Riddick v. Department of Corrections et al, No. 7:2017cv00268 - Document 19 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Senior United States District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 12/26/2017. (tvt)
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CL S OFFI U. - ST. ERK' CE S DI COURT AT ROANOKE, VA FIED L 4. . 07 2E2 2C 2 1 ' I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR TH E W ESTERN DI STRI OF W RGI A CT NI ROANOKE DI SI VI ON STEVEN RI CK, DDI - J U BY; u D DEPUTY CL ERK CASE NO.7: 7CV00 8 1 26 Pl ntf , ai if M EM OR ANDUM OPN ON V. DEPM W M ENT O F CORRECTI ONS, By: H on.G l n E.C onr e ad Se or U ni e St e D i t i Judg ni t d at s s r ct e c K , Dee f ndant . s St ve Ri ck,aVigi ai a epr ee ng pr K ,fl t scvi rgh sa ton ptr ua e n ddi r ni nm t oc di o ed hi i l i t c i ls nt t 42U. C.j 1 alegi muliu no vi ai ofhi co tmtona rg s Upo rviw o S. 983, l ng ttdi us oltons s nsi i l iht. n e e of t r c d,t c tc ude t tRi c s i ta compl nt i s f t l a l ly he e or he our oncl s ha ddik' nii l ai s o acualy nd egal d f e tt a t e a to mu tbe s mmaiy ds se wi u p eu ie f rfit e t sae a ekin h t h cin s u rl imis d t t rj d c o alr o tt ho l c am . li 1 . Rid c ,n w i ac rtd a Re Ono S aeP io (Re On o ',s b te h s1 6 d ik o nc re ae t d in tt rs n R d in' u mitd i 2 ) p g j 1 8 c mpliti J n 201 . I t a pla ig h na s5 d fn a t a d c mpan a e 9 3 o an n u e 7 n h t e dn , e me 6 ee d ns n o lis a bout varous i i nt and f sr tons he ha e re e a Re Oni or ot r Vigila i ncde s nzta i s xpe inc d t d on he r zi De a t n o Cor cin (E p rme t f re to s E VDOC' p io fcl issn e2 0 ' rs n a ite ic 0 7.Ri dc h sge ty so d ) i d ik a r al lwe t c ts s r e ng ofhi c am sby flng ei motons s e ng t n nd t aci n t a he our' c e ni s li i ght i e ki o me he to o dd c am s a nnme mor de e nt . As r le ,Ri c wa s t r c r mone a y dn a s t l i nd e f nda s e if ddi k nt o e ove t r m ge ; o Riddick v. Department of Corrections et al Doc. 19 ha t m one f om hi i a e s vi ac ot t tans e r d t hi s nd ac ot t t be ve he y r s nm t a ngs c m r f r e o s pe c m ; o ta fre 'o S s x 1o 1 S ae P io ç o (e c n g tp o rme ia c r a dme ii f r rnser dt use r 1 tt rs n G h ) a e r pe d c l ae n dcne o s gilHS ifcin'a t la es ge ainwih u pM ii tngi ap o rm.(d a 3) hs VI n e to ' nd o e v e r g to to t cpai n r g a I . t . ; Dockets.Justia.com E 1. l As an i ta c niil once n,Ri c s pl di de t Fe r Ruls of Ci lPr ed e r ddik' ea ng fes he de al e vi oc ur g v mi j id ro camsa d d fn a t i asn l cv la to e Fe .R.Ci P.1 a d o e ng on e f li n ee d ns n ige ii cin.S e d v. 8 n 2 . Ru e 1 ()alws a p an ift b i g mutp e cams r ltd o u r ltd i a lws i 0 l 8a l o litf o rn lil li , eae r n eae , n a ut a an tasn l d f n a t Ont eoh rh nd Ru e20alwst j id ro s v r ld fn n s g i s ige ee d n . h te a , l l o he on e f e e a ee da t i o ecv l cin o l i t ecamsR ro e o to t s meta s cino o c re c , rsre n n ii a to ny f h li a g s q u f he n r n a to r c u r n e o eis oftans to orocc r nce 'a conti atq si ofl w o f c c r aci ns ure s' nd a n tue ton a r a t omm on t al def nda s' o 1 e nt . ' Fe .R.Ci.P.20a ( )A)a d ( . Un e t e e r ls i p an ifma n memo et a o d v ()2 ( n B) d r h s ue , û litf y n a r h n ne de e nti a muli e cai lws to v i t cai ag ns al def nda s a os outoft f nda n tpl l m a us nl f he l ms ai t l e nt r e he s me i i ntori i nt a i ve a c a ncde ncde s nd nvol omm o f c u lorlgalq si n. Gr e v.De nc, n ata e ue to ' e n ' nni No 0 -29 ,20 9 W L 48 4 7,a * ( Ka F b 26 2 0 ) (mp a i a d d . 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PLRA r titonson prs rfl cvi a tonsi l f l tgai or t & ' ) esrci ione -ied i l ci ncude:' l u e usi ofa a bl ad i sr tve r m e e be or brngi a f de a l ws t fl1pa e xha ton vaia e m nita i e di s f e i ng e r l a ui; t1 ym nt l l S ePr d nv S - mDHilNo 3CV-70 0 , 0 7WL 1 9 5 3 a + ( . . . y21 2 7 e u e . 