Hill v. Clarke, No. 7:2016cv00514 - Document 19 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 10/19/2017. (tvt)
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rLERK' OFFI u.s. sm couRT : QE Dl . AT I F LL ,vA M NVI E I ED L I TH E UN I ED STATE S D I N T STRI T C O U RT C FO R TH E W E STERN D I STR I O F V I G I A CT R NI R O A N O K E DIV I N SIO K EI LA M ON TE H I TH LL, 0CT 19 2 1 27 J l buDt c RK u Ac a uv, kmz CLE DEPUW CA SE N O .7: 16CV 00514 Pe ii r t tone , M EM O R AN D U M O PI I N N O H AROLD W .CLARKE, By:Hon. ks L.Kier Jac on s Seni U ni ed St or t atesD i ri Judge st ct R espondent . K e t La ont Hil a V igi a i a e pr e ng pr K ,tmel fld apeii f a wrt ih m e l, r ni nm t oc edi o i y ie tton or i . o h be sc pu , u s n t 2 U. C. 2 5 , h l ngngtevai i o Hi ' c ni e n o f a a o s p rua t o 8 S. j 2 4 c al i h ldt f l s o fn me t n e y l aj d me ti Ca b l Co ny Cic i Co r. Re po e ttld amoin t ds s,a d Hil u g n n mp el u t r ut u t s nd n qe to o imis n l f ie t r pond,ma ng t m a trrpe f d s ii Afe r vi oft r co d,Igr ntt al d o es ki he te i or iposton. tr e ew he e r a he m otont dimisa dimi st peii n. i o s s nd s s he tto B ackground A Ca b l Co n y j r c n ce Hi o b r lr g a d lre y, c n pia y mp el u t u y o vitd l f u gay, rn ac n o s rc , l de tuc i ofpr ry,a pos e son ofbur l r t s The cr ui c ts nt nc d hi t a sr ton ope t nd s s i g a y ool . ic t our e e e m o s xt one yea prs t l . ip r i on e ' m I Hilsr l t Fr nkln Co yha aspe ii n,Ie t bls dt f l ng f c s n l' e aed a i unt be tto sa ihe he olowi a t : On t m ol ng of J y 5,201 Roc M ount Food Li e oye s he mi ul 0, ky on mpl e a rved a wor t dic rt tabr ak-n had oc red ove ni . A bu glrha ri t k o s ove ha e i cu r r ght z a d c a e r hol i o t ba k wal,a t t e had soln $5, ofc ga e ts ut n nty- e nt he c l nd he hi f te 692 i r te . The sor s r ilnc ca r sc ptr amae wio ftHilsdesrpton i i t e u vela e me a a ued l i l' ci i nsde Hill v. Clarke t sor ,hol ng a bag,a g ng t va i cga ete dipe i l to . he t e di nd oi o rous i r ' s nsng ocai ns t Em pl e c l d t l a polce who bega i tga i oye s ale he oc l i , n nvesi tng. Ont m or ng ofAug t1 201 t owne oft Luc 2 M a t l t d he ni us , 0, he r he ky r, ocae i t s he n par of Fr rkln Cot t di c r d t t s e n he out r t al i m y, s oke e ha om one ha c a d ut n Doc. 19 e r hol it t ba k wal of hi sor a a c d wih $1 000 of nty- e n o he c l s t e nd bs onde t 8, c ga e t s U nf t e y,t s v il e cn e a a m o i de e or w e e not i r te . orunat l he ur e lanc m r s nd ton t ct s r n oc ie n nve tga i functoni 1 A gai ,l alpolc bega i s i tng. i ng. 1Ther co d i u e ro whehe t m oton dee o sw eedia e , orbr n. e r s ncla n t r he i tctr r s bld oke 1 Dockets.Justia.com On Augus 8, 201 Lt M a vil o t Bo e our Count She ifs t 0, . nde le f he t t t y rf De rm e r s nde t a c l fom 60 M i e M a ke r a d ng a br a i pa t nt e po d o a l r 4 nut r t eg r i e k-n a tmpt Pr i i r i si ton di notr vea a s pe t , b tar und t s te . elm na y nve tgai hi d e l ny us c s2 u o tm e,Bot t tCo y of e sdic r d t tsmia bur a i ,wih t s me i eour unt ic r s ove e ha i lr glres t he a l y ankln unt modu o r 3 ha oc ur ed i Ca pbe l Count , Fr i Co y,and t s pe andi d c r n m he Ciyo Ly c b r A mut-t id ci n lc o rt iv siainb g n. t f n h u g. li l s ito a, o peai n e tg to e a jr ve O n Se e ber 4, 2010, Bot t t Count D e y Bnl s o d a pt m e our y put ce t ppe s pii usve c e i t Gr e y M a ke par ng l ,l ng a trt sor ha us c o hil n he e nwa r t ki ot o fe he t e d cl e H o s l t r Gr nw a M a ke e pl s r por e a s pi i m a t t os d. ur a e , ee y r t m oyee e t d us c ous n ha c am e t be fo t sor s s urt pr de ,butt i vi l lf be or li d o ' m he t e' ec iy ovi r r he ndi dua e t f e G r e a M a ke e pl e phone polc .4 e nw y r t m oye s d ie On Se e r9,201 Lt M a pt mbe 0, . ndevil obt i s ve la e f t ge fom le aned ur ilnc oo a r e nw y r t n he e t 604 M i e M a ke 5 a d G r e a M a ke . l t Gr enw a M a ke he nut r t n y r t s r ilncet pe, he s pi ousm a who cli e t bef o t sor ss u iy u vela a t us ci n, am d o r m he t e' ec rt pr d ,pl e t pe ove s cziy moton s ns r . Lt M a vil sr y ovi er ac d a r e lrt i e os . nde le tongl s pe t t tt vi osfo t t sor ss us ced ha he de r m he wo t e howe t s m e i vi l ablc d he a ndi dua : a k m aem a c ng Hilsde c i i l t hi l' s rpton. O n Se e be 1 201 D e y Bnz i o m e Lt M a vil a pt m r 0, 0, put ce nf r d . nde le boutt he s pi i us c ous ve cl i t Gr e y M ar pa ki l , a t r afe Lt hi e n he e nwa ket r ng ot nd he e tr . M a vil obt i t lce e a DM V i or ai n on t t bl k m a e nde le aned he i ns nd nf m to he wo ac ls t t De y Br e ha sopped o t mor ng of Se e r 4, 2010. Lt ha put uc d t n he ni pt mbe . M a vil t n c nde le he ompar d t DM V pho os wih t s v il e f a Lt e he t t he ur e lanc oot ge; . M a d vi eb le e t a o e o t eb b k mae fo t pakng 1tso Hil n e l eiv d h t n f h lc ls r m he r i o tp, l, l w ast s m e bl k m a e w ho a a e i t 604 M i e M a ke a G r e y he n ac l ppe r d n he nut r t nd e nwa M a ke s ve la vi . r t ur il nce deos Aferadd to lDM V s a c s Lt M a vil dico r d HilsBedf r t ii na e r he , . nde le s ve e l' od a e s a hi owne s p ofa 2003 Che olt Lt M a vil c ule wih ddr s nd s rhi vr e . . nde le ons t d t t Com m onw e lh' A to ne a he a t s t r y bout a t hi a GPS de c t Hil s ve c e tac ng vi e o l' hi l , a t Co monwe t s Ator y a s t t a s a c wa r nt wa nd he m alh' t ne dvied ha e rh ra s ur e e s r The c r lng pr ce nta t tm e Folz v.Com m o alh,698 m c s a y. ont oli e de t he i , t nwe t S. 2 2 1 ( .Ct Ap 2 0 ,sae ta te p a e n o a GPS u i o a E.d 8 Va . p. 01 ) ttd h t h lc me t f nt n ve cedi no c tm t as a c ors i e.Lt M a vil die t d Bott t hi l d t onsi e e r h ezur . nde le r c e e our 2Thec e i Fr nkln Co t we c d d i t s m e of201 . as s n a i uny nt ol urng he um r 0 3The bur a a r d t i s 'hi br k-ns cu a e rp hol i t r a ofsor si t e ry hotr of glr ppea e o û e' s ea i , t n nt ca e n he e r t e n he a l ls t mor ng, ndexcl i l sol ci r te . he ni a usvey t e ga ets 4Empl sfl ar por wih Bot ou tpolc ahert m a lf t sor . oyee ied e t t et r ie he n e the t e 5The 604 M i e M a ke s v lanc f a wa 9om Augus 1 2010. The vi o was obti d by nut r t ur eil e ootge s t , de ane Bott tofi r a trM i e M ake e o eour fce s fe nut r t mplyeeshea d a tt s pi o eve sa Grenwa M a ke,a t n r bou he us cius nt t e y r t nd he r me r d a smia l s pii e e mbe e i lry us cous venta t rsor i ea l Augus. Thes velanc vi otpe s t hei t e n ry t ur il e de a howe a ma d n whoCa p ae t b c sn Eh MiueMakel . .mesn ao n 'b teb c wal ftesoenertep r o s p e rd o e a ig te n t r t' . S sig ru d y h a k lo h tr a h at f l t wal whe et atm ptd br k-n oc redaw e k ltr' Hilv.Co m onw e lh,201 W L 4773583,201 V a he l r he te e ea i cu r e ae . l ' m at 2 2 . Ap LEXI 31 a *1 ( . . p. 01 ) p. S 8,t 2 Va CtAp 2 2 . 