Gladden v. Charlottesville VA Police Dept et al, No. 7:2016cv00519 - Document 41 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 6/9/2017. (slt)
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ek ' OF @ tu :1% e:ue uag: Fg: ) : A DFI IA V T A VI A N LED J uC 2 1 Uk 27 I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI CO URT CT FO R TH E W E STER N D I STR I O F W R G I I CT N A J BU$j o , KL /y j. . , .y j y . ROANOKE DI SI VI ON JAM AR ANTW AUN GLADDEN, Pl ntf , ai i f V. CHARLOTTESW LLE VA PO LI D EPT ,e al, CE t . Def nda s e nt . C i lA c i N o.7: 6- vvi t on 1 c 00519 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) M EM O R AN DU M O PI I N N O By: H on.Jackson L .K i ser Se or U nie St e D it i tJudge ni t d at s s r c J m a Ant t Gl dde aVigi a i t pr e ngpr K ,c a r wa m a n, r ni nma e oce di o omm e ed acvi rg s nc i l i ht . a to p ru n t 42U. C. 1 3.Plitf n me a d f n a t:h Ch ro ts le Vign a cin u s a t b S. j 98 anif n s s ee d n s t e al tevi , r ii, l Po ieDe rme tC e a t n '; sc rR. Ob r o z r. fc rJ S iz Dee tv T. lc pa t n r p rme f) Of e A. eh le i e . et ; tcie A. of Luc ;a t J as nd he ADE Ta k Fo ce Pli ifal st tt ofi e sus d e s i f c d i s r . a ntf lege ha he fc r e xce sve or e urng a r s i vi a i oft Fourh Ame r e t n olton he t ndme oft Unied St t sCo tt i De e nt fl nt he t a e nsiuton. f nda s ed m oto t dimi sa amoton f am o ede i t sae e ,a Pl i ifr s i ns o s s nd i or r fnie tt m nt nd antf e ponde wih d t a tonalf c s Tli m a t ri nQw rpe f di pos ton. A fe r vi w i t c pl i t 1de ddii a t . zs te s i or s ii 1 t r e e ng he om a n , ny a moott m oto f ramor de i t sa e s he i n o e fnie tt ment de Obe ho z r smoton t dim is a , ny r le ' i o s s , nd gr ntt ot rde e nt 'm o i t d s is a he he f nda s tons o im s . 1. Thecompl i al gest f l wi ant le he olo ng: Gladden v. Charlottesville VA Police Dept et al Iwa wih my 3 c lrn whe . .g t rObeh le)ake met se s t hi e d n . ofke r oz r s d o tp o to my ve ce 1 se p d o t, we t t ( e ba k o r q c r a u f hil. tp e u l n o t ) c f t a s q h he isr ce gnd wa i daey g a b d fo bel d i a c o e h l, n tu td a ) s mme itl r b e rm ln n h k od i take t t gr mdg) ml co d not brat J fj n o he ot , d ul e h. ADE Tas Fo c ... k re Doc. 41 1A Dr K co pl nt how e ri rf ly plade , m us behed t ls srngentsa dst n f m al o m ai , ve na tul e d t l o e s ti tndar ha or pla n sd atdb lwy r.Esel v Ga l, 29U. 9 ,1 6(9 6 ; e Fe R. v P. ( C$ l la igs edig rfe y a es tle . mbe 4 S. 7 0 1 7 ) se d. 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Def nda sfl motonst dimi sa a moto f ramor de t sa e e .I e nt ied i o s s nd in o e snie tt m nt n r po et t m oton f am or de i t sa e nt Pli iff rhe de c i t pe tne es ns o he i or e fnie t t me , antf u t r s rbed he ri nt e nt asf l s ve s olow : Of e Obe hol r pu m e i a c ke hol w ih hi a m a ot m y fc r r ze t n ho d t s r r md ne k/hr t neve r c ng f my ha oramsma ng .