2006, the trial court ordered defendants to pay a total of $91,063 in
costs and attorney fees to plaintiff. These appeals followed.
II. UNSOLICITED MAILINGS OF ABSENT VOTER BALLOT APPLICATIONS
Defendants first contend that the trial court erred when it ruled that MCL 168.759
prohibits city clerks from mailing unsolicited applications for absent voter ballots to prospective
voters and permanently enjoined this activity. We disagree.
This Court reviews a trial court's decision to grant injunctive relief for an abuse of
discretion. Kernen v Homestead Dev Co, 232 Mich App 503, 509-510; 591 NW2d 369 (1998).
An abuse of discretion occurs when a trial court's decision is not within the range of reasonable
and principled outcomes. Maldonado v Ford Motor Co, 476 Mich 372, 388; 719 NW2d 809
This issue also involves interpretation of MCL 168.759. We review issues of statutory
interpretation de novo. Hamilton v AAA Michigan, 248 Mich App 535, 540; 639 NW2d 837
(2001). "The primary goal of judicial interpretation of statutes is to ascertain and give effect to
the intent of the Legislature." Id. at 541. "The first criterion in determining legislative intent is
the specific language of the statute. . . . If the plain and ordinary meaning of the language is
clear, judicial construction is neither necessary nor permitted . . . ." Id. If the language is
ambiguous, this Court must strive to give effect to the intent of the Legislature by applying a
reasonable construction, considering the purpose of the statute and the object it seeks to
accomplish. Macomb Co Prosecutor v Murphy, 464 Mich 149, 158; 627 NW2d 247 (2001).
MCL 168.759(5) provides, in relevant part, that "[t]he clerk of the city, township, or
village shall have absent voter ballot application forms available in the office of the clerk at all
times and shall furnish an absent voter ballot application form to anyone upon a verbal or written
request." This subsection clearly addresses the distribution of applications for absent voter
ballots. Under a plain reading, this subsection establishes two duties for city clerks. First, the
clerk must have applications for absent voter ballots available in the clerk's office at all times.
Second, the clerk "shall" provide an application to anyone upon verbal or written request.
"'The general rule, with regard to municipal officers, is that they have only such powers
as are expressly granted by statute or by sovereign authority or those which are necessarily to be
implied from those granted.'" Presnell v Wayne [Co] Bd of Co Rd Comm'rs, 105 Mich App 362,
368; 306 NW2d 516 (1981), quoting 56 Am Jur 2d, Municipal Corporations, Counties, and
Other Political Subdivisions, § 276, p 327. Or as our Supreme Court has stated, "[t]he extent of
the authority of the people's public agents is measured by the statute from which they derive their
authority, not by their own acts and assumption of authority." Sittler v Michigan College of
Mining & Tech Bd of Control, 333 Mich 681, 687; 53 NW2d 681 (1952) (citations and
punctuation omitted). As such, "[p]ublic officers have and can exercise only such powers as are
conferred on them by law. . . ." Id. (citations and punctuation omitted).
Applying this rule to MCL 168.759, it is clear that the city clerk has no powers
concerning the distribution of ballot applications other than those that are expressly granted in
the statute. And the power to mail unsolicited ballot applications to qualified voters is not
expressly stated anywhere in this statute. Nor have appellants cited any other statute that confers
this power on the city clerk.
As for whether the mass mailing of unsolicited ballot applications is implicitly authorized
by statute, we conclude that it is not. First, a power is necessarily implied if it is essential to the
exercise of authority that is expressly granted. Conlin v Scio Twp, 262 Mich App 379, 385; 686
NW2d 16 (2004). The authority expressly granted in MCL 168.759(5) is that the clerk must
have applications for absent voter ballots available in the clerk's office at all times and that the
clerk "shall" provide an application to anyone upon verbal or written request. The mass mailing
of unsolicited ballot applications is not essential to the clerk's either making ballot applications
available in the clerk's office or to providing them upon request. Second, on the basis of the
maxim expressio unius est exclusio alterius, (the expression of one thing is the exclusion of
another), Feld v Robert & Charles Beauty Salon, 435 Mich 352, 362; 459 NW2d 279 (1990)
(opinion by RILEY, C.J.), we read the statute to preclude mass mailings when it specifically states
that the clerk shall provide the applications upon written or verbal request. "[W]hen a statute
limits a thing to be done in a particular mode, it includes a negative of any other mode."
