Tucker v. Ratliffe-Walker, No. 7:2016cv00490 - Document 18 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 8/16/2017. (tvt)
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r pnxsoF l us Dlm c> a ' FcE s ' A R A 6 ,a T oN1 v Fl uso ALS 15 2 1 '7 2 I , u s cx l m su vss m svm c, c o v R, x , v, r r FO R TH E W E STE RN DI STR I O F V I G I A CT R NI R OA N O K E D I SI N W O BRONSON HOW ARD TUCKER, Peii n r tto e , DANA RATLI W ALKER, FFEW ARDEN, Re ponde . s nt ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) a . . u uu n BY; : CASE NO.7: 16CV00490 r M EM ORANDUM OPI ON NI By:Ho GlnE. nr d n. e Co a Unied St e Dit itJudge t ats src Br on Howa d Tuc r aVigi a i ae pr e ng by c ons r ke , r ni nm t oce di ouns l fl d t spe ii n f e , ie hi tto or a wrt of ha a c pus purua t 28 U. C. j 2254, c lngi t vai t of li i be s or , s nt o S. hale ng he ldiy ls c i m e on a fna or rby t Lync ontne nt i l de he hbur Ciy Cic tCour c c i hi ofditi i g t r ui t onvitng m srbuton ofc ai wihi 1000 f e ofa s hoola diti i ofc a ne,t r ors e ntof e e. oc ne t n , et c nd srbuton oc i hid ubs que f ns Res ponde fld a m oto t dim is a Tuc r r ponde m a ng t m a tr rpe f nt ie i n o s s , nd ke es d, ki he te i or diposton. Afe r viw oft r or t c tc ude t tt petton mus bedimi s s ii tr e e he ec d, he our oncl s ha he ii t s s ed. 1 . Fac ualB ac ound t kgr I J 201 Ly hbtr Ciypolc ofi e sa r t d J nnie Be ry on adr g c r , n une 0, nc lg t i e fc r rese e f r ve l u ha ge a s agr e t m a co r l d dr g pur has f rt polc .1 Be ry sa td usng c i nd he e d o ke ntole u c es o he ie ve l tre i ocane i Oc obe 2007; tt tm eoft ti ,s hadus c ai f tle a aha fye r . n t r a he i he ral he ed oc ne or lr e nd l as Be ry me Tuc ri Augus 2010 t o h Lia Guil af ind a ne ghbor Be ry ve l t ke n t hr ug s l, re nd i . ve l s nttm ewih Tuc rand Lia Guilwhe d ugswe epr s nt Be ry s ket De e tveJ pe i t ke s l n r r e e . ve l po o t c i oel Hi e a nkl y boutm a ng ac r l buy fom Tuc ra Lia Guil a on Se e be 30,201 ki ontoled r ke nd s l, nd, ptm r 0, Tucker v. Ratliffe-Walker l Doc. 18 a r nge t pur ha e c i f om Tuc r a a Appl be s r s a a . Be ry m e w ih ra d o c s oca ne r ke t n e e' e t ur nt ve l t t ofk e swho s a c d he a he ve c ebe or o t i he wih polcer c di e pme . t r e r he r nd r hil f e utm ng r t i e or ng qui nt i i 1Be ry' chage w a nole pr eq ed on J r 5, 20 1 bu lfEh )l dt tep lc iwo l be ve l s r s l os ui anuay 1 , t ç se i o h oie t ud i e br oughtba k ....'TralTr 51. c ' i . Dockets.Justia.com ' ' . Ofier ga Be ry $100 t m a t c tole ptr has ,and s dr t Applbe s t fc s ve ve l o ke he on r ld lc e he ove o e e' o m e tTuc ra Guil e ke nd l. Upon Be ry' a val Tuc r and Guil e e e Be ry' vehil a di c s d t ve l s ni , ke l ntr d ve l s c e nd s us e he ptr ha e. Tuc rsf cewasnotvii eon t vi o r or ng,butBe ry i ntfe Tuc ra lc s ke ' a sbl he de ec