Jones v. Clarke, No. 7:2017cv00059 - Document 17 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 10/18/2017. (tvt)
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l CE CL 'OF IANOKk,S éRKSA. FD US D!mcouW vx T R' . . I TH E U NI N TED STATE S D I STR I CO U R T CT FO R TH E W ESTER N D I STR I O F V I G I A CT R NI R O AN O K E D I SI N W O ANTW OI M CKI NE NLEY JONES, ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Peii r, ttone v. HAROLD W . CLAQKE, Reponde . s nt , ,o !. y OC1 1S 2 1 07 J I * OLA : Y; CASE NO.7: 17CV00059 M EM O UM OPI ON NI By: n. e E. nr d Ho Gln Co a Unie St e Diti Judge t d ats srct Ant ne M c nl y J ,a Vigi a i a e pr e ng by co el fld t spe ii woi Ki e ones r ni nm t oce di uns , ie hi tton fr a m i ofha a c o t be s omus puruan t 28 U. C.j 2254,c le ng t vai t of hi , s to S. halngi he ldiy s c i m e on a snalor rb# t Dmw il Ciy Cic tCour. Re po n fld a m o i t ontne nt de he le t r ui t s nde t ie ton o dimis a J sr s s s , nd one e ponde m a ng t m a trrpef diposto Afe r viw oft r co d, d, ki he te i or s iin. tr e e he e r t co tc ude t tt peii mus bedimi s d. he ur oncl s h> he tton t s se 1 . Background Afe abe h ti l t Dmw il Ciy Cic tCo tf und J ne guit off ci e s om y, tr nc ra, he le t r ui ur o o s ly or bl od i ce lbe te wih a m i wih who he ha a c t al r l to hi a tmpt r pe nde nt i ri s t nor t m d usodi e ai ns p, te ed a , atmp e ic s, a d o j c s x a pe er to Th cr utc u ts ne e J n st tnye r te td n e t1 n be t e u l n tain. e ic i o r e tnc d o e o e a s a t ea h c c i wih fveye ss pe d on ea h c mt J ne a s o c onviton, t i ar us nde c ot . o s ppeaed,a gui t tt l r ng ha he t si ony of t vitm , who was t n yea s o1 a t tme s t tfed,was Gzhe e l e tm he c i e r d t he i he esii çl r nty i i r di e'f rva i r s ,butt Cour ofAppe l ofVigi a de e hi peii J s nc e bl' o rous ea ons he t as r ni ni d s tton. one t n r s d a sngl cli o t ei bl t tmony i t Supr me Cour ofVigi a, t c lt he aie i e am f mr la e esi n he e t r ni but he otr Jones v. Clarke Doc. 17 deci d r vi w. lne e e 1J oneswa c ce ofatmptd i es i open cou t howeve , t orgi lc ci a s ntnci s onvitd te e nc t n r; r he i na onviton nd e e ng or rer ne l sae t thewasconvitd ofi es.Theer wasltrc r c e i J ' i talsaehabe de ro ousy ttd ha ce nc t ror ae ore t d n oness nii tt as pr e ng. oce di Dockets.Justia.com Afe hi diec r viw pr ee ngs e d,J s fl d a ha aspe ii i t Su e tr s r t e e oc di nde one ie be tton n he pr me Cour ofVigi a r sng sx i fe tve a ssa ofc t r ni , aii i ne f c i s it nce ouns lc am s On J r 1 2009,t e li . anua y 2, he c tis d ç lm ied gr ntoft wrtha s c pus'a t J ne ' f t c am :c our s ue 1 i t a a he i bea or ' s o o s s ourh l i ouns lwa e s ief ci ef rfiig t o j c t te c u tfn i g hm g it o i etwh n h wa c a g d n fe tv o al o b e t o h o r id n i u l f nc s e e s h r e n y wih a tmpt d i e t r mandi t c s t t cr ui c tt c r c t co c i o de a t te e nc s , e ng he a e o he ic t our o ore t he nviton r r nd f a ne s nt ncng he rng as t t a tm ptd i e t c c i or w e e i ai o he te e nc s onviton. J ones v. W a de N o. r n, 0 31 ,si o a 2 ( .Ci.Ct J n.1 2 0 ) The S p e Co r o Vigna d z e al 81 5 l p. t Va r . a 2, 0 9 . p u rme u t f r ii el d l i r ma ni c am so t m e is e i ng l i n he rt . On Aprl21,2009,a trt Supr me Cour ofVigi a' lmie gr ntofha asr i , i fe he e t r ni s i t d a be elef but be or t r s ntncng, J s fl a f de al ha as pe ii r ii t e c am s o f e he e e e i one ied e r be tton a sng hr e l i f i feci a ssa e a t c am sc le ngt s fc e y oft e de e. ne f tve s it nc nd wo l i hal ngi he uf i nc he vi nc On J 22,2009,be or t sa e c tr - e e ed J s o hi a tmpt d i es une f e he t t our e s nt nc one n s te e nc t co c i t Comm onwe lh m o d t cr ui c tt r -entnce J nviton, he at ve he ic t our o e s e ones on hi i e s ndec nt lbe tesc ci be a e t s nt nc o i nal i i ri onvi ton c us he e e e rgi ly mpos d exc ede t sa or ma mlm .2 e e d he t mt y xi l On J y 28,2009, t Da le Ciy Cicui Cour e e e a nunc pr t nc o de e f c i ul he nvil t r t t nt r d o u r r fe tve Fe r ay 2 ,2 0 ,(h e ty d t p t e oi ia s ne cn o d r c re ng t atmpe b u r 7 0 6 te nr ae f h rgn l e tn ig r e) o rdi he te td i es co c i a r ducngt as ocatd s nt ncet fve ye r ,wih no tm es pe d. nc t nviton nd e i he s i e e e o i as t i us nde The ea tr t cic t c t he d a a to l r s nt nc ng he rng as t bo h t r fe , he r ui our l n ddii na e-e e i ai o t he a tm pt d i s a i e lberi c c i . On Dec mber1 2009, he c tr i te e nce t nd ndec nt i tes onvitons e 5, t our empos ed a tve yea s nt nc on t a t m pt d i es convi ton a r uc t i c nt lbe te i - r e e e he te e nc t c i nd ed ed he nde e i r i s 2Jo s had bee s ntnce t tn ye s i a c r ton w ih tve yeas s pe ne n e e d o e ar nc r e ai t i r us nded. H o e r i ce w ve , nde nt l ete i aCls 6fln a ds bett ama i m p ns me t fv y as ic reain. i ris s as eo y n u jc o xmu u ih n ofie e r'n ac rto b c nviton t fveyea s wih t a a ha fyea ss pe o ci o i r , t wo- nd- - l r us nded. J sa one ppeaed,bu on Dec mbe l t e r 2,201 t Cour ofA ppea s of V igi a de ed hi a a ,a on J y 11,2011 t Supr m e 0, he t l r ni ni s ppe l nd ul , he e Cou tofVigi ar f s d hi pe ii r r ni e u e s tton. M e nwhie, o M a ch 1 201 t f de a ditit c tde e J ne ha as r i , a l n r 9, 0, he e r l src our ni d o s be elef3 whi h t Urie St t sCour ofAppe l f t Fo t Cic tafimed.4 c he lt d a e t a s or he urh r ui fr On Augus 20,201 J t 5, ones fl a s c ied e ond sae ha s pe ii i t Dmwil Ciy t t bea tton n he le t Cic i Co r, c wa d nid a p o e u al d ful du d rVa Co ej8016 4 B)2 a d rut u twhih s e e s r c d r l ea t n e . d . - 5 ( ( ) n y e wiho me . TheSu e Co tofVigi ade e J ne ' a a . t ut dt pr me ur r ni ni d o s s ppe 15 I. l C ur e Pe ii r nt tton On Fe u r 15 201 J br a y , 7, onesfl d t i t ntpeii r ii t eec am s ie he nsa tton, asng hr l i : 1. The Comm onwe lh f ie t dic os e ul t y,i ac nt a o he at a ld o s l e xc paor mpe hme nd t r e de fom t Guif d6r or . vi nce r he lor ec ds , 2. Res nt nci co m s lw a i f e tve f f ii t m o f a ne t i on al e e ng t e s ne f c i or a lng o ve or w ral l c r s ba ed on t pr e ut r s f itr t dicl e e ul t y e de e ha ge s he os c o ' alle o s os xc paor vi nc pro t ti ;and i r o ral Tra c i l ouns lwasi fe tvef f ii t r ques as poe f rt Guif d e ne f c i or a lng o e t ub na o he lor r or . ec ds 3J onesv. Kel, 7:9 01 5( . Va Ma.1 201) lv No. 0 CV0 8 W D. . r 9, 0 . 