Christensen v Harris Co, 529 US 576, 583; 120 S Ct 1655; 146 L Ed 2d 621 (2000) (citation and
punctuation omitted). Accordingly, we conclude that MCL 168.759(5) does not implicitly
permit the city clerk to mail absent voter ballot applications without having received a verbal or
This interpretation of MCL 168.759 is consistent with the sound public policy behind
Michigan's election law, which, as stated in the preamble, was enacted, in part, "to provide for
the purity of elections; to guard against the abuse of the elective franchise."4 This is in keeping
with the Michigan Constitution, which provides that "[t]he legislature shall enact laws to
preserve the purity of elections . . . ." Const 1963, art 2, § 4. The Michigan Supreme Court has
interpreted the "purity of elections" clause to embody two concepts: "first, that the constitutional
authority to enact laws to preserve the purity of elections resides in the Legislature; and second,
'that any law enacted by the Legislature which adversely affects the purity of elections is
constitutionally infirm.' " Socialist Workers Party v Secretary of State, 412 Mich 571, 596; 317
NW2d 1 (1982), quoting Wells v Kent Co Bd of Election Comm'rs, 382 Mich 112, 123; 168
NW2d 222 (1969). The phrase "purity of elections" "requires . . . fairness and evenhandedness
in the election laws of this state." Socialist Workers Party, supra at 598.
The city clerk, who is an elected official, has the role of neutral arbiter or referee. As a
requirement of that office, the city clerk must take and subscribe an oath or affirmation stating:
I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the
United States and the constitution of this state, and that I will faithfully discharge
A preamble is not binding authority for construing an act, but this Court has recognized that a
preamble can be useful for interpreting statutory purpose and scope. King v Ford Motor Credit
Co, 257 Mich App 303, 311-312; 668 NW2d 357 (2003).
the duties of the office of [city clerk] according to the best of my ability. [Const
1963, art 11, § 1.]
To construe MCL 168.759 to permit Currie to distribute, in her official capacity, what amounts
to propaganda at the city's expense is certainly not within the scope of Michigan election laws or
the Michigan Constitution. MCL 168.759(5) does not permit a city clerk to mail absent voter
ballot applications without having received a verbal or written request. Accordingly, we
conclude that the trial court did not err in granting injunctive relief on this basis.
III. CRIMINAL CONTEMPT
Defendants next argue that Currie's conviction of criminal contempt must be reversed
because there was insufficient evidence that she acted in contempt of an enforceable order of the
court and because she was not provided with various safeguards required by due process.
Currie was convicted of criminal contempt after a hearing held on September 28, 2005.
The trial court entered the order finding Currie in criminal contempt and sentencing her to pay a
fine of $250 on October 11, 2005. Because it was a criminal conviction, Currie was entitled to
an appeal as of right from the October 11, 2005, order and sentence. However, rather than
appeal her conviction and sentence as of right, Currie filed an application for leave to appeal in
this Court on October 24, 2005. On October 28, 2005, this Court denied in part leave to appeal
the October 11, 2005, order of criminal contempt. In lieu of granting leave to appeal her
sentence, this Court vacated a portion of Currie's sentence and remanded the matter for further
proceedings. Although this Court remanded the matter, it is clear from the order that this Court
denied leave to appeal on the substantive portions of Currie's appeal regarding her conviction of
criminal contempt for lack of merit. "In a criminal case, the defendant may not file an
application for leave to appeal from a judgment of conviction and sentence if the defendant has
previously taken an appeal from that judgment by right or leave granted or has sought leave to
appeal that was denied." MCR 7.205(F)(2). Because Currie has already taken an appeal, she is
not entitled to another.5
IV. THE TRIAL COURT'S APPOINTMENT OF MONITORS AND RECEIVERS
Defendants next argue that the trial court was without authority to appoint monitors and
receivers for the November 2005 election proceedings. As a result of defendants' failure to
comply with the trial court's injunctions, the trial court appointed special monitors to investigate
certain conduct and eventually appointed receivers to oversee the collection and processing of
absent voter ballots during the November 2005 election. However, because the monitors
completed their investigation and the receivers completed their oversight responsibilities before
this appeal, even if this Court were to conclude that the trial court exceeded its authority, it
Once this Court denied leave in part for lack of merit, Currie had to either move for
reconsideration of this Court's order, MCR 7.215(I), or file an application for leave to appeal in
our Supreme Court, MCR 7.302.
