Muhammad v. Taylor et al, No. 7:2016cv00500 - Document 59 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 8/1/2017. (tvt)
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C T AOWIkV16. WNQY XklIl)MV @ FIER 'j 'U W1 j M ZE y' j I TH E UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI GI A CT R NI ROANOK E DI SI VI ON M A L CO LM M UH A M M A D , Pl ntf ai if, AL' r$ 2 1 r? J UL . D EM CLERK BY; D Ci lAc i No.7: c 00500 vi ton 1& v- M EM OM NDUM OPI ON NI Y.TAYLOR,e al, t . D ef endant s. By: H o Jac on L. ie n. ks K sr Se or U nie St t sD i t i tJudge ni t d a e sr c M alol M uhn ma a Vigi ai t pr e ngpr K ,c c m m d, r ni nma e oce di o omme e t sc vi rght nc d hi i l i s a tonpurua t 42U. C.jj1983a 2000c 1 na ngnlmeousc re a f me ci s nt o S. nd c- , mi l r u rnt nd or r o scaso t Vign aDe a t n o Co rcin (1 f il f he r ii p rme t f re to s & VDOC' a d fn a t. Plitf alj s ' s e e d n sl an if le e ) t tDe e ha f ndan sr t laed a i thi i vi a i n oft Fis Am e e t pr ve e hi fo t e ai t ga ns m n olto he rt ndm n , e nt d m r m pr tcng hi r lgi i vi a i oft Fis Ame m e a t Rei ousLa Us a aci i s e i on n olton he r t nd nt nd he lgi nd e nd I tt onaie Pe s Act(1 . PA',a ta fre hi a i ras dt lngt ofhi nsimi lz d rons .& , RIUI ' nd r nserd m nd nce e he e h ) s s nt nc i vi a i oft Four e nt Am e e .2 D ef nda sfl m o i nst di m i s a e e e n ol ton he te h ndm nt e nt ed t o o s s nd f rsl r j dg n , se t ,n e ai,h d fn e o q l di nt a dfiu et o l mmay u me t a sri itr l t e e e s s f uai mmu iy n alr o ng a se e us a ia e a i s r tve r m e e .3 Pli ifr s xha t va l bl dm nit a i e di s antf e ponde m acng t sm a trrpe f r d, li hi te i o d s ii 4 Aferr viwi t r c d, 1gr ntt m o i t dimisa gr nti pa ta de iposton. t e e ng he e or a he ton o s s nd a n r nd ny i pa themoi f rsl r udg nt n rt ton o lmmayj me . Muhammad v. Taylor et al 1Pli ifi ere amo i t amendt c antf ns td ton o he ompli i t s e l by whi hefl t c ant n he ame nveope ch ied he ompli . ant Thede e nt noedispr s nc wiht c f nda s t t e e e t he ompl ntandteaedt motont a nd a as eme t t ai r t he i o me s uppl nt o he c ompli .Ilber l c tuet co ai a motont a nd a docke e r o asasngl c ai . ant i aly onsr he mpl nt nd i o me t t nty ne i e ompl nt 2I t c pli , Pli ifalobrefyale anEi hAm e e vi ai r ltngt hi c i e n he om ant antf s i l lged ght ndm nt olton eai o s onfnem nt Doc. 59 a Re Ono SaeP ion(t e Ono '.I hi rso et d fn a t'moinfrsmmayj d me th t d in tt rs çk d in' n s ep ns o ee d ns to o u r u g n, e l ) e iil a ndonst cai a doe no oppos De e nt a g xplcty ba he l m nd s t e f nda s' r ument t thedoe notsa eavi ai oft s ha s tt olton he Ei hAme ght ndme t wasce ryesa iheda t tmeoft eve s Cons quen l t r i nodiput of nt hat la l tbls t he i he nt. e ty, he e s s e maeila t st teEihhAme d n cam, n Dee d nsaee tte t s mmm'j d me ti ta rg r tra fc a o h g t n me t li a d fn a t r n i d o u l y u g n n h t e ad. 3Thec t e ousygr ntd Defndan sapr eci or r9o dic r onac untoft raseri our pr vi l a e e t ot tve de m s ove y co hei s ton o qualfe i m uniy. f iid m t 4Pli iffld arpl t t a we t tlha no a horze i a r ncewih Fede a RulsofCi l antf ie e y o he ns r ha d t ut i d n cco da t rl e vi Pr cd r 7a()a d 1 ()1( .Co s q nl t trpyd e n t o siueapla igta i alwe u d rte o e u e ()7 n 2 a()C) n e ue t ha e l o s o c nttt e dn h t s lo d n e h y, Fe r Rul ofCi lPr edl eora f de lbe a consr ton,a Ido notconsderi.See e. , c lv. deal es vi oc z r fbr d i r l tuci nd i t . c.M Nei UntdS ae, 08U. 1 6 1 3(9 3 (& eh v n v rs g se ta p o e u a r lsi odn r cvl i tts 5 S. 0 , 1 1 9 ) $W1 a e e e ug etd h t r cd rl ue n r iay ii e ( Dockets.Justia.com 1 . h . THE RELEVANT FACTS Be or c f e omm e ng t sa ton al whiea Ke n M omt i Co r ci lCe e nci hi ci ld l t e t an r e tona ntr (G CC' i Ap i 2 4, an ifh dt c s e d fnd n W ik r wh i t eCh p ana $ KM ' n rl 01 Plitf a wie u d ee a t c e , o s h a li t ) KM CC,a t ie s de e ntY.Ta o ,who i bo h t I tm tona Pr a M ana ra nd hrc ued f nda yl r s t he nsi i l ogr m ge nd t eI siuina Cls iiain Auho i (GCA' , o pec i dvo ai n o f d rl ihs Se h n ttto l a sfc to t rt 1 ' fr r eve ilto s f e ea rg t. e y I ) 7: 4c 40, 1 v8 a 7: 5c 7.Thefr tc s ,7:4cv540,a t s ond c e,7: 5c 1 v5 7: 5c , nd 1 v5 is a e 1 nd he ec as 1 v8, we ebot ca i d M uha madv. e na.e a . Thefr tc ewa ne rs r d on a . r h ptone m Fl mi t 1 s as s ve e ve ny de e f ndan ,buti t s ond c e t c ur s ntwa ve sofs r c ofpr es t t Ofk eoft t n he ec as , he o t e i r e vie oc s o he t he Atom e Ge r lofVigi aon Fe a y 23,2015, ora 1de e nt,i l ngTa or The t y ne a r ni bnzr f 1 f nda s ncudi yl . fnalc e,7: 5c 7, asca i d M tha m a v.Y .Ta o .e a . The c ts fr tor r i as 1 v5 w ptone l m d vl r t 1 our ' ls de be r ng t sca i n w a e e e on Fe t z 9, a i hi pto s nt r d brl y 2015, s a and oughtPl i if s fna a dat The a ntf ' i nci l a. c te er d i s l ce or r i c e 7: 5c on A prl6'2015. our nt e t ewi de n as 1 v57 i , Pl ntf c e t tt s t e ca e a enot bl be a et y a Pl i if ai if ont nds ha he e hr e s s r a e c us he nd antf a i sr tvegle nc f r Tayl ' a W i ke ' ba e t r t la ea ns hi . Pl i if dm nitai i va es o m ors nd c rs s s o e ai t gai t m antf a l st tt ot rde enda si t sc evi a e f der lrg sa r t la e a i thi i lege ha he he f nt n hi as olt d e a i ht nd e ai t d ga ns m n s p o t fTa lra dW ik rç yd n ighm . .gje e rieo hsrlgo ,. . pa ig u p r o yo n c e ç e yn i . fre xecs f i ei ing . . lcn b l lt ains o db itrrtds a t e c emitk sb to ewh p o e dwih u c u s l'atrto a d d; ii to h ul e nep ee o s o x us sa e y h s o r c e to t o n e. (l ain d e g ' e f b t n mb ro t d) J ud nv.a , 51F.d1 8 1 9 1 (t Ci. 9 )( odigta aDoK lia ts o moe u e mit l; o r a Jbe 9 2 0 , 0 -0 6h r 1 91 h l n h t r i g n i e t note il t s i c i r tont e us af ilr t f l asr i to ad pr e alr quie ntt ta1y ntted o pecal onsde ai o xc e alze o olow tagh fm r oc dur e r me ha a p ro c nc mpe e da e sl a alwy r; h ril . le, .1 -0 9 2 3U. DitLEXI 1 3 3, t es n a o rh n s a i s a e) S erlv Hod rNo 20 48 , 01 S. s. y S 90 7 a # , 01 WL 1 31 9 , t# ( Az Jme25 201)(-hsCo r ddn t rn Plit fla et fl arpyt 12 3 1 6 21 a 1 D. . t , 3 K i u t i o g a t ani e v o i e l o s f f e Deenda ' Ans r Furhe ,t Co tdoesnotfnda ba i t pemi Pl ntf t 5l ar pl t t Deenda ' f nts we . t r he ur i ny ss o r t ai if o e e y o he f nts An we i ti c s .Ass h Plitf' Repo et Dee d ntsAn we i s c e 9o terc r '. s rn hs ae uc , anifs s ns o fn a ' s rs tik n m h e od.) ' No ehees Plit fi n t rj dc db cus Gifarso sv pe dn i n t e urd a alg to i n t ls, ani s o p eu ie e a e ll ep n ie la ig s o rq ie , n le ain s f c n iee de ido a od d. Fe R. v. 8 6 . o sd rd ne r v ie ' d. Ci P. 09() ' 2 hm i s g e ain rtlaln jf ra c s igc u t,i fit jc u l n t s a p ns me t i n e rg to , eaitig o c e sn o rs gn lci r e a d mu u l u ih n , ng ta se -n )gi t ama i z p io gn q( oaig d ep o e s . . r n f nl g hm) o x ml rs n,a d viltn q u r c s . .' i m ' Pl ntf ltny ofr t iton be nso J n r 28,201 a trPli ifsgned a ai ifs ia eala i gi n a ua y 5, fe antf i n a tndanc s etf bot hi s l a hi c l ae u n e e i t r m f hi Nai n ofI l m te e he or h m e f nd s elm t po ntrng he oo or s to sn (1 ' r l iussr iea KM CC.W ik rrp re ti f c t Ta lr wh c sie Plitf $ ' ei o e vc t NOl) g c e e o td h s a t o y o , o hatsd anif by s yi G u ha ane v t bet owi sone a m e.Yo be trsop t owi bec us I a ng, ç Yo ve r e o hr ng t s t u te t hr ng a e ha a bi rs onet t o . ve gge t o hr w ' ' Pl i ifbe ive ç t 'r pr s nt Pl i ifsg ivanc sa t t eeprorc vi antf le s t ones' e e e ed antf re s e nd he hr i i l a tons e n t c i , ve hough no or rwih aca i n M uha ma v. Ta or e a . dbe n doc t de t pto m d Y. vl . t 1 ha e keed ye .Nonehe e s Ta or sa W ike ' al ge r t lai be n afe Ta or sE hr wi t t l s , yl ' nd c rs le d e ai ton ga tr yl ' t o ng t sone'sae e a a trt c te e e isco to lflng or ri M u mm a v.Y. t ' t tm nt nd fe he our nt r d t ndii na ii de n hn d Ta or e a . t Busne sOfi ose i y ae td Ta oroft tl ws ton Fe ua y 1 yl . t l and he i s fce t nsbl lre yl ha a ui br r 7, 201 5. Thr da lt on Fe ta y 20,201 Ta orhadPl i ifa sg d t s gr to ee ys aer brz r 5, yl antf s ine o e egai n. W ike al ge y r pore t Ta ort tPl ntf had ma a G nfa ma or sa e nt'durng c r le dl e td o yl ha ai if de n l lm t y t t me ' i i aprorN OIs r i e.I w o d notbet i M ar h 201 t tPl i ifwoul l a n t thewoul i e v c t ul mtl c 5 ha antf d e r ha d notbec r d f t a lged i l m ma or sa e nt G egoi t kee ar c d ofourown ha ge or he le nta t y t t me , t W ng o p e or a tnda e be a e w e know w ha w e a e de lng w ih. te nc c us t r ai t' ' Eve t ug he w a no c ge bec us ofW i ke ' a us t o Pl i i s a s g e n ho h s t har d a e c r s cc a i n, a ntY s i nm nt t s g e ton t i r a s a c ofhi pr pe t pe pr s n polc The r ii a i oft t o e r ga i r gge ed e r h s o ry r i o i y. nm f c tons ha s af h alo f m t ba e oft sl w s tp ns ot r de e nt . e c s or he s s hi a ui gai t he f nda s 3 Asaco eq nc ofPl i ifsmovet s r ga i t c r tona ofi e si nt id ns ue e antf o eg e ton, wo orec i l fc r nve ore Pl i ifspe s lpr t on Fe a y2*, 2015. The c i c t d s m ene pa r a a antf r ona opery bnzr 0 y onfs a e o ws pe s nd dn a d coa c bl Pl i ifdoesnotha a c a m a m ge x a e. a ntf ve l i boutt s ie s he e t m . Howeve ,de e ntHur,aKM CC Pr ry Ofi e , e r he Pl n ifspe s r f nda t ope t fc r s a c d aitf r onal pr ry a oxi t l t e daysl tra dico r d a lat r d, t e de'l see ope t ppr ma ey hr e a e nd s ve e n ile e ' G ' hom ma ' ong- l ve gr y T-hit Thea l d at r ton wa t tt s e ve we eno o nalt t s r a ha e s r. lege le a i s ha he l e s r t dgi o he hit nd d bee r - e on t t s r. Pl i ifaleg t tt s l hadne rbee at r snc hehad n e s wn o he hit antf l es ha he hit ' ve n le ed i e r c i d i fo af r rc lma eayea e rir Pl i ifa s e a nst tt s r i a ia e e eve t r m o me el t r a le . antf lo xpli ha he hit s valbl t pur has fom t c o c e r he omm is r s a y. HM r poredt slr t def nda Anns who i KM CC' I