4J onesv. Kel, 1 - 61 (t Ci. b. 4, 1. ly No. 0 6 9 4h rFe 1 201 ) 5The su e C0ur ofVigi aa s prme t r ni s umedwihoutde di t J ' peiin wa pr ed al defuled t ci ng hat oness tto s oc ur ly a t a atr edt cic tc tsr i nd fim he r ui our' ulng. 6 Wl ofJ ' cli r e t me c a ot r r c ds r ga di t vitm,s me of whih we e l oness ams efr o dial nd he e or e r ng he ci o c r pr paedbyt Guif d,No hCa olnaDe rmentofSocilSe vie e r he lor rt r i pa t a r c s. Thi ma tr i now be o e t c t o Re ponde ' m o i n t dimis. Res s te s f r he our n s nts to o s s ponde ha nt s conc de t tJ s pe ii i pr pe l exha t d a tm ey. Furhe ,t Res e d ha one ' tton s o ry use nd i l t r he ponde a sl e nt s lm s wihoutc t once ng t tJ s' pe ii i no s ce sve ba ed on t r c nthol ng i I r di ha one s tton s t uc s i s he e e di n . e n Grv 8 0F.d 1 9( t Ci. 01 ) a , 5 3 3 4h r 2 7 . 11 1. St andar ofR e e d vi w To obt i f de alhabe r le ,a pe ii rm us de onsr t t the i l n cusody i an e r as ei f ttone t m ta e ha sG i t n vilto o teCo siuin o lwso te te o t Untd Sae . 2 U. C. 2 5 ( Th oain f h n ttto r a r rais f he ie tts' 8 S. j 2 4 $. e ' f de a ha sco tma notgr nta wrtofha a c pusba e on any cl m t ta sa e c t e r l bea ur y a i be s or sd ai ha tt our d cd do t emeisu ls t a a j dc to e ie n h rt n e s h t du iain: ()Reutdi ad cso ta wa c nrr t , rivove a l r a o be 1 s le n e iin h t s o ta y o o n l d n l e s na l n a i ton of cea esa ihed Fede a lw,asde e mi d by t Supr me pplcai , l dy t bls rl a t r ne he e Cour oft Unie St t s or t he t d a e ; ( )Re u td i ad cso t t sbae o a t e s na ed tr n to o te 2 s le n e ii n ha wa s d n n mra o bl eemiain f h f t i lghtoft e de epr s nt i t St t c t oce di acs n i he vi nc e e ed n he ae our pr e ng. 28U. C.j2 4( . û h r , sh r , h saec u tsa pl ain o g v r ig fd r llw i S. 25 * G ee a e e t e tt o r' p i to f o e nn e e a a s W c c aln e i mus b s o t be no o y er n o , b t o jci l u r a o a l . h le g d, t t e h wn o t nl ro e us u be tvey n e s n b e' ' Yab r ug v. Ge ty, 5 roo h nr 40 5 ( 0 ) Und r t i sa ad Ga sae c u ts 20 3 . e h s tnd r , û j tt o r' E detr na i t t a cai lcks mertpr l e mi ton ha lm a i ecudes f de a ha s r le s l as Garm i d e r l bea ei f o ong f i- nde jlit c u d ds g e 'o t c re t s o t e sae c u t d cso ' Harngo v Rihe , t ss o l ia r e n he or cne s f h tt o r' e iin. ri tn . c tr r s ' 5 2U.. 6 1 ( 01 )( u t Yab r uc v. vaa o 5 U. 6 2, 6 ( 0 ). 