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C.j1 9 e a. l n rs e a td PLIA wih t e p i cp l S. j 91 , 91 A; 2 S. 9 7 () G g e s n ce co I t h rn ia pur e of de e ng fi ous prs pos t ni rvol ioner ltga i by i tt i ec ii ton nsiutng onomi c t f pds r c oss or one s wihigt fl cvl li . Lv nv. o,1 7F.d7 3 7 4(t Ci.1 9 ) Slc c mpinc s n o ie iicams' o Krl 2 3 6 , 6 81 r 9 7 . t t o la e ' ( i wi fd r l on e r lst rve t p io e sfo ço gng te fe o lg to a d ç -tie ' t e ea j i d r ue t e n s rs n r r m d d i ' h e bi ain n 3 srk s h p pr so oft PL1A . Gr e 2009W L 484457, t*2.Ast c tnot i Gr e ovii n he l ' e n, ' a he our ed n e n: To pe m i pl i if t pr e d i t s s ngl a ton on t r l t c a m s a i t r t a ntf o oc e n hi i e c i m e a ed l i ga ns dif r ntde e nt t ts d be ltga e i s pa a eaci nt)woul a l hi fe e f nda s ha houl ii t d n e r t to s d low m t a odg yn tefln fe rq ie frspaaeato ,a dc udas alw o v i a ig h iig es e urd o e rt cins n o l lo l o hi t clc m o r umve t t e srke pr son f a ne a unr l t cl m s nt he hr e ti s ovii or ny w nd e aed ai ta mi h b f u dt b G tie' nd r2 U. C. 1 5g . h t g t e o n o ù t rk 'u e 8 S. j 91 () j I a *3. d. t Thus t a l Ri c t e s ntal pac ge mml lws t i o o co pl i wo d , o low ddik o s e i ly ka y a uis nt ne m ant ul r r ddi k unde c t PLRA' t1e - ti spr son a isflng f e r quie ntz M o eove , Ri c r ut he s lr e srke ovi i nd t i e e r me . a is i hi co pl ntt t as t m a of hi alegai ns he d d notexha tadmilsr tve dm t n s m ai ha o ny s l to , i us ritai r m e esas r quie be o e flng hi lws t Se Ros v.Blke U . e di e r d f r ii s a ui. e s a , S. - - , 1 S.Ct 1 36 . 850, 1 5 ( 01 )( o dn t a t e 4 U. C.j 1 9 ea ,e h u to o a albl a miitai 8 6 2 6 h l ig h t md r 2 S. 9 7 () x a sin f v i e d n sr t a ve rme esbef e flng i f dea c ti G ndaor ) Bec us Ri ck' c ant e n e di or ii n e rl our s l ma t f'. a e ddi s ompli , ve 2 Se. . . r d n 2 0 WL 1 9 5 3a * (oigta Ginb igp r te t c mbiei o ec mpan e ea.P u e , 0 7 4 0 7 t 2 n tn h ttl en emitd o o n n n o lit l sv r lspaae id p n e tcams Plitf i a l t cru e tte tl g fe rq ie ns o tePLRA'; e ea e rt, n e e d n li , an if s be o ic mv n h ii e e urme t f h n ' ) Patn v.J fes n Co rcin lCe tr 1 6 F.d 45 ,4 4 (t Ci.1 9 )(ic u a ig çraiej n e o to efro re to a ne, 3 3 8 6 5h r 9 8 dsè rgn ç etv oid r f c a t n 'b p io esatmpigt cru e th P ci s' y rs n r te tn o ic mv n te LRA' tresrk sp o iin . o S he -tie r vso ) 3 lb r l c nsr e , fis t sae cams s r i ig t rq ie s re n t e j 1 5 ieal o tu d al o tt li u vvn he e u rd ce nig md r 91 A, y ho ve , he c twildimi st a ton unde t tpr son. we r t our l s s he c i r ha ovii 11 1. The co t i r quie t dimis a a ton or cai fl by a prs r a i t a ur s e r d o s s ny c i l m ied ione gans gover nt le iy orof e i t c tde e mi st ac i orc am i fi ous m a ii us nme a ntt fc r f he our t r ne he ton l i s rvol , lc o , o f ist saeacam o wlc r le ma b ga td. 2 U. C.j 1 5 b ( ) To saea r al o tt li n l h eif y e rn e 8 S. i 91 A( )1 . tt cli û c a m, t ompl i mus c an s fcintf cualm a tr a ce ed astue t tt t a cai of a ant t ont i ufi e a t te , c pt r , o sae l m r le t a i plu il o isfc .' As c o tv I b l 5 6U. 6 2 6 ( 0 9 ( u tn Bel eif h t s a sb e n t a e' h r f . q a, 5 S. 6 , 78 2 0 ) q o ig l ' At. p . . mbl,5 0U. 5 4 5 0( 0 7 ) M eeçe a c ncuso 'a d çth e d r l Co v Two v 5 S. 4 , 7 2 0 ). r t g l o l ins' n t j ra bae l l r ias oft elm e s o a c us o aci n,s ect l he e nt f a e f to uppo td by m e e c l or sa e e s'a e not re r oncus y t t m nt' r f ma algai a ne no bea e e astue. Lus lWhiel lc l i c n pr vi ac l le tons nd ed t cc ptd r d û l ega oncusons a o de - t fa wor ofac ai ,t ymus bes he rme k ompl nt he t uppore byf t lalgai . J-a 679.Ont td acua le tons' #, t ' he ot rhand,t c tm a dim is as fi o a c am bas on K n i s a y m e l s he he our y s s rvol us ny l i ed t ndiputbl a dtes l lt ol ' Rcai ofi dnge ntofa lgali e es whih c e ry doesnote s , orcai s ega he y ' l ms nf me e ntr t c l a l xit' ' lm whe e t çf c ta c ento a e c e dy bas es . Net ke v.W iln s 490 U. 31 327 r he ça tz l ont i ns r l a el s' ' iz li m , S. 9, ( 98 ) 1 9. A . Ti e ba r d Cl m s m - r e ai Se ton '983 pe misa a ive pa t t fl a cvi a ton agans a pe s f a tons ci 1 r t n ggre d ry o