2 pt m r 6 De y Dil t plce a GPS on Hils ve ce. On Se e be 1 , 201 put low o a l' hi l 6 0, De y Dil ta l d t t ciy o Be or l a e t Che oltouti of put low r ve e o he t f df d, oc t d he vr e sde Hilsho e,a at c d t GPS l i on o t unde c ri ge o Hilsve ce a l' m nd ta he he m t t he r a ra f l' hi l t a oxi a ey 4: A. . The GPS de ce r mai d a tc d t Hils ve ce ppr m t l 30 M vi e ne ta he o l' hi l untlSe embe 27, i pt r 2010. On or a bout Se e be 21 201 Lt M a e le m e wih Ca pt m r , 0, . nd vil t t mpbel l Count I s i t Tr y Em e s n t r vi Bo e o ut Coun y s v la e y nve tga or ac r o o e ew ttt' t ur eil nc vi os be aus Em e s s pe t d t tH ilw m t c prtf r s m ia Cn pbe l de , c e r on us c e ha l s he ul i o i l r m l Cot y br a i . I tga o s i ta l c d notco e ta ge a y ve ces mt e k-ns nvesi t r niily oul ml c ny t wa hi l t Hil howe , Em e s dic r d t t Hil ha r nt d a sl r o gr y o l; ver r on s ove e ha l d e e ive r a Che ol tHHR fom a ca r nt lc m pa s ver ltm e i m on hs pror a a vr e r r e a o ny e a i s n t i , nd s m ia ve c e a i l r hi l ppea e i s e oft s we la t pe . r d n om he ul il nce a s On t mor ng of Se t m be 27,201 a Ca he ni pe r 0, mpbel Count Food Li l y on r po d a br a i w he e a e r hol ha be n c i o t ba k w a l of t e de e k-n r n nty- e d e ut nt he c l he 1 Em e s n c le Lt M a vil , ho s r d a l d . nde le w s or ,a c ga e t sha be n s ol n. t e nd i r t e d e t e ro ha e GPS da a s t howi t tHils ve ce ha be n i t Food Li n pa ki 1 f r ng ha l' hi l d e n he o r ng ot o ove a hour e r i r t t m or ng. I ve t g t s w or d on obt i ng s a c r n a le ha ni n s i a or ke a ni e r h wa r nt f Hils ve ce a home. La e t tda Ca pbel Co y ofi r ra s or l' hi l nd t r ha y, m l unt fce s c a t d t Be or Polc De rm e t s tup s v ilnc o Hils ve ce ont c e he df d i e pa t nt o e ur e la e f l' hi l a coo di t a a r s . Be or of e st n f l d Hila as oc ae Tr nd r na e n re t df d fc r he olowe l nd s i t oy Bl ke whe t y l f H ils hous Polc f gnd s ol n c ga e t s w he t y a n he e t l ' e. ie o t e i r te n he soppe t ve cl i l ng ca t i t bac s a of t ve cl poory t d he hi e, ncudi rons n he k et he hi e l co e e by be ng,a ofi e s t Hil a Blke i o c t y. Afe nc ald ddi nd fc r ook l nd a nt us od tr ofi e s a s t m o t i M ia fc r dvied he f her r nda rght, Blke ga a f l sae e i s a ve ' t tm nt ul i i a i bot Hila hi s fi t Fr nkln Count bur a is a Hilalo mplc tng h l nd m el n he a i y glre , nd l s admitd i ve e i t Fr nkln Coun y c i e . te nvol m nt n he a i t rm s Hilv.Clr No.7: 5 l a ke, 1 CV00201 201 W L 7031 , 6 803,201 U . Dit LEXI 1 6 S. s . S 65655,a *1 6 t - ( . Va De .1 2 6 . W D. . c , 01 ) Afe t Ca tr he mpbel Count Cic tCo tss nt i Hilnot d a a alt t Cour l y r ui ur ' e encng, l e n ppe o he t ofAppe l ofVigi a Howe r be o eflnghi a la e b i f Hilfl apr î pe ii n f as r ni , ve , f r i s ppelt re , l ied o . tto or q . a wrto ha asc pusi t cic tc t as e tng t tevi nce de i d fom t GPS s d i f be or n he r ui our, s ri ha de rke r he houl ha be n e l d. The c r ui c tde e t ha a pe ii a Hildi nota alt ve e xc ude ic t our ni d he be s tton, nd l d ppe he di m i s l s sa. 6Ther or s ec d howst tnow ar ntw a obt nedf rt GPS a tchm e , a t tno e ge crum sa s ha ra s ai o he ta nt nd ha xi nt ic tnce exitd a t tm e se t he i . 1Be or t br k-n r por, dla e fre n a to ie fo sxj rs ito ssh due ame t gfr f e he ea i e t tjw n oc me t uh rt s r m i u idcin c e ld g i ei o n Se tmb r2 2 l t dsu sterltdc ss' Hil . mmo we l No 1411 - , t ( . r CtOc. 9, pe e 7, 0 0,o ic s h eae ae - lv Co n at . 5 -2 3 a 2 Va Ci. . t2 ' h, 2 3. 01 ) 3 Ne ,Hil pm s d diec ap a s but b0 h t Coul of Appe l o Vig ni a t xt l ue r t pe l, t he ' t a s f r i a nd he Supr m e Cour ofV igi a de ed hi pe ii ns8 Hil s e t r ni ni s tto . l oughtf rhe r viw,butt Unie ut r e e he td St t Supr m e C o tde e hi pe ii n f a wr tofc r i a i La ty,H ilfl d a s a e ha s a es e ur ni d s tt o or i e tor r . s l l ie t t bea pe ii n i t Supr m eCour ofVigi a r ii f ure n cli s t c tde e hi pe ii tto n he e t r ni , a sng o te am ; he oui nid s tton. I. I Cur ntCl i s re am I hi c r ntpeii Hila s rst f l ng f t n cai s n s ure tton, l s e t he olowi ouree l m . Subs antv Cl ms t i e ai Hilsd tn in i u lwf 1 n e teFout Ame d n a Aril 1 j 1 9 l' ee to s n a u u d r h t' h n me t nd t e , 0 c o t e Co siuin i l h o Untd S ae v.J ne ,5 U. 4 0 (01 ) f h n ttto n i t f ie tts o s 65 S. 0 2 2 , g gi n t wa r nte s i t lato ofa OPS de c on hi prvae ve c e by ve he ra ls nsal i n vie s i t hi l 1w e or me t gaheri or ton. The Bott ur of er we e r quie a nf ce nt o t nf ma i e o t fc s r e r d t s m e a wa r ntorco tor r bu di ne t r The go r ntca o ec ra ur de , t d ihe . ve nme nnot r l on t good f t e e i t t wa r nt r uie e be a e t ey he aih xc pton o he r a eq r m nt c us he of r we e note fce s r ngage i t lwf lpe f ma e oft i ofii ldute . d n he a u ror nc her fc a is The wee a tng t a ul,o tie t i sau o y jlid cin. Alo te y r ci mlwf ly usd her ttt r t s ito r s, h Cour ofAppe s of Vig ni di no r l on t good f ih e e i i is t al r i a d t ey he at xc pton n t opi on; ni The Bo e o tCot y ofi r ' c uc i pl cng t GPS on t c r wa t t ur mt fce s ond t n a i he he a s unl wf a vi a e Hils due pr es rght unde t Fourh a a ul nd olt d l' oc s i s r he t nd Foure ni Ame te h ndme t. The of r 'cond twa o rgeo whe t y ns fces uc s uta us n he 8W hiehi die ta a w a pe ng, Hi as su h p ei naya dj nna e tnu cin i tecrut l s r c ppe l s ndi l lo o g t rl r n e nn ijnto sn h ici l mi c ' bohw e ede e i M achandM a of2013.TheSupr Cour ofV igl altrdim is Hilsappe of our; t r nid n r t y eme t r ni ae s sed l' al teijncind nil nAu ut1 , 01 . h n u to e a o g s 9 2 3 ' 9Ari e 1 j 1 o t e Co si to p o i ist sae fo e e csn c ran p we s icudn b lso tcl , 0 f h n t u in r h b t he tt s r m x r ii g e ti o r , n l i g il f t a t nde a e po tf t lw s tai r nd x s aco a . 4 t mpe e wih hi ve ce, e ge i c i i l c pia y,a c n r d t s hi l nga d n rm na ons r c nd omput r e cri es; m 3. Hils de e i i unlwf unde t Fourh a Foure nt Ame e t l' t nton s a ul r he t nd te h ndm n s bec us t Bott tCount s rf s de i s aced outi t i saut y a e he e our y he if pute t sde her t t or j rs ito a t rf r v oae t et oo o ofc d ti . P ru n t u idcin nd heeo e i ltd h i lr f fie ocrne' u s a t o c ' t a d crne p lc a t g o ti eterj rs ito b tn ti fe hp rut h t o ti , oie ci u sd h i u id cin, u o n ' s u s i, n r m a no u ii t powe o t i ofi e t ga he e de e or f re o y t tlze he r f her fc o t r vi nc e r t ut c i i la tviy no ot r s obs r a e; rm na c i t t he wi e e v bl 4. Hils de e i i unlwf unde t Foulh a Foure nt Ame e s l' t nton s a ul r he ' nd t te h ndm nt be a e hi s o and a r t i t Ciy of Bedf r r l t d bac t c us s tp r es n he t o d eae k o c tt i na vi a i i ta e o Se e r 1 2010,t da e t t t onsi o l oltons niit d n pt mbe 6, m he t ha he Bo e o tof r at c t GPS de c t Hils c r Hi are t wa a t t ur fce s ta hed he vie o l' a . s r s s c i to of t c tm to lvi a i s t i m o i on Se e r 1 ontnuai n he ons i i na oltons è n ton pt mbe 6, 201 Al o,t Comm onweat d d no a gue t tt of e s ha pr bl 0. s he lh i t r ha he sc r d oba e c u et ars Hil i se d t Couto Ap asij ce ta c n lso i a s o re t l; n ta , he t' f pe l n e td h t o cu in n isnon- ndi pe c i m or r t bi ng, r ura de ; 5. Hils de e to i unl u unde t Si h Ame e be us t ti l l' t n i n s awf l r he xt ndm nt ca e he ra c tde e hi t rghtt c l f e de e fom a m ae i lwine s J l our ni d m he i o al or vi nc r tra t s , oe Br ns om ,t Com m on ea t s Ator y f Bot t tCot y. H il s a c he w lh' t ne or e our mt l ought t tm ony f om Br ns om ,a ç ine s' t t c i i l a t c tt i l es i r a c l t s ' o he rm na nd m ons iutona w a t of t de i s H ilt r uie a e de i r he rng t r ol t c s he pute . l hus eq r s n vi nta y a i o es