tt i lhw e tg t . e t he lit o e nt , s S nsiutona si a or Ar sc r d Pl i ifwih o f ns c 13 G s s i n/ t c i ofaDe c De i d t m ha ge antf t f e e ode 2,t e so consnzton pos vi e sgne o De e veStf , o i ude butno lmie t t Fa iato ofaDum my, be a et gr y s r ci a f t ncl , t i t d o, he brc i n ' c us he a hit ' pur tdl r s m bl d s urt saf sl s e ve lnioz slr . pore y e e e ec iy t f ong l e l f ' li t m Pl i ifs a ntf oughtd s ove y f om de e nt Lo e Ar s A s i t ntW a de Cl r a ic r r f nda s w , m , s s a r n a y, nd Ca an Le bef r t dicplna yhea i Pl ntf a ke t m t r viw vi or c di pt i e o e he s i i r rng. ai if s d he o e e de e or ngs s wi hi we rng t s r i f lvi w ofs c iy sa f a he a ke t tt str be ho ng m a i he hit n ul e e urt t f, nd s d ha he lit br oughtt t hea o he dng. Lowe Ar s As it ntW a de Clr a Ca an Leede e t , m , ssa r n a y, nd pt i nid he r que t t r vi t vi o r cor ngs e ss o e ew he de e di .Lowea s de e Pl ntY spr he dngr q s f lo nid ai i e- a e ue t or t eei ae wine s swho wo d ha t sii d Pli ifha r c i d t s r fom apror hr nm t t s e ul ve e tfe antf d e e ve he hit ' r i c l a e a t tPl i i fha pos e s d i be or s m i y s a fw o e gr y s lr s elm t nd ha a ntf d s s e t f e ec t t f r a li t . Loweco nduc e Pli if sdicplna yhe rngon M a c 3,a bot Pl i ifa Ar s t d antf ' s i i r a i r h nd h antf nd m a t nded. A nnsbr htt g a s r , Pl i ifa gued t ti had be n m odii w hie i or te ' oug he r y hi t but a ntf r ha t e fed l n H ur ' orA r s pos e s on. Pl i i fa l ge t te t rHM orAr s a t r d t s r a t ri ts m ' ssi a ntf le s ha ihe m le e he hi t f e t 4 wa c s onfs a e By c tng o ft see a t n r s wi t m wih ç r h doubl pt e c t d. uti f he l ves nd he e e ng he t G es f e l r whie' a hi d sic s t 'm c ne tt he . Lo f und Pli tf g ly ofcode 1 a pe lz d hi wih ni t days l sof we o a n if uit 32 nd nai e m t ne y ' os good- nd ttme. Lowebas hi de ii n ont r po tngof e ' t si o Pl i ifs co uc i ed s c so he e ri ûc rs e tm ny, antf alege t si l d e tmopy t tt s r be o dt hi ,a bec us t szr c os l r s m bl sa fs ha he hit l nge o m nd a e he lit l ey e e ed t f t f ln.Pli iffl d agde ncet tt s r ha bee m odii d,butt gre nc was mion antf ie va ha he hit d n fe he iva e rj ce a n n-re be s Plitf a p ae t c n ito t d fnd n W ad nKie, ee td s o g iva l.Alo, anif p e ld he o v cin o ee a t r e s r w ho uphel Low e' dec sons d s ii . Pl i ifne a a ntf xt ppea e t c vi ton t de e ntPont who i a VD O C Re onal l d he on c i o f nda on, s gi Omb d ma .I wo l tk Po tnt remo tst a j dc t t ea pe l Du i t a tme u s n t u d a e n o h e nh o du iae h p a. rng h t i , sa fa lgedl co i t f le y ntnued t r t lae a i tPli ifa vi a ef de a l w. o e ai t ga ns antf nd olt e r l a Be a eoft c ci n,Pl i ifne d ane c a sfc to r pol. De e nt c us he onvito antf ede w l s ii a i n e ' t f nda Ke ey,who wa Pli ifscom s o ,ha gl s a ntf t elr ndedPl i ifa a l edl e r ne uscas ik ai n antf n leg y r o o l st to r por o M a c 4.Pl ntf a gue t tt r por e e t n rh ai if r d ha he e t none l adde t cas ii a i poi s ousy d wo l sfc ton nt t two d ha e ur d hi ta f rt Red Oni n.Kegly s i t theme ey delve e t ha ul ve ns e s r ns e o o e a d ha r l i r d he r por a t tTa orhadpr pa e i.None hees ,Ke ey fxe t r por by d e t nd ha yl e rd t t l s gl i d he e t educ i t tng he t poi s wo nt . Pl ntf ûl agreva a ai if ed i nce boutt t e r ousy a d pont .I t adofr cogni ng he wo rone l dde i s nse e zi t tt t o poi sha be n a d e r ne l de e a Syke a l gedl c pied t c r up ha he w nt d e dde r o ous y, f nd nt s le y ons r o ove t e r sby a ng t ee e r poi s N o a y,Kegl y' a Syke m odii a i di not he r or ddi hr xt a nt . t bl e s nd s' fc tons d m a trbe us i wasTa or saleg y e r usr por t twa s ntt VDOC' Ce r l te ca e t yl ' l edl roneo e t ha s e o S nta Clsiiain S r ie (G ' f ra p o a dep t Plitf' o j cin . a sfc to e vc s ç ' o p r v l s ie anifs b e to s CCS ) 5 OnM a c 5,Tayl c rh or onducedPl ntf l s c t lvelhea i whi wasbas on t ai ifs CA e mi y e rng, ch ed t a lged y e r ousr po t Pli ifalege t thene rr eve notc oft he rng a he le l rone e r. antf l s ha ve ec i d i e he a i nd t the w a no pr e . Ta oruli at l r c m e ha s t es nt yl tm e y e om nded t tPl i if s s lrt l velbe ha a ntf ' ec ziy e i r a e t l ve sfo Le l4 t Le S, ha hebeta f re t Re Ori asaLe lS nc e s d wo e l r m ve o vel t t r ns e r d o d lon ve i a e a t thi goodnm t , nd ha s conduc tm ee r ng lve ber d e t i a ni e l e uc d. . De e f ndantCl r a o d t r c a y ppr ve he e omm e d t i r as fom Le 4 t Le S a t nde he nc e e r vel o vel nd he ta f rt Re Oni TheVDOC' CCS a oved Clr ss c iy lve a ta f r r ns e o d on. S ppr a y' e urt e l nd r ns e r omm e tonson M a c 10.Addii l de e n G.K. a hi o who i t f r r ec nda i rh tonaly, f nda t W s ngtn, s he o me Rq in l e ai n Chif o d rdt tPlitf beç s ingd S c rt Le e- b sd o s o e go a Op r to s e , r e e ha anif i sg e j e u i v ls a e n c r a y o 43ponsa ds ro na eo r c n 1 2ifa to wljr o fn e ma eal f r s it f it n eius mr f e e t 3 n rcin h ee fe d r d l o m hr ni t tc d ha be n us t dec i a ga n a ce st t out rpe i e e .Ofe ri t be ha oul ve e ed o eve nd i c s o he e rm t r f nde s o a sg dt ( e lS a ta fre t RedOni Stt Prs ' sine o Lq ve nd rnser d o on ae ion. ' Sykesc onduced a he 1 he dngon M a c 24,a pe W a hi on' r ques, t not r CA a rh nd r s ngt s e t rc e omm e ndedPl i ifbeta f re t Re Oni asaLe lS i t Syke wr t t I antf r ns e r d o d on ve nma e. s o e he CA he rng t s a i o ugge tPl ntf w asatt he r ng, Pl i ifde e ha ng be n pr s nt By s ai i f he a i but a ntf ni s vi e ee . M ar h 26,de e nt W a de Kie a M a he ha a ove W a hi o sr ues,a c f nda s r n s r nd t na d ppr d s ngtn' eq t nd Pl i ifwa ta f redt Red Oni n a aLe S i aeon Aprl2. antf s r ns e r o o s vel nm t i On Jme 7, t Pont n c l d hi r vi w oft co c i f t gr y s r.Pont o onc ude s e e he nviton or he a hit on r duc t co c i fom ofe ec 13 Gpos e son/ e ed he nviton r f ns ode 2,d s s i consr c i ofaDe c De i tu ton vi e sgned t D e ei St f' t of e e c o c ve af , o f ns ode 111 ç nt tonaly D e toyi A le i D n a ng, ' , ç en i l s r ng, t rng, m gi or l 6 ' o r n s r nt n De acng st t ora Pe s ' Pr pe t '5 I hi me or ndum t w a de Kie , Po o f i a e ny r on s o ry. n s m a e ane xpl i d: W hie Ido notbe ivet ti i t ofe rs i e to t dec i t sa f l le ha t s he f nde ' nt n i n o eve he t f a KM CC ort us t ss r a a li ot rt n s m ehi t we rWhie t o e hi hit s nyt ng he ha o t ng o a l l e rii g (s he came ) 1 c n o in r t f c ta ba e o t e xecsn a li d , n n t g o e he a t h t s d n h t si ony gi n by t Re ri Ofi r aswe last a c e t s r e tm ve he po tng fce , l he c us d, he hit s d notha bee i hi pos e son,a i s ul no ha bee at r houl ve n n s s s i nd t ho d t ve n le ed fom is org na f m . To t t e I f e t t t 111 c ge i mor r t i i l or ha nd, e l ha he hr s e a opra ei t sc e. ppr it n hi as Thi c e wa d s us e a lngt by t e ie Ofe r Dicplne Uni s as s iç s d t e h he ntr f nde s i i t beoeti deiinwa rahe ,a de yo iv le a re ta, sd fr hs cso s e c d n ve ne n ov d ge d h tbae on t f t pr s nt d, i was hi y unhkey t tt ofe r had any he ac s e e e t ghl l ha he f nde i e i ofdec i ng t sa f a KM CC w ih t s slz,d boh t t ntntons evi he t f t t hi ii' ue t o he t f tt thewor i s ve altmesi f l vi w ofsa f a bec us i l c d a ac ha et e r i n ul e t f, nd a e t a ke c l r i i ni ,oranyt ng es whih woul la ape s n t bele t t ola , nsg a hi le c d ed r o o ive ha who rwa we rngt szr wa a hi ot t n an ofe r eve s a i he lit s nyt ng her ha f nde . 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On Ocober23,201 Pl i ifwa ta f redt e urt e l r vel o l t 5, antf s r ns e r o W ale Ri Stt Prs whe eher mai d i s r ga i f f t da be o e beng lns dge a e ion, r e ne n eg e ton or ory ys f r i r l s d i o ge r lpopul ton. e ea e nt ne a ai 5TheVDOC c i r c 111ls e i ude ofe eofc 1 . onsdes ode e s r ncl d f ns ode 32 B. THBREL EVANTGRI EVANCES 1 Aboutt i ta ta f rt s eg ton f t tnfn aor sae e s' . he niil r ns e o er a i or he d l mm t v tt m nt' i Pl i iffld a i or c pli ,aleg ngt tW i ke a Ta ordi c i i t d antf ie n nf mal om a nt l i ha c r nd yl s rm na e a i thi f rbeng a N OIa r ntby ale ng he, a an i l mm aor sa e e t Afe ga ns m o i n dhe e l gi m de nfa t y tt m n . tr notr eyi ar pons t t i or c ec i ng es e o he nf mal ompli ,Pli tf ie ar gua g iva e m i i ant a n iffld e lr re nc , tng, ETl1sif r l o lit sn t e p n e t b tene t cin d t o t d y3 1 - 5.Ca e G li n o ma c mpan wa o r s o d d o y h x a to ae f o a - 0 1 g s No KM CC- 5 m F- 0 51 1wa th sr s nd dt AS ' Theg iv n ewa rj ce a . 1 - 0 7 . n ti e po e o AP. ' re a c s ee td t i a a no g i va ebe a et greva e c nt ke s n- re bl c us he i nc ompl i a aned boutnotr cevi ar s ns o t e i ng e po e n he i o lc nf nna ompl i a nota ant nd boutt is dic s d i t i or a c he s ue s us e n he nf m l ompl n .Pl i if ait antf a a e bu he di notc le t diposton oft 'eg a g i va e. I t d,he r ve t d ppe l d, t d ha lnge he s ii her ulr re nc ns ea e re bac t t a gt nti t i or c k o he r une n he nf mal ompli a ant boutW ike ' a Ta orsal ge c rs nd yl ' le d di c i naor ac s TheRe o lOmbuds a uphed t i a dec son a no gre bl s rmi t y t . gi na m n l he nt ke ii s n- i va e, notng t tpolc alowe hi t tl ar gulrgre nc a utt is r s d i t i or l i ha i y l d m o ie e a iva e bo he s ues aie n he nf ma co pl nto et tm ee r d f rsa ft r pond. m ai nc he i xpie o t f o ' es Pl i ifr f l d a i or a co pl nta t n a l ngt r gul r g i va e a a ntf e ie n nf m l m ai nd he e hy e a r e nc bout i e , nt r ai ,W i ke ' a lgaton ofa i l mm aor sa e e ,W i ke ' be vi dlrng NOIs r i es la c rs le i n nfn t y t t m nt c r s ha or zi e vc , W ike ' poo r c d kee ng,W ike ' r t iton,Pl ntf beng pl c i s gr ga i a c rs r e or pi c rs eala i ai if i a ed n e e ton, nd Plitf b i gitr iwe b Anns Theg iva c wa rj ce a itk a p e e tn mo e an if en ne ve d y . re n e s ee td t na e s rs n ig r t n one is a t Re o lOmbuds n uphed t i a de son on a a . ha s ue, nd he gi na ma l he nt ke cii ppe l Pli ifs bmitdane gre nc lmii t is t < ( jwa plce i antf u te w iva e,i tng he sue o t he s a d n why s r ga i ' E ealai n'a r ue tng a i si to ofW ike a t a ton t bet ke eg e ton'as G t ito ' nd eq si n nve tgai n r c r s he c i o a n. Thss c n giv nc o tnsbywa rj ce a itkeo d e du f t e b c us, lh u h i e o d re a e se il s ee td t na r e me n omd d e a e ato g t r i no doc e t ton i t r or Pl i ifa a ed t tdi pos ton t t R e ona he e s um n a i n he ec d, a ntf ppe l ha s ii o he gi l 8 Omb d ma ( No 3 - , a ed 48 . Therc r r fe t ta teRe ina Omb d ma u s n. ECF . 