( atmptt c t oa, r ea hi or nds r ki >nq te o ar s o d ti me J s an)i d ae isic r a to t p tl s am re t r ean . u t g mme it n t t e cin o u l r n i a ound my t oa a t t o hi bod w eght agans me a we r hr t nd o hr w s y i i t nd i d aey we tca h n t t eg omd t sso c t myb c ) Of e mme itl n r s i g o h r t hi tma h o a k . fc r Obe hol r lyed on t of m e whie sil c i ng t s ez hi n m r ze a op l tl ontnui o que e s r tg e a o m y t oa ,i whih a t stm e i wa e r m ey ha d f m e i ht r r und hr t n c t hi i t s xte l r or t br a he. 1 w a begi i t l e c c ous s w he a num be of ç on o et s l ng o os ons i ne s m p r s l Doe'de eci s o J ' t tve f ADE Tas For e as a k c lo ppea e on t s ne a be rd he ce nd gun t phys c l a m a i i l pl ntkne s a f ton m y bod whie s ilon o i aly nd lc ous y a e nd ee y l tl my som a h wih Ofi e Obe hol rs n ' a ound my t oé . Al wih. t c t fc r r ze ' r r m hr t ong t s i ç ohn Doe' de e tves ofJ ad û l ' tci ADE T k For e,De eci s M ccal Set , s c t tve l, iz and Luca be t be s gun o come o ry agg e svewhe C ve l r si n vohn DoeDe e tve'pf tci ' J ADE Ta k Fo c satd t holr tf f,k ie l' Ag i Iwa o my s r e tre o l i nie nf gq' an, s n e l so c Eqbeiv dlblc e o tsih l a s mep it)s I s ta l t tma h. l le e a k d u l ty t o on g o wa n' be o g set a e he bovenn med J ADE Ta k For e me be sort J l Doe De e tves s c m r he om tci ' f e a t tme whe af t kneeorwhae rf r t tc ac s t he i n oo , t ve o ce ha ame down on t he bac ofm yhe d t ma my f cema c a twih t g o md.... k a o ke a ke ont c t he r t Bef r bei s tup,Of ie Obe hol rki ke m e a trlwa ar a bei o e ng a fc r r ze c d fe s le dy ng ha e by J ndld ADE Ta k For De e tves J l Does a c f ... Atno s ce t c i om nd ufed. tm e di Iof e a r as n f rt s i i d f r e o o hi nhum a a tck on m e.... ne ta I I. A. ' ' , Dee nt tldmoi t dimispurua t Rul 1 b)2)a ( ( .Onc a fnda s ie tons o s s s nt o e 2( ( nd b)6) e d fnd n r ie apes na j rs ito c alng t e Ru e1 ( )2 ,h pli tf be r t e ee a t as s ro l u idcin h l e md r l 2 b ( ) te anif as h e b r e o d mo tai pes na j s ito Co v. k e , 8 F. 6 3 6 6(t Ci. u d n f e nsrtng ro l mi dcin. mbs Ba k r 8 6 2d 7 , 7 4h r 1 8 ) Un e Rul 1 ( )6 , mu tds s a a to o cam fldb azimaei 1d tr n 9 9 . d r e 2 b () I s imis n cin r li e y l n t f ee mie t tt aci n o c am i fi o orf l t sa ea ca m on whih r le m a begr nt d e n ha he to r l i s rvol us ais o tt li c ei f y a e ve atra c pi ap an ifsfc lalg to sa tu .S e28U. C.j 1 5 e( ) fe c e t ng litf' a ma le ain s r e e S. j 91 ()2 , 1 5 b)1 .A co ai ne dsç s tal pli sae ntoft cai s ngt tt 91 A( ( ) mpl nt e 1 hor rd an ttme a he l m howi ha he pe d ri e tte t rle ' n s fce tçfa t a alg to . .oriearg t orle a o la e s n ild o eif a d ufiin G jcu l le ains . t as ih t eif b ve g tes e uai lve . .' BelAt. m . Two y 5 0U. 5 4 5 ( 0 7 (n en l h p c ltve e l . . l lCo v. mbl, 5 S. 4 , 55 2 0 ) itr a ' quot inmaksomitd) A