ve he c am ' li , 5 Hils dee i i unl wf unde t Fo te h Am e l' tnton s a ul r he ure nt ndme bec us t nt a e he Aug t22,2011 Ca us mpbel Co y Cic t Co to de wa voi s h t t l unt r ui ur r r s d, uc ha t r w a no nee t pr e ve t is on a a . Voi o d s ca be he e s d o es r he s ue ppe l d r er n c alng d a a y tme Th til u g k e o t evo ai n c mmitdb h le e t n i . e ra j d e n w f h ilto s o te y t Bot t t of e s Bec us t ör r i voi by vi he eouf fc r . a e he de s d, due of t J nes he o opi on, he t i lc ts r lng i i ohs s e w ih d pr es 'a ni t ra our ' u i s nc it nt t ue oc s nd , Hils deen i i unl wf t r t Fourh a Fo e nt Am e l' t ton s a ul mde he t nd urte h ndme s nt b c u e a s n t GPS d t,aj r mih n th ve ifre t a Hilwa e a s , b e t he aa uy g t o a n er d h t l s i ve i t Food Li br a i N o one s w H il br a i o t Food nvol d n he on e k-n. a l e k nt he Li n. The e de lnki H ilt t Food Li c i e w as not sr ng,1 t o vi nce i ng l o he on rm s to e al ove whem i The GPS daa wase s nta a t tilc te r i one r l ng. t s e i l nd he ra our red n ad itng i. m ti t B l efcieAs itn eo u s l lfll nfe tv ssa c fco n e C/ ?u o r ç A .Appela e c lt ouns lf ie t c le t s a c i t sae a lt c t e al d o ha lnge he e r h n he t t ppela e ours ba e on a r a ona e e pe t ton o prvac a sa e i K a z v. U nie sd e s bl x c a i f i y s t t d n t td S ae ,3 9U. 3 7 ( 9 7 ,Saev. h ,2 2 S. 1 ,20 2 W L 8 2 0 tts 8 S. 4 1 6 ) tt Za n 01 D. 9 1 677 ( S. 2 2 , ie S ae v M a n r , 5 F. 5 4( C.Ci. 0 , n D. D. 01 ) Un td tts . y a d 61 3d 4 D. r 201 ) a d ot r c e Co el f l d t a he as s. uns aie o dequa el pur ue a a g e ba e on ty s n r um nt s d outage polce c r ous i onduc ; t B . Appe l t c la e ouns l f l d t a gue as diec e by H il t t H il s Fouree h e aie o r , r td l, ha l' t nt Ame e rght l ndm nt i s s rt docrne o f me a f i e sm a t d by unde he ti f unda nt l am s nda e t d pr e s c a e ' ha be n vi a e by t Bot t t o f c r , who he ue oc s l us ' d e ol t d he e our f i e s 1 I hi petton, Hil it dh si e fc iea ssa c c amsa 1 , , c 4 , e 6 a d 7 .1h v o d r d 0 n s ii l l e i n fe tv s itn e li s a 2b 3 , d 5 , : n g a e r e e s t cl msa cor ngt t i a s it lte f rclrt andditnc i 9om hi s t i cli . he ai c di o her s ocaed e tr o a iy si ton s ubsantve ams c mitd muli ec i na acsag ns Hildurngt c s oft i il ga om te tpl rmi l t ai t l i he our e her le l i s i ton. Unde t t doc rne, o r eo go r m e c nve tga i r ha ti ut ag us ve n nt onduc ha t s wa r nt d dim is lofi cm e s ra e s s a ndi t nt' , Appela e c lt ouns l de pie e e si tuci nsfom Hil f ie t a g t t e , s t xpr s nsr to r l, a ld o r ue ha Hils Foprh a Fou ee h Am e l' t nd rt nt ndme rght ha be n i rnged by nt i s d e nfi vi a i oft tunde col ofo fc doc rne'by Bo e o tCount o fc as olton he s r or fi e ti ' t t ur y fi i l. Co elf ie t pr s t physc tes s a r as bl e c ai of uns a ld o e s he ial r pas nd e ona e xpe t ton pr va y a gum en s a w e la o r ge gove nm e tco uc . Co elf ie i c r t , s l s ut a ous r n nd t uns a l d t pr s a gum e s t tH ils a r s w a il ga ,and f i of t il ga a r s o es r nt ha l' r e t s le l nlt he le l r e t s dha bee s e s houl ve n uppr s ed; D.Appela e c lt ouns lf l t a g i t Co to Appe l a t Supr m e e aied o r ue n he ur f a s nd he e Cour ofVig ni t t a e t Cour ofAppeas r or t t i pe nt t r i a ha , bs nt he t l' es t o he nde nde s ur e doc r ne,no pr ba e ca e e s e f t B e o d Polc t s op a o c ti o bl us xi t d or he df r i e o t nd a r t Hil i Be or o Se e r 27, 2010. The i pe nt s c res l n df d n pt mbe nde nde our e d crn wa ij ce it t ec s b t eCo r of p aso Vign a o tie s n e td n o h a e y h u t Ap e l f r ii; Appel t c lae ouns lf ie t a gue t tt tilc ter d i qua hi Hils e al d o r ha he ra our r e n s ng l' s poe r ub na eque tf Com m onwea t sAt o ne J elBr ns om ; s or lh' t r y o a c F. Appel t c elf ie t a gue i t Cour ofAppe s a t Supr me la e ouns a ld o r n he t al nd he e Cour ofVigi at tt ti c ts a s i ofe de ob ai d by us t r ni ha he ral our' dmison vi nce t ne e of t GPS de c w a no ha m l s e r r The s a z f r ha e s e or he vi e s t r es r o , t nda d o nnl s n' w oul ha be n ha m l sbe d ve e r es yond a r s na e do ;a ea o bl ubt nd G.Appe lt c la e ouns lf ie t a guet tt i pe n s cedocrnewasno e a ld o r ha he nde nde t our ti t a i bl t t f c si Hilsc s The is wa r ied f t fr ttm ei pplca e o he a t n l' a e. s ue s a s or he s i n t Cour ofAppe l . Couns s ul ha a gue t tt hit rc r co d he t as el ho d ve r d ha he so ial e r di nots d uppor a i a i oft i pe nts ur edoc rne. t pplc ton he nde nde o c ti Res ponde a kno e s t t Hils peii i tm ey and pr ry e use but nt c wl dge ha l' tton s i l ope l xha t d, m ove t dimishi c am saspr ed al bar d a orwihoutm e i. s o s s s li oc ur ly re nd/ t rt 11 1. Di si scus on W. Sa d r o ve tn a d fRe iw To obt n f r ha s r i ,a peii r mus de ai ede al bea elef ttone t monsr t t the i çi c t y i ta e ha s sn usod n v oain o t eCo ttto o lwso te te o teUntd S ae . 28U. C. 2 5 ( . Th i lto f h nsi in r a r rais f h ie tts' u ' S. j 2 4/) e f de a ha sco tm a no g a awrtofha sc pusbas on a c am t ta sa e c t e r l bea ur y t r nt i bea or ed ny l i ha tt our d cd do t emeisu ls t a a j dc to . e ie n h rt n e s h t du iain. ()Reule i ade sont twa c ntayt ori ve a t e ona e 1 s td n cii ha s o rr o, nvol d n mr as bl a i to of c ea l es a i he Fe r ll w ,a de e m i d by t Su e e pplca i n , l ry t bls d de a a s t r ne he pr m Co toft U nie St t s or ur he t d a e ; ()Reul d i ad cso t t sb sd o a t e s n b ed tnn n to o t 2 s t n e iin ha wa a e n n mr a o a l ee i ai n f he e f csi lghto t e de epr e e i t Stt co tpr ee ng. a t n i f he vi nc es ntd n he a e ur oc di 28U.. j2 4( . C h r , sh r , h saec u t a p iain o g v r i f d rl1w i SC. 25 * s ee a e e t e tt o r' p lc to f o enng e ea a s W s / c aln e , i mu t be s o t b n t o y e on o s b t o j ciey u r a o bl. h le g d t s h wn o e o nl n e u , u b e tv l n e s na e' ' Yabo o g v. Ge tv 5 0 r ruh nr, 4 5 ( 0 ) Und r t i sa d r , ç a sae c u ts 20 3 . e h s tn a d $ ) tt o r' E de e na i t t a cai l c m e i pr l t nni ton ha l m a ks rt ecudes f de a ha s r if s l a çai- nde e r l bea ele o ong s f rmi d j rssc ud d s g e 'o t e c re t s o te sae c u tsd cso ' Harn tn v. c tr u it o l ia r e n h o rcne s f h tt o r' e iin. rigo Rih e, ' 5 2U. 8 , 0 ( 01 )( u tn Yabo o hv. v r d , 41U. 6 2, 6 ( 0 4 ) 6 S. 6 1 1 2 1 q o ig r r ug Ala a o 5 S. 5 6 4 2 0 ). To sae a c tt i na cam f i fe tve as itnc of c el a peii ne m us tt onsiuto l li or ne f c i ssa e ouns , tto r t s tsy t t pr nge Stiklnd v. W ahi t ts by s wi ( ) çha c e' aif he wo- o d rc a s ncon et ho ng 1 s t ouns ls t p ro n e wa d fce t'a d ( )Sh tt e d fce tp ro ma c p eu ie t e d fn e' ef nna c s eiin , n 2 ç a h e iin e fr n e rj dc d h e e s . ' t ' 466 U. 668,686- ( 984) (udiilsr tny of c ms ls peror nc mus be hi y S. 687 1 . t ca c ui l ot e' f ma e t ghl de e e i l' a c f r nta , nd ouns li t m it t s tpr orte ,de e m i t i l s r t gy,a pr s t e ' e ss per ted o e i ii s t r ne ra t a e nd e s hos 8 1 cai wih t g ea e tc nc ofs ce s' I a 689;Unie St t sv.M a o 774 F. 8 l ms t he r t s ha es uc s . d. t ' td ae s n, 3d 24, 8 ( t Ci. 01 )1 W h nr ve n aSrc lndcam u d rt eAEDPA,h c u t rv e 28 4h r 2 4 .1 e e iwig tika li n e h te o r' e iw s i Sdo y' def r nta . See Ri ht r 562 U . a 1 s t ubl ' e e i l c e, S. t 05. For St i kl nd' fr tpr ng,a pe ii rm us s rc a s is o ttone t how ç ha c t s lm ade e r s s s r ous s t om e t r or o e i t tc ha ouns l wa no f toni as t touns l gua a t d t de e n by t Si h e s t unc i ng he c e ' r n ee he f nda t he xt A m e m e . St i kl nd, 466 U . a 687nd nt' ' rc a S. t 88. çl q s i i w he he a a t m e s s - ue ton s -he t r n t o y' r pr s n a i a ountd t i ompe e e t de ç r va lng pr es i lnonns 'notwhehe i e e e t ton m e o nc t nc m r p e ii of sona , t rt d vitdfo b s p a tc so c mmo c so ' W c tr 5 2 U. a 1 5( u tn Srcda , e ae r m e t r cie r o n u t m. ' he , 6 S. t 0 q o ig til nd ' 466U. a 690 . S. t ) Fort s ond pr ng,a pe iine m us de he ec o tto r t monsr t t t b f rco ms ' aleg e r , tae ha, ut o t els l ed ror t r i a ( e s bl pr biiy t t butf com s ' un o e so le r s t r ul oft he e s t a ona e oba lt ha , r or l els pr f s i na r or, he es t he pr e ng woul ha bee dif r nt' Stiklnd,466 U. a 69 ç r s na e pr biiy oce di d ve n fe e . rc a ' S. t 4. $ ea o bl oba lt A i apr biiy s fce t under net c i nc oft out m e. I s oba lt ufi int o mi he onfde e he co ' d. ' F rhe,herng o ra o bep o e so a a ssa c i j s a wieo dr c a pe la u t r t a e f e s na l r f sin l sitn e s u t s d n ie t p a s i i a til I pa cl r ç coms li n to lg td t a s r aln n rvoo sis e o a p a, t s t ra. n dita ,' j t e s o bi ae o s et 1 o fi lu su s n p e l l g a $th r c n hady b a y q e to a o tte i o tnc o ha ig t a pelt a vo ae s gl ee a r l e n u sin b u h mp ra e f vn he p lae d c t e xami t r c d wih a vi w t s e tng t m os pr m ii is f r vi w.' Bel v. ne he e or t e o elc i he t o sng s ues or e e '' l J l s 236F.d 1 1 ( h Ci. )(n ba )( i J ne v.Bane ,463U. 7 752 avi, 3 49, 64 4t r 2000 e nc quotng o s r s S. 45, ( 9 3 ) I d e , e u rn c u e t r iee r cam, re e amutpl i o cams nmst e 1 8 ). n e d rq iig o ns lo as vey li o v n li i t f li , cy h rs ofder tng fo con e i t tm a betul m e io i . Appel t c ms la or ngl ik taci r m t ntons ha y r y rt rous la e ot e cc di y e j y aS rs mpi nt a h d cd dwhih is sweemo tlk l t af r r le o a p a, n o s s e u to h t e e i e p c sue r s iey o fo d eif n p e l' ' a pr um pton t t a def nda ca r bu t y whe i e i s s a e c e ry s r es i ha e nt n e t t onl n gnor d s ue r l a l t onge t n r ha t sThesi h Ame 1s xt ndmen gua a ee r as bl c t r nt s e ona e ompee e, n tpefc a v c c u g dwihtebe ek tnc o ret d o ayj d e t h n t o hi iht' G e r 540 U. a 8. f ndsg . nty, ' S. t 9 t o ep e e td' I ( u tn Pnlt v. o o 9 6F.d 1 6 ,1 68( t Ci.1 9 ) S t h s rs n e . d. q oi g et Th mps n, 9 2 5 0 5 4h r 9 3 ) mih ' v Ro bn , 2 U. 2 9 2 8( 0 0 ) . b is 5 8 S. 5 , 8 2 0 ). La ty C an atr y sfiu et r ieameils ag me t( c n o f nn t b sso a sl,ç l tone ' alr o as E rte s r u n q a n t o he a i f s ce s' i feci as itnc o c uc s f ne f tve ss a e f ouns lcai be a et r s toft pr e ngwoul no ul e l m c us he e ul he oce di d t ha be n dif e ha t al ne r ie t is . Unie Stt s v.Ki lr 1 F. 88 ve e fer nt d he tor y as d he sue' ' t d ae m e , 67 3d 9, 8 3( t Ci. 9 9 ; e as M o r v. ie S ae , 3 F. u p. 2 7 l( D. . 9 6 . 9 5h r 1 9 ) s e lo o e Untd tts 9 4 S p 7 4, 3 E. Va 1 9 ) B. Pr c d r l f ut o e u a Dea l $ ha a peii ri ba r d fom s ki f de alr e o a c am t twa pr s nt d ç be s ttone s re r ee ng e r eviw f l i ha s e e e A t a sa e c tand S lary a e es l de ed o t i pe nt a o tt our ce l nd xpr sy' ni n he nde nde , dequae sae gr md of t tt ol p o e u a d fut' Beme v. g lne 9 F.d 1 3 ,1 4 ( t Ci.1 9 )(iig Ha i v r c d r l ea l. r t An eo , 2 3 3 6 3 3 4h r 9 6 ctn n s . ' Re d 4 9U. 25 , 6 (98 ).A p o e u a r l i a e uaeSfi i rg lry o c n itn l e , 8 S. 5 2 3 1 9 ) r c d rl ue s d q t s t s e u al r o sse ty i a p id b t esaec u q'a d id p n n tfi d e n tçe e dg o afd r lc n t ina p le y h tt o r ' n n e e de t ç t o s o d p n ) n e e a o si o l i mt nz n .' Ye tsv. eo ,1 6F.d2 5 2 0( t Ci. 9 9 (uoig Al v. lho , 7 l g'' a' Ang lne 6 3 5 , 6 4h r 1 9 ) q tn t Oka ma 4 0 i t e U. 68,75( 985) S. 1 ). Un e Va Co ej8016 4B)2 , Vignah b a peiin mu tc nana1alg to s d r . d . - 5 ( () a r ii a e s t o s o t i l le ain t a f t t tt pe ii r know s a t a t tm e off lng. l H ils num e i ly s c nd ac s ha he ttone bou t he i ii n l' rca l e ond s a e tt ha a peii t Supr m e Co tofVigi al e t tCli s 1 t ough 5 a Cli 7 we e be s tton, he e ur r ni ' d ha am ul hr nd am r d futdu d rVa Co e58. - 5 ( ( ) Th F u t Cic i h srpe tdy h l t a j801 ea le n e . d 016 4 B)2 . e o rh ru t a e ae l ed h t . 6 4( ()i a a e u t a d id p n e tsaelw p o e u a g o n c n tt i d fut S e 5 B)2 s n d q aq n n e e d n tt a r c d r l r u d o si ng ea l. e m M a k l v An eo e 1 3 4 ,4 5 4 ( t Ci.1 9 )( .Co e 8016 4 B)2 i a c al . c l n , 3)F.d 42 4 - 6 4h r 9 7 Va d . -5 ( () s n a quaea i pe ntba .. de t nd nde nde r) t f a c a m i def ule t n pe ii r m us f i o t t c a m unl s he c n s w t t t l l i s a t d, he ttone t a l n ha l i es a ho ha c u ea p eu ieo a f n n n a mic n a e o j sie mih e u ehsd ful. 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' 7 M e n ie te f d me tlmic ni g o j sie e e to r q rs apeiin rt p o fra a wh l, h un n n a s a a e f u tc xc p in e uie tto e o r fe c lrbl cam o a t a in c nc .Se S hu v. l, 3U.. 9 , 2 - 5( 9 5 . oo a e li f cu l n o e e e c lp Deo 51 S 2 8 3 4 2 1 9 ) Hilaj e t th s s b tnie camsa e n tp o e u al d futd b c u e ( )t e l r u s ha i u sa tv li r o r c d rly e a le e a s 1 h pei o atc e te tilc u ts S od's ne ig o d r () Hi wa u a r o t e f cs t in ta k d h ra o r' ç i' e tncn r e , 2 l s n wae f h a t t v l u ryi t de a t d cam s untlhe r eve a Aug t20,201 lte f o Re po nts nde l ng he f ule li i ec i d n us 5 e tr ' m s nde ' r c u s l a d ()te crutc u tn v rwane Hilt thi iiilsaeha a peiin wo l o n e, n 3 h iù i o r e e r d l ha s nta tt be s tto ud h v pr c d r l o s q e e u d rVa Co ej801 6 4( ( ) a e o e u a c h e u nc s n e . d . - 5 B)2 . Fis,t s nt nci or r wa notvoi Ofi e s i si a e Hili 201 t yea s rt he b e ng de s d. tc r nve tg t d l n 0, wo r be o e t Supr me Co toft Unie Stt s decde J s Rega dl s t Cour di not f r he e ur he t d a e i d one . r es , he t d m a J sr toac i ;t r f e,J ke one e r tve he e or onesdi no voi H il sco c i . d t d l' nvi tons Se nd, Re ponde ' co el has as e td t t t Augus 20, 201 lte ts a co s nts uns s re ha he t 5 e tr i i f i ton a f r r The r s abrcai nd o ge y. e ponde ' c nts ouns ldi no dr f s g or s nd t sdoc l e t e d t a q i n, e hi tm nt o a ne' M e .i Supp.ofM o .t Dim is 1 n. 