6 8 p g i# 8) e od elcs h t h go l u s n rc i dtea pe lb tt rc r do sno rfe t h Re i n lOmb s n' a j d c to e eve h p a, u he e o d e t elc t e go a ud ma s du iai n. 2. Aboutt g a s r a r lt d r t lai n he r y hit nd ea e e ai to Pl ntf fl d a i o m a c ai if ie n nf r l ompl i a ant bouthow Ar spr e e t ale ed gr y s r m es ntd he tr a hit durng t dici i r he rngi r t lai n f rPl i ifflng m iva esa lmadng i he s plna y a i n e ai to o antf ii e nc nd l l c mpan s' At r s o e ,ç hes r wa n t l r di a ywa t c a etec ndto o o lit. ' ep nd d GT) hit s o at e n n y o h ng h o i n r ' ms ( e i a a a e oft s r fom t c to t s r wasi whe i wa c ppe r nc he hit r he ondii n he hit n n t s onss t d .... cae ' ' Pl i ifsl d ar a e r ulrg i va es edng a i tga i ofAr s al ge r t la o y antf e elt d eg a re nc e l n nvesi ton m ' le d e a it r fletsi n , n d fn a tW e b wh i KM CC' g iv n ec o dnao , ee tdt as e t y a d ee d n b , o s mo S re a c o r i tr rj ce he g ivanc ati a a non- iva e.A Regi lOmbu m a uphed t td ii o a a . re e nt ke s gre bl ona ds n l ha ec son n ppe l 3. Abo t e r uscls i to r po tde i r d b de e ntKe ey ut he roneo a sscai n e r lve e y f nda al Pli ifsld a r gul rgre nc a utt t e antf e e a iva e bo he wo aoneo poi si t i ta r po t us nt n he niil e r de i r by Kegly a a lge ypr pa e by Ta or W rde Ki e de m e t gre nc lve ed e nd le dl e r d yl . n s r e d he iva e f ounde a a te t ero . W a de Kierf t fnot d t tt e r wa c r c e durng d nd dmit d he r r r n s urhe e ha he ror s ore t d i t l hea i on M a c 24, he CA rng r h 2015.Pont uphel W a de Kiersde ii o a a . on d r n s ' c son n ppe l Aboutno bengpr s nta t I hea i on M a c 24. t i e e t he CA rng r h 2015 On Aprl1 2015,Pl i ifpur t y ma l ar gu a gre nc fo Re Oni t i 2, antf poredl ied e l r iva e r m d on o W e a KM CC a utt I hea i he d on M a c 24,201 Pl ntf de edha ng bb t bo he CA rng l rh 5. ai if ni vi r eve a nc no i oft I hea i and de edha ng bee pr s nt Pli ifa s not d ec i d dva e tce he CA rng ni vi n e e . antf lo e t the w a nota m' oft I he rng ' tlApr l7,201 ha s w e he CA a i t i m i 5. Afe no he i ba k fom W e Pli ifpur tdl fldasl-t eda alwih tr t arng c r lb, antf pore y ie efsyl ppe t t Re o lO f i on M a 1 201 co pl ni how W e ha no r ponded t t he gi na fce y 9, 5, m ai ng bb d t es o he gre nce On M ay 22,201 W e wr ePli ifal te ,de ng e rha ng r evedt t i va . 5, bb ot antf e tr nyi ve vi ec i ha 9 g iva e. On Jme7,201 Pli ifr s n t pup o td m isng gre nc t W e a re nc t 5, a ntf e e t he re s i iva e o bb nd i or e W e t theha ale a ald W e sf iur t r pond t t Regi lOfi e. nf m d bb ha d r ady ppe e bb' al e o es o he ona fc W e sofi er eve t s ond c o t greva o J 1 201 W e r pled b a bb' fc ec i d he ec opy f he i nce n une 8, 5. bb e i y lte dae J 23,201 e ani t tt greva e wasnotc e tr td une 5, xpl i ng ha he i nc ompl t a a ee nd ppea e t be rd o untmel fl d. i y ie On Jme30,201 Pl ntf wr e de e n Locus,whoi VDOC' sa e de g i va t 5, ai if ot f nda t t s S t t wi re nce c di t r t notf he t theha no r eved ar s oor na o , o iy r ha d t ec i e pons fom W e ort Re onalOfi e. er bb he gi fc Afe no he rng ba k fom he ,Pl i ifs ntLoc ta he lte on J y 1 2015, bo t tr t a i c r r antf e us not r e tr ul 4, a ut he I h a iga dag iva c W e bh drj ce .OnJ l 2 , 01 , anifsn h ralte CA e rn n re n e b a ee td uy 2 2 5 Plitf e t e etr a uthow t Regi Om buds n had s nthi a t i d Leve 1 r s ns bo he onal ma e m n msgne l 1 e po e. Loc tr ponded by s ndi hi t eelte s n he fnall te ,Loc te ane t t us es e ng m hr e tr .I r e tr us xpl i d ha s wasa r ofhi c he wa e s ompli a utno bei a t I he rng o M a c 24,201 a a nt bo t ng t he CA a i n r h 5, nd die t d hi t s r c e m o ubmi hi r ques t t a opraepe s n.Loc ta s not d,G o a tonal t s e t o he ppr it r o us lo e W ddii r s ewilbepr ded a yourpa m or i bei r tln t you f yolrr cor ' e pons l ovi nd pe k s ng elr ed o or z e d. ' 5. Abo r cuesi ar he rngafe Pont n' a a de ii n ut e l tnR e a i tr o s ppe l c so Pl i iffld ar gul g iva es eki ahea i afe Pont va t d t c 1 antf ie e ar re nc e ng rng tr on ca e he ode 32 c n ito a dc n itdhm frviltn c e1 1 W e brj ce t g iv n ea itk a o v cin n o v ce i o oaig od 1 . b ee td he re a c tn a e s non- ivabl a t Re ona Ombuds gre e, nd he gi l manuphel t tde son. d ha cii I I. De e d n sfldamo inf rs fn a t ie to o umma yj d me tag i ,n e ai,h d fn e o r u g n r ung itr la t e ee s s f q lfe i m t iy a e us i ofa l bl a i sr tve r m e e A pa t i e il d t ua i d m m t nd xha ton vaia e dm ni t a i e di s. ry s ntte o s mma yj d me ti t p e dng ,h ds l sdmae l o fl, n a ya d vt s o t a u r u g n f he la i s te ico e tdas n ie a d n o a is h w h t t e ei n g n i d s u ea t a ymaeil a t F d R. v. 5 () s eW iln v Grfi , h r s o e une ip t s o n tra fc. e . Ci P. 6 a; e l ms . ifn i 9 2F.d8 , 2 (t Ci. 9 1 (e o nzn ap ryi e tte t s mmayj d me t f h 5 2 20 8 3 4 h r 1 9 ) r c g iig i t s n i d o u t u g n i t e l rc r a awh l c ul n t e d ar to lre o f c t fn i fvo o t en n mo a t. e o d s o e o d o la aina tir f a t o i d n a r f h o - v n) G ae ilf c s'a et ef c sne es a y t e tbls t elm e sofapary' c us ofaci n. t tra a t ' r hos a t c s r o sa ih he e nt M t s a e to An es nv. b ryLo b l .4 7U. 2 2, 48(98 ) A g n i ed s ueo maeil a t d ro Lie t b y.nc, 7 S. 4 2 1 6 . e u n ip t f tra fc e ssi,i vi wi t r c da a1r as bl i e e esdr wn t r fom i alghtm os xit f n e ng he e or nd 1 e ona e nf r nc a he e r n i t f vor bl t t no m ovi pa t ar s bl f c a a e o he nng ry, ea ona e a tsnde c ul r tun ave ditf rt nonr o d e t' r c o he mo nt L. Themo ngpa t ha t bur nofs ng-çha i,poi i o t t ditit va . ds u vi ry s he de howi G t s ntng ut o he src t cou t t tt r i a a e ofe de et s r - ha he e s n bs nce vi nc o uppo t henonm ovi pa t sc s .' Cel e rt ng ry' a e' otx Co . Cart, 7 U.. 7 3 5( 98 ) ftemo a tstsist sb r e ,h nt en n p v. te' 4 7 S 31 , 2 1 6 .I h v n aife hi u d n t e h o t m o ntm us s tf rh s cfcf t t tde o taet e se ofage nediput off c va t e o t pe ii acs ha m nsr t he xit nce nui s e a t frtil 1 . t3 -4.Sz r j d me ti ia p o raei tee i e ei s o ce tfra o ra. d a 222 l mma y u g n s n p r p it f h v d nc s u in o r s bl f c -i rt r t r ave diti f voroft nonea ona e a tfnde o e u n r c n a he movi pa t Ande s 477U . ng ry. r on, S. a 248. t Ev ni t eei nods u ea t tee ie tayf cs sl r j d me ti n t e f h r s ip t s o h vd n ir a t, l mmay u g n s o a opra ewhe et uli a ef c ua c l i nst bedr wn a ei diput Ove sr e v. ppr it r he tm t a t l onc uso o a r n s e. r te t Ky. Ce tLieI . , 0F.d9 , 3 ( t Ci.1 91.A c u t y n tr s l ds t df cs n . f ns Co.95 2 31 9 7 4h r 9 ) o r ma o e ove ipue a t, wei t e denc orm a deer na i ofc edi lt Rus elv.M i r gh he vi e, ke t mi tons r biiy. s l c odyneCor ,65 F. n. 3d 1 2 ,1 3 ( t Ci.1 9 ) So e e v. u p y 7 7F.d 1 9 1 2(t Ci. 9 6 .I ta , 2 9 2 9 4h r 9 5 ; s b e M r h , 9 2 7 , 8 4h r 1 8 ) nse d a c ta ce sa tu t e de eoft nonour c pt s r e he vi nc he movi pa t andr s ve a 1i e na c nfit a ng ry e ol s l nt r l o lc s nd i e e esi t non- ovi pa t s f vor Cha bonnaze de Fr nc v.Sm ih,597 F. 406, nf r nc n he m ng r y' a . r s a e t 2d 41 ( t Ci.1 7 ) G he o p sn p ristlt d fee tso s o eo whc i b aa ty 4 4h r 9 9 . l n p o ig a t elwo ifrn tde , n f ih s ltnl W e c nr dcè b t rc r , ot a nora o a l j r c ul b le ei ac u t h udn ta o t o ta itd y he e o d s h t e s n b e u y o d eiv t o r s o l o d p , t tv rin o t ef csf rp r o e o nlngo amo in f rsz r u g n . Sc tv. ha e so f h a t o u p s s f l n i to o l mmayj d me t' o t ' Ha s 5 0U. 3 2 3 0( 0 7 .F rh r r , p ryt n 'o c e t ag n n is eo ni, 5 S. 7 , 8 2 0 ) u temo e a a t l n t r ae e uie su f c n m a e f c t ough m e es ulton ort buidi ofo i e e eupon a he .'Be l v. t dal a t hr r pec a i he l ng ne nf r nc not r' a e Had 7 9F.d21 , 4(t Ci.1 8 ) Theeo e Emqr u s p re s e ulto . .sn t r y, 6 2 3 21 4 h r 9 5 . rf r ,ç e e n u po td p c ain . i o l e u ht d f a as no g o ee t umma yj d me mo in. El sv Na 'As ' o Bu . Ed c Ra i . r u g nt to ' mi . tl sn f s & u . d o ' I .5 F.d5 , 2( t Ci.1 9 ) A p an ifc r tu ear s o s t amo inf rsl l nc, 3 3 5 6 4h r 9 5 . litf amo s e p n e o to o l mma' y j d me tt a ndo c re tac mp an c le g db t mo inf rsl r j d me t u g n o me r o rc o lit haln e y he to o l mmay u g n . Se .e. ,Cl ni rv. c vit55 F. 324,336( hCi.2009 ( tngt tapli ifma e :. oa nce M De t, 5 3d 4t r ) noi ha antf y n t me dac mp an tr u ha gt n i ab ifo p sn ml r j d me t. o a n o lit h o g r t t n re p o i g mma y u g n ) me A.QUALI EDI FI MMUNI TY De e nt a guet tt y a ee il d t qualfed i lniy.6 Quaii d i uniy i sal f nda s r ha he r ntte o i mm l t lfe mm t s i! i mt t fom s tr t rt n ame e de e et la lt 'a i i t r f e G feci l l ti m miy r ui ahe ha r f ns o ibiiy,' nd t s he e or t f tvey os f e ac s i er ne usype mitdt g t til'Pe ro v. l h n 5 5U. 2 , 1( 0 ) a e s ro o l r te o o o ra . as n Cal a , 5 S. 23 23 20 9 . ' a l d,t çdrvi f r e'be ndt doc rnei t ç iet e ur t tGns t nta cam s ndee he : i ng o c ' hi he ti s he ç r o ns e ha i ubsa i l li des a an tg v r me to fcas( lqb r s l dp irt d s o ey' I ( leain i o ii l g is o e n n fiil wil e e ove ro o ic v r .ç d.atrto n rgna) ' ( u t An e s nv. ec t n 4 3U. 6 5 6 0n2( 9 7) q oi ng d ro Cr ih o , 8 S. 3 , 4 . 