6 S 8 , 01 2 1 q oi ng r o o h Al rd , 41 S. 5 6 4 20 4 ) To sa e a c tmtonalc am f r i f c i as it nc of c tt onsi i l i o nefe tve ssa e ouns l a pe ii r m us e, ttone t stsy te t - r n e S rcda d v W ah n tn ts by s wi ( ) Gh t c u e' aif h wo p o g d til n . s i go e t ho ng 1 G a o ns ls t p ro ma c wa d fce t' a ( )Gha t e d fce tp ro ma c p eu ie t d fn e' e fr n e s eiin , nd 2 l t h eiin e fr n e rj dc d he ee s . ' t ' 46 U. 6 8 6 6 6 7 ( 9 4 . C dca snziy o c u e' pef r nc mus b hg l 6 S. 6 , 8 - 8 1 8 ) vu iil c tn f o nsls ro ma e t e ihy 4 de e e i ,'a c f r ntal' nd ouns li ç nnitd t s tprorte ,dee mi ti sr t gy,a pr s t e e sû pe te o e i iis tr ne ral ta e nd e s hos cai wih t gr a e tc nce ofs es .'l a 689;Unie St t v.M as 774 F. 824, l ms t he e t s ha s ucc s' d. t t d aes on, 3d e ng rc a am mde he 8 8( t Ci. 01 )7 W hen reviwi a Stiklnd cl i t rt AEDPA , tec ur' rv e 2 4h r 2 4 . h o ts e iw iG sû doubl 'de e e i .Se Ri htr 56 U . a 1 y' f r ntal e c e , 2 S. t 05. For Stiklnd' fr tpr apeii rmus s Gha c uns m ade e r ss s rous rc a s is ong, ttone t how ç t o el t ror o e i t tc ha ouns l was not f toni as t G e unc i ng he couns l gua a e t de e n by t Si h e ' r nt ed he f nda t he xt Am e ndme ' S rc a nt' ti klnd, 466 U . a 687S. t 88. G-'e quesi i whehe a a t ey' th f ton s t r n tom s r pr s ntto n mt d t i ompe e unde û e ii pr es i nor , notwhehe i e e e ai n mot e o nc t nce r pr valng of sonal ms ' t rt d vae fo betp a tc so c mmo c so ' c tr 5 2U.. t1 5( u t Src ln , e itd r m s r cie r o n u tm. 'Rihe , 6 S a 0 q o i tika d ng 466U. a 69 . S. t 0) Fort s ond pr ng,a pe ii rm us de he ec o ttone t monsr t t t butf c ta e ha , or ouns lsal ge e r , e ' le d ror t r i a ç e s bl pr biiy t tt r ul oft pr ee ng w o d ha be n dif r nt' he e s G a ona e oba lt ha he es t he oc di r ul ve e fe e ' Sti llnd,466 U. a 494. t r as bl pr biiy i a pr biiy s fcintt unde mi rcca S. t W e ona e oba lt s oba lt uf e o r ne t e c ni e e o t o to . L. l o tnl ç an atr e ' fiu e t rie a meils h o fd nc f he u c me' ds mp ra ty, G q ton y s alr o as ' , l rte s a gu nt( cn tf r t ba i ofas c s u i feci asitnc ofc ms lcai bec us r me 1 nno om he ss uc esf l nef tve ssa e ot e l m a e t r s toft pr ee ng wo d np ha be n dif r nthad t a tr y r ie t is ' he e ul he oc di ul t ve e fe e he to ne as d he s ue. ' Untd Sae v. mlr 1 7F.d8 9 8 3 (t Ci. 9 9 ; e as M o r v. ie S ae , 3 ie tts Ki e , 6 3 8 , 9 5h r 1 9 ) s e lo o e Untd tts 9 4 F. u p 7 4 7 ( D. .1 9 ) S p . 2 , 31 E. Va 9 6 . La ty,t e t bls a Br dy vi a i ( c ced de e ntmus m a e h oft ee sl o sa ih a olton, 1 onvit a f nda t ke ac hr s ngs ()t e de a is i ça a et t a cus d,eihe bec us i i e ul tr howi : 1 he vi nce t sue s fvorbl o he c e t r a e t s xc pao y, o b c u e i i i a hig ; ( ) t S ae s p r se t e e ie c , Gih r wilul o r e a s t s mpe c n ' 2 he tt u p e s d h vd n e et e lf ly r 7( Si hAme The xt ndme gu r nt sr s bl c nt a a ee ea ona e ompeenc , n tp re ta v c c j d e wihteb n'i t e o efc d o ay u g d t h e e t t o hi iht' Ge r 540U. a 8. f ndsg ' nty, S. t 5 ia vetn l ;a d ( )Grj ie...e s d ' S ime v.S te,5 2 U. 5 ,5 6 ( 01 ) n d re ty' n 3 p eudc n ue .' kr r wi r 6 S. 21 3 2 1 ' z ( u t g Srcce v Gre e 5 7U.. 6 , 1 8 ( 9 9 ) Tos w p eu ieu d rBr d ,he q oi til r . e n , 2 S 2 3 28 -2 1 9 ). ho rj dc n e a y t n l e de em us ha be n ma e i .Evi ncei m a e ilE ft r i ar s bl pr biiyt t vi nc t ve e t ral de s t ra G he e s ea ona e oba lt ha , i ha t e de e be n dic os t t def ns ,t r s toft pr e ng woul ha be n d he vi nc e s l ed o he e e he e