pli ifsba i f rle C e r mor t lbel a ato r te . antf ss or eif G quies e han a s nd r c usons.... l The ef r ,apl i ifmus çal gef t s fc e t sae alt elm e s oncl i ' d. r o e ' antf t lle acs ufi i nt o t t 1 he e nt o gh qcam. Ba sv E.. p n d Ne u s& Co.3 4F.d7 , 6 ( t Ci. 0 3 . f t e li ' s . lDu o t e mo r ' , 2 3 61 7 5 4h r 2 0 ) Tosaeacli underj 1 apl ntf mus algethevi ai ofarghts c e by tt am 983, ai if t le s olton t i e ur d t Consiuto a l wsoft Unie Stt , nd m us s he tt i n nd a he td aes a t how t tt a lged de i ton wa ha he le prva i s c mmitdb ap r o a tn t e c lro saelw. W e t At i , 7U. 4 , 8( 9 8 . o te y e s n cig md r oo f tt a ' s v. kns 48 S. 2 4 1 8 ) ' Alhough Ilbe a l cons nz pr K c mplit, ie v. me, 0 U. 51 , 2 - ( 9 2 , t i r ly t e o o an s Han s Ke r 4 4 S. 9 5 0 21 1 7 ) . 1do no a ta a i t sa t c s n nma e' dvoc t ,s s nt de opi sa u o' and c tm tona cam s a e ua po e vel ng tt t l y onsi i l li no ce ryrie i ac mp an .S eBr c v. ro l 1 7F.d2 , 4 (t Ci.1 9 ) t lal as d n o lit e o k Car l, 0 3 41 2 3 4h r 9 7 ( ti, .c n u n ) Be u et Civo Hn tn, 75F.d 1 7 ,1 78( t Ci. 9 5 ; e Lu t J, o c ni g ; a d t v. t f mp o 7 2 2 4 2 4h r 1 8 ) s e g as Go d nv Le k , 7 F.d 1 4 1 5 ( t Ci.1 7 )(e og zngt a adsrc c t ts lo r o . e e 5 4 2 1 7, 1 1 4h r 9 8 rc nii h t itit ot i r no e pe tdt a sl ter l o a vo aef rap oK p ani . t x ce o st h oe f d c t o r lit/ me 1 J D E Ta k Fo ce . A s r TheJ ADE TakFor a g t ti i notaQ ron's j tt j 1 s ce r ues ha t s l s ' ubec o 983.A gr of pe oup pes n ,ieats f r eo o fc r fo v ro s urs ito ,sn tat e s n' u j c t 42 ro s l a k o c f fies r m a iu j idcins i o t ro 's b e t o k p U. C. 1 3.S e eg, i v Mih c nDe ' o S aePoie 4 U. 5 , 0( 9 9 ; S. j 98 e s ..W l . c ia pt f tt l , 91 S. 8 7 1 8 ) l c Fer on v. or an, o.1 90c cus M g N : v06318,1991 U . Di t LEX I 8295,a *3- 1 W L 11 S. s . S t 4, 991 5759, a * ( D. Y. un 2 1 91 (o ldngt a ag o p o p ro n l l eû dc l tf, i no t 1 S. N. J e 0, 9 ) c ncu i h t ru f es n e,i i ia saf' s t k me ' aG ron'f rpum os sofj 1 .Acc di y,Pli ifcamotpr e a i tt J ' s 'o pe e 983) or ngl antf r oce d gans he ADE Ta kFo c vi j1 a ismoint ds s i g a t s r e a 983, nd t to o imis s r ned. TheDe t e parm ht Th De a t n as ag e ta i i n taç ro ' u j c t j1 3.l f d rlc u t, e p rme t lo r u s h tt s o s s n's b e t o 98 n e ea o rs pe t ca ciy of a gove n e a body t be s d i gove ne by t l o t s a e i w li h t he pa t r m nt l o ue s r d he aw f he t t n lc he dsrc c u t is Fe R. v. 1 b ; e yv. zk Cn y.6 0F.d 1 1 1 3 1 ( t Ci. itit o r st. d. Ci P; 7() Av r Bl e t , 6 2 1 , 1 - 4 4h r r 1 81.