1 8 ). Qu lfe i ai d mmunt p oe t p blco fcasç c mmh c n ttto a vo ainsb t i r t cs u i f il i y who o o si in l ilto u u who,i lghtofcl ry esa ihe lw,c dr as bl bei vet tt i aci nswe el wf .' n i ea l t bls d a oul e ona y le ha her to r a ul' He r v. mll, 5 F.d5 4 5 ( t Ci. 01 )(nb n ) s eI r Ale 1 6F.d5 2 5 3 n y Pt el6 2 3 2 , 31 4h r 2 1 e a c ; e n e ln, 0 3 8 , 9 6D ee nt cieW a dv. J h s n 6 0F. 1 9 - 1 9-3(t Ci. 98 , ndag eta t yaee tte fnda s t r o n o , 9 2d 0 8 1 0 1 4h r 1 2)a ru h the r n i d l t a ol ei m uniy f t rdecso m a i i tt tona dici i r hea i a a l.W he s ki o bs ut m t or hei iins de n nsiui l s plna y rngs nd ppeas n ee ng abs ut i ol e mmuniy,agove nme o fci be sahe y bur n ofde t r nt fi al ar av de mons tngt ove rdi publcpolc kai hat ri ng i iy . consdeatonswar nts h e pto lpr e ton.Deenda shavenotdones a f rher e,heydo no i ri ra uc xce ina otci f nt o, nd u t mor t t a de sCla ic rv. a n r4 4U. 1 3, 0 - 7( 9 5, ihh l ta pio o fcasiv le i dsil ay d rs e vn e S x e, 7 S. 9 2 6 0 1 8 )whc ed h t rs n fiil n ov d n icpi r n d cso aee tt dt q aiid, o a s lt,mmu iy frq ai u iil u cin .Moe v rd fn a t e iins r nil o u lfe n t b oue i nt,o u s- dca fn to s ro e, ee d ns e j wav dt dee s o a s lt i ni b n t e dn i i tera s r S e eM, d. Ci P. () Go zv. ie he fn e f b oue mmu t y o pla ig tn h i n we. e . ..Fe R. v. 8 c; me y Toe o 4 6U. 6 5 6 0( 9 0.Co s q e t , c n ie wh te dee a t aee tt dt q aiid a n t ld , 4 S. 3 , 4 1 8 ) n e u nl I o sd r eh r fnd ns r nil o u lfe , nd o y e a ol e,i m uniy. bs ut m t 12 ( t Ci.1 9 )(( n o fca ma cam q aiidi n t a lnga h sa to sa en t 4h r 9 7 1A) fiil y li u lfe mmu iy s o s i ci n r o ; ce rye tb ih dt beb y n t b u d de o hsds rto ay a t o iy'.I c n u tn lal sa ls e o e o d he o n a s f i icein r u h rt . n o d cig ) t q lse i m iy a l i,t frtt k i t i ntf t t pe ii 'rghtça a hi lve of he ua i d mmt t nays s he is as s o de iy he G c fc' i tt gh e l s pa tc a iy't t pl ntf s e t wasi rngedby t c lnge c riul rt 'hat he ai ifa s rs nfi he hale d onduc .Edwa dsv.Ciy t r t O Go d b r ,1 8F.d2 1 2 ( t Ci.1 9 ) W i fedv Ba s 1 6F.d5 5 5 0( t Ci. f l s o o 7 3 3 , 51 4h r 9 9 ; n il . s , 0 3 2 , 3 4h r 1 9 )(n b n ) 9 7 e a c. Theot rt ksa et i r Gwhehe a c tt i vi l ton oc ur e 'a G t r he as r o nquie û t r onsiutonal o a i c r d' nd i he whe t rg vi aed wa cea l esa ihed'a t tme oft ofi i ' c he i ht ol t s l ry t bls ' t he i he fcals onduc .M eca v. t l r Gr e e 5 3F.d3 , 5 (t Ci. 1 ) s ePe ro , 5 U. a 2 ( li c u t ma e n , 9 3 48 3 3 4 h r 20 0 ; e as n 5 5 S. t 31 hodng o rs y iq iei et e o d r.ç e ryetbl h d' eest t a j d c to o t ç p cfc' ih n ur n i r r e) t al sa i e 'r fr o he du iain f he ç e ii'rg t h cl s s i ntfe t tahi h lve ofpa tc a iy,' e si ha no be n,i whih çcea l esa ihed' de ii d l a g e l riul rt 'unl s t s t e n c ll ry t bls ' mea ar as bl publc o fc a s ul lnow s m ehi i de m e E a f ty i l d' ns e ona e i f ii l ho d c o t ng s e d ç niesl ncude ' m wihi ç e ge r a i tons'o t tc econsi i lprncpl i vo d.'Prthe t t nl mor ne al pplcai ' f he lor tmtona i i e n ke ' ic t v. Alo d 9 3F.d3 7 31 ( t Ci.1 9 ) A r a o bl p b i otca i Vignas o l l o f r , 7 2 0 , 4 4h r 9 2 . e s na e u lc f iln r i i h ud o k i t t l w oft Supr m eCour oft Unie St t s t Cour o Appe sf rt Fourh Cic t o he a he e t he t d a e , he tf al o he t r ui, a t Supr m eCour ofVigi at de e mi whehe t rghti G l a l e t blà d.' nd he e t r ni o tr ne t r he i s l e ry sa ihe ' c Owe sv. t 3 2F.d 2 7 2 9(t Ci. 0 ) I t r i n s c d cso , r a o be n Lot 7 3 6 , 7 4h r 20 4 . f hee s o u h e iin a e s na l publcofk ili t scr ui s d l t at ons ns o c s sofpe s sve a t iy fo i i a n hi ic t houl ook o ç e us f a e c rua i u hort r m ' mi l ohe j rs ito s i s c e ss'1 I .ct M aci elov S mn r 9 3F.d2 5 2 8(t Ci. t r u idcin ,f u h xit. d ; l u e, 7 2 9 , 9 4 h r . 1l 201 ,f e m pl, t Fourh Cic thedt tac r c i ofi i i Sout Ca olnaha ace n 7 or xa e he t r ui l ha ore tonal tcal n h r i d td u rao byfrn tk o n i 2 0wht lal etblhd1w wa apia et cret n l fiili Iwa nesnal o o n wij n 01 acery sa i e a s p lcbl o orci a ofcasn o , s o Tea, loni,n Gerl, nteseii lg lsu h db e de dn t t du iae b teS ge x sCai r a ad ogawhe h p cfc ea ise a en eme o yeajdctd y h u rme f Cour oft UniedSt e ,t Co tofAppeadf rt Fou t Cic t ort Supr meCour ofSo h Ca ol t he t ats he ur l o he rh r ui, he e t ut r ma. Boo e v S. De ' o Co , 5 F.d5 3 5 44 (t Ci. 7 .Th tofca i So t Caoi wo l as be k r . C. pt f =.S 5 3 3 , 4 -5 4h r201 ) a fiiln uh rl na ud lo d e dt e sn befrrl n o aFo rhCic ipu ih dd cso ta a j dc tdt is eC nfsl eme mrao a l o eyig n ut rut bl e e iin h t du iae he su K iet s ma y i ude 'wihi t mor ge r a i to oft c eco tt i prnci ei ncl d' t n he e neal pplcains he or nsim onal i pl nvoke Ada v.Ri ,40 F. d, ms ce 3d 13 1 9 )(e o nzn q ai di nt i itnd dt p o e t u i ofcas9o madn b d 9 2 r c g iig u l mmu iy s ne e o r tc p bl fiil m l g a se c g e s si g a ae s. u se n r y ra ) B . EXHAUSTI OFA VAI ON LABLE A DMI S NI TRATI R E E ES VE M DI Def nda sa guet tPl ntf f ie t e us a l eadmi sr tver m e esas e nt r ha ai if al d o xha t vaiabl nita i e di r q ie b 4 U. C. 1 9 ea.Thee l to rq ie n i ma d t r a dG p le t a1 e ur d y 2 S. j 9 7 () xwusi n e ur me t s n ao y n s pis o l a imaes isa o t rs n l e .' Po trv. sl, 3 U. 5 6 5 4, 3 ( 0 ) ç r p r n t ut b u p io i gq' re Nu se 5 4 S. 1 , 2 5 2 20 2 . G o e f p e usi de a c xha ton m nds ompla ewih a age y' de dlne a ot rc ii lpr e a r e .' i nc t n nc s a i s nd he rtca oc dur l uls' W o d o dv. o, 48U. 81 9 ( 0 6 .W h n ap io prvie a a miitai eg iva c o f r Nc 5 S. , 0 2 0 ) e rs n o d s n d n srtv re n e pr dtr ,t i a emus fl a g iva er i i apa tc a c am a pur uei t ough a l oce ze he nm t t ie re nc a sng riul r l i nd s t hr l a ia l lv l o a p a t ç o el e a s. I .Di nv' z , 91F.d4 5 4 0 91(t valbe e es f p e l o E p ry xh u t' d; xo . e 2 3 8 , 9 - 7h pr ' Pa Ci. 0 2 . r2 0 ) G AjAa mi itaierme yi no c n iee t h v be na ia l i ap io e , t I d nsrtv e d s t o sd r d o a e e valbe f rs n r E t o no f ul ofMsown, a pr ve e fo a ii li e fofi. M oor v. z te 51 hr ugh a t w s e nt d r m va lng lms l t' ' e Beme t, 7 F.d71 , 2 ( t Ci. 0 ) sW l e p io o fcasp e n imae fo u igte 3 7 7 5 4h r 2 08 .ç h n rs n fiil rve tn ts r m sn h l a i s r tve pr s ... t pr s t te s s o pa rbec e t a ia e i r alt ' dm ni ta i oce s , he oce s ha xit n pe om s m va l bl n e iy. ' Ka v S e n, 8F.d6 , 8 (t Ci. 0 6 .A d fn a th stebzd n t p o eal ba . tp 45 3 78 6 4 7h r 2 0 ) ee d n a h l e o r v l r i t sf iur t e us a ia ea nita i r m ed e . J nesv. k,549U . 1 21 nma e' a l e o xha t va lbl dmi sr tve e i s o Boc S. 99, 6 ( 0 ) On ead fn a tp e e t e d n eo af i r t e h us,h bld n o p o fs it t 20 7 . c e e d n rs n s vie c f al e o x a tt e t e f r o hfs o u r t pli ift s he antf o how,by apr po r nc oft e de e t te usi occ n'd or e nde a e he vi nc , ha xha ton u e 7 ( hCi.1 9 )a da u p bih dc s a pyn ta p bl h dd cso t rjc tedpe ii rg t ie tfe 2 4t r 9 4, n n n u ls e a e p lig h t u i e e iin o eeth d cfc ih' d niid s s ' Rtahg lv l fp riuai , Da ev. b n ti, 7F. p' 31 , 9(t Ci. 01 ) CtBo k r sp aa a ih e e o atc lrt ' v Ru e sen 41 Ap x 7 31 4h r2 1. l o e,u r t y' 5 -2( a lr J, isnig (Be a s Ada i bn ig c nr lnga to i t t ee t Bo ke' cam,h 515 Trxe, .dse tn ) C cu e ms s idn , o tol uh rt ha rjcs o rs li te ç i y mao i er b ds sigAd msa drl n o c sso tieti crutt d n q ai e i ni .S e. . j rt rs y imisn a n eyig n ae usd hs ic i o e y u li d mmu t e . y i y Ed rs 1 F.da 2 (I argh i rc g ie i smeoh rcrutbu n ti t so e a o t a wi wad , 78 3 t 51 $f i t s eo nz d n o te ic i, t o n hi n , n fkil l : l o dn rl rti tei ni d fn e'(nen l u tto mak a datrto o te ).) r iai ean h mmu t ee s . itra q oain r s n l ain mi d)'. y y ' e t ' 1 4 a i sr tver me e we euna ia e tlough no f ul oft pli if See e. ,Tuc lv. dm nitai e di s r val bl lr a t he antf. . g. ke Gr ve, 6 F.d1 49 1 5 ( 0h Ci. 1. o r 6 0 3 2 , 2 4 1 t r 201 ) VDOC De a t n OpeaigP o e t e(OP' 8 61 ç f n e Gre a ePr c d ry p rme t rtn r c dl ç ' 6 .,l e d r iv nc o e u e' r ç ) of ' pr dest a M sr tver m e esf i a e t r s vecompl nt , ppe la nita i ovi he dm ta i e di or nm t s o e ol ai s a a dmi sr tve de sons a c l ngepolc e a pr dur s Thepr s pr de c r c i cii , nd hale ii s nd oce e . oce s ovi s ore tonal a i sr t sm ea t i tf po e i lpr blm sa i ne es a y,co r c t epr e si a dm nitaor ns o den iy t nta o e nd, f c s r r e t hos oblm n tmel mn r A1 i s a e gre bl e e is sa utpolces pr ce es a de ii ns i y nne . 1 s ues r iva e xc pt s ue bo i i , o dur , nd c so oft Vigi aPa ol Boa d;dicplna y hea i pe lisa o pr e lale r s sa ea he r ni r e r si i r rng nate nd/ r oc dtr ror ; t t nd f r lc r decs o ,l ws andr gultons a o he m a tr be ede a ou t ii ns a , e a i ; nd t r te s yondt VDOC' c r . he S ontol l a e a eore e t t i t g i va pr edzewhe t y e t rt VDOC' c t a nm t s r int d o he nma e re nce oc lr n he n e he S usody nd whe t y a eta f r e t ot rVDOC f ciii . n he r r ns e r d o he a ltes Pro t s itng agre nc t i ae us ly m us ma agood-at e f t o i r o ubm ti iva e, he nm t ual t ke f ih for t i onnaly r ol t is by s itng a i o malc nf l es ve he s ue ubm ti n nf r ompli f m,whih i a ia e i ant or c s val bl n nf ly es ve he nm t housngt t. l t is i noti onna l r ol d, t i a emus fl ar gta g iva i mis8 f he s ue s t ie e z r re nce l wihi t ry cae rda fom t da eoft oc ure eori i nt9 O n1 onei s pe t n hit lnda ys r he t he c r nc ncde . s ue r y r gulrg i va m a beaddr s ed.1 OP 866.1r uie a i a et de c i t l sue' e a re nce y es 0 eq r s n nm t o s rbe he ç s 'and i doesnotr quiet i t t s cf t r s e r he nma e o pe iy he e ponsbl o fc a orpr pe tve de e nt See e. , i e f ii l os c i f nda . . g. J n s 5 U. a 21 - 8(ic si a ie tfc to rq ie n) o e , 49 S. t 7 1 d s u sng n d n iiain e urme t. SAn i ei notr quied,howeve, t fl ani or compl nta nmat s e r r o ie nf mal ai boutanalege i i nto s xual l d ncde f e abus . e 9A lgre nc sa ec i r d u e ei 'whe VDO C saf t ordaesa p i o t wor ng da l iva e