e i l c i i t r on or c i t n unde c orofsa e1 w t tvi l t d hi co tt i rght . Se Coope v.She ha 735 ake r ol t t a ha o a e s nsiutonal i s e r e n, F. 15 1 (t Ci.201 . No f dealsaut oflmiai a is i j1 3 a tons 3d 3, 58 4h r 3) e r tt e i ttons pple n 98 ci . Ac or ngl s a tons a e gove c di y, uch c i r nwd by t sa e sa u e oflmia i a i a e f r ge r l he t t tt t i t tons pplc bl o ne a pes n lij r c s si tesaewh r t alg d c n t in lvo ai n o c re . Owe v ro a n u y a e n h tt e e he le e o si o a ilto s c u r d mt ns . Okle 48 U. 2 5 2 9 4 ( 9 9 .Vigia ssauefrg nea, ro lij r cams Va t , 8 S. 3 , 3 - 0 1 8 ) r i ' ttt o e r lpes na nu y li , . r 4 Co e An j8012 3 a,r q rst ts c camsbeb o g twihn t y a sfo t tme d n. . - 4 () e uie ha u h li r u h t i wo e r r m he i whe t acin a c e . A cai underj1 a r eswhe t pl n ifposese s fce n he to c nls lm 983 cc u n he aitf s ss ufiint f c sa a t boutt ha m do t hi t tr as bl i r wilr ve hi c e o aci n. N a i he r ne o m ha e ona e nquiy l e al s aus f to sm v. ad m M d. u eo Co rcin 6 F.d9 , 5 ( t Ci.1 9 )(nb nc. W re Ho s f re to , 4 3 51 9 5 4h r 9 5 e a ) M a ofRi c s c am s c ny ddik' l i once n e nt t toc r e m o e t n t ye r be or he r ve s ha cu r d r ha wo a s f e fl hi co pl nti J 201 and,as s h,a e fld o sde t sa t or pe i t r Va. ied s m ai n une 7 uc r ie ut i he t tz y rod mde t Co An j8012 3 a .I a d to ma y oh ru d tdcamsma welh v a c u db f r de n. . - 4 () n d iin, n te n ae li y l a e cr e eoe Jme 201 a be tm e ba r t 5 nd i - red. W he e t a i bl sa u e of lm ia i pr de a r he pplca e t t t i ttons ovi s n a fr tve de e et a cai t c tmay s f ma i f ns o l m, he our ummarl dim ist tcai a fi ous pur ua t iy s s ha l m s rvol , s n t j1 1 A( )1. I a 9 6 (fi i d src c u t s mma yd s sa o tmeb re cam o 9 5 b ( ) d. t 5 a fnnng itit o r' u r imis l f i - ar d li s a fio o su e p irj 1 5 d) To d v Ba k r il, 2F. 7 , 4( t Ci. 98 )(i ig s rv l u nd r ro 91 ( ); d . s e vl 71 2d 0 7 4h r 1 3 fndn e l unde f me veson of j1 5 t tc tmay sl iy dimisasfi ousa cam cla l r or r ri 91 ha our lmmarl s s rvol li e ry ba rdby a plc bl saut oflmiai orot rafr tvedee e . re p ia e tt e i ttons he fimai fns) B. I ope Def nda sand La ofPe s mpr r e nt ck ronalI ve t nvol men 5 u Gsl ih ra Saeno i o fcasa tn i t ero fca c p cte ae Ee s n ' d rj t et e tt r t fiil cig n h i fiil a a iis r p ro s un e g s 1 9837'a tls sme nze a ist K r me a e tte t tae co i rd lr oft nd li) n l pple o û n ntl niis ha r nsdee ams he gove S ae' W ilv M ihg n De to S aePoie 4 U. 5 ,7 , ( 98 ) So o Ridc s tt.' l . c ia p' f tt lc , 91 S. 8 0 71 1 9 . me f d ik' ' a tmptd c am sf i unde t sprncpl te e l i a l r hi i i e.Bec us t VDOC i pr pe l c i e a a m of a e he s o ry onsder d n r teCo n at o Vign a t i e tt i n ts b e tt s i t e j 1 8 . Ote d fn n s h mmo we 1h f r ii, hs n iy s o u j c o ut md r 9 3 h r ee da t Ri c ha nn e a e g oups of peo e, r t r t n i vi l pe s : Re Oni St f , ddi k s m d r r pl a he ha ndi dua r ons d on a f M e c St f a M edialDe . Bec us t s de e dial af, nd c pt a e he e f ndan s a t VDOC a e nott r ons' t nd he r l s ' pe whoc bes dunde j 1 t c tmus dimisRi c satmptd camsagans t m an ue r 983, he our t s s ddik' te e li i t he 5 t e j 1 5 a lg l fioo .Th c u t s as ds s a f oo scamsa an ta y md r 91 A s e al rv lus e o r mu t lo imis s dv lu li g is n y ot rde e nti hi orherox cilc pact 1 a 71. he f nda n s a a iy. d. t M a m o e of m ddi k' c am s agans i vi ua prs of i s i t r i vi ua ny r c s li i t ndi d l ion scal n hei ndi d l ca ctesa e f c ual fi o ,be us li c f ist al ge s cii a tons t rake by pa ii r a t ly rvol us ca e tddi k a l o le pe fc c i mde t n t e i vi l i vi a i o hi c tt tonalrg s Coo r 735 U. a 158.I e m a hes ndi dua s n olton f s onsiu i i ht . pe , S. t nde d, ny ofli co pl nt a ls m ai s boutpds lf a e notf tz l lnke t any i vi on ie r ac t y i d o al ndi dualoo c a i a wa i l n ny y. Abs n alegai nsofpe s li ve ntby a de enda , ddik ha f ie t sat a tona e e t l to r ona nvol me f nt Ri c s a ld o t e c i bl j 1 8 camsa an tt tp r o Se Vin d ev.Gibs 5 0F.d 9 6 9 ( t Ci.1 7 ) 9 3 li g is ha e s n. e n e g b , 5 2 2 , 28 4h r 9 7 ' (i ngt tGla lt wilonl 1ewhee'ti afr tvey s fndi ha çibiiy l y i r i s fimai l hownt tt ofiilchageda td ha he fca r ce p ro al i t e d p i to o t eplitf çlrg t' (n en lq o ain mak a d ctto e s n ly n h e rvain f h anit s ih s' itr a u tto r s n iain l ) o te ) Ridc as c n o hod a y d fn a t la l u d r j1 8 b s d meey o t er mitd . d ik lo a n t l n e e d n s ib e n e 9 3 a e rl n h i s pe v s y posto or t i alege y t a if t y r pons s t hi i t c u r ior ii ns her l dl ms tsacor es e o s nma e ompl n s ait , g iv n e ,a d a p as a h atmpt t d) JZ ( dn d crn o r s nd a s p ro re a c s n p e l, s e te s o ( .. fn ig o tie f epo e t u e ir . I J i p ia l t e ' 1 8 ) Br o s v. Be r , 1 7 na plc b e md r j 9 3 ; o k ad 6 Ap ' 9 3 9 5 ( d Ci. 2 0 ) px 2 , 2 3 r 0 6 ( h u ls d (i ig o fcas alg dy ia p o raer s o e t g iv n e i u fce tt' u p bihe ) fndn fiil' l e l n p r p it e p ns s o re a c s ns fiin o e e tbl hiv l e n i u d ryngalg dd p i ain . sa i n o v me tn n e li l e e rv to ) s e As t s me of hi cams Ri c doe me i i vi t ofkil' nn s a o o s li , ddik s nton ndi dua t as me nd, oc sona l s e f c s a ca i ly, om a t bout t i aci ns Be a e Ri c f is t alege i nec s a y her to . c us ddik a l o l he e s r e e nt t s w a c tt i na vi l ton by a i vi lde e nt howe r hi ca ms l me s o ho ny onsim o l o a i ny ndi dua f nda , ve , s li mus bedimis dunde j 1 5A. t s se r 91 C . St p D ow n Pr r m e og a Ri c compl ns a l ngt a utVDOC polcesgove i a nita i s gr ga i ddik ai t e h bo ii m ng dmi sr tve e e ton a Red Oni pa tc a l t Stp Down Pr a t t s t out c ie i i a e m us m e t t t on, ri ulry he e ogr m ha e s rt r a nm t s t e o . 6 e m a tonalprviege a m ove t ls r srci ho i a sgnm e s Ri ck c e a ddii i l s nd o e s e ti tve usng s i nt. ddi ont nds t t c ii i s gr to a e s ha s a t vi a e t Ei h Am e e ts pr hi ton ha ondtons n e egai n r o r h s o olt he ght ndm n ' o bii a ns c t l a t us puni bm e . H e a s a gue t t s ver l of i i s ha vi a e li gai t rl nd m ual e s nt l o r s ha e a f c al ve ol t d ls f de a d pr s rght by usng t polc t pr ve hi fom pr e sng i t St p Down e r l ue oce s i s i he i y o e nt m r ogr s i n he e Pr n a outofs gr to or by f lng t f l va i VDOC polc pr vii . He ogrm nd e egai n aii o olow rous i y o sons c am st tofi i l ha r peaedl f ie t sa e s ii r as f r omm e ng a i tli l i ha fc as ve e t y a ld o tt pecfc e ons or ec ndi gans ls ) . a dvanc m e t a se wih mor prviege orha a oved t i own r omm e tons i e nt o t p t e i l s ve ppr her ec nda i , n vi ai n ofpolcy. ol to i Th sc u t a s u r l rj ce smi rc n t i n lc le g st t eS e Do poiy i o r h s q aey ee td i l o si o a haln e o h tp wn lc a mt a isi e nt ton. Spe ii aly, he c thasf t t tt polc doesnotti erf de a nd t mpl me a i c fc l t our o md ha he i y rgg e r l pr e al pr t to f i t dtrng t Stp Down Pr a ' va oc dur o eci ns or nma es li he e ogr m s dous cls ik ai n a st to r viw sand t t c ndii e re d by s gr ga i i t s perpolc do notvi ae t e e ha o tons xpe ince e e ton nma e , iy, ol t he Ei ht Ame e . Se De ol v.Vi i a De t of Cor No.7: 4CV00692,201 W L g h ndm nt e pa a m ni p' n, 1 6 5 5 0 ( . Va Se t 28 201 )(o s J) Ob ti - lh v.Vign aDe to Co , . 41 9 3 W D. . p . , 6 J ne , .; aayeAla r ii p' f m No 7 1 CV0 2 0 2 6 W L 5 5 0 ,a *1( . Va S p .2 ,2 6 (o s J) afd s b n m. :5 0 3 , 01 41 9 6 t W D. . e t 8 01 ) J ne , ., f u o Ob ti - lh v.Cl ,6 8F. p x 21 ( t Ci 2 7 . lid c as h snov a l cal aaveAla rke 8 Ap ' 1 4h n 01 ) kd ik lo a ib e li ba e on ofi a s al ged vi l to oft St p Down polc e ,be us s h vi l tonsofsae sd fcil ' le o ai ns he e ii s ca e uc o a i tt polc do no n untt aco tt i lvi ai a tona eunde j 1 iy t mo o nsiutona olton ci bl r 983. Ri i v.Comt of cco t v Fara Vigna 9 7F.d 1 9 1 6 ( t Ci.1 9 )( od n ta wh r sae1w g a t mo e ifx. r ii, 0 2 45 , 4 9 4h r 9 0 h li g h t ee tt a rn s r pr e a rght t n t Co tt i r uies s a e of i i ls vi a i n ofs a e pr e e i not oc dm l i s ha he ns iuton eq r , t t f c a ' ol to t t oc dur s afd r ld p o e sis e .Fo t e er a o s t ec u ti d ta Ri dc c n o p e al n hs e e a ue r c s su ) r h s e s n ,h o r fn s h t d ik a n t r v io i cli co e ni t Stp Down polces The e or t co twilsl a iy dim isal s h a ms nc r ng he e ii . r f e, he ur l lmm rl s s l uc camst e j1 5 li md r 91 A. 7 D. Li ng Co tons vi ndii To s ti acam o u o siuina lv n c n iins a p io e mu ts o t t ( ) usan li f nc n tt t l ii g o dto , rs n r s h w ha: 1 o l o j ci ey t ed p iain wa s ce t s ro ,i t a t e c le g d ofca a t c u e b e tv l, h e rv to s ux inl eius n h t h haln e , fiil cs a s d y < d n a o the mi i l cvlz d me sle o lf ' n c siis' a ( ) s b e tvey t e il f l t nma i i e i a t f ies e e ste ' nd 2 u j ci l, he r ; de e ntprs n ofi i l aced wih tdei r t i fe e et i ae he t o s ey. Fn me f nda i o fc a s t t l lbe a e ndif r nc o nm t alh r af t ' r r ' v. ema ,51 U. 8 5 8 4 ( 9 4 .Th o j ci ec mp n n o ti sa d r i me o l b Brl n 1 S. 2 , 3 1 9 ) e b e tv o o e t f h s tn ad s t ny y c to t t c us çsgnii a physc or e otonalha m,or a gr ve rs of s h hn m.' ondii ns ha a e çi fc nt i al m i r a ik uc r ' S k a v S t 71F.df 1 2 A 1 6 (t Ci. 1 9 ) tAj o t a ' f i r t alvae a hn k . mi h, 3 6 , 6 4 h r 9 5 . : n fkils al e o le it ( u sgl ia trs t a h s o l h vepec ie b tdd n t...En n t be c n e e a t ilfc n ik h t e h ud a i r ev d u i o c n o ) o d mn d s he l i lc i of pl s nt' Fa r 511 U. a 8 ntiton l hme -' nne , ni S. t 38. I o he wor , a om cils m e el n t r ds n a' r y ne i nta ton i no s fcintt gi rs t a co tt i lcli a a c di y,i not glge c i s t ufi e o ve ie o nsiutona am nd, c or ngl s a to a et s j 1 3.S eComt o Sa r me t v. wi, 2 U. 8 3 8 9 ( 9 8 ( ( he cin bl md r 98 e t y f cn n o Le s 5 3 S. 3 , 4 1 9 ) çTq t Consiu i doe notgua a e due c r on t pa' of sae ofi a s la lt f ne i nty tt ton s r nt e ae he ! t tt fcil ; ibiiy or glge l ititdha m i c tg rc l be ahtet rs l'o c n ttto l r tci n ) nlce r s ae o ial ne t h h ehod' f o siuina p o e to s. y One tcai ' i Ri c s c ll m ' n ddik' ompl i de c i a c ant s rbes hange i t prs meas a hi n he ion l nd s s eq ntwe g l s f rwhih he r ceved medi lca . H o ver he doe notsa e f t ubs ue i ht os , o c e i ca m we , s t t acs s wi a c meci n be we t s t e nt orlnki t m t t i e i ho ng or to t en he e wo ve s i ng he o he ntntonala tonsofany ci d fn a ts.Heas camst a o s meo c so s h ha rc ie me l ry wi misn o ee d n t) lo li h t n o c a in , e s e ev d a ta s t sig r h s i d f o i ms o wih f rin o j cs i te f o . S c r n o i cd ns G l pol o d t e e r t o eg b e t n h o d u h a d m n ie t, l e whi t e an,dol notnmountt ac tmtona de i ton.' Le aiev.M a s 1 F. 1 mplas t l o onsi i l prvai ' M r as, 2 3d 444, 1 4 ( t Ci.1 9 ) li dc as f i t s w a y ijly r s lig fo t e e me lta 45 9h r 9 3 . td ik lo al o ho n n t e utn r m h s a r y s r pr blm sasnec s r t s o e es a y o uppor ac tt i lca m . t onsiutona li 8 l a he s to o hi pl a ng, ddi k co ai t tce t n of r ha c os d li n not r eci n f s e di m c mpl ns ha rai fce s ve l e ts ha orn i t ta so or de ed hi a s nd nm n he r y l t ni m howe or outi r c e ton. He f is t pr s nt r sde e r a i al o e e fcss o ngt a h s fe e a y s ro sij r fo t e icd nso t a o fc r a td wih a t h wi h t e u fr d n e iu n u y ' m h n i e t r h t f es ce t r a i e i t hn m hi . Ac or ngl hi alegai do not sae a de i ton of ny ntnton o r m c di y, s l tons t t ny prva i c tmtona sg fc e. onsi i l i nii anc Ri c a s aleg t tofi e sha cal d hi r ily ofe i nn ,cal d hi a ddi k lo l es ha fc r ve le m aca l f nsve mes le m s t or a r pit or t e t ned hi wih dici i r c r s Ale tons of ve ba a e nich a s, hr a e m t s plna y ha ge . l ga i r l bus , t e t ,a ha a s e by g ds wihoutm or ,do notsae a c tm tona c am . He le hr a s nd r s m nt uar , t e t t ny onsi i l l i nse v Le s 1 3Fe Ap ' 1 8 1 0( t Ci. 0 )( ingCo l v Cu y, 3 F.d 8 5 8 . wi, 5 d. p x 7 , 8 4h r 20 5 ct i li . nd 60 2 2 , 27 ns ( 0hCi.1 7 :. 