would not be able to remedy the error. Therefore, these issues are moot. In re Contempt of
Dudzinski, 257 Mich App 96, 112; 667 NW2d 68 (2003). And although there is a possibility that
future litigants will again dispute the extent of a trial court's power to fashion equitable remedies
for contempt and to appoint receivers, there is no indication that this issue will likely evade this
Court's review. Federated Publications, Inc v City of Lansing, 467 Mich 98, 112; 649 NW2d
383 (2002), clarified in part on other grounds in Herald Co, Inc v Eastern Michigan Univ Bd of
Regents, 475 Mich 463, 470-472; 719 NW2d 19 (2006). Therefore, we decline to address these
claims of error.
V. ATTORNEY FEES
We next address defendants' arguments concerning the trial court's award of attorney fees
A. STANDARD OF REVIEW
"The decision to award attorney fees, and the determination of the reasonableness of the
fees requested, is within the discretion of the trial court." Windemere Commons I Ass'n v
O'Brien, 269 Mich App 681, 682; 713 NW2d 814 (2006). If the trial court's decision results in
an outcome within the range of principled outcomes, it has not abused its discretion.
Maldonado, supra at 388. Any findings of fact on which the trial court bases an award of
attorney fees are reviewed for clear error. Solution Source, Inc v LPR Assoc Ltd Partnership,
252 Mich App 368, 381; 652 NW2d 474 (2002).
B. AUTHORIZATION OF ATTORNEY FEES FOR CRIMINAL CONTEMPT
Defendants first argue that MCL 600.1721 does not authorize a trial court to order an
award of attorney fees as a remedy for criminal contempt. We disagree. MCL 600.1721
provides that, "[i]f the alleged misconduct has caused an actual loss or injury to any person the
court shall order the defendant to pay such person a sufficient sum to indemnify him, in addition
to the other penalties which are imposed upon the defendant." Thus, under a plain reading of
MCL 600.1721, a court must order a person found to be in contempt of court to indemnify any
person who suffers an actual loss or injury as a result of the contemnor's misconduct. See In re
Contempt of Rochlin, 186 Mich App 639, 650; 465 NW2d 388 (1990). The sum required by
MCL 600.1721 "may include attorney fees that occurred as a result of the other party's
contemptuous conduct." Homestead Dev Co v Holly Twp, 178 Mich App 239, 246; 443 NW2d
Because MCL 600.1721 does not make a distinction between civil and criminal
contempt, but rather requires a trial court to order a contemnor to indemnify any person who
suffers an "actual loss or injury" caused by the contemnor's "misconduct," we hold that the
indemnification sanction mandated by MCL 600.1721 applies even when a trial court imposes a
punitive (i.e., criminal) sanction on a contemnor. The trial court did not err when it ordered
defendants to indemnify plaintiff for the losses she actually suffered as a result of defendants'
C. EVIDENTIARY HEARING AND FINDINGS
Defendants next argue that the trial court failed to hold an evidentiary hearing on the
reasonableness of the award of attorney fees to plaintiff and failed to make findings with the
necessary specificity. We disagree.
In its opinion of May 18, 2006, the trial court found that "Currie's contemptuous behavior
led to extended proceedings and directly led to the appointment of monitors and ultimately a
receiver." Further, the court specifically referred to the contempt arising out of the mailing,
rather than the separate contempt arising out of the improper use of ambassadors. On the basis
of these findings, the trial court concluded that all the costs and attorney fees incurred by
plaintiff that were "connected with those proceedings, including work relating to appellate
proceedings, would be recoverable." The court also determined that the costs of investigating
the contempt were recoverable. The court then made findings regarding the amount of fees that
were incurred as a result of the contempt.
Although defendants challenged the reasonableness of plaintiff 's attorney fees, they did
not request a separate evidentiary hearing on the fees. Furthermore, defendants were afforded
ample opportunity to contest the reasonableness of the fees at the hearing on plaintiff 's renewed
motion for attorney fees held on March 31, 2006. Indeed, the trial court accepted an exhibit
from defendants on the reasonableness of the $375 hourly rate. Additionally, the trial court had
the benefit of two separate briefings by the parties on the issue of attorney fees, which included
detailed billings. On the basis of the hearing and the briefings, the trial court made general
findings concerning the various expenses that were caused by defendants' contemptuous conduct.