r onsde e r c ved' n t fdae t tm t n he ki y r ceve VDO C ofk il m a m odiyt t 't - y lm i f rcrum sa sbe e i d. t as y f he ht y da i t o ic tnce yondt i ae' co r orwhe a r he nm t s ntol n mor r srci tme-i tha be n e tbls d. e e titve i lmi s e sa ihe 1 Fore 0 xampl, i ar iva ealge avi ai ofas cik polc a alo alge apa tr ofc e f e nc le d olton pe t iy nd s le d te n onduc t b l v dt b rtlain,h g iv n ec udberj ce a p ee tn toma yis e : poiyvoaina d ei e o e eaito te re a c o l ee td s rsnig o n su s a l ilt n e c o r tlaor c eait y onduc . t 1 5 Reg a gre nc m a r vi we by muli esa f f ciiy' w a de c uc st ul r iva es y e e d tpl t f .A a lt s r n ond t he fr t < e I' e e I t i aei uns tsi wih t Le l1de e m i ton, hei m a e is ,t vel 'r viw. f he nm t s a ifed t he ve t r nai t n t ma a y ppea t de e nai wihi fveda ofr ceptt Le lI , c i us ly do by a l he t nni ton t n i ys e i o ve I whi h s ual ne vel e po e t s ue t n li t ys nd r i lom buds a 1 A Le Ir s ns mus bei s d wihi tlry da , a aLe l1 eg ona m n.1 ve 1 r pons mus beis d wihi t nt da . Expia i oft tmelmi wihoutis nc ofa es e t s ue t n we y ys r ton he i i t t s ua e r pons a a sageoft pr es a o a ialy e ilsa i t t pr e t t ne lve. es e t ny t he oc s ut m tc l ntte n nma e o oce d o he xt e l Re arg va est tdo notm e tt flngr r m e sofOP 866. a er tu d t gul de nc ha e he ii equie nt 1 r e tme o t i t wihi t wo ki da fom t da eofr ceptwih i tu tons whe pos i e he nma e t n wo r ng ys r he t e i t nsr c i , n sbl , a bouthow t i em a r dy a dek inc . 1 An i ma em a a ala i t ke de ii he nmat y eme ny t e y 2 y ppe n n a c son n t by s ndi t gre nc a t i a de son t ar gi lombuds n wili fveda of e ng he iva e nd he ntke cii o e ona ma tln i ys r c it Theei n fzte rviw o teitked cso Noa l ag iva c rj ce a itk e ep . r s o t h r e e f h na e iin. tby, re n e ee td t n a e r i de m e notpr pe l fl s e d o ry ed. VDOC OP 8611,t f nde Dicplne, nsiuto , pr dest a nita i . Gof e r s i i l tt ins' ovi he dmi sr tve ' r medi f i a e t a a d s i i z c ci .Exc ptf af w cr umsa e no e es or nm t s o ppe l i cplna y onvi tons e or e ic tnc s t pr s nti t sca e a i t m a a e e n hi s , n nma e y ppea a c c i t awa de wihi ffe n da of l onviton o r n t n ite ys r cevi t hemi r por.Thewa de s d r pond i m ii wihi t nt busne sda , e i ng he ng e t r n houl es n tng t n we y i s ys a d e snge c is er ie i t ea pe l ewad nh snl r u a j d c to o to , d r si a h su as d n h p a.Th r e a t o s du iain p ins me i udi a fr ng,va tng,a notbl or rng ar hea i f a ls e ofe ecod i t ncl ng fimi cai nd, a y, de i e rng or e s r f ns e f he i t wa c r wih a i orec ofe e.Exc ptf raf w cr nma e s ha ged t n nc r t f ns e o e icumsa e notpr e i t s t nc s es nt n hi c e t i a e m a t a alt a r gi na a i sr t w ihi t ee da off c vi t as , he nm t y hen ppe o e o l dm ni ta or t n m n ys e ei ng he 1 SOm eis a eei bl f at r lvelofr ew,butf rt is si ve i t sca e Le l1 wa 1 s ues r lgi e or hid e evi o he sue nvol d n hi s , ve 1 s t fnallve . he i e l ' 1 A c oft i akede son i ke i t i t sgre ncetl. 2 opy he nt cii s pt n he nmae' iva ie 1 6 wa de sr s e.Ther ona a nita o s dr s ndwihi sxt busne sda and r n' e pons egi l dmi sr t r houl e po t n i y i s ys h st es mea j d c to o to sa tewad n.Th r i nofrh rrviw a albl. a h n du iain p in s h r e ee s u te e e v i e a 11 1. Afe r vi ng t r co dand viwi t i e e esi alg mos f vo a et tr e ewi he e r e ng he nf r nc n i ht t a r bl o Pl i if Ig a i pa ta de i pa t m s Cl y, t Ke e Kie ,Le Lowe M ahe , antf, r nt n r nd ny n r Ar , ar hur, gly, s r e, , t na Po t n S k s a Ta l rsmoin frsz r j d me t Themo ini d n e i pat st n o , y e , nd y o ' to o l mmay u g n . to s e id n r a o t f l ng c am s whi h r m an pe i wih t c t Po on r voki 90 da 'goodhe olowi l i , c e i nd ng t he our: nt e ng ys c uc tm ewiho a a o it he rng,a t a lgedr t iton by Ta or Syke ,Ar s ond t i t ut n ppr pra e a i nd he le eala i yl , s m , a Hur . nd t Th moinf rs mmayj d me ti g a tdi p r a t t r mann camsa an t h s e to o u r u g n s rn e n a t s o he e iig li g i s t e e de e an s f nd t . A . THE CLAI S THAT PONTON Ar W ARDEN K I FAI TO GI PLAI FFA NEW M SER LED VE NTI DICILI S P NARY HEARm G TO J TI Y THELOS OF90DAYS'GOODUS F S CONDUCTTI ME Pli tf l ge t tPo on a W a de Kie vi a e d pr es by f ii t gi a n ifale s ha nt nd r n s r olt d ue oc s a lng o ve Pl i ifa dicplna y he rngbe or co c i hi o t l s e i l d ofe ec 111a antf s i i r ai f e nvitng m f he e s r ncude f ns ode nd r voki e r d good- onduc tm e.1 A prs e ng a ne c ti 3 ioneri e ttedt c ran duepr es pr t c i s n il o e ti oc s o e tons f prs dicplna ypr e ngswhe f ce wih t l so g or ion s i i r oc edi n a d t he os f ood- onduc tm e W olfv. c ti . f M c n l, 8U. 5 9 5 4 (9 4 .Pr c d r l u p o e sr q ie a va c wrte n tc Do nel41 S. 3 , 6 1 7 ) o e u a d e r c s e urs d n e itn o ie oft c r es ahe rng,t rg t c l wines e a pr e e de ewhe doi s i not he ha g , a i he iht o a l t s s nd es nt vi nc n ng o s i nsse wih i tt i na s f t a co r c i lc e s a awrte de ii I a nco it nt t nsiuto l a e y nd r e tona onc m , nd itn c son. d. t 56 71. Subsa i duepr s i s ts d i t dic plna y he rng de i i wa ba e upo 4t ntve oce s s a ife f he s i i r n i c son s s d n t o e ie c . S p rn e d n . a s Co .ns. Hi , 2U.. 4 , 5 ( 9 5 . ç me vd n e' u e itn e tM s. n'l tv. l 47 S 4 5 4 5 1 8 ) s ' l 1 se compl ! 1 5 1 6. 3 e . ! 0 -0 Pon on' de ii n t smula t s c so o î t neousvac t t c 1 co c i a dee Pl i if a e he ode 32 nviton nd m antf guit ofc 111s ae avi ai n o a rghtt pr e zalduepr s t tha be n cla l ly ode tt s olto f i o oc dlr oce s ha d e e ry e tbls d.Pli ifne rr eve notc t thew o d ne d t de e hi eff ra c 111 sa ihe a ntf ve ec i d i e ha ul e o f nd ms l o ode c r e,( nt n i nal D e toyi Ale i Dn a ng,orDe acng Stt ora Pe s s ha g G e to ly sr ng, t rng, m gi l f i a e ny r on' Pr ryy' di he e rr eveahe i t a s r de e e pa tc a t ac 111 c r ope t 'nor d ve ec i arng o s e t f ns s riulr o ode ha ge be or hi good- onduc tm e w asr voked. f e s c ti e Pl n ifa s sa e avi ai ofs t n i duepr es t tha be n c e ry aitf lo tt s ol ton ubsa tve oc s ha d e l a l e t ihe Pont n' r tonae f rfndi Pl n ifguit ofcode 111wa be a e çhe s r sabls d. o s a i l o i ng aitf ly s c us l hit t s ul notha bee i hi pos e son,a i s ul no ha be n at r d fom isorgi l ho d ve n n s s s i nd t ho d t ve e le e r t i na f m . Howe r code 111doe notpr bi pos e so ofa at r s r i pr bisis or ' ' ve , s ohi t s s i n n le ed hiq t ohi t t i e i lat r ton.Thenaur oft t si ony d i t he rng,a las a i i pr e l nt ntona le a i t e he e tm urng he a i t e t s t s es nty des rbe doesnotc tt eS o ee de 't tPl i ifi e i ly atr d t s r, c i d, onsiut ç m vi nce'ha antf ntntonal le e he hit s y r es whehe hepos e s d i.Acc di y, on i no e il d t qualfe i lniy f ega dl s t r sse t or ngl Pont s t ntte o i d mm l t or t due pr s c a m s he oce s l i . Ho v r W ad n Kie i e tte t q aiidi we e , r e s r s n ild o u l e mmunt a s mmayj d me tf r h f i nd u r u g n o t e y d pr e sc am s Pl i iff ist e tbls how W a de Kie had a i l m e twih ue oc s l i . antf al o sa ih r n sr ny nvo ve n t Pont n' dec s on orhow W a de K i e had a hort t or r ane he rng f r a c o s ii r n sr ut iy o de w a i o onvi to ci n ara ya j iae b Po tn.Fu t nn r , n alg to t tW rd nKie ' r ve o t le d dudc td y n o rhe o e a y le ain ha e s rs e iw f he code 1 c ci vi l t d duepr es wa moot dupo Po on' de ii n t va a et t 32 onvi ton o a e oc s s e n nt s c so o c t ha convi i cton. Pont n' r g e t tPl i tf f l t e us a ia e a i s r tve r m e e i o s um nt ha a n if aied o xha t va l bl dm ni ta i e di s s c r i t d by t r co d. Pl i ifs ug a r m e vi OP 8 1 butne t r OP 8 1 norOP ontad c e he e r a ntf o ht e dy a 66. , ihe 66. 18 861. alo d hi t s ek f t rr viw ofPo on' de ii n. Acc di l t pr e a a 1 l we m o e urhe e e nt s c so or ng y, he oc dur l nd s t ntve due pr e s c ai s a ns Pon on r m a n pe ng. ubs a i oc s l m gai t t e i ndi B . THE CLAI STHAT TAYLOR S TANTI Y BURDENE RELI OUSEXERCI E P ECTED M UBS ALL D GI S ROT BY T FI T A MENDM E AND R LUI HE RS NT PA Plitf camst t yo s b tn ilyb r e e h se ecs o-ei ini vilto o anif li ha Ta lr u sa tal u d n d i x rie irlgo n oain f t Fis Am e e a RLUI .1 I at (cea l r t i pr t c i a f de by t Fis he rt ndm nt nd PA 4 nm es tl ry e an o e tons for d he rt Ame m e ,i l ng isdieci t tno 1w s l pr hi tt feee r ieofr lgi n. nd nt ncudi t r tve ha a hal o bi he r xe cs ei o ' ' O' n v. tt o S a z , 2U.. 4 , 4 ( 9 7 .Alo, UP A,nr lv n pa t Lo e Esae f h ba z 48 S 3 2 3 8 1 8 ) s RI i ee a t r, pr de t tno gove n e s l i ovi s ha r m nt ha l mpos as t nta btr n o t r i o e r ie o an e ubsa i l lde n he elgi us xe c s f i t unl s t gove n e de nma e e s he r m nt monsr t st tt btr n f rhe saco peli gove n e al ta e ha he lde u t r m lng r m nt itr s a di t latr srcieme n o f rh rn ta itr s.4 U. C. 2 0 c - () A ne et n s he e s e titv a s f u te ig h t n eet 2 S. j 0 0 c 1a . S u tnil u d n'o clst ret rt F rtAme d n o RIUI i i ç ts i bsa ta b r e ' c tr mde i he is s he n me t r , PA f tç gq pu s t talpr s ur on a a he e t m odiyhi be vi a t vi a ehi be if ,or.. f c . ubsan i e s e n d r nt o f s ha or nd o olt s le s . or es apes t c ebewee f lwi t pr e sofhe r lgona f f tngE venme a) ron o hoos t n olo ng he ec pt r eii nd oreii go r ntl be eis o t eo h n a da a o i o eo tep e e t o hgs rlgo .. o teoh r n ft, n h ne a d, n b nd nng n f h r c p s f i) ei in . n h t e h n ' Lo ea ev. e 4 2F.d1 4, 8 (t Ci. 0 6 (n en lq tto so te ) a d. v lc Le , 7 3 7 1 7 4 h r 2 0 ) itr a uoai n mitd . ' Pli ifhasno sl d e de e o a s i et si ony de o tai ho a snc r l antf t e vi nc r dmisbl e tm m nsr tng w i e e yhe dr i o e r i ewa s t n i ly bur ne Furhe m o e no hi i t r c d s l elgi us xe c s s ubsa tal de d. t r r , t ng n he e or uppo t rs a i er nc t ta ac oro ison by Ta o wasi t ndedt de n nf e e ha ny t m s i yl r ne o pdvet Pl ntf ofar lgi o ai if ei ous rg t S ei , t1 5 9 , 010 (o dn ta G nn e d d d nil o r lgo srg t d n t ih . e 4 a 9 - 6 2 - 2 h l ig h t l itn e e as f eii u i hs o o u vi ae'heFis Ame olt't rt ndme orRLUI .Furher e t rco ddoe no rvea Pli ifs nt PA) t mor,he e r s t e l antf i or lc nf ma ompli , eg a gre nce a g i va a ala ant r ulr i va , nd re nce ppe bouta s bsa ilblr n t a ny u t nta zde o ny : seecom pl j9 . 