çnVigni, no eai dviino ag v r me tl n iyc n o bes e t e ste 9 ) t r i a a p rtng i so f o e n n a e tt n n t u d mls h l lgil t r ha ve t d t ope ai di so wiht ca iyt bes d. M lni v. if e sa u e s se he r tng vii n t he pact o ue ' l z Faru ' Cny PoieDe tNo 10 CV4 6(CC) 20 5U. Dit LEXI 4 7 , t* 20 5W L t. lc p', . :5 6 J , 0 S. s. S 81 6 a 4, 0 1 3 3 6 a * ( D. . . , 0 5 (iigDa i V. t o Po tmo t , 7 F. u p.1 5 8 8 2 , t 2 E. Va Aug 2 2 0 ) ctn vs Ci f rs uh 5 9 S p 20 , v 1 0( D. .1 8 ) a fd 7 2F.d 1 48(t Ci.1 8 ).P an iff ist e tbiht t 21 E. Va 9 3 , f' , 4 2 4 4h r 9 4 ) litf al o sa ls ha et rt Comm onwe 1h ofVigi aort Ciy ofCha l ts lehasvesedt De rme ihe he at r ni he t rote vil t he pa t nt wih t c pa iy t bes d.2 A ccordi y,Pl n ifcn t he a c t o ue ngl aitf nnotpr e d a i tt De rme vi oc e gans he pa t nt a j1 andismoi t dimisi grnt 983, t ton o s s s a ed. B. Thec am st tObe hol r Set a Luca us e es i f r edtrng a a r t l i ha r ze , iz, nd s ed kc sve o c li n res i i ae t Fourh Am e e rg a ns u le ona es i e . Gr hn v.Co r 490 mplc t he t ndm nt i ht gai t ir as bl ezur s a m nno , U. 386,388( 989) l de di whehe aFourhAme me vi ai oc = e c ursmus S. 1 . n ci ng t r t nd nt olton c d, o t t 2Ftrher e, t c lt mor he ompli f l t saeacl m i vi ahn m pu s ntt e uton ofgovenme ant ais o tt ai nvol ng r r ua o xec i r nt p lc o c t m, ndr s o d a s p ro i n t n p ia evi j 1 8 . S e eM , o e l . p' o S c a S r s, o iy r uso a e p n e t u e i r s o i a pl bl a 9 3 e . - .M n l v De t f o il e v . c . 4 6U.. 5 , 9 (9 8 ; e as Do v Br d rc , 2 F.d4 0 4 6( t Ci. 0 0 (oigp lc ot r 3 S 6 8 6 4 1 7 ) se lo e . o eik 2 5 3 4 , 4 4h r 2 0 ) n t oie fkes n vi ato oft Fourh Ame ol in he t ndmentdoesnotgi rs t munii la lt whe et r c dco ansno e de e ve ie o cpalibiiy r he e or nt i vi nc ta tealg dd p iaino c re be a s o ac so .rpa tc) Catrv M ors 1 4F.d21 , 2 (t Ci. h th l e e rv t c urd c u e f u tm o rcie; re . ri, 6 3 5 2 0 4h r e o 1 9 )(oligta ai a e hitr 'o ioae icd nsd e n t sa l hamt cpa c so .Ac o dn l, 9 9 h dn h t t g r yoy' f s ltd n ie t o s o etbi me s mii l utm) c r igy tecamsa ah th De rme taeds se wi o t rj diepzs n t 42U. C. 1 3 h li g is te pat n r imisd t u p eu c l ua to h r S. j 98 . baa ethena u ea quaiy oft i r i o t i vi ' Fourh Am e e i e e t lnc t t t r nd lt he ntuson n he ndi duals t ndm nt nt r ss a is t i ra eo t eg v r me tln ee t alg dt j siyt itu in. Uni d gan the mpo tnc f h o e n n a itr ss l e o u tf he nr so ' t e ' e Sae v. a e 4 2U. 6 6 7 3( 9 3 .Ano fc rsa to aej d e b alo j ci tt s Plc , 6 S. 9 , 0 1 8 ) fie ' cins r u g d y l b e t ve sanda d bas d o t t a iy o t cicl sa es Gr hn ,490 U. a 397. Thepe s c i t r e n he otlt f he r lm t nc . a m S. t rpe tve i tofa r as s' e onabl ofk e on t s ne, a he t n w ih t 20/ vi i ofhi i 'be aus e t r he ce r t r ha t he 20 s on nds ght' c e t lc o fc r aeo tn fr e t ma es ltsc ndj d me t - i cr l tn e ta ae l ie fies r fe o c d o k p i e o u g n s n icl a c s h t r po ms t ns ,unc t n a r pi y e vi - a e e erai nd a dl vol ng boutt a omtoff c t ti ne es a y i apa tc a he m l or e ha s c s r n riul r st ton. I a 396- Thus ac t us c i rG hes veiy oft c i a i s ,wheher iua i ' d. t ' 97. , our m t onsde s e lt t he rme t s ue t t s pe tpos a