These findings sufficiently addressed the reasonableness of the fees. Maple Hill Apt Co v Stine
(On Remand), 147 Mich App 687, 693; 382 NW2d 849 (1985). Therefore, defendants'
arguments that the trial court's findings were insufficient and that the trial court erred when it
failed to hold an evidentiary hearing on the reasonableness of the fees are without merit.
D. ATTORNEY FEES UNRELATED TO THE CONTEMPT
Defendants also argue that the appointment of a receiver and monitors "did not flow from
the criminal contempt order issued against Jackie Currie." For this reason, defendants contend,
the attorney fees plaintiff incurred as a result of those proceedings are not compensable under
MCL 600.1721. We agree.
Under MCL 600.1721, the trial court must order a contemnor to indemnify any person
who suffers a loss as a result of the contemnor's misconduct. Hence, if Currie's misconduct led
to plaintiff 's incurring attorney fees, whether those fees were related to the prosecution of the
contempt, the investigation of the contempt, or to fashioning a remedy for the contempt, the trial
court was required to order defendants to indemnify those fees. Because the formulation of a
plan for election oversight and the initial appointment of the monitors was a direct result of the
illicit mailing, the trial court did not clearly err in determining that the costs plaintiff incurred in
association with the plan and the appointment of the monitors were caused by defendants'
contemptuous conduct. However, plaintiff 's request for an injunction against the use of
ambassadors was primarily based on plaintiff 's case-in-chief and was only tenuously connected
to the contempt arising out of the mass mailing. Likewise, the violation of the injunction
applicable to the ambassadors and the subsequent appointment of receivers were not causally
connected to the earlier contempt. Therefore, the trial court clearly erred in finding that the
proceedings involving the injunction applicable to the ambassadors were directly related to
defendants' contempt in sending the mass mailing.6 Accordingly, we vacate the award of
attorney fees to the extent that the award included fees not directly related to defendants' making
of the mass mailing in violation of the court's order and remand for recalculation of the award.
E. HOURLY RATE
Finally, defendants contend that the trial court abused its discretion when it determined
that $375 an hour was a reasonable rate. We disagree.
The factors to be considered in determining the reasonableness of the award include:
"(1) the professional standing and experience of the attorney; (2) the
skill, time and labor involved; (3) the amount in question and the results
achieved; (4) the difficulty of the case; (5) the expenses incurred; and (6) the
nature and length of the professional relationship with the client." [Wood v
Detroit Automobile Inter-Ins Exchange, 413 Mich 573, 588; 321 NW2d 653
(1982) (citation omitted).]
At the hearing held on March 31, 2006, the trial court determined that the $375 an hour
fee was reasonable. Indeed, the court stated that plaintiff 's attorneys were of the "caliber" of top
equity partners from the top firms in Detroit. Further, the court explained that it was familiar
with the rates charged by Detroit attorneys of plaintiff 's attorneys' experience and expertise and
concluded that $375 an hour was very reasonable. In addition, the court noted that at "a certain
point in time," the attorneys were providing "around the clock legal services" to plaintiff and had
to be at the court's dispatch on very short notice. The trial court properly considered the
expertise of the attorneys, the going rate for their services in the locality, as well as the time and
labor involved in the litigation. In contrast, defendants claimed that the rate was unreasonable
because a 2003 article indicated that the median billing rate for all private practitioners in the
state of Michigan was $170 an hour. Although the trial court considered the article, it rejected it
as outdated and inaccurate. Because the trial court based its decision on appropriate
considerations and selected a rate that was within the range of reasonable and principled
outcomes, it did not abuse its discretion. Windemere, supra at 682.
We affirm the trial court's permanent injunction against the mass mailing of unsolicited
applications for absent voter ballots. We also affirm the trial court's ruling that plaintiff was
entitled to attorney fees, but vacate the order awarding attorney fees and remand for
recalculation of the award in accordance with this opinion. We do not retain jurisdiction.
We express no opinion regarding whether and to what extent the trial court could have
separately awarded plaintiff attorney fees based on the violation of the injunction barring the use
WHITBECK, C.J., concurred.
/s/ William C. Whitbeck
/s/ Kirsten Frank Kelly