4 . 8 1 9 snce ey- d r lgi e r ie.Acc r ngl Ta ori e ild t quaii i miy a i r l hel ei ous xe c s o di y, yl s ntte o lfed mmt t nd sl r j d me tf rt s rlgo scamsu d rt Fis Ame me ta dRLUI A. lmma y u g n o hee ei iu li n e he rt nd n n P C . THE CL M S T AI HAT SYKESAr K EGLE CONS I TO COVE UP THE ERRONEOUS Y P RED R CLASSI CATI REPORT FI ON Pl n ifale s t tSyke a K e ey c pie t c rup t c a s fc ton r po ' t t ai tf l ge ha s nd gl ons r d o ove he l s ii a i e l ha t e r usy a roneo l ddedt poi st hi s urt s r , i vi a i oft Equa Pr e ton Clus 1 wo nt o s ec iy co e n olton he l ot c i a e.5 Esa ls i acvic n pia yu e 4 U. C. 1 3rq ie ap an ift s o t a tbihng i l o s rc nd r 2 S. 5 98 e u rs litf o h w h t d fnd n sç ce o nl i c nc r a dt ts meo e t c wa d n i f rh r n eo t e e a t ç tdj ity n o et n ha o v r a t s o e n u te a c fhe a c ns ia ywlc r s tdi Elitf'qd p i to o ac n tt in l h . Hikev. t o o pr c l h eule n p an ifs e rvain f o si o a dg t' n l Civ f i m ' Clr s r , 1F.d41 , 21( t Ci. 9 6 .Th s aplitf t e dfcst t ud ak bu g 8 3 6 4 4h r 1 9 ) u , an ifmus pla a t ha wo l ç e s n b yla t t i e e c t a ( ee a tj stveyo tctyc met amu u l ç a o a l e d o he pfr n e h t d fnd n s po ii l r a il a o r ta unde sa ngt ty t a ompls ac rt ndi o r o cc ih omm on a unlwf lpln. d. Alegai nsofC r le nd a u a ' 'I l to ç al l pa c onduc a a ba e as e ton ofa co pi a y' ar notenough f r a co pi a y c a m t pr ee t nd r s ri ns r c ' e o ns r c l i o oc d. A Soc' W iho A Nnmev. r i a, F. 342,347( hCi.2011. y t ut Vicni 655 3d 4t r ) TheFouree h Am e e tsEqua Pr e ton Clus r uiessa e t te tsm ia t nt ndm n ' l ot c i a e eq r tt s o r a i l dy st ae i i iu l aieu d rt lw.Pllrv Do , 5 U. 2 2 21 ( 9 2 .Tos c e do iu td ndvd as lk n e he a y e . e 4 7 S. 0 , 6 1 8 ) uce n a e n qualpr eci n c am ,Pli ifmus s ot to l i antf t how t tG hasbee teaed dif r nty fom ot r ha t he n r t fe e l r he s w ih whom hei sm ia l sm aed a t tt t qua te t ntw a t r ul ofi e i na or t s i lry i t nd ha he me l r a me s he es t nt nto l p r s fld srmi to .Mo s nv. ra h v 2 9F.d6 , 5 (t Ci. 0 ). u po et ici nai n ni o Gar c t , 3 3 48 6 4 4 h r 20 1) l S ke a dKe lyaee tte t q ai di nt a ds mmayj d me t o te e y s n g e r n ild o u lûe mmu iy n u r u g n f r h s c am sbec us t c am sc nss ofpa a llc li a e he l i o it r le onduc ,lbel,a c usons Pli iff ist t a s nd oncl i . antf a l o de c i K e e sove tac i f r he a oft c pia y f r de i rng t aleg y s rbe gl y' r t n u t r nce he ons r c o lve i he l edl 1 Se Co pj !j) . 5 e m . ( (j 20 er ne u rpo t ndt e c re tn iwhe Plitf o j ce t t alg der r F rh r r , ro o s e r a h n o rcig t n an if b e td o he le e ro . u temo e Pl ntf a knowl st tnet rKe e sno Sykes r por r s t d i t de i to o a ai if c edge ha ihe gl y' r ' e t e ule n he prvai n f c tt i lr ghtbe a e ne t roft e t r po t w ass i t t CCS f r a ova . ons i ona i m c us ihe hos wo e r s ubm ted o o ppr l M or ove , healege de i ton,whih wa t ta f rt Re Oni di no n mtt a e r t l d prva i c s he r ns e o d on, d t mot o co tt i ns iutonalde i ton. Se di c s on i r Se ton I ID . Fi l Pl ntf a l t de c i prva i e s us i nf a c i I . naly, ai iff is o s rbe wih who hei sm ia l sm aed,il taehow hewa teaed dif r nty t n ot r,ora l e t m s i l ry i t lusr t s r t fe e l ha he s leg how t tte t e wast r ul ofi e i na orpur e'ld s i i ton ba e on a ha r am nt he es t nt nto l pos f icrm na i u sd ny pr t c e c a s Acc di y,Sy sa Ke e a ee il d t q i d i mt t a sl r oe td ls . or ngl ke nd gly r ntte o ualse m miy nd lmma y j d me tf rte ecams u g n o h s li . D . THE CLAI S T M HAT TAYL AND M ATHE W E NOT I OR NA RE MPARTI DECI I MAKERS Ar AL S ON THAT M ATHE W ARDEN K I E SYKES, NA, S R, AND W AS NGTON D1 NOT GI PLAW TI HI D VE FF NOTI OF THE 1 HEARI ON M ARCH 24, D NOT ALL PLAI F TO BE P E CE CA NG DI OW NTI F RES NT DURI THAT HEARI AND TRANS E NG NG, F RRED PLAW TI T0 RED ONI FF ON. Pl i ifar st tTa ora M a he vi a e due pr es by notbe ng i pa ta a ntf gue ha yl nd t na ol t d oc s i m ril whe de di ora ovi c nge t hi cls ii ai n.6 Pli ifa s a gue t tM a he , n ci ng ppr ng ha s o s a sfc to 1 antf l o r s ha t na W a de Kie ,Sy s a W a hi on vi a e duepr es by notgi ng li a nc notc o r n s r ke , nd s ngt olt d oc s vi lm dva e i e f t 1 he i on M a c 24,notalowi hi t bepr e tdurng t tI hea he CA arng rh l ng m o es n i ha CA dng,a nd ta f r i hi t Re Oni n.1 r nse rng m o d o 7 Ta or M ahe ,W a de Kie , nd Sykesa e e il d t qualûe i muniy f rt s yl , t na r n sr a r ntte o i dm t o he e c am s andt c li , he ompl i f ist sa eac am a i tW as ngtn.The e i at se pr s ant al o t t l i gans hi o r s wo-t p oce s t r ol apr e lalduepr s cli a utaprs rss c y c a sfc ton.Fis,t o es ve oc dtr oce s a m bo ione ' e udt l s iia i r t he c tm us de e m i w he he t prs ne hasa pr e t bl lbe t i e e ti a di t m o e our t t r ne t r he i o r ot c a e i r y nt r s n voi ng he r s rng ntc tonsofco i m e i s r ga i Se .e. ,l um aa v.Str i 791 F. d 517, t i e ondii nfne nt n eg e ton. e c. nc ilnc, 3 1 Se Co j !jj . 6 e mp .( t4 5 se Compl!1 . 7 e . 03 . 21 5 6( t Ci. 01 ) I t ep io e h snoprt ca l l ry itr s,h nnop o e si d e 2 4 h r 2 5 . f h rs n r a oe tb e i t ne et te be r cs s u . Se . ..W ikn o v Ausi, 4 U. 20 , 21( 05 (t en e ra hteq sino wha e e:, l is n . tn 5 5 S. 9 2 20 ) < e d e c h ueto f t W p o e si d eo l i t imae e tbih ac n ttto l p o e tdl ryitr s . .'.l r c s s u n y f he n ts sa ls o sitinal r tce i t n ee t . .) f z y be ' albe t i e e tdoese s,t n aco t us e l t whehero no t prs rr evedt i ry ntr s xit he ur m t vaua e t r t he ione ec i he m i m al a qua epr s r quiedt pr ec t ti e es.I uma 791F. a 526. ni ly de t oce s e r o ot t ha nt r t nc a, 3d t A lbe t i e e ts c e t gi rs t pr ed a duepr e spr t c i nsç a a ie i ry nt r s uo i nt o ve ie o oc ur l oc s o e to l y rs m fom t Co tt i is l ... i m a a iefom a e ctton ori e es c e t d by sa e r he nsiuton t ef or t y rs r n xpe a i nt r t r a e tt lwso poiis' W idn o 5 5U. a 2 (i to o te ) Al o g t Co si in a r lce . l s n, 4 S. t 21 ct ins mitd . t u h he n tmto ' l a h is l doe no gi Pl i ifa lbe t i e e ti a di ta f rt m o ead r ec tonsof te f s t ve antf i ry nt r s n voi ng r ns e o r ve s ondii c i m e ,saeprs r gu ai nsorpr dur sma c e t s h a i e es i t m or onfne nt t t ion e l to oce e y r a e uc n nt r t f he e srn e tc n iin Gmp s g ay c l ndsg i a th r s i o t imaei rlto t t e tig n o dto s t o eq tpia a in sc n ad hp n he n t n eain o h i o dn r i cd nso p io lf . S n i v Co n r 51 U. 4 2, 3 8 ( 9 5 . r iay n i e t f rs n ie' a d n . n e, 5 S. 7 48 -4 1 9 ) ' As um i a cue s ng, r ndo, ha VDOC polc c e t salbe t i e e tt a i t c to t t i y r a e i ry ntr s o vo d he ondii ns ofLe lS a Re Oni Pl i ifsbre c ne ntt r ,a t a tnda c to he ve t d on, antf i f ov me he e nd he te nt ondii ns a l gedl e le y xpere d,di no co tt t a ç t c a sgnii an ha ds p' c pa e t t i nce d t nsi u e n i ypi al nd i fc t r hi ' om r d o he a ç di r i de so prs lf 'heco d e ç na y nci nt f ion ie' or ul xpec . Se i a 484. Them e elmia i o t e d. t r i t tons n p iie e , r pet, n a tvte f ra miitai l s g e ae imae çal)wi i t e rv lg s p o ry a d ciiis o d r srtvey e rg td n ts ç lg t n h l f h e c e pe i eer oft s nt ncei xpe t d rm t s he e e mpos d by a c t l w. Sa n,515U. a 485;s e our of a ' ndi ' S. t ee Gat nv. yo , 46F.d3 0, 4 ( t Ci.1 91 ( ligt tc a g si aprs n rs so Ta lr 9 2 4 3 3 4h r 9 ) hodn ha h n e n io e ' toc ton,vaitonsofdal rutne c ng i c tonsofc i me (ncudi ç ai l rai iy o i , ha es n ondii onfne nt i l ng a nitai s gr to , t de alofprvie s- matr whih e r prs rc n dmi sr tve e egain) and he ni i lge tes c ve y ione a a i pa ea e c e pl e by hi o i nals n e t prs n - a ene s a y fmc i of ntci t r ontm atd s rgi e t nce o i o r ce s dl t tons pr s m a ge e t tm us be l f t t br d di c e i ofpr s a i sr t st e e i on na m nt ha t e t o he oa s r ton i on dm ni t a or o nabl 22 t e t ma g teprs n s fl a defce ty'.Thedzai na ddec ie c ndto o h m o na e h io s a ey n fiin l' ) l to n s rb d o i ns f r i Pl i i sc i m e a Red Oni do noti i a et c nc r dic s d i W iki on v. antY onfne nt t on mplc t he o e ns s us e n l ns A us i , 5 5U. 2 9 21 ( 0 5 , ndI l av S iln , 91F.d51 , 9(t Ci. 01 )1 tn 4 S. 0 , 3 2 0 ) a ncl 8 ma . trig 7 3 7 51 4h r 2 5 . Le lS i t se inc m o er srci c tonst n Le 5 i aesi ge r ve nma e xpere e r e ti tve ondii ha vel nm t n ne al po a i butt tf c doe no r nde s h c i m e a ypi a or s g fca ty ha s A l o, pul ton, ha a t s t e r uc onfne nt t c l i nii n l r h. s i t do notha apr e t lbe t i er s i en ni a s ii r t ofgood- onduc tm e nma es ve otc ed i ry nt e t n r ng pecfc a e c ti , a c t havehe d t tt e f tofa cas ii ton c ng o t abiiy t e r good- onduc nd ours l ha he fec l sfcai ha e n he lt o n n c t tm ei t s ultvet co tt eade i ton ofapr e t d lbe t i e es. Se ee. , i s oo pec a i o nsi m prva i ot c e i ry nt r t e a. Gr e h lzv.n tso Ne Pe l Co . mpe 4 2U. 1 7( 9 9 ; ke v Sc t 71 e n ot l mae f b. na & n'Co lx, 4 S. , 1 7 ) Lu n . ot F.d 1 2,1 3 9 (t Ci.1 9 )(iigM e c um v. n , 2 U. 21 , 2 n. ( 9 ); 3 9 9 -4 5h r 9 5 ctn a h Fa o 4 7 S. 5 2 9 8 1 76) De a i v. o n o 1 F. pp 2 31 , 2 - 0( D. . 