ul he oc edi d ve e dfee t' Kye v.W hte 4 U. 41 ,4 3 3 ( 9 5 . Ho v r Gth mee p si l y ifrn . ' ls ily,51 S. 9 3 -4 1 9 ) we e , s l e r o sbit g i t ta ie ofu s l ed i or ton m i ha hel d t de e e orm i tha afec e ha n t m ndic os nf ma i ght ve pe he f ns , gh ve f t d t out ome oft ti l doe not e t bls S a e i iy'i t c tt tonals ns .' Unied he c he ra , s sa ih m t ralt n he onsiu i e e' t S ae v. u s 4 U. 9 ,1 9 1 ( 9 6 . tts Ag r, 27 S. 7 0 - 0 1 7 ) I . V A na ys s l i I Cli 1,J n am ones alege t t t Co monwe t vi a e Br y by wihhol ng t l s ha he m a1h olt d ad t di he Guif d r c ds J lor e or . onesa guest tt r co dse ul t hi i t f l wi wa : r ha he e r xc pa e m n he olo ng ys 1 J ' da e ,G R.' d no sa eorale t tJ spu hi fnge i he . ones s ught r 1 , di t tt D. ' l ge ha one t s i r n r va na,c r r t he t si o a til gi onta y o r e tm ny t ra ; 2. D. r po td t a doc oron M a c 3,2005 and t ot r a ot tm e t t R. e re o t rh o he s t her i s ha J s ha onl t he he a t r wa no pe tai n,co r r t he one d y ouc d r nd he e s ne r to nta y o r t tmony a ti ; esi t ral D. di notal get tJ sa tmpt d t pe ta ehe vag nawih hi pe s R. d le ha one te e o ner t r i t s ni but o y t the ha plce hi pe s be i i,c r r t he t si o a nl ha d a d s ni sde t onta y o r e tm ny t ti ; ral 4. 1 1 . i he ha 7. , n r nd- i n not s di no s a e t t J k ûe e , d t t t ha ones had e ged i e t r nga n ihe o a orvagi lpe t a i n,c r r t he t s i ony a t i l a rl na ne r t o ont a y o r e tm t ra ; nd 6 5. Dr St nl y' r po tof a tar a t 6 o'l k poston on D. ' hym e i . a e s e r e t he c oc ii R.S n s i onsse wih Nure Ras s n' ti lt tmony ofat a o t hym e a nc itnt t s mus e s ra esi e r n he n t t 7 o'l k poston. he c oc ii Pet' sPet 11-12. r' . The frtt pr is wo ongsofBr dy a e a l as de t bl ,8 butJ ne f ist de a r t e t ba a e o s a l o monsr t t t ta e ha t Guif r r c dsa e m a e il On ha s r vi w,t Dmwil Ciy Cic tCout hed t he lo d e or < t ra . bea e e he le t r ui ' l he t f l ng' olowi . g fe c r f lrviw o t e Gulo d rc r i lg to t e trt o t til Al tr a eu e e f h ifr e ods n i h f he n iey f he ra r or and t ki i o a co mtt s Cour' o e vai n oft de anorof t ec d, a ng nt c t hi ts bs r to he me he wine s a de e na i oft c edi lt oft e wine s s t Cour fnds t s es nd t nni ton he r biiy hos t s e , he ti no pemisbl us of t s e de e wo d ha c us tls Cotr t ha r si e e hi vi nc ul ve a ed li lt o ve dibe ived t c e bl evi nc oft Comm o s le he r di e de e he nweat i l ng t t tmony lh, ncudi he esi oft vitm ,o t ha bele d J ne ' de a t thene rhadbe n aonewih he c i r o ve ive o s s nil ha ve e l t t c l The Guif r r or we e no m a e i s h t t t out m e of he hid. lo d ec ds r t t ral uc ha he co J s sti woul ha be dif r nta t e t rguitors nt ncng. J st one ' ral d ve en fe e s o ihe l e e i one hus i e il d t no r i upo hi s t ntve Br dy c a m . s ntte o elef n s ubs a i a li J n sv. ak , CL1 - 9 , l o a 3( . r CtAu . 