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The Supr me Cour ofVigi ar ve s d,hol ng t twhe c t r c r c e i pr f ule e t r ni e r e di ha n ours e ha a t rze o K m o i a ha a peii ,t c t mus wa n t peii ne o t e f c s of t t tons s be s ttons he our t r he tto r f he fe t ha r c a a trz to (-q ev r p ito t wn nn i t h l t ep oK l ia tu d rtn no e h r ceiain:çlh ey on f he r i g s o ep h r i g n n e sa d t lt O 1 () wh t e he s ul 'i rw o n n h s mo in b tas ( )wh t e h s ul n y 1 eh r ho d w t a r me d i to , u lo 2 eh r e ho d hd c n ette r c aa trz to s y o a p a. I a 2 2 ( u t Cato 5 0 U. a 3 4 o ts h e h r ceiain, a , n p e l' d. t 4 q oi ' ng sr , 4 S. t 8 ) (n en l q oain mak o te , e h ss i o iia)1 itr a u tto r s mitd mp a i n rgn l. 2 Fu'a r : n u wnj d lj , ( n ra te a e 1 Si ia l, i Ca to,t dititco tr ha a t rz t peiine ' m o i f a ne tilpm s ntt 2 m lry n sr he src ur ec r c eied he tto rs ton or w ra ua o Rul 3 o teFe ea Rulso Cii P o e l ea b t aRue3 moin a da2 U. C.j2 5 wrto h b a e 3 f h d rl e f vl r c dz s oh l 3 to n 8 S. r 2 5 i f aes c r u .Th e y asltr tepeio e a mpe t fl a2 5 p tt nwhc i ld d ca nsn trie i te o p s re e r ae,h tin r te td o ie t 2 5 eii o ih ncu e lh o asd n h 1 m oton;t dititc tdimis d t peii a s e sve.TheSupr m eCo toft Unie Sttshed: 994 i he src our s s e he tton s ucc s i e ur he t d ae l t dititc tmus no iyt pr K ltga t ti it ndst r c r trz t pla ng,wan he src our t tf he o . ii nt ha t n e o e haace ie he e di r telia tta t src aatrz t nme n ta a ysbsq e tj2 5 moinwi besb ett h ig n h thi e h rceiai a s h t n u e u n 2 5 to l u jc o t o l t r srci pn te he etitons s cond o s e sve'motons a p ovi t ltga an o ru t t r ucc s i i , nd r de he ii nt ppo tniy o wi d a t emo in o t a n i s t a i c n an al h j2 5camsheb l v sheha . t r w h t r o me d t o h t t o ti s l t e 25 li h o ei e e s Ca to,5 U . at383. sr 40 S. 12 c a a trz to c n tc t a a ga a p tto )f rp r o e o te te o d o s c e sv ' h r ceiain a no omt s h be s ei n o u p s s f h s c n r u c si e i p o iin gn Co e 8. - 5 ( ( ),wh t e t e p o . l ia t d e ,o d e n t tk a r v so i d 016 4 B)2 ) eh r h r K i g n o s r o s o, a e n t a al' 733 S. 2d a 242. The Cn ppe . ' E. t mpbe lCo y Cic tCo tne rr c r c e i dl Hils l unt r ui ur ve e ha a t rze S l' i ta sa eha speii Don' nd Ca to dono a y;a no wa ni wasne s a y. nii l tt bea tton; a sr t ppl nd r ng ce s r Lasl Hilne rofe sa o he i o to r ga di hi f iur t pr ve de a ta ty, l ve f r ny t r nf nnai n e r ng s al e o e nt f ul nd he doe not a l ge a c o abl cl i of a t l i s le ol r e a m c ua nnoce e unde Schlp . The e or , Cl i s 1 nc r u r f e am . tr u h 5 a d Cli 7a epr c d r l d ful du d rVa Co e j80 - 5 ( ( )a a eno h o g n am r o e u al e a t n e . d .1 6 4B)2 nd r t y e e il t f de alhabe sr vi o t mert. ntted o e r a e ew n he is Cli 1t oug 4 a 6 tlough 7 a e a s pr d al bare unde St v.Po l, a ms hr h nd lr r l o oce ur ly r d r one we l 4 8U..4 5 ( 9 6 . l S o e t S p e Co r o teUntd Sae h l :C r t S ae 2 S 6 1 7 ) n t n , he u rme u t f h ie tts ed l e he tt whe ha pr vi d a oppo t t f f l a f i ltgai n o a Fo ' Am e e t c am ,t s o de n runiy or ul nd ar ii to f ulh t ndm n l i he Consiuton doe no r r t ta sa eprs rbe gr nt d f de alha asco pusr le o t tt i s t equie ha t t ione a e e r be r ei f n he go r und t te de e o a ne i a unc tt tonals a c ors zze was i r ed a til' ha vi nc bt i d n n onsiu i e rh eitr ntoduc t ra .' 1 a 482. Furhe ,f de a diti tco t m a notc i rta c am t te de e a te a d. t t r e r l src urs y onsde $ l i ha vi nc dmitd t ti lwa t f ui ofa il ga a r s ...on a ha a c puspeii s l a t sa e c ' ra s he r t n le l re t be s or tton o ong s he tt ouls t , ha a f ded a f l a f r o runiy t ltga e t t c am .' J d for ' l nd ai ppo t t o ii t ha l i ' ones v. Supe i t nde of u rn e nt Ra wa SaePrs n 7 5F.d4 , 2( r Ci.1 8 ) s eas Cad l v Ta l r 4 U. 5 , h y tt io , 2 2 0 4 3 d r 9 4 ; e lo r wel . y o , 61 S. 71 572 (98 ;Folz v.Clr No.3:3CV627,201 W L 4202482,201 U. Dit LEXI 1 3) t ake, 1 4 4 S. s. S 1 7 5 a + - 0 ( D. .Au . 2, 01 ) l g nea,i j ie c o ti e b p lc o fc r 1 51 , t 9 1 E. Va, g 2 2 4 . n e ' l ie vd n e b an d y oie f e s r g i vi a i oft Fourh A m e m e i e l d atI i t hope t tt f e nc off t r n ol ton he t nd nt s xc ude HJ/ n he ha he r que y ' u e u vi ai wilde r as ' St ,428 U. a 492 (mphass a oltons l é e e. one ' S. t e i dded) For ha s peiins . bea tto , 1 I N ove rof201 , Hilfld a ha 7n mbe 2 l ie ndwrte wrtofhabe co pus i t Ca itn i as r n he mpbelCount Cicui l y r t Co r, ru n t Va Co ej80165 P eu by hera tesauep irt fl t p tto Th rfr , e u tpus a t ô . d . - 4. rs ma l, e d h ttt ro o ing he eiin, eeoe h i knew t hi peii m us c ai a1alegainst fct ofwhih we ekn hat s tton t ont n 1 l to he a s c r own t hi a t tm eofflng. o m t he i ii 13 z ' onti i n,i a of t c i r ton of s a c a s iur cli s o sae prs r on s rbuto f ny, he onsde a i c e r h- nd- ez e am f t t ione s c l t r lr vi w i s a li r a i t t c t .,1 I . a 493. ola e a e e s m l n el ton o he os s ,4 d t W he a yi t pr ed a ba i St ne a f la f i tilocc s e n whe Ghe n ppl ng he oc ur l r n o , ' nd ar ra ul ur ve n l t p o ro n ttto a c s 1w t t f cs i . Un td S ae v.J ne ,5 U. ( 0 1( 01 ) r pe o si in l a e a o he a t, . , ie tts o s 65 S. 4 0 2 2 u e has no b e d cd d' Fot, 01 U. Dit LEXI 1 7 5 a .1 .Fo e mp e $ c a e g) t e n e i e . lz 2 4 S. s. ' S 1 51 , t* 1 r xa l,1 h ng a i t erlv n p e e e td rngte c t s o gei o e ')l iain o t eFo rh Ame d n n h ee a t r c d n u i h ol e f p tt n rs i g to f h u t r i t n me t cli s i sae c tdoe notr nde hi opporuniy t ltga et cli s ls t n f la f i am n t t our s e r s t t o ii t he am e s ha ul nd ar frpu o e o S o e' 1 .a *1 -2;s e as Bo c v.Bar 8 2 F.d 1 9 ,1 9 -20 (t o p s s f t n . d t 1 1 e lo c s ' i, 9 2 1 3 1 9 1 0 4h Ci.1 . r 989) Hilwa a f de a f 1a f i ltgai n o hi Fourh Am e m e is i t sae l s for d ' nd ar ii to n s u1 t nd nt s ues n he t t co t be a e t ti c the d s pr s i n hea i a t a la e c t r viwed Hils urs c us he ral our l up e so rngs nd he ppe lt ours e e l' s r h a s i e a gum e s The e or Cl m s 1 t o h 4 a 6 t ough 7 ar ba e by ea c nd e zur r nt . r f e, ai hr ug nd hr e n'd St ne o . l Cl i s2 t o h 4 a 6 t ough 7,Hilalo aleg t thi Foure nt Am e n am hr ug nd hr l s l ed ha s te h ndme nt rght wer vi aed;ho ve,Sg e aus t Fou t Ame ntpr vi s a e ii txt l i s e olt we r lbqc e he rh ndme o de n xplct e ua s ur e of c tt i o c onsiutonalpr eci n a i t... ot to gans physcal i r i gove nm e alc i ly ntusve r nt onduc ,t t t ha Ame e ,nott m o e ge r lz d noton oflubsa i d pr es , mus be t g de' ndm nt he r ne ai e i s tntve ue oc s ' t he ui .' Grh m v. r r 4 0U. 3 6 3 5( 9 9 . tRl la c o teFo re nh Ame d n a a a a Como , 9 S. 8 , 9 1 8 ) t ein e n h u te t g n me t s n atmaiebai f rh sFo rh Ame d n camg)d e n tp r t( p t ine)t a o dt e le tv ss o i u t n me t li s o s o e mi a ei o r o v i h t St v.Powel nIe ' M ubia v.W e e ,N o. 1: - - 0one l l .' t ngl r 08 CV 031 BLW ,2013 W L 5 4868 201 78, 3 U. pit LEXI 1 S. s. S 42908,a * (da Se . 201 ) t 7 l ho pt28, 3 . : (Ifa pl didsrmiaey, E ee cuso ayrljma welh veteo o i efc o g neaig 4t ) p i n ici n tlgj t x l in r ue y l a h pp st fet f e rtn ( e h e dirs c frtelw a da miitaino j sie' I. t 1 sepet o h a n d nsrt fu tc . d a 49 . o ' 14 . l Herr v. lv 6 7 F.S p 9 3( D. . 