1t r 9 9 E. D i c plna ' Pr e ngs s i i l oce di y Ri c cai st the ha r c ve f s o f brcaed di cplna y c r t ta f td ddi k l m ha s e ei d ale r a i t s i i r ha ges ha fece hi cas ik a i a housng as i e . Abs nts s l st ton nd i sgnm nt e ome e de e or c am t t a c le d vi nc l i ha hal nge di cplna y c ci was i o ry obt i s i i r onvi ton mpr pe l aned,a s howi Ri c f is t m a he e,a ng ddik a l o ke r n i t sas e tonst tt ilta cha ge wa f s o unf rc nnotsa e a c am . Se Fr e a npa e' s ri ha he riil r s ale r ai n tt l i e em n v.Ri e u ,8 F.d 9 9 95 -5 ( d Ci.98 )( o dn t a mee alg to o flii d d o t 08 2 4 , 2 3 2 r1 6 h l ig h t r l ains f asfe e e ie eo mic n u trp rs wih u mo e d e n tsaeacam) Ii dc c mpli sta a vd nc r s o d c e o t, t o t r , o s o tt li . td ik o an h t c ouns l br eor oughta dici i r c r a i thi f r f sng t co plt r uie quesi s plna y ha ge gans m or e u i o m e e eq r d tons whie r taned t a t bl ;he a t ,howe r t the di not c l esr i o a e dmis ve , ha d ompl wih he or r t y t r de , hus pr vi ng s e e de i s o di om vi nce n uppor o t c r . Se Supe i e n eM as .Cor .I t v. il t f he ha ge e r nt nde t s r ns . H l, 4 2 U..4 5 4 5 5 ( 9 5 ( o dn ta d ep o e srq ie n saeme i aç d cl o 7 S 4 , 5 - 6 1 8 ) h l ig h t u r c s e ur me t r t f G il f mo m evi nce's ppo t de iin o t dicplnay he i ofi r. Fi ly,Ri c alege t t de ' u rs cso f he s i i r arng fce) nal ddik l s ha ofi i l ha s tmes f l t f l sa e pr ed e durng d s plna y pr e di o fc a s ve ome i aied o olow t t oc ur s i ici i r oc e ngs r a p as b ts c sae1w vo ainsa en t ci n b et e j1 3.Rico 9 7F.da 1 6 p e l, u u h tt a ilto r o a to a l md r 98 c i , 0 2 t 4 9. F.Val n po e t Ise ia d rp ry su s The compl i de c i s ve ala lged pr blm s Ri c has ha wih m a l s h as ant s rbes e r le o e ddik d t i, uc mone o de s no beng pr pe l pr s e is nc o r c i s or posi of o goi m a l y r r t i o ry oce s d, s ua e f e ept tng ut ng i beng de a d,m al be ng oc sona l r d out i hi pr s nc a c i l ye i i ca i ly ea sde s e e e, nd omm is r or r of s a y de s wrt maeil ben d ly d l td o d fcie Ridc fist c n e ttemao iy o ii ng tras ig ea e , i e , r e e tv . d ik al o o n c h j rt f mi t e al gai wih a de e hes le tons t ny f ndan ort sa ef c ss wi t ta t o t t a t ho ng ha nyone i e i nal i ere e nt nto ly nt f r d wih hi ma lor pr pe t Oc sona ,ne i ntdely or i e f r nbe wih pe s na or l ga t s i o ry. ca i l glge a nt re e t ro l e l m a l wihoutm o e,does noti i, t r mpos a de i ton of c tm tonalpr tons Se Pi v. e prva i onsi i opori . e nk Le tr 5 F.d 7 , 5 ( t Ci.1 9 )(e a mal; a s n v Smms 3 F. u p. d 51 ,5 9 se , 2 3 3 7 4h r 9 5 lg l i Pe ro . i , 45 S p 2 5 1 ) ( M d 2 0 ) afd 8 F. p' 6 9(t Ci. 0 )(u g igmal. D. . 0 3 , f , 8 Ap x. 3 4h r 20 4 o t on i ) Ri c m e i nss ve a occ i when he wa notalo d t pos es c rai ie sof ddik nto e r l asons s l we o s s e t n tm pr t i pts s h a orgi l l te s r ceved i t mai f om f m iy a s m e opery n i on, uc s i na e tr e i n he l r n l nd o phot a hepur has d t o h t mai. Prs r 'rght t pos e san pr ry i prs ogr phs c e hr ug he l ione s i s o s s y ope t n ion a ede i d by sa eprs pr pe t r ultons howe r a no t Co tmton. SeeBoa d of r fne tt ion o ry eg a i , ve , nd t he nsi i r Re e t v.Roh,4 8 U..5 4,5 7 ( 9 2 (t o ry itrss ..ae n tce td b t e c ns t 0 S 6 7 1 7 ) û pe t n ee t pr r o r ae y h (e ea)Co si o Rahe t yaece t da dt i di nso a ed fn dbye itn nle fd r l n tmin. t r he r rae n her me ins r e ie t x sig ls ; . uc a saelwl). .h ts p r camso e tte n't tep o e t) Th s t ec u t . s h s tt a s . t a u po t li f n ilme t o h r p ry . u , h o r ' fndsnoj 1 cli r ae t pr ryie Ri c wa notalowe t ha i prs i 983 am eltd o ope t tms ddik s l d o ve n ion. G . M e ca Ca e di l r Ri c lss a nlmbe ofhe t condii f o whi h he hasalege y s f r a one ddik it l r alh tons r m c l dl ufe ed t tm eo a he whiei prs i r not r l n ion:num bne si hi ba k,bl r d vii bl k a whiedot whe s n s c ure son, ac nd t s n 10 he s e s or be ove ,futei i hi he r hi h bl pr s ur pan i hi dg s de ne ze nds r l tlng n s a q g ood e s e, i n s ht i , blo y so l,c n tp to p i i h sa u , a c e t nm ,b c ,n c a d e r h a a h s o d t os o siain, an n i n s j w, h s, r a k e k n a, e d c e , ' e fmeftgue pani hi soma h,a tHSVI'alokno ast hepe viu .