0 20 5 .Th c u t g e swih o e Clr e No. 2 5 6 si p. t Va Ci. . g 2 , 1 ) e o r a r e t p t sa e c tsa l i be a e t Co monwe t s sgnii n e de e ofJ ne ' guitsil he tt our' na yss c us he m alh' i fca t vi nc o s s l tl o ec me c n rdcinsi t eGui o d r c r s a d J n ss a srin t a h wa ( )n v r v r o s o ta ito n h l r e o d n o e ' se t s h t e s 1 e e f o 8Fort frtpr ofBr , s e pa t oft Guif d r or co r ditD . ' ti tsi ony. For he is ong ady om rs he lor ec ds nta c R.S ral e tm Br dv' s ond pr t pa te dipu ewhehe t Commonwe t ac l pos esed t Guif r r co ds I a s ec ong, he ris s t t r he a1h maly s s he lo d e r . n hi f r lha aspeiin, onesa t hess ppi r ei ss wi t tt CiyofDanvil PolceDe rme ha s ede a be tto J tac hi ng ec pt ho ng ha he t le i pat nt d r ei s r or i Aprlof2005. Howe ,on ha asr viw,t crui cou thel t tbot pa te ç r ec ved ome ec ds n i ver be e e he ic t r d ha h ris s e we a e a t tme ofti t tc l wef e a t rtesi Guif d Cot y i si t a cam ofabus ,butt war t he i ral ha hid lar u ho ii n lor mt nve tgaed li e he e tn rc r d e n t e nsrt ta teCo nwe l e e o tie lh rc r s pirt J n sstil'J n s xa t e o d o s o d mo tae h th mmo at v r ban d te eo d ) ro o o e ' ra. o e h ' v Clr e No CL1 - 9 , l o a 3( . r CtAu 2 201) . ak , . 2 5 6 si p. t Va Ci. . g. 0, 5. p 7 or h tt o r' uig ao wi D. a ( )avitm o ap o b D. ' mohe. Theref e, t esaec u tsr ln lne t R. nd 2 h ci f lt y R.s t r9 wa no co r r t or a lnr as bl i e pr t ton of f de al l w, or a unr a ona e s t nta y o, n l e ona e ntr ea i , e r a n e s bl de e m i ton o t f c s t r na i f he a t . J onesfr tal gest tt r i no e de i t r c d t s t nta e D. ' t tmony is le ha he e s vi nce n he e or o ubsa it R.S esi t tJ ne ha di t lype ta e he ; we r D. m 't t tafe J sti d t pe taehe ha o s d gial ne r t d r ho ve , R. o e ha tr one re o ner t r wih hi pe s he lt t s ni, ûough (o he my tt ( e ss a fnge gdjme. Pe'' App' 1 tuc dq os bra tq nd i re ' trs ' x 5. Sec ond, J ones as e t t t t r c d s w s t t t r wa t pe ta i ' a t t D. s rs ha he e or ho ha he e s t no ner ton, nd ha R. ' a tedt tJ ne o y puthi pelsbesdehe va na. The Guif d r co dsi e r pe t dl dmit ha o s nl s ri i r gi lor e r nde d e a e y sae t tD. t d s i lwor r t tt r was no pe tai n,but D. as made s ve a tt ha R. ol oc a ke s ha he e ne r to R. lo e rl sa e e si c tng t J tt m nt ndia i hat oneshadus s ton he va na a l i ton a hetid t si i o ed pi r gi s ubrca i s re o lde nt he ,t the ge t l hur a t r r a t ts di no w a t c lm e lqui f r f a of t r ha r nia s t f e wa d, nd ha he d t nt o onsl i ds o e r he pai dzi urnai n afe t e e unt r . Pe '' App' 1 11. Furhe ,s xua a s ul nure n lrng i to tr hes nco e s tr s x 0t r e l sa t s Ras us e t si d t t D . ' va na ha da ag c it nt wih pe ta im, alhough m s n e tfe ha R.S gi d m e onsse t ner tc t 9 The Guif r r or s bsa taly s lo d ec ds u t n i l uppor D .R. tsi n ()atrD. i tal r fsd J n ss t ' et y: 1 fe R. ni ly eu e o e ' S mo i a v n e, o e ga be adcin r,o k du tewo dSah r'a dd ma d dta s ed wha hesi ( il . d a c s J n s rb d ito ay lo e p h r l te, n e n e h t h o t ad Tra Tr f ' 48 Pe'' Ap x 3 7 9,1 - 5 2 ,2 ) ()awht s b tn ee n td9o Jne' pe i atrtesc ndt , ' trs p' , , 4 1 , 4 6 , 2 . ie u sa c ma ae m o ss ns fe h eo i me J n sma eh rp th rmo t o i ( ilTr 7 Pe ' Ap x 9;()J n so d rdD. t pefr oa sxo o e d e u e uh n t Tra . 