0 0 , f ,1 F. p' 9 (t Blso J h s n, 28 Su . d 5 3 9 3 E. Va 2 0 ) apd 3 Ap x 6 4 h Ci. 0 ) s eas W o f, 8U. a 5 7 5 (e o nzn teCo ttto d e n tg a a te r 20 1 ; e lo lf 41 S. t 5 - 8 r c g iig h nsiuin o s o u rne g o - o uc tmef rs tsa tr b ha o whl i p io ) o d c nd t i o aif co y e vir ie n rs n . Alo,t r c d doe no esa ih t Pli ife use a ia e a nita i s he e or s t tbls hat antf xha t d val bl dmi sr tve r m e e aboutt i rilt ofTa orsorM ahe si ve e wih Pli ifs e di s he mpa ta iy yl ' t na' nvol m nt t antf c a sfcai n a tans e t Re Oni n.Acc di y, antf f ist e t bls t tli l s ii to nd r f r o d o or ngl Pl i if al o sa ih ha ls 1 Thes tdur to a c tonsofPl ntf sc 8 hor ain nd ondii ai if onsne ta RedOni donoti ia et c ens men t on mplc t he onc r dsu s di Wi n o v Au t 5 U. 20 , 3( 05, n lcl av. t l , 1F.d51 , 9(t Ci. ic se n l s n . si 45 S. 9 21 20 ) a d n t ki n, ma Si i 79 3 7 51 4h r r nc 2 5.I W i i o ,heS p e Co r fu dta imae h dapoe tdl et itrs i a odn asg me t 01 ) n l ns n t u rme u to n h tn ts a rtce i ry nee tn v iig sin n k b t asa eSs pema ' ion. W iho l r ng apoitby- n co rs n oft c to be wee o tt tu r x'prs t ut mdegoi n- poit mpa io he ondiins t n s egai a ge alpopulton,t Supr meCo tditnguihe t s r x c tonsfom nor egr ton nd ner ai he e ur si s d he upema ondii r mal s egai f tu'eprmay r a ons.Fis,i e i t s pema prs weeSde i o al tan egr ton or l e i r e s rt nmats n he u r x ion r ç prved f mos y ac.'' l ns e ionm e a o se or si ul a ofam os a lhu ancont t'l W iki on, 545U. a 21 Sec ,t nvr nt1 r ns y tm i nd l t 1 m S. t 4. ond he imae weeasg e t tes p r xpio frt ni eii p ro ofi ,i tdo l b ( limaes n ts r sin d o h u ema rsn o ç nd fnt eid tme l e ny y t n t' a e mi he s nt e.'I Thid,i tsot wieelgi ef pa ol l tt tei biiy whiei ione a t s pema e enc ' d. r nmae her s i bl or r e os ha lgi lt l mprs d t he u r x p io 1 a 21 .çAl yofh s c n iin sa dn ao emih n t es fkin t cet alb ryitrs,b t rs n. d. t 5 s n tee o dt s tn ig ln g t o b u t e t o rae iet neet(uq l o tke tg t el te i sl)a ay ia a dsg iia th r s pwi i tec reto a c ne t' I a 2 4. a n o eh rj h y mpoed n tpc l n infcn adhi t n h orcin l o tx . d. t 2 ) h ' Si ia l i l um aa t Fourh Cic tfl dapr t ce lbe t i e e ti a di asi e t Sout m lry n nc , he t r ui om o e td i ry ntr s n voi ng sgnm nt o h Ca olna' s ma bas d o t prs rst p ye c me tt r a isioltngandr srci lvi r i s uper x e n he ione ' went ar onf men he e nd t s ai e titve i ng condii ,i l ng ahi y i r i srp s r heve ytmehel hi celf rt nt yea s 791F. a 5 32. tons ncudi ghl ntusve ti ea c r i eû s l o we y r . 3d t 31- 23 c onsne nta Re Oni co tmt d a a y c a sgnii n ha ds p i r lto t t me t d on nsi e n t pial nd i fca t r hi n e ai n o he or na y i i n sofprs lf ,a Ta o , a he W a de Kie ,a Syke a ee ild t di r nc de t ion ie nd yl r M t na, r n s r nd s r ntte o q ai di liya dsl r u g n f rt s cams Id s s Thecamsa an t u l mml t n l se n mmayj d me t o he e li . imis li g is W a higo a eds se wih u p eu ief rfiigt saeacam u n wh c rle ma b s n tn r imis d t o t rj dc o al o tt li po ih eif y e n gr nt d, p ru n t 28U. C. 1 5 b ()a 4 U.. j1 9 ec .9 a e us a to S. j 91 A()1 nd 2 SC. 9 7 ( )1 THE RE TALI ON CLAI S ATI M Pl i ifa l st tde e nt 'r t iton i be us oft gre nc a lws t t t antf lege ha f nda s eala i s ca e he iva es nd a uis ha heha fld.TheCour ofAppea sf t Fourh Cic the d i Aprl201 t ti wa ce l d ie t l or he t r ui l n i 7 ha t s lary e t bls d t a r as bl pr s o f c alt t asof201 r t la i n a i ta i a e be a e s a ihe o e ona e i on f i i ha , 0, e a i to ga ns n nm t c us oft ti e' a i sr tvegre nc woul vi a et Fis Am e e .Boo r 855 a ha nmat s dm nitai iva e d olt he rt ndm nt ke , t 5 44. Alo, thasl be n cea l e tbls d t tprs o fcal ma no r t laeagnns 43s i ong e l ry s a ihe ha ion f i s y t e ai t i t a imaefra c s igc u t.S e e:.Hu s ehv. g is 5 4F.d 1 4 ,1 4 ( t Ci. n n t o c e sn o rs e . . , d p t Fign , 8 2 3 5 3 8 4h r 1 . 978) Fo acam o r tlaint s r ies mmayj d me t ap an ifmus p o uc r li f eaito o u vv u r u g n , litf t r d e s fce t vie et t()t es e hwa p o e td ( )tealg dr tlao ya to a v rey ufiin e d nc ha 1 h pe c s r tce , 2 h le e eait r cin d e s l af ce t ep o e tds e c , nd()ac u a rlto lp e itdbewe nt ep oe tds e c fe td h r tce p e h a 3 a s l eainsl xse t e h r tce p e h i a dt rtlai n Ra bv. mp el78 F.d8 6 8 5( t Ci. 5 , ie ) Ho ev n he eaito . u Cn b l, 5 3 7 , 8 4h r 201 ) ctd . y . y Gi r, . :5 v2 3 2 7U. Ap . l e No 7 1 c 0 , 01 S. p LEXI 1 6 9 a * 20 7W L 2 5 4 , t*1(t Ci. mo S 0 9 , t 2, 1 61 4 9 a 4h r Jme1 , 7 .Ba ea s rin o rt l to d no etb ih acam o c n tmto a t 6 201 ) r se t s f eai in o t sa ls li f o si in l o a di e i A dn ,40 F. a 7 75. m ns on. m 3d t 4I pl i ifs f r a ç a ntf uf e s dver e a ton i t de e nt s a l ged y r t la or c uctw o d A s c i f he f nda ' le l e a i t y ond ul lkeydee apes ofor nayfr s fom t e rieo Ehepr e td)rght. i l tr ron di r mne s r he xecs f t otce i s' ' . Serviehasnotye bee a compls onW a hi o . 9 c t n c ihed s ngtn 24 Co tni v. co s& Vii r o Ge m eM a o Uni.41 F.d47 5 0(t Ci. 0 5 . nsa t ne Re t r st s f o o s n v, 1 3 4, 0 4h r 2 0 ) Thepl ntf mus a lge s fc e tf ct t wa r ntc e nt tt al ge r t la in mi ht ai if t le ufi i n a s o r a onc r ha he le d e a ito g ha aclli ef tont e rieoft rg a s t thes frdmo et nX milmi ve lilng fec he xecs he iht nd how ha ufee r ha ri s i onve e e. A m e i n Ci Li r i U ni v. i om i o Cnt ,999 F. 780,785- 6 n. nc ni nc rca v. be tes on W c c v. 2d 8 6 (t ci. 9 j. 4h r 1 9 ) G lti n te o g ta t p oe td e p e so pa e ar l o wa amoi ai gf co ç q s o n u h h t he r tce x rsin ly d oe r s tv tn a tr g i t er tlain; li n mus s o t tçu f r t p oe td e p e so te(tt a tr n h eaito cama t t h w ha b t o 'he rt ce x rs in h sae coq wo l n th v tke tealg drtlao ya to . J.( u tn Hua v Bd o Go r r o u d o a e a n h le e eaitr ci n' . q oi g nc . . f veno s f 'I J t eUnv. fN. , 0 F.d 1 3 1 4 ( t Ci.1 9 ).Th s Gin o d rt e tbih gqc u a h i o C.9 2 2 1 4, 1 0 4h r 9 0) u ,t q r e o sa ls a a s l g c onne i apli tf i ar t iton c e mus s w,a t ve y l s,t tt de e ntwa cton, a n if n e ala i as t ho t he r ea t ha he f nda s a r o here wa e f ngagi i pr t c e aci t ' Consa tne 411F. a 501 Alho h i ha be n ng n o e t d tviy. ' tni , 3d t . t ug t s e ofe r pe t d t tali ae' c am ofr t lai n s dber ga ded wih s ptc s ,he tn e a e ha r nm t s l i e aito houl e r t ke i im t rc r a da1n e e c st eer m mu t ed a i ap anifsf v rwh na j iaiga e o d n 1 if rn e h r fo s b r wn n litf' a o e dudc tn prs no fca' moin frsl r ud me t Co aeAd ms 40F.da 7 , t An es n, io fiils to o l mmayj g n . mp r n , 3 t 4 wi d ro h 477 U. a 248. S. t The c ai t tTa o r t i t d l m ha yl r e ala e Pli if sfr tr t iton cli i t tTa o r t l t agans Pl i ifbe aus o li antf is eala i am s ha yl r ealaed i t antf c e f ls tr e ng he l to , he e or nd 1 nf r nc s n i gre nc a lws t .0 Afe viwi t alegai ns t r c d,a a1i e e e i a lght iva es nd a uis2 mos f vo a et hi ,Pli ifhassa e avi a i n ofclary e t bls d lw.Pl i ifha t a r bl o m antf tt d olto e l sa ihe a antf s r pea edl fl d gr e nce a l w s t a utTa o , om ptng Ta or st e ta e t y ie i va s nd a uis bo yl r pr i yl ' hr a boutt l i t uow ng t s one .' Soon t r a t r Ta or o de e Pl i ifi o s gr ga i ke hi i s gr ga i f t s' he e f e , yl r r d a ntf nt e e ton, pt m n e e ton or t a l ge Si l m m a or s a e e s ' orw hi h he w a ne rc r d,c e t d a eroneous he le d çnfn t y t t m nt ' f c s ve ha ge r a e n r 2 se compl!9 9 e . 7. 25 cl sfcai r por t c us ata f rt Re Ori a f sfed a I r por t e lr as i ton e t o a e r ns e o d lon, nd alii n CA e t o nsze Pl ntf c dnotc le t ta f r Cons que l Pli ifwastans e r d fom a Le 4 ai if oul ha lnge he r ns e . e nty, antf r f re r vel f iiy t R e Oni a Le S f c lt w he e he w a pr es e tl o h t V D O C' St p ac lt o d on, vel a iiy, r s oc s d lr ug he S e Down Pr n a e r l sgood- onduc tm e Se se. , ve av. De tofCor.No. ogr m nd a ned es c t i . e z.m r Va. p' r, 7:5 v1 6 2 6U. Dit LEXI 1 9 0 , t* - 0 201 W L 71 5 9 , t* - ( . Va De . 1 c 5 , 01 S. s. S 6 6 9 a 11, 6 6 9 7 a 14 W D. . c 8 2 6 ( e c ii t emo ersrci c n iin o c n e n a Le e Sr ltv t , 01 ) d srbng h r e tit o dto s f o fn me t t v l eaie o ve c ndto si g n r l o ulto ) e ec ns q e c swo l lk l d trap ro o o dn r o i n n e e a p p ain .Th s o e u n e ud iey ee e s n f r ia y i f r nes f o f lng gr e nc s orl w s t . i m s r m ii i va e a uis l i notcla whehe Pl i ife use a lbl ad i sr tver m e esa ut ts er t r antf xha t d vaia e m nitai e di bo Ta or sa l d r t i to ofor rngPl i ifi o s gr ton ba e on W ike ' a us ton o yl ' 'lege ealai n de i antf nt e egai sd c r s cc ai f a Gnta a o y sa e e .'Pl n ifs itd agre ncea utwhy hewaspl c d i n c l mm t r t tm nt' aitf ubm te i iva bo ae n s g e ai nbe a s o Ta lr ( No 3 - , a ed 4 6) Alh u hti g v nc d e n t e r g to c u e f yo . ECF . 6 8 p g i# 8 . to g h s de a e o s o i ntf Ta orby na e,i doesdes rbeTayl ' al ge r t la o y a tofo de i Pl ntf de iy yl m t ci ors le d e a it r c r rng ai if it s g e ain.Se . ..J ne , 49U. a 21 - 8(ic siga ie tfcto rq ie n) no e r g to e eg, o s 5 S. t 7 1 d s u sn n d n iiain e urme t. Thi s c g i va ewasnots ce s u ,a Pli ifa a e t diposto t t Reg ona s e ond re nc uc s f l nd antf ppe l d he s ii n o he i l Omb d ma ( No. 6 8 p g i/48 . Therc r , we e , o sn t e c iet u s n. ECF 3 - , a ed/ 8) e o d ho v r d e o d srb he diposto oft r gulrg iva eort Reg o lOmbuds n' r viw. Ac or ngl t s iin he e a re nc he i na ma s e e c di y, he lc o e i e c i t c re tr c r p e e typ e e t a j dc to o t scam va4 U. C. a k f v d n e n he u rn e o d r s nl r v n s du iain f hi li i 2 S. j1 9 ea . 