( xte ai , i n s t c nd G ,' s wn he r s r s Compl 1 . 07- 1 ECF No 1) Hec mpan ta s mei ssc c l r q ssae n trtr e ;t a h ha 2, .. o lis h t o t me ik al e uet r o eun d h t e s ohe be n c r d f sc c l wihoutbeng r f r e t t docor t the hasno r c ve n e ha ge or i k a l t i e e r d o he t ; ha t e ei d m e c tonshe beleve ne s ar f a d r lm hi h bl pr s e a HSV I t the ha di a i i d ce s y or ci ett g ood es ur , nd ; ha s r c ve at be c ossva i - l i r sr i s t ta s e ei d ' r ul i ccne whie n e ta nt; ha t omepoi ,he s f r d a R a ta tc u nt ufe e he r ta k a d sr kel e s mp o ' (d a 1 ) t t saf fliid r c r t s o Ridc r f sd n to -i y tms' 1 . t 08 ; ha tf asfe e o ds o h w d ik e u e k c oni c r buti f c ,s h c ewasnotofe ed t hi ;t thi r ques f a e m f rc on hr c a e, n a t uc ar f r o m ha s e t or n xa o ol c n e ( ih fmiyme esh v c nr ce )wa i n rd;h th sih lrf ra tmae pie a c r whc n l mb r a e o ta td s g o e t a i n ae o sh x rd and no one pr vi d hi wih a ne o f ove a yea ;t the wa tken of Boos wihout o de m t w ne or r r ha sa f t t s ei adoc orf raw eghtc k;a t the wa notgi r ulsf a c s X r y a EKG e ng t o i hec nd ha s ven es t or he t a nd i Oc obe a Dec mbe of201 n t r nd e r 6. l e i r t i fe e e t a i t s s ro media nee c tt t s c ue a r lbe ae ndif r nc o n nma e' e i us c l ds onsiu e r l nd u us a plih n t e t eEihhAme me t' J c o v. g te 7 5F.d 1 0 1 8( t n u l ns me t md r h g t nd n ' a ks n Lihs y, 7 3 7 , 7 4h Ci.201 ) (i n Esel v Gn l,4 9 U. 9 , 1 5 ( 9 6 Obe tv l t imae s r 4 ct g tle . mb e 2 S. 7 0 1 7 :. j ci ey, he n t' i m e ca condii mus be t e i ' i t s ns t ti ç s be n dignos d by a physc a as di l ton t l rous' n he e e ha t & s ha e a e ii n m a tng team e or ...i s obvi t t e n a 1 pe s n woul e sl r c ni e t nda i r t nt s o ous ha ve ay r o d a iy e og z he n c si f rad co ' a tnim' I . S b e tv l,t fiil e ic d lb rt idfe e c b e e st o o t rs te to ' d u j ciey t fcas vn e ei eae n ifrn e y y o aci i e i ly t dely o de t prs tng nt ntonal o a r ny he ionerac es t ade t m e c lc r o by i i c s o qua e di a a e r gnorng an i a e s lnown s rous m e c nee .' Sha pe v.Sout Ca olna De tof Com ,621 F. nm t ' c ei di al ds' r h r i p' Ap x 7 2 7 3 (t Ci. 01 )(iai n o te ) l i d lb rt idfe e c sa adi n t p' 3 , 3 4 h r 2 5 ctto s mitd . Th s ei eae n ifr n e tnd r s o sts d b a s o n o mee n gie e amee e rro j d me to ia v re tfiu e t aife y h wig f r e l nc , g r ro f u g n r n d e tn alr o p o i e me ia c r, o me e d s g e me t c n e ig q e to s o me ia j d me t' rvd dc l ae r r ia r e n o c m n u sin f dc l u g n . ' Ge i v. h a i, 31F. p' 3 2 3 (t Ci. 01 )( tr a q o ainmaks atrto , nnan S e rn 5 Ap x 9 , 95 4 h r 2 3 i en l u tto r , le ains n a ctto s o te ) s e as Bo i v Go wi 5 nd iain mitd ; e lo wrng . d n, 51F.d 4 ,48 (t Ci. 1 7 )(& e 2 4 4h r 9 7 th t es e ilt ti one ofm e c lne s iy a no smpl t twhih m a be consde e m e el s nta es s di a ce st nd t i y ha c y i rd r y d srb e'. e ia l' ) Ri c s cli s a ddik' am bout medial ca e a e f r t mos pa', ge r a unda e c r r , o he t l t ne al nd td co a n st the di notal ysr c ve t e mi to o m e c to t the desr ordi mpli t ha d wa e ei he xa nai ns r dia i ns ha ied d notr c i pr e e ve omptr s e pons s t hi r ue t f c r . Hi a lga i r fe t howe r t the e o s eq ss or a e s le tons e l c , ve , ha has a es t m e c a tnton fom nur e and doc o s a ha r c i d te t e o r t cc s o dial te i r ss t r nd s e e ve r am nt ve he ye r . Hi pe s as s r onalbei ft tt c r wasi deq t o t l i c ng i i ufii ntt le ha he a e na uae r oo ong n omi s ns fc e o l s ppor a co tt tona cai a he doe notsa e f t s u t ny nsiu i l l m, nd s tt acs howi delber t i fer nce by ng i ae ndif e a de e nt ny f nda . Ri c a s m a a ge r l compl i t t hi s ve alye r i s gr to a Red ddik lo kes ne a ant ha s e r a s n e egai n t Oni have had a r e e f t on hi physc a m e t lhe t Ye,hi a lga i r l c on dve s fecs s i al nd n a alh. t s le tons efe t t t whe ofe ed t c nc t move t mor prvie d phas of t St p Down Pr ' m ha n f r he ha e o o e i l ge es he e ogr