4; frs p' ) 3 o e r ee R.o rom rl e n hm ( il . -9 7 -4, trsAp x3 7 8 9 1 , 3 2 ) ()J n satmpe t p n taehe v gn wi hs i Tra Tr454 , 37 . '' p' , - , , 5 2 , 7 ,4 o e te td o e ert r a ia t i Pe . h p ni,e e d srbn hi usn si a dab tl o t ie a'a lb iain ( ilTr 5 , trsAp x 1 ) () e s v n e ciig m ig pt n ot f d n g r' s u rcto Tra . 9. '' p' 0. 5 e v Pe , J n sstn e pe ertdD. . v gia( il . 7; trsAp ' 1 ) ( )J n sC o k d' R.Slgsbe idhe o e ' i g r n tae R ' a n Tra Tr 6 Pe'' px 5 ; 6 o e ç o e 'D. ' e hn r S h h a wihhe p n sd rn s mesxu latvt ( il . 4 5 , trsAp ' l ,1 1 ) a d( )J n stl D. e d t r a t u ig o e a ciiy Tra Tr 5 - 6 Pe'' px 0 2, 5 , n 7 o e od R. . ta hipe iec natwihh r udo l h th f s tme b t tt s c n ( il . 85 ; trsAp x1 ) h t s nl o tc t e wo l ny m'te l ti , u no he e o d Tra Tr 5 -9 Pe'' p' 1. r M or r t Guif d r cor s eove , he lor e ds uppor J s' guitbe t one s l yond t ti tsi y a ad te e denc he ral e tmon nd mitd vi e: ()D. tl s ca wokest a J n sh d so dhe p ro p i tl ( trsAp x 1 ,1 ,1 (ç d me 1 R. od o il r r h t o e a h we r on pa hc ims Pe'' p' 2 5 9 s e ma wac n t e(at)mo is' ;()o ec u s lrc n ld d ta D. R p e rdt berp rigveyr l bl a d th ay n sy ve ') 2 n o n eo o cu e h t R. a p ae o e o t r ei y n l n a s c rai y posesed agr a d ofi os r tckn edget twoul beune td f ani ye rol c l he e t nl s s e t eal di ync ai owl ha d xpece or ne a d hid, e e o ewh h d b e e poe t p mo rp y' ( trsAp x 1 .()J n sslv -n fa c esae ta s e v n n o a e n x sd o o ga h ' Pe'' p' 2) 3 o e ' iei in é ttd h t h , b l ve D. h db e moetd b t tb Jne ( frsAp x20; nd()wh notc r q eto e J n sa u ei d R. a e n lse , u no y o s Pe ' p' ) a 4 e fies u sin d o e bo t e tedcinayicd n, o e d d lg to t esmain a a pa d d( R.frha i ag o me r'( trs h ito r n ie tJ n s s e ih f h i to , nd p lu e D. J o vng o d moy'Pe'' ma Ap x21. p' ) Lasl alhought Guif dr co dsdo i ty, t he lor e r mpea h s eofD . ' t tm ony, heD a leCiyCic tCour c om R.S esi t nvil t rui t wasi t be tposton t e mi t wine sscrdi lt Atti ,D. wase r l r uca t tsiy ast n he s ii o xa ne he t s ' e biiy. ral R. xtemey el tnt o e tf o J s' acins bu s r peae y a kno edge a undesa ng t t s mus t lt tuh,a s eve one s to , t he e tdl c wl d n rtndi ha he t el he r t nd he n co r ced de e e c e by sai u qui aly,t tJ ss fnge di pe rt he vagi Tra Tr 30ret f ns ouns l ttng, ne voc l ha one ' i r d netae r na. il . 44, 1 7( etilc utto arc s atrD. iiil sr g ldt a s rteCo n at sq sin ,b twh n 0 Th ra o r o k e es fe R.ntal tu ge o n we h mmo we l uet s u e y h' o defns cou e sae t tJ sha plc hi ha t 'he prvae D. r po dt thehadacualyt e e ns l ttd ha one d a ed s nd l on' r i ts, R. es nde ha t l ouche d h rin' e p iae . D. as d srbe g n rle e t ta o c re o ted y o t sx a a sul , e al g e < 'h r rv ts) R. lo eci d e ea v ns h t c urd n h a s f he e u l sa t rc li i . s n detiss h a movisa t e son s al uc s e nd elvii howswac d,f e t n,a ge ala tviis the ood a e nd ner ci te . 