i ed a et ea t t s f t oft ofk e sorot s a whehe hei he us c es n mm i t hr t o he a ey he t r her , nd t r s a tve y r s s i a r s - I c i l e itng r e t' d. ' Se t & Luca iz s Thepe tne ale ton i vi Set a Luca wer t tt C s it d' Obe hole ri nt l gai nvol ng iz nd s e ha hey i sse ' r z r a wih r sr ni Pl ntf a trObe hol ra r a ha Pl i ifpim e o t gr t e tai ng ai if fe r ze le dy d anif r d n he ound i ac n hoke hol Pl ntf ca ii i li s e e t tSet a Luc bec m eG ry a es i 'whe d. ai if lrfes n ls upplm nt ha iz nd as a ç l ggr sve' ove n a ofi rye l G f ,kniel'Ther la on lbe sa co l i oft ry- r sve' n tce led,l e f ' Kni e ince a l nd ncusons t l agg es i ' ove t de c i Set sa Luc 'a l d c o s rbe iz' nd as lege onduc doe nota uael des rbeavi a i ofa t s deq t y c i olton Fourh A m e t ndm e i e es r l tve t gove n e a i e ess A c r i y,Se zts a Luca ' nt nt r t e a i o r m nt l nt r t . co d ngl i ' nd s m o i nst di m i s m us be gr nt to o s s t a ed. 2. Obe hol er r z Obe hol er sm o i n t di m i sm us be de e Ba e on vi w i t alega i a t e a r z ' to o s s t ni d. s d e ng he l tons s nz nd i alg m os f vor bl t Pl i if t c n i ht t a a e o antf ,he ompli ,a s e nt d,saesavi a i oft ant s uppl me e tt olton he Fourh A m e t ndm e tby O be hol e . D urng a t a f c s op noti vi ft n m sorna c i s n r zr i r fi t nvol ng i e r r otc , Pl i ifpe e u l co ple w ih Obe hol e ' i t u i t e tt ve c e wal t t bac a ntf ac f ly m i d t r z r s ns r ctons o xi he hi l , k o he k oft c r a t n t r hi ba k t Obehol r he a , nd he ' n s c o u r ze .OncePli tf t r d A y fo Obe hol ra a n if u ne wa r m r ze s i t u t d,Obe hol e al ge y be n c ki Pli iffom be ûnd wihou pr a i or nsr c e r z r le dl ga ho ng antf ' r l t t ovoc ton wa i ne ra tmpt t r sr n Pli ipsha , he Pli ift t gr m ng, ve te ed o e tai antf nds pus d antf o hç ound, and c i ue t c ontn d o hokePl i ift i Pli tf bega t l e, di l e co c ous s . Onc ot r antf mtl a n if n o os or d os , ns i ne s e he ofie shadr sr ne Pl i ifa s thi uprg ,Obe hol ral gedl l ke Pli if ' fc r e tai d antf nd a m i ht r ze le y dc d antf lnne es a iy.Asaco eq nc ofObe hole ' f c Pl i ifs f m da c ppe fon t h, l c s rl ns ue e r z r s or e, antf ufe hi d r t 00t adil aed s ul r a ac ne hi rghte teaedwih sic s Ac or ngl soc t ho de , nd ut ar s i ye r t t tt he . c di y, Obehol rsm oton t dim isi de ed,al Obe hole s lfl am oton f sl a y r ze ' i o s s s ni fd r z r hal ie i or lmm r j d me t u p re b afd vts p ru n t Sa dngOrr201 - . u g n s p o td y fi a it) u s a t o tn i e 3 6 11 1. Fort f egoi r a o ,lde a moott m o i f am o ede i t sa e nta he or ng e s ns ny s he ton or r fnie t t me nd gr ntalde e a l f ndant motonst dim isexc ptf rObe hole ' moton. Obe hol e wilfl a s' i o s s e o r z rs i r z r l ie moinf rs mmayj dg n wihnt it d y . to o u r u me t t i hry a s ENTER:Thi e- da ofJme 201 - y t , 7. ( S ri Unied St t ' i t i tJ lpr t a es sr c udge