1 8 ) t epeiin rtid t e c p te n re a Kel , 6 u p. 6 E. N Y. 9 7 , h t o e re o s a e h t St pr du a ba by c am i t thi d pr es rg swe e vi ae t pe ii ralege one oce r l r l i ng ha s ue oc s iht r ol td; he ttone l d t a t e sae c u t u g wh sg e h ss ac warn wa b a e ,a t ej g ' lc o h t h tt o r j d e o i n d i e rh ra t s is d nd h ud e s a k f ne r iy w a Ss eg e ousast ls t t l ve ofad pr es oreq lpr t c i vi l to ,'' utalt s io r gi o ' e o he e l i ue oc s ua o e ton o ai n i add to t a Fo t Am e e vi a in.s I . a 970. The dit i c ti H e r r he d: n ii n o ny urh ndm nt olto l d t s rd our n r e a l ( ep tto e)h da o p ru iyt p eshsFo rhAme me t. . r u ns Th ei n r a n p o tnt o r s i u t i nd n . a g me t i sae c u t The sae c u t rj ce t s ag me t,a g e p tto e) n tt o r. tt o rs ee td ho e r u n s nd t eiin r h dia r e wih t i c l i n. Bute n sr ng dia e m e wih a sae c ts s g e s t her onc uso ve to s gr e nt t t t our' r di oft Fourh Am e ea ng he t ndme wilno s fc t cr umve St ne Thegit nt l t ufi e o ic nt o . s o tematri ta g eiine')Fo rh Ame d n cam i j tt a:aF u t f h te s h t p t o rs u t t n me t li s us h t o rh Ame e ca m .Ate st tnd ot rna e f rt tcai wilno m a i ndp nt li tmpt o i he m s o ha l m l t ke t a m o e c ni a e i t c e o a f de a ha aspe ii ny r og z bl n he ont xt f e r l be tton. 1 d. I HilsFr nkln Cot y ha aspe iin,Ihed t f l wi n l' a i mt be tto l he olo ng: The gitofHilsa gume i t tt sa e c rss d ha e l d evi nce s l' r nt s ha he t t ou t houl ve xcude de be a e i si tng of r vi a e t Fo t Am e c us nve tga i fce s olt d he urh ndme ;howe r wiho nt ve , t ut e de of e egi wr ng ng,s h co uc i nota due pr es vi a i vi nce gr ous o doi uc nd t s oc s olton. Li t pe ii r i H e r r H ils c a m sr m a n fr l g ounde i t Fourh ke he ttone n r e a, l' l i e i im y r d n he t Am e ndme ,a Hilc nnotpr a gr sy ne i nt r c e s ori e i na nt nd l a ove ny os l glge , e kls , nt nto l poiemic nd t Hi r la c o G e il tmpeig' tdj idcin lis e l c s o uc. s ein e n s h ce n rn 'al urs ito a su s v i a mul -u idcin l iv si ain d e n t c n tt t $ d na o n t j rs ito a n e tg to o s o o siue G e il f i a fmd me tly f i te t n ...(r a Fo rh Ame d n Vi lto ...s t n n al ar rame t o q ut n me t oain o e eg o a t rs t t lvelofa d pr s vi ai n. 1 a 970. The sa e gr i us s o ie o he e ue oce s olto ' d. t ' tt c t a f de Hila f 1 a f rtilt pur ue a ltgae whihe ris he ours for d l ' 1 nd ai ra o s nd ii t u c ve s ues de ie The e or ,t r ei St sila ple ,a ba sHilfom ha a r le sr d. r f e he ul n one tl p i s nd r l r be s ei f on hi Fo t a Fouree h A m e m e c a m s s ur h nd t nt nd nt l i . Hilv.Clr No.7: CV00201 201 U . Dit LEXI 1 l a ke, 15 , 6 S. s. S 65655,a +1 1 Hils c r e t 6- 7. l' u r nt pe ii i es e ily i ntc t hi Fr ln Count peii n. Onc agan, he has not tton s s nta l de ial o s nnk i y tto e i de onsr td t the i e il d t r ifunde t Foure nt Am e e . m tae ha s ntte o ele r he te h ndm nt The e or ,al ofHilss t tve cai a eba r d fom f der lhabe r viw. rf e 1 l' ubsan i l ms r r e r e a as e e 1 Thesu e Cou tdei egrgi c 5 pr me r fnes e ous onduc t twoul i i t t excuso r r l as S i ae, t ha d mplcae he l inay ue :t bert del r ckls ,o gr sy ne i ntc e e s r os l glge onduc ,or i s e cr um sa s r c ng or s tm i ne i nce' He rna v. t n om ic tnce e uni yse c glge . ' ri UntdStts 5 5U..1 5 1 4( 0 ) i ae, 5 S 3 , 4 20 9. e 15 C. M e is rt Re r e s ofa pr e a ba ,Iwilbrefy add es t m e is ofHils s tntve ga dls ny oc dur l r l i l r s he rt l' ubsa i c am s Fis,i HilsFr nkln Co y pe ii n,1dimis d t t ryi a g nt ofCli s l i . rt n l' n i unt tto s s e he mde l ng r mne s am 1 t oug 4 a Cl m 7 a m e il s . Se H ilv.Cl r N o.7: 5CV 00 hr h nd ai s r te s e l a ke, 1 201,201 U . D i t 6 S. s . LEXI 1 S 65655. Se ond,Cl i 5 i wihoutm e i be a et ti lc ta l d Hilt que ton c am s t rt c us he ra our lowe l o si J l Br ns om a a he rng,but f oe a c t ai ound t t H il c d no s ha l oul t how t t Br ns om ha r l va ha a c d e e nt e i e c . Hilv Clr e No.1 5 5 si o .a 5 6 ( . u .1 2 6,ECF No.1 ,Ata h 4 v d n e l . ak , 51 4 , l p t - Va J l , 01 ) p 4 tc . ( a c m o l ha açi tdrc le to 'o Hi ' c s ..La ty i Cli 6 Hi a g e t a Brnso ny d tmie e o lcin' f l s a e) sl,n am , l r u s h t l l l J s voi hi c ci ns ho ve ,ofi e si si t d Hili 201 t ye r be or t one ded s onvito ; we r fc r nve tga e l n 0, wo a s f e he Su e eCo toft Unied St t de de J s a t Co tdi notma J pr m ur he t aes ci d one , nd he ur d ke onesr toa tve. er ci H ilsi f ec i a s s a e c a m s a e al o w ihoutm e i. l ' ne f tve s it nc l i r s t rt I Cl i A ,H ila l est ta la e c n am l leg ha ppe l t ouns lw a i f ec i f f ii t c le t e s ne f tve or a lng o ha l nge he s a c on die ta a ba ed on t S ea o bl e c ai ofprva y' t ti Ka z v.Unie erh r c ppe l s he t s na e xpe t ton r i c ' es n t td e he p e S ae , 8 U. 3 7( 9 7 .6 O nhabeasreviw , t Su rmeCo r o Vignahedt t am tts 3 9 S. 4 1 6 )1 u t f r i i l ha Cli A di nots ts y et rpr ofStiklnd: d a if ihe ong rc a Ther or i udi t Co tofAppe l 'o de de ng pe ii rsa ec d, ncl ng he ur a s r r nyi ttone ' ppea a l nd pe ii rs peii f a alt t s Cour,de onsr t c ttone ' tton or ppe o hi t m taes ouns ldi a gue t e d r o t s Cour t t pe ii r s r s bl e c a i of prvac w a vi at a hi t ha ttone ' ea ona e xpe t ton i y s ol ed nd cied f s t or uppor t o t t e c s s peii ri n ii s ...Any a tonal t wo f he hr e a e ttone de tfe ddii a gume or a ho iy r ga di pe iine ' e ca i of prvac woul no r nt ut rt e r ng tto rs xpe tton i y d t have s hown e r i t Cou tofAppç l 'de ii t t a sl i peii ne wa r or n he r a s c son ha, s lm ng tto r s s b e tt a ilg ls ac o s iu e a y s c c nsi in lvilto dd no u j é o n le a e rh r ez r , n u h o tmto a oain i t wa r n t s e s o ofe de ebe a e ox c r ha pr bl qa et a r s r a t he uppr s i n vi nc c us e s d oba e us o r e t pe ii r i pe nt of t G PS i onna i ttone nde nde he nf ton. Thus pe ii r ha f ie t , ttone s a l d o de monsr t t tc ta e ha ouns lspe f r a e wa de i intort tt r i a r a ona e e ' r o m nc s fce ha he e s e s bl pr ba lt t t but f co e ' alege e r r , t r ul of t pr e ng o biiy ha , or uns ls l d r o s he es t he oc edi w oul ha bee dif r nt d ve n f e e . 1 Kaz i a t pr t t t t deer ne wha Fourh Ame 6 t s wo- ong es ha t mi s t t ndme pr t ci e ss i a pa tc a nt o e ton xit n riulr stain:()ap ro mu tha eas betv e p caino p ia y a d ()t te pett n mus b oj ciey iuto 1 es n s v u jcie x e tto f rv c n 2 ha x cai o t e b etv l r s bl 389 U. a 353, Howe r Fot t Amendmentvi ai do notmandae evi e excuson. Se ea ona e. S. t ve , u' h oltons t denc l i e Da sv UntdSae, 6 U.. 2 , 3 -0(01 ) vi . i tts 5 4 S 2 9 2 94 2 1. e 16 45 lp t g e t he t t o ts na ys s l ga dl s he H ilv.C 1 r e, o.1515 ,si op.a 2. l a r e w ih t s a e c ur ' a l i .? R e r es , t l ak N S p e Co r o Vign asa j iainwa n tc nrr t o a u r a o a l a p iain o , u rme u t f r ii ' dudc to s o o ta y o, r n n e s n b e p lc to f Stiklnd,a w a notbas d on a unr a ona ede e mi ton oft f t . The e or Ig a rc a nd s e n e s bl t r na i he ac s r f e, r nt t m oton t di m i s a t Cl i A . he i o s s s o a m I Cl m B,Hil c e t ta la e c n ai l ontnds ha ppelt ouns l f ie t a gue t t1 w e or e e e al d o r ha a nf c m nt of i l ha vi a e hi Fouree t Am e m e rght unde t docdne o f ndn nt l fe a s d ol t d s t nh nd nt i s r he t f u me a f r s . On ha as r vi t Supr me Cour ofVigi a hed t t Cl i B di no s ts y aine s be e ew, he e t r ni l ha am d t ai f e t rpr of Sti kl nd: ihe ong rc a The r c d,i l ng ta c i s o t he rngs he d i r lton t pe ii rs e or nc udi r ns rpt f he a i l n ea i o ttone ' m o i t s es ,de onsr t s of r beg n ta ki pe ii r wih a GPS ton o uppr s m ta e ûce s a r c ng ttone t . d v c o S p e e 1 ,2 0 Da se rir t eCo r o Ap e l ( fVignil e ie n e tmb r 6 01 . y ale , h u t f p as o r i a ha hel s h s we la e was c tt i lwiho a wa r nt Se Folz v. d d uc ul il nc onsiutona t ut ra . e t Co n at ,5 Va Ap 6 ,7 ,6 8 S. 2 28 ,2 6 ( 01 )(Nete te mmo we lh 7 . p. 8 7 9 E.d 1 8 2 0 s ih r h t Unie St t Supr m eCour nort Supr m eCot tofVigi aha a e s d t t d aes e t he e u' r ni s ddr s e he is of whehe i t li a ta ki de c diecl on a c r vi aes a s ue t r nsalng r c ng vie r ty a ol t n e p cain o p ia yg ' Ac o dn l , c u s l c u d h ve ra o a l x e tto f rv c .). l c r ig y o n e o l a e s n by c ude t o fc r 'a tonswe e nots eg e ous ast wa r tdimi s lof oncl d he fi e s ci r o r gi o rmz s s a pe ii r s i c m e s a t t s h a l a gum e w o d not ha pr vaied o ttone ' ndi t nt nd ha uc t r nt ul ve e l n a l Se Unie Stts v.Ha a 718 F. 338 3 45 ( h Ci.201 ppea. e td ae s n, 3d , 43- 4t r 3) (xpli ngt r r cr umsa si whih go r me c nduc i o rgeo or e ani he ae ic tnce n c ve n nt o t s uta us s o knge o g t vo aed ep o e sa db rp osc to ) h c i n u h o ilt u r c s n a r e u in . H ilv.Cl r N o. 1 545,s i o a 3. 