8 Ra mus e a knowl d t ts co d notde e mi pr c s l wha t ofpe ta i ha s sn c edge ha he ul t r ne e ie y t ype ner ton d oc ured.Tra Tr 118 1 c r il . - 21. J ne alo c am s t t c r r t t si ony a ti l D. di not r po tt t J s o s s l i ha, onta y o e tm t ' a, R. d r e r ha one e ged i eiheror lorva na pe tai n i t Guif d r c ds Howe r D. saest t . nga n t a gi l ner to n he lor e or . ve , R. t t ha J ne E eld 'h r ma eh rGik' rG uc ' sp n s a dt a J n sma ehe lf h rfe o s fng re l' e, d e lc 'o t k'hi e i, n h t o e d r it e e t l s s t a h c ud tik g r t n sa d sik i u (el' Pe'' Ap x 1 - 5 Re ad e so o h t e o l G c he) hig n tù t p h r. trs p' 3 1 . g r ls f l ' s e i onsse y be we n t Guif d r or a D. ' t si o t r cor doe not om nc itnc t e he lor ec ds nd R.S e tm ny, he e d s s uppor J ne ' a l ga i t t s e i pea hm e a t t m a r of pe t a i n w oul ha t o s s le ton ha om m c nt s o he nne ne r t o d ve c nge t out omeoft til ha d he c he ra . La ty,J ne c l s t tdif r nc s i t medialr pors pr pa e by Dr Stnl sl o s oncude ha fe e e n he c e t e rd . n ey a Ntr e Ras s n s nd ls mus e how t t t t si ony wa unr ibl Ho ha he e tm s ela e. weve , be r yond hi own s c ncus y al gai ,J o l or le tons onesha notpr f r d a e de de onsr tng t tt dif r nc i s ofe e ny vi nce m ta i ha he fe e e s maeil S eNik ro v Le ,9 F.d 1 25 1 3 ( t Ci.1 9 )t% ae alg to ' o tra. e c e s n . e 71 2 1 , 1 5 4h r 9 2 l r le ains' f c nsiutonal e o tt i nor a e not s fcint gr nds f r ha as r if t peii ne mus pr fer r ufi e ou o be ele ; he tto r t of e ie et s p r h scams) F rh r t rp rsd n ta tal a pe rc nrd co y Dr vd nc o u po t i li .. u te, he e o t o o cu ly p a o ta itr : . St e r pored a t ara t 6 o' oc poston on D . .Shym e g N ur e R a m us e r pored anl y e t e t he cl k ii R' n, nd s s sn e t ahe l d t ra t 7 o'l k poston a s ani a t 6 o' oc poston.Tra Tr 11 1 a e ea t he c oc ii nd c ng t he cl k ii i l . 7- 8. Boh Cl i s B a C a e wiho me i. On ha as r viw ,t Supr m e Cour of t am nd r t ut rt be e e he e t Vigna h l ta n i e cam s tsid Src ln ' p eu iep o b c u eJ n sc ud n t r i i ed h t et r li aife tika d s rj d c r ng e a s o e o l o h s how t tt G uif d r c ds w e e m a e i l J s N o.CL 1 596,s i o a 3. The co t ha he lor e or r t r a . one , 2lp p. t ur ag e s be us J s has f ie t de ons r t t , i c r e , ca e one a l d o m t a e hat f ouns l m ove f r a ne t i l or e d o w ra s ubpoe d t Guif d r cor pro t ti l t o c e o t pr e ngswo d ha bee nae he lor e ds i r o ra , he ut om f he oc edi ul ve n 9 dif r n . The e or t sa e co ts r i wa not con r r t o a unr as fe e t r f e, he tt ur ' ulng s ta y o, r n e onabl e i e r tto o ,Sti kl ora urr as nt p e ai n f rc and, n le onabl dee mi ton oft f c s e tr na i he a t . V. Conc us on l i Fo t r s nssa e t c twilgr ntt m o i n t dimis Al cai sar wihout r he ea o t t d, he our l a he to o s s . l l m e t m e i..n a opdae o de wile e t sda rt A ppr t r r l ntr hi y. The Clr i die t d t s nd co e of t s m e a um opi on a a ompa ng ek s r ce o e pis hi mor nd ni nd cc nyi or rt pe ii de o ttonera t c t s ofr co d f r Re ponde . nd o o m el e r o s nt ENTER: sI d yo Oco e, 01 Thi Q' a f tb r2 7. Unied St t Diti tJ t aes src udge