9 7 () The r c d s st tPl i ife us e r m e e a e or how ha a ntf xha t d e di s boutt e r ous c as ii a i he r one l s f c ton r por a l ge y pr pa ed by Ta or whi h c us d t t a f rt Red Oni n. H o e r t r i e t le dl e r yl , c a e he r ns e o o w ve , he e s no diput ofama e i lf c a s e t ra a t boutt l k ofgre nc sc he ac iva e once ni a o he al ge r t laor r ng ny t r le d e ai t y 26 a tb Ta o .I a c r wi 4 U. C. 1 9 ea, yo i e tte t s mmayj g n f r c y ylr n c o d t 2 S. j 9 7 () Ta lr s n ild o u r ud me t o h a ot rc am ofr ala i t tha notbee e used. ny he l i et iton ha d n xha t 2. The ca mst tM ahe sW ar n Kie sSyke sa W a hi li ha t na de s r s nd s ndon r t laed a i t e ai t cans Pli ifbv notci ncPl i ifnotc oft I hea i o M a c 24.notalowi antf vi antf i e he CA rng n r h l ng Pl i ift bepr e d li t the i a ta f ni Pl i ift Red Oni n antf o es nt trn: ha arng. nd r nse nc antf o o Pli ifa g st tM ahe ,W a de Kie ,Syke ,a W as ngt r t laed a i t antf r ue ha t na r n s r s nd hi on e ai t gans hi byno gi nghi a ncenotc oft 1 he dng o M a c 24,notalowi hi t be m t vi m dva i e he CA a n rh l ng m o pr s ntd li t tI he rng, a ta f ri hi t Re Oni 2 Pli ifalô a gue t t e e trng ha CA a i nd r ns e rng m o d on.1 antf s r s ha Sy srt itdbyf liyi t l rpo tos s Pli ifhadatnde byM a c 26, ke ealae asf ng he CA e r t ugget antf te d. rh de e nt M ahe and W a de Kierbo h a o d Sykes r por a r c me ton t t f nda s t na r n s t ppr ve ' e t nd e om nda i ha i e r d Pl n ifw a pr s n f t he rng. nf re aitf s e e t or he a i M ahe a W a de Kie a ee il t qua i d i uniy.Neihe M a he nor t na nd r n s r r ntted o lse mm t t r t na W a de Kie we e nn e asa de e nti a oneoft t r eprorcvi a tons a Pl ntf r n sr r m d f nda n ny he h e i i l c i , nd ai if f l t e ai be ais o xpl n yondm e ehy r eho M ahe wa a r by M a c 26t tPli ifhad r pe bol w t na s wa e r h ha antf fld g i va e orlw s t a ie re nc s a uis boutTa ororW ike .Furhem or Pl i iff ist de c i ho yl c r t r e, antf al o s rbe w M a he o W a de K i e w a a a e by M a c 26 t tPl i ifw a no pr s ntf rt 1 t na r r n s r s w r rh ha a ntf s t e e o he CA he rng onM a c 24 whe Syke I r por cla s ai rh n s' CA e t e dy ugge t hewa pr s nt Furhe ss s e e . t nnor , e no hi i W a de Kie ' g iva er po e ,oneofwhih f undi Pli tY sf vor sa e a t ng n r n s rs re nc es ns s c o n a n i a , tt s plusbl c am ofr t la in. a i e li e ai to Ther t la i cli agans W a hi on co it m e ey o pa al lc ea iton am i t s ngt nsss r l f r le onduc ,lbe s a t a l , nd c us o . Furhe m o e t r i not ng t s oncl i ns t r r , he e s hi o uppo tt i a t tW a hi o sa horza i r he de ha s ngt n' ut i ton f r a t a f rt Red Oni n ha anyt ng t do w ih g i va esorl w s t o t fnd a c us l o r ns e o o d hi o t ' e nc r a uis r o i a a 2 se complj1 3. 1 e . g0 27 r l to hi bewe n t gre nce o lws t a t ta f r Acc di y, he ecli sa e e ai ns p t e he iva s r a uis nd he r nse . or ngl t s am r ds se wi u p eudc p zs a tt 28U. C. 1 5 b ( )a 4 U. C. 1 9 ec . imisd t t rj ie t u n o ho r S. j 91 A( )1 nd 2 S. j 9 7 () Ho ver Syke i no e ild t q lfe i muniy o t pr entr co d. Pli if we , s s t ntte o uaii d m t n he es e r antf al ge t tSyke c eaed a e r ouscl sûc ton r por a a e r ousI r po t o le s ha s r t n rone ms i ai e t nd n rone CA e r t e lr Pl ntf sta f rt Re Oni whih i ata f rt two d lkey dee ape s n of nsze ai if r ns e o d on, c s ' ns e ha ul i l t r r o r or na y fr di r imnes fom slng g iva e orl uis Furhe mor Pl ntf al ge t tSyke sr i re nc s aws t . t r e, ai if le s ha s c mit t s r t la or a t i s om ted he e e a it y c s n uppor ofhi s r s ,Ta o . Ac or ngl t r t la i t s upe vior yl r c di y, he e a iton c a m a i tSyke r m ai pe ng w ih t co t l i ga ns s e ns ndi t he ur . 3. Thec am st tLower t laedby c vitng Pli ifa de nghi pr he rng l i ha e ait on c i a ntf nd nyi s e- a i r ue t a t tCl r .Ar s a Lee s m ia l r t la e bv notr vi w i a vi o eq s s nd ha a y m . nd i l ry e a i t d e e n: de r or ng ec di Pl ntf a guest tLo r t it d,ose i y by de ngPl i i sr q sst wa c a ai if r ha we eala e tnsbl nyi antY e ue t o th vi o r cor ng,de ng Pli tf sr ques f rt e i t st t siy;a sndi Pl i if de e di nyi a n if e t o hr e nma e o e tf nd ng antf guit ofcode 1 , çpos e son/ ly 32 l s s i consr c i ofaDe c De i tu ton vi e sgnedt De ei St f.2 Pli if o c ve a f' 2 a ntf ' f rhe a lgest tClr Ar ,a Le sm ia l r t laedby no r vi wi t vi o ' t r le u ha a y, ms nd e i l ry e ai t t e e ng he de r or ng.2 ec di 3 Lowe,Clr Ar s a Leea e e il t q lse i l t f t s r t lai n a y, m , nd r ntted o uai d mmlniy or he e e ai to cli .Fis,t de aloft dic r ha aéqmilmi ef tbe us t c 13 ams rt he ni he sovey d ri s fec ca e he ode 2 co c i wa uli t l va a edon a ala t gr y s r waspr s nt d durngt he rng nviton s tma ey c t ppe nd he e hit ee e i he a i r r es ofPl ntf sdic r r ue t .Thedico r r que t we eno ma e i lt t ega dl s ai if s ove y eq ss s ve y e s s r t t ra o he c r tpos e son/ nsnz ton ofaDe ceDe i d t De i St f,'a t r wasno ha ge t s s i co t ci vi sgne o ceve a f' nd he e d s east t pos e son orde i elm e .Thus Lo wa pe m itd t de Pl i ifs iput o he s s i sgn e nt , we s r te o ny antf ' 2 se Com pl!9 . 2 e . (9 2 seeCom pl !1 0. 3 . 0 28 dico r r que t f good c e. Se se. , olf 418U. a 564s ve y e ss or aus e c.W f, S. t 71.Pli if sc antf ondus r oy a lga i a le tons boutLowe',Clr s Ar ,a Le sr t lai n a enots fce t sa ea ca m . s a y', ms' nd e' e aito r ufi int o tt li Alhough Pl ntf e use a i sr tver medisa t ai if xha t d dm nita i e e boutLowenotgr ntng Pl ntf s a i ai if r ques s t r co d doe nots e t , he e r s how t tPl i ifptr ue a i s r tve r m e e a ha a ntf ls d dm ni ta i e di s boutCl r a y, Ar s a Leede lni t r viw avi o r or ng.Ac or ngl Lowe,Clr Ar ,a Lee m , nd c i ng o e e de ec di c di y, a y, ms nd aee t ldt q ai di nt a dsl r j d me tf rt s cams r ni e o u l mmu iy n l t fe mmay u g n o hee li . 4. Thec am st tAr a HM r t it d by modivi t cr v s r l i ha ms nd eala e f nc he a hit Pl ntf al gest tHM andAnnsr t la e by at rngt ga s r wlie i wa i ai if le ha e a it d le i he y hit ll t s n t i pos e son.2 Arm s t ii dt tt l ngs e vesha be n sic o t t bod o t her s s i 4 d e tt hed n o he y f he estfe ha he o l e s r bu Pli ifal ge t tt se vesha pe rbee modi d whiehepos e s d i.Pont hiq t a ntf le s ha he le d ve n fe l sse t on r i o Anns t si eled n ' e tmony t c c Pli ifon a a and r voke e r e good- onduc tm e o onvit antf ppe l e nnd c ti . Te r lpr miy bewee t pr t c i aci t andt ad r eac m a bes c e t mpo a oxi t t n he o e tve tviy he ve s t y uo i n t m ake a i ta pr m a f c e s w i ofc us ton. Se J co v. . . dm i Of i oft o n nii l i a i ho ng a ai e a bs N C A n. fce he Co rs 7 0F.d 5 2, 7 (t Ci. 01 ) Ho v r tmi ao eg n rlyc n o d fa u t, 8 3 6 5 9 4 h r 2 5 . we e, i ng ln e eal n n t e e t s mmayj g n o ead fnd n o fr ac n icn , o tlao ye p a ain.S e eg, u r ud me t nc ee a t fe s o vn i g n meaitr x ln to e . .. Pi k ro v. l. p'o Trn p.5 3F.d1 5 1 6 ( 0h Ci. 0 9 . n etn Coo De t f a s , 6 3 0 2, 0 6 1 t r 2 0 ) Hu t n Ar aeno p e e tye tte t q aiidi nt o sl r j g n . r a d ms r t rs n l n i d o u l e mmu iy r l l f mmay ud me t Ne t rHur norAr sfl e d nc t dic am a r t la o ym otveort ofe ac ncng, ihe t m ied vi e e o s l i ny ea it r i o f r onvi i no eala or e a ton f ale i t s r whie i wa i t i pos e so i c r s t nr t it y xpl na i or t rng he hit l t s n her s s i n, n onta t o Pl i ifsal ga i . Fu t r r ,Pli ifc le d t s r' a he iiy d li t antf' le tons rhe mo e antf hal nge he hits ut ntct trng he d s i i r a alt rOP 861 1 a t tis wa no greva e t r8 1.Ac or ng y, i cplna y ppe mde . , nd ha s ue s t i bl mde 66. c di l Annsa HM aeno e tte t sl r j g n v a4 U. C. 1 9 e a. nd r t ni d o l l mmay ud me t i 2 S. j 9 7 () 2 se Com pl !1 2. 4 e . (0 29 I V. De enda Loc tfl d am oto t dimi spur ua t Fede a Rul o Ci lPr ed e f nt us ie in o s s s nt o r l e f vi oc ur 1 b ()2 Th sa d r f ramo int d s s t e Fe e a Rul o Ci l o e u e 1 ()6 2( )6 .5 e tn ad o to o imis md r d r l e f viPr c d r 2 b ( ) r quiesm et ac e apli ipsf c ua al ga i a t e.A c e r o c pt antf a t l le tons s ru ompli tnee ç s ta an ds G hor nd a pli sae n o tecam s o n t ttepla e i e tte t r l f a s o ce tGta t a an ttme t f h li h wig ha h e d r s n i d o ei ' nd u in çl c t l l e l z ale tons... o r s arg t r i a l ga i t aie iht o elef bovet s c a i lve .... BelAt. he pe ultve e l ' l l Cop . ' v. Two l , 5 U. 5 4, 5 ( 0 7 ( ena q o ainmak o te ) A p an ifsb ssf r mb y 5 0 S. 4 5 5 2 0 ) i r l u tto r s mitd . litf a i o nt r le tr quiesm o et n l be sa c l i .... 1 The e or apl ntf e if Ge r r ha a l nd oncusons ' d. r f e, ai ifmus çal ge ' t çle .a t s fiin t saea1 h ee n so g jcam. 2 Ba sv. .. p n d Nç l s& fcs u fce t o tt lt e lme t f t li '' 6 s E I Du o t e moz he r Co.3 4F.d7 , 6 ( t Ci. 0 3 . , 2 3 61 7 5 4h r 2 0 ) Theal ga i agans Loc tse s ey fom Loc tsr s le tons i t us t m ol l r us ' e pons s- oral ge l k of e le d ac r pons s- t hi g ivanc s lte s a a al.7 I hi r s ns t t m otont dimi s es e o s re e , e tr , nd ppe s2 n s e po e o he i o s s , . Pl ntf a s c ai if lo ompl nst tLoc ts dhavee r ie gr tro r i overhe ai ha us houl xe cs d eae ve sght r s di t s ubor na e . S p r io yla l yu d rj 1 8 ma n t ep e iae o tet e r o r s o d a u e vs r ibit n e 9 3 y o b r d c td n h h o y f e p n e t i s p do .Mo el De ' o S c S r s, 3 U. 6 , 6 n., 919 ( 9 ) Ba n r v. u e r n lv. p t f o . e v .4 6 S. 58 6 3 7 6 - 4 1 78 ; v ad M ao e 2 F.d2 8 2 5( t Ci. 0 ) Se to 1 8 rq ie as wi o pes n l a l o ln , 68 3 2 , 3 4h r 2 01. cin 9 3 e ur s ho ng f ro a fut n 2 Thepa tesr ei dr as na ea e ii notc t tt cour ma c 5 ri ec ve e o bl nd xplct ie ha he t y onver amotont dimist t t i o s s ha rfrn e matr o tiet pe dn sit amoinfrs mmayj d me t e t Clr is e at l eee c s tes usd he la ig no to o u r u g n wh n he ek su d i y me Ro e r noie S eFe . 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Eve i t tm i orqua iy o he r s ns svi a e s e V D O C polcy o pr ce e, t f n f he i ng lt f r e po e ol t d om i r o dur s c avilto d e n tsaeac nsiuin l li S eUntd Sae v Ca ee , 4 U. u h o ain o s o tt o ttto a cam. e ie tts . c rs 4 é S. 7 , 2 5 ( 9 ) li cov. t o Fara 9 7F.d 1 5 ,1 6 ( t Ci.1 9 )( odn t t 41 75 - 5 1 79 ;tc i Cny f ifx, 0 2 4 9 4 9 4h r 9 0 h lig ha i sa e1w gr nt m or pr dlr rght t n t Co tt i r quie ,asa e sf l et a de f t t a a s e oce zal i s ha he nsiuton e z s t t ' aiur o bi b t t a i no afd r l u p o e sis e .Ac o dn l,hecamsa ans Lo u tfi t y ha lw s t e ea d e r c s su ) c r igy t li g i t c s alo sa e acai , Loc tsm oto t dimi si gr nt d. tt l m and us' in o s s s a e V. 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