1 agr e w ih t s a e c ur ' a ys s H il ha not l a ke, 51 lp p. t e t he t t o ts nal i . l s d mo srtdta 1w e f re n ' c nd c wa s o ta e usa t j siye i e ee cu in; e n tae h t a n o c me ts o u t s o u rg o s o u tf v d nc x lso t r f e, gr ntt m otont dimi sast Cl i B.8 he e or I a he i b s s o am 1 1 I H ilsr lt Frnkln Count c e, Ids se a ie tc l li d-l Kaza ay i wa n csay 7 n l' eaed a i y as imisd n d nia cam:çl o t n lss s e esr ; l q teCor (fAp elo Vigna smjyCsu d taBoeo dCo nyofcr voae teF ut Amed n. h uto pas f rii) i l asme 'ht ttu u t fies iltd h o rh n met l t d,t Cour ofAppe l ofVigl a f us on ...e de e uson. H ilv.Clr ,N o.7: 5CV 00 nsea he t as r ni oc ed vi nce xcl i ' l ' ake 1 201, 2016 U. Dit LEXI 1 S. s. S 65655,a #6. l H ilsCa pbel Count diec a t n l' m l y r t ppeal t Cour ofAppeasofV igi a , he t l r ni smi ryfu ta Sh tilc utddn teri dn i temoint sp rs bcueteCo n at h d i l l o nd h tç e ra or i o r n eyng h to o u pes eas h mmo we l a a t h de l veoped i ndepe nts ce ofevi nc t et bls pr bl c us f r a r t' Hilv.Com m onwe t N o. nde our s de e o sa lh oba e a e o res. ' l alh, 1 40- 2- si op.a 1 5 1 3, lp t. 1I Hi'Frn l Co nyjeiin 1sae 8n ls a ki u t tt , ttd: l n o Hil ha not alge s fce f t t s l s le d ufilnt acs o uppor a cl m of outage gove n e a c t ai r ous r m ntl onduc . t Dtig te iv siain o Hi,lw e fre n ofcr dd n tç n fcuej e ie c y l n h n etg t f l a no cme t fies i o s u atrl vd n e' r o l ma ' I Cl i C,Hila g t ta l t c n am l r ues ha ppelae ouns wa i f e tve f f ii t r ie t el s ne f ci or alng o a s he Gc o of ofi ' doc r ne i s o a pe l be a e polc of i e s i tga ed o s de t i s ol r fce' ti s ue n p a c us i e f c r nvesi t ut i he r j iddin.Onha e srviw,h S p e Co r o Vigni hedt tCli C fie t s tsy urs i o b a e e te u rme u t f r i a l ha am ald o aif t pe f he ronua epr oft Sti a t s : nc ong he rcklnd e t Ther c d,i udi t pe ii f a e or ncl ng he ttons or ppea t t Coul ofAp al a t t s l o he ' t pe s nd o hi Cour and t Cour ofAppe s or rde ng peii r sa t he t al' de nyi ttone ' ppea ,de l monsr t s ta e a lt c ms l c le d t pl e nt of t GPS devie on pe ii ne s ppela e ot e hal nge he ac me he c tto r' ve ce o nume o g o hi l n r us r unds i l ng t ti vi a e t f r la Vigiza , ncudi ha t olt d he ede a nd r li c n t uins Vign asci n lc d ,a d ( , Co e j 1 2-4 Co nsli o si to , r ii' rmia o e n Va) d t 9. 2 9. u e s pr s d t ha c e efe vey t is f a e ume o ve hos n f di l he s ues or ppea ,a pe ii rha not l nd ttone s a s red c s e t ouns ls c e ca ms we e s ho we ke orl slke y t pr val e ' hos n li r ome w a r es i l o e i t n a a s ri oft û ol ofofi ' dpcrne Se Be lv.Jawi,236 F. ha n s e ton he ç or c fce' ti . e l l s 3d 1 9 1 4 (t Ci.2 0 )(ç neal,o l wh n in rd (p lae is e ae 4 , 6 4 h r 0 0 G rly ny e g o e a peltj su s r Ge c e ry sr rt n t e pr e e wilt pr s pton ofe f tveas it c l a l tonge ha hos es nt d, l he e um i feci ssml e o c u s l eo r o .)( tr a q oainmak o te ) f o n e b vec me' i en l u tto r s mitd . ' n H ilv.Com m o e t N o.1 l nw alh, 540- 2- s i op.a 3- I a e w ih t s a e c ts a l i . 1 3, lp t 4. gr e t he t t our ' na ys s H ilha not s l s hown t t c ha ouns l s pe f e ' r onuanc w a de i i nt t e or , 1 g a t m o i n t e s f c e ; her f e r nt he t o o dir s a t (lin ( .1 snis s o zar 2 9 l Cli D a d G,Hilalg st a t eCo r o Ap e l o Vigni ilg l ij ce n ams n l le e h t h u t f p as f r i a l al ne td e y t i he ndepe nts ur e docrne i o hi c e and t tt docrne doe no a y. On ha s nde o c ti nt s as ha he ti s t ppl bea Sa oa h a r nty i entpe e a pr det m wih a s cii opporuniy t e ge il ippr c ppa e l nnoc opl nd ovi he t pe fc t t o nga r crmi co t' or ot r hi y il l cl ry unc tt to l c i nal nduc ' he ghl lega, ea l onsiuina, onduc. Er n,520 Fe t wi d. App' at180;Os ne,935 F. at35. Therf r Hilc notpr dei entperor nc o x bor 2d e o e, l an ove tci f ma e r p eu iei a p laec u s lsfi r t rieti meils cam. rj dc n p elt o n e' al e o as hs rtes ' i u l H ilv. ake No. 1 l Clr , 7:5CV00201 201 U . Dit LEXI 1 , 6 S. s. S 65655,a * 37. t 36- : l d rse tesmeag me i Hi' rltdF a ki Co ny52 4 9 a des d h a r u ntn l s eae rn ln u t 25 : l El e ç n e c lro ofc ' d crn ( t rhbt a lw e fre n ofc rro u ig t ' h s d r oo f fie' o tie ) ç o iis a noc me t fie r m sn he T u p i ci ofhi orhe ofi alposto t c lc evi nc t taprvae ctze w oul beunabl t ndi a s r fci iin o ole t de e ha i t ii n d eo g t r' Saev. te 51 S. 2d28 , 2 ( . 1 9 )( r ii rc g z dted crnei ahe. tt Gusk , 6 E. 3 29 W V. 9 9 Vigna e o nie h o ti n ' Hu sn v Co n at,5 5 S..d 5 3 5 6( . 0 3 .. Wh n ofc r atc e t GPS d o . mmo we 1 8 E 2 8 , 8 Va 2 0 )) e fies ta h d he h d vc t Hilsv hil,he n v rrv ae te eve,n v ru e tn ii o ( iqp sto , e ie o l' e ce t y e e e e ld h msl s e e s d s dca f t r o i n' i he i ' a dn v rç nlwflya srld ofca a to i t g te e ie c . Gut , 6S..da 2 2; n e e s a ul set ) fiil uh rt o ah r vd n e' ske 51 E 2 t 9 u e y ' Saev. ho nx 4 8So2 2 2 26 ( a DitCt Ap .1 8 .Boeo r Comt de uiswe t tt P e i, 2 .d 6 , 6 Fl. s. . p 9 2) ttu t t y p te n t Hi' rsd n ea datc e teGPSd vc a ng t Th rfrg)teSmd rc lro ofc' o ls e ie c n t h d h l a e ie t ih. eeo ey h l e oo f fie' t docrnedoe no a y. ti s t ppl Hilv Clr , .7:5 l . ake No 1 CV00 1 2 1 U..DitLEXI 1 5 5 ,a * . F rhe,lev n i t ç n e c lro 20 , 0 6 S s. S 6 6 5 t 25 u t r t l e f he s d r oo f l u om ce'docrne di a y,t e de e woul silno beexcude unde t i pe nts tcedocrne a t ' ti d ppl he vi nc d tl t l d r he nde nde otr ti nd he goodf ih e pton.I a * n.7. at xce i d. t 25 1 18 r viw,t Supr me Cour o Vigi a c l d t t Cli s D a G f l t s ts y t e e he e t f r ni oncude ha am nd aied o a if he p eudc p o go t Stikln ts: rj ie r n f he rc a d et Fis ,t Cour ofA ppea s w a pen te t a fr t t i c r t he t l s lnit d o f im he ral oul' r i on a s ulng ny gr ound a r nti t r c d. See Pe r v.Comm o alh,280 Va.572,581 ppa e n he e or ry nwe t . 8 ,7 S. 2 4 ,4 7 ( 1 )(x lii t i Co r ma afr a lwe c u t 2 01 E.d 31 3 20 0 e p anng hs u t y fim o r o r j d me tf ra y r a o s fiin l s p re b te rc r ) Ad iin ly t e u g n o n e s n u fce ty u po td y h e o d . dto al, h r c d,i l ng t ti tans dpt a t ta crpt fom he rngsr r ng e or ncudi he ral r c s nd he r ns i s r ai ega di peii r ss ve a m otonst s es ,de onsr t t tilc tdenid t e ttone ' e r l i o uppr s m taes he ra our e hos motons i pa4 on t dee mi ton t e l i r r l s ul not a pl i n l he tr na i he xc usona y u e ho d p y be us of e s a t d i good f t r la e on t n bi i Co tofAppe l ' ca e fc r c e n aih ei nc he nd ng ur as pr ce nta o ng t wa r n l s us of GPS ta ng. Se Da s v.Unied e de ppr vi he r a tes e r cki e vi t Stts l S Ct 241 , 4 2 ( 01 )(o dn ç e rh sc n uce i o j ciey ae , 31 . . 