a i e d t pr pa e hi f a l s r src i housng a sgnme , he ha r us d. Thus nt nde o e r m or e s e titve i si nt s ef e , Ri c s c ddik' ompl i pr vi s no f t alba i f r ca ms a i tt de e nt r ga di hi ant o de ac u ss o li gans he f nda s e r ng s pr onged t nn i s gr to or is al ge y ad r e e f c s I a e nt as i c t d,he ol e n e egai n t le dl ve s fe t . n ny ve , ndi a e c e ry ha ha a e st m e c c ef t physc a m e alhe t efe t he me i . l a l s d cc s o dial ar or he ial nd nt alh f c s ntons H . Re i ous Pr tc s lgi ac i e li c r s s s ve aldis ts a tons r ga di r i o pr c ies a Re Oni tddi k aie e r s a if c i e r ng elgi us a tc t d on. I n M a c 2016, he c pl i al ge y f ie t pr s Ri ck' r que tf rPm s rpa tcpai rh t ha an le dl a ld o oce s ddi s e s o s ove rii ton a f r a Pa s ve f nd o s o r ood or r f om t co m i s r The c pl i a s a l ged y f l d t de r he m s a y. ha a n l o le l aie o 12 pr vi Ri c wih a Bi ehe r quese i Se e be 201 o de ddik t bl e t d n ptm r 6.Cot s l Se r r omm e d m e or wa d ec nde a i t Ri c s r que tt r eve t Comm on Fa e dit be aus Ri c di not sa e a gans ddi k' e s o ec i he r e , c e ddik d tt c en rlgi and came t s difrntfihs Ri c sae t tçgq Common Fae hos ei on li d o mdy fee at . ddik tts ha tthe r iù' no r lgi usdi ta i ve y smia t t r gt a di ta pr ty muc ge st s s t ei o e nd s r i lr o he e z r e nd e t l h t he ame f ' ood.' td.a 3 ) Ri dc as c mpli st a h i n tpemitd t c lb ae b t Pa s v r a d L= t 2. d ik lo o an h t e s o r te o ee rt oh so e n Ra a m dan. Onc whe he wa pe m itd t pa tcpae i Pas o r a de i d he wa no e, n s r te o rii t n s ve nd c de s t r evi pr rf ie ,t f s r i e s r s r f ed t pr de hi a r gulr dit ec i ng ope ood t ms he ood e v c upe vior e us o ovi m e a e i ta nse d. Rl a e c e ry r t i pr eci ns a l ded by t Fis Am e nm t s l a l e an ot to fbr he rt ndme , i udi is nt ncl ng t die tve t tno 1w s l pr hi tt fe e r s ofr lgi ' O' r c i ha a hal o bi he r e xe cie ei on.' Lone v.Esa e of Sha z, tt baz 48 U. 3 2 3 8 ( 98 ) To p o et a a o fca p lc o a to vo ae li fe e e cs 2 S. 4 , 4 1 7 . r v h t n fiil oiy r cin iltd 's re x r ie l rg s a i ae mus fr ts w a snc r bele orpr c ie t ti d oo e i r lgi ' be us i ht , n nm t t s ho i e e if a tc ha s ç t d n ei on,' ca e r t Fis Amendme ç ist r ,gve s c a pr t c i t t e c s ofr lgi ' Thomas he r t nt t t e ms i s pe i l o e ton o he xer ie e i on. by ' v.Re e Bd.ofI Emp' Se Di ,450U. 707,71 ( 981. Hemus as s t tt viw nd. t c. v. S. 3 1 ) t lo how ha he c le g d o lca poiy o a to plc d u d e b r e o te fe e r ie o h srigo haln e fiil l r cin a e n u u d n n h r e xecs f i eiius c pr tc I a 71 Pr ng t e se e ofs h a btr n r quie e de e t t ofk i aci e. d. t 7. ovi he xit nc uc lde e r s vi nc hat he t al p lc o a to G u lqs b tn il r su eo a a hee tt mo iyhi b ha ira dt vilt o iy r cin t t u sa ta p e s r n n'd rn o df s e vo n o oae p hi bei f . 1 a 718. An oo ce ' ne i nti e f r ewih a i ae' r lgi pr c i i s le s' d. t ' rs glge nt re enc t n nm t s ei ous a tce s n tac n t ui n ld p iain.Lo ea ev Le , 7 F.d 1 4 1 6( t Ci. 0 6 . o o si to a e rv to t v lc . e 4 2 3 7 , 9 4h r 2 0 ) Ri c smpl doe no a lge t t a ofi i l polc or a ton a Re Ori has ddik i y s t le ha ny fc a iy c i t d lon pr s e hi i a r s c t vi ae hi r lgi bei f . He do no i c t t the was es ur d m n ny e pe t o olt s e i ous le s es t ndia e ha una et mee hi r lgi dit r ne dst o h t r gu a me wihoutt r quese Bi e bl o t s e i ous e a y e hr ug he e l r nu, t he e t d bl , 13 orwihouta ovalf c l br ton ofPas ove a or Rn t ppr or e e a i s r nd/ mada M or r he doe notsa e n. eove , s tt f c ss a t howi t ta ng ha nyonei e i ly i e f r d wih hi sa e pr c i ofhi c e r i on. nt ntonal ntr e e t s tt d a tce s hos n elgi 1 Re ala i . t i ton li c as e t t t s ve ale t or a ons of whih he c tddi k s rs ha e r ven s di c ompli m a ha be n ans y ve e m otva e by ç e ai ton' a i tli f r wrtng g i va s orr quess f s r c s o s i td i t lai ' ga ns lm o ii re nce r e t or e vie r ome o he r as t r e on. 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