9 2 3 2 1 h l ig ç ac e o d t d n b e tv l s ra o a e r la c o bidn a p l t p e e e t ae n t s b e t t te e s n bl ein e n n ig p el e r c d n r o u j c o h a e l i r nle'. Alho h a lt couns lag d on a lt t sCoul xcusonay 1' ) t ug ppelae e rue ppea o hi ' t t t t of r ' a tons we e not e us d by a e e i t t war nt ha he fce s c i r xc e ny xc pton o he r a r quieme ,i udi t i good f t r la e on a la e a hort peii r e r nt ncl ng her aih e inc ppe lt ut iy, ttone h sn tcame V r t a ti Co r mih h v a re wihc u e' a srin o a o li d e h t hs u t g t a e g e d t o nsls se t r o t tc ha ouns lmi htha bel ra g d t poi . Ac or ngl r r es ofa e g ve te r ue he nt c di y, ega dl s ny e r i t Cour of Appe l ' a i a i n of t i pe nt s lr e doc rne r or n he t a s pplc to he nde nde o z c ti , pe ii r ha f ie t esa ih t s Co tmi ha gr nt d hi pe ii f r ttone s a ld o t bls hi ur ght ve a e s tton o a al be aus t ti l c ts a i a i o Da s was a i pe nt a ppe c e he ra our' pplc ton f vi n nde nde nd a uat bass s deq e i uppori is de alofs e son. Cf Fe us v.St ke ,287 t t ni ng uppr s i . m on o s Va 4 6 4 2 75 S. 2 4 5 45 ( 01 )(ro i t ej d me to alwe c u' . 4 , 5 , 6 E.d 5 , 8 2 4 er r n h u g n f o r o ! t wilnotbe c i r d on a a whe e a ç e r t a i pe ntbassf t l ons de e ppe l r s pa ae nd nde nde s i or he j d me t' e i su c aln e ) u g n 'r man n h le g d . H ilv. Com m onw e lh,N o.15 1 3,s i o a 4- 1 a e w ih t s a e c t ' s a 1 s s2 l , at 40- 2- lp p. t 5. gr e t he t t o ut na y i .0 Hilhas f ie t de onsr t t t i notf a lae co e ' aci ns t out m e of t l a ld o m ta e ha , f or ppel t uns ls to , he co he pr e ng woul ha be n dif r nt The e or ,Igr ntt moton t dimi sa t Cli sD oce di d ve e fe e . rf e a he i o s s s o am a G. nd 2 M o eo , i H ilsFr nkln Cou y peii , Ico l d: 0 r ver n l' a i nt tton ncude E uh rte h d ara y pn on e Hi a tep i s s e tb S ptmbe 1 2 1 , Atte Ajto i s a le d ip itd l s h rme u p c y e e r 0, 0 0 i l h poi Boet r ofie sa t hed a GPS t hi ca i Bedfr Count mutpejrs it nsh d nt t ou t fc r tac o s rn od yy l l uidci a i o . ar dy amas e a gr tdea ofunt nt e de e agans Hil Alo,ofi r di nots ey lea sd ea l ai ed vi nc i t l. s fces d oll utlz GPS e denc f rpr bl c e...i f t r ga dls ofa addii lGPS e de ,t iie vi e o oba e aus n ac e r e s ny tona vi nce he i si ton c ntr d on Hilbe us t bu glr f lwe hi hi y s ii modu o r . nve tga i e e e l ca e he r ay olo d s ghl pecfc s pe andi Ofie s we t Hils home viwed t s pii beddi i hi c r a t n muli e fc r nt o i' , e he us cous ng n s a , nd he tpl j rs ito sc o eae t p o el ars hm. Hilfilqt p o eta a pelt c u s lwa uidcin o p rtd o r p ry ret i l als o r v h t p l e o n e s a d fce to ta h wa peu c d b a p l t c u slsfi r t ag et tte i e e d n eiin r h t e s rj die y p el e o n e' al e o ru ha h nd p n e t a u s c docrnewasi pplc bl. our e ti na ia e H ilv. ake N o.7: 5CV 00 ,201 U . D it LEXI 1 l Clr , 1 201 6 S. s. S 65655,a * 38. t 37- 1 9 I Cli E,Hilc e t ta lt c n am l ont nds ha ppela e ouns lwasi fe tve f rf ii t c lnge e ne f c i o alng o hale t ti co ts r i whih pr ve e hi fom s he ral ur ' ulng c e nt d m r ubpoe ng t Bot t tComm o alh' nai he eour nwe t s Ator y t t siy a utt de ii n t us t GPS de c , vi a i hi c nsi i lrg t t ne o e tf bo he c so o e he vie oltng s o tmtona i ht o pr e e de e a hi ti l On ha sr viw ,heSupr me Co 'ofVigni hel t tCl i E es nt vi nc t s ra . bea e e t e u! t r i a d ha am d d no s ts yet rStikl nd pr i t aif ihe rc a ong: Ther c d,i l ng a ta c i ofa J nua y 4,201 he i r a di s ve a e or ncudi r ns rpt a r 2 arng eg r ng e r l of pe ii rs motons de ttone ' i , monsr t s t til co t e nt ly pe mitd ta e he ra ur ve ual r te pe ii rt que to Br ns om r a di hi a sng ofi r on usng t GPS ttone o si n a c eg r ng s dvii fce s i he t ta pe ii ne a t tBr ns om ha o y a lm ie r c l ton ofdic sng o r ck tto r nd ha a c d nl i t d e oleci s us i t is wih ofi e s Pe iine doe not i ntf a i s r lva t he s ue t fc r . tto r s de iy ny s ue ee nt o s uppr s i n o whi h he w asuna e t que to Br ns om . e so n c bl o s i n a c At t s m e hea i t til c t quas he a rng, he ra our hed peii ne ' s tto r s ubpoe na r ue tng Br ns om ' pr s nce f ti la trpettone c d no pr f wha eq si a c s ee or ra fe ii r oul t ofer t r e nte de e Br ns om woul pr de gi n t tt s e son is wa elva vi nc a c d ovi ve ha he uppr s i s ue s s tld. He e,t o,pe ii r ha no a lge a r e ntt tmony Br ns om ete r o ttone s t le d ny elva esi a c m ihtha s i d à peii rs ti l Acc di l pe ii rhas not s g ve upple t ttone ' ra . or ng y, ttone hown t ti c ta e isdi c ei o vi a e hi c tt i lrght i am n r he ral our bus d t s r ton r olt d s onsiutona i s n nne t tm i ha a ou e t r ve sbl e r . ha ght ve m nt d o e r i e ror . H ilv.Co m onw e lh,N o.1 l m at 540- 2- s i o a 5- 1 a ee w ih t s a e c ts a ys s 1 3, lp p. t 6. gr t he t t our ' nal i . Si Hilhas nots nce l hown t tt quas ng of hi s ha he hi s ubpoe vi a e hi c tmtonalrg s na olt d s onsi i iht , c uns coul notha be n i fe tve f rf ii t r i eam e il scam . Se M oor 93 F. o el d ve e ne f c i o a lng o a s rtes li e e, 4 Supp. t731 The e o e Igr ntt m o i t dim isast Cli E. a . r f r , a he ton o s s o am La ty,i Cl m F,Hilalege t ta lae c sl n ai l l s ha ppel t ouns lwa i fe tve f f ii t a gue e s ne f c i or alng o r t t t a i s o of t GPS w a not ha m l s e r bec us t o he , nonha he dm s i n he s r es r or a e he t r Gps e de vi nce a i thi waswea On ha asr viw ,t Sup e Cour ofVigi a co l d t tCli gans m k. be e e he r me t r ni ncude ha am F di no s ts y eihe pr o St i kl nd: d t a i f t r ong f rc a Onl i a a la e c tha hel t t i l c te r d i r f i t a y t y f n ppe l t our d d he r a our r e n e us ng o ppl he e l i r r l i pe ii r s c e w oul i ha t n c i r whe he t xc us ona y u e n ttone ' as d t ve he ons de ed t r he Com m on e t c d pr a e r ne a i s o of e de e w a ha m l s w a1h oul ove ny r o ous dm s i n vi nc s r es be yond ar s bl doubt Se Dec v. is i 5 U. 622,635( eaona e . e k M s our, 44 S. 2005)(he t sa e be r t bu de of pr vi co tt i l e r i ha e s be t t a s he r n o ng nsiutona ror s nnl s yond a ras bl doubt. Ac r ngl co e c d ha ras bl dee d i e ona e ) co di y, unsl oul ve e ona y me t 20 pr de t f us on esa ihi t excusonar r l wa a i bl t u nt o oc t bls ng he l i y ue s pplca e o pe ii rs c e. Addii ly, be a e t Cour o Appe s hed t ttone ' as tonal c us he t f al l he e l i r l e s d no é y i pe ii rsc e,i di notne d t r ac t xcusona y ' houl t ppl n ttone ' as t d ul e o e h he que ton ofha m ls e r . si r e s r or H il v. Com m onw e lh,N o. 1 l at 540- 2- s i o a 6. 1 a e w ih t s a e c ts a ys s 1 3, lp p. t gr e t he t t our ' nal i . Unl st a lae c 'agr e t tt e l i r nle a id i Hilsc e,t hn ml s es he ppe lt oul e d ha he xcusona y l pple n l' as he r e s t e r rt s wasi pplc bl t t ad ison oft GPS e denc ro et na ia e o he m s i he vi e.The ef e lg a t moto r or , r nt he i n t di r s a t ( l in F. o s ni s s o z a r For t f r goi r s ,1 gr nt Res he o e ng ea ons a ponde ' m oto t dimis a dim is t nts i n o s s , nd s s he i ng ha l t a he e st peii n f a wrtofha sc pus Ba e u n my fndi t tHilhasno m'de t r quiie tto or i bea or . s d po s b tn ils o n o a d na o a c nsi in lrg ta rq ie b 2 U. C.j2 3() a u sa ta h wig f e il f o tmto a ih s e ur d y 8 S. 25 c , c ri cae ofa albiiy i de ed. e tt t s ppe a lt s ni ' E T R:hsp %dyoOc br21. N E Ti a f t e,07 o # r . . ' e Se ni Unie Stt DititJ t d aes src udge 21