di ve l de i d ke s t mal vo c he r on t tpe. Be ry r que t ç it o a whol G' a ha d Tuc r he e i e a d he a f e ' nd nde 2 ke ve l e s ed l fy r $8 Tuc r t k t m one gr bbed t bags of c ane o li ve cl,a r t r d t 0. ke oo he y, a wo oc i m ls hi e nd e u ne o Be ry' c r Be ry pl c d t t ba ofc ai on he lp,a dr ba k t Hi e ve l s a . ve l a e he wo gs oc ne r a nd ove c o nkl y. Be ry ga Hi ey t c ai a t r m ari $ ve l ve nkl he oc ne nd he e ilng 20. Of r s a c d Be ry and her sce s e r he ve l ve c e bu once a n di no fnd a ot rdrl orm one hi l t gai d t i ny he t gs y. The a o a vi o r c d ngs of t e unt r we e a ted i o e de udi nd de e or i he nco e r dmit nt vi nce. The Applbee' wa wihi 400 f e ofLi ry Chrsin Aca m y. Atti ,Be ry t tfe t t e s s t n et be t ita de ral ve l esii d ha Tuc rbagge hi coc i i a ditnc i wa t ba wasG oled do a ted s i' lke ke d s a ne n si tve y: he g l l r wn nd i o ts i ltl wi on e h sdeoft ba ' TralTr 65. ite ngs ac i he g. i . ' Dti c os - xn i ton,Be ry admit t ts m a f lesa e e swhe s t d u ng r s e m na i ve l ted ha he de as tt m nt n he ol Tuc rsf ke ' onne a t ne t tTuc rdi nots l he c ai Be ry e a ne t ts le t r tor y ha ke d el r oc ne. ve l xpli d ha he id o Tuc rs f ke ' onne a t ney be a e s f l pr s lr d by Guila t tTuc ha pl de wih r tor c us he et e sze l nd ha ker d ea d t Be ry t s akwih hi a t ne ve l o pe t s tor y. At ti l Hi ey t sii d t t Be ry ma fve c r l buys fom m or t n one ra, nkl e tfe ha ve l de i ontoled r e ha pe s a t t s ha a sse polc i fndi pe e t tha outtndi Wa r nt . He r on, nd ha he d s it d i e n i ng opl ha d sa ng ra s f rhers a e t the a w a f m d Be r y cr di e a r la e. H e co i m e s ve a as t u t t t d ha l ys ot ve l e bl nd e i bl nfr d e r l pec s ofBe ry' t si o ofi r s ar he he a he ve ce f r c r ba a c h,pl ce a ve l s e tm ny: fce s e c d r nd r hi l o onta nd nd as a d E i wie'n he poc t t ve r 'i r ke book,and m o t ed he durng t ta a ton t ough t lve wie,i l nior r i he r ns c i hr he i r n 2ç G i awh l g a a dffy( s a o t afaga ' Tra Tr6 < s oe rm n it wal b u h l rm. il . 4. A ' ne als s Pe s 3a d vi muli epho c l. Alo,Hi e a Liut na M m' Soya slse t t r on, n a tpl nkl y nd e e nt t y r it ned o he dr ta a ton a i ntfe Tuc r as t ma e voi on t a o. W he polce r n t ug r ns c i nd de i d ke he l ce he udi n i a he lc ns plt on Tuc ' ve ce, t c r c ie e ae kers hi l he a ame ba k a bel ng t Gi r Tuc r t c s ongi o nge ke , he pe ii ne ' m ot . tto rs her Anohe de e tve,Da Ba ly,s ti i t Appl be sa obs r ed Tuc rl a t t r tci n ie a nsde he e e' nd e v ke e ve he r s a an a m i e be or Be ry a rved t m a t dr pm c e. Tucke s a d out i f e t ur t nut f e ve l r i o ke he ug has r t ye s de or a oxi a ey t m i e be o e r t ni t t r sal a . The Comm onweat i r e ppr m t l wo nut s f r e ur ng o he e t z nt r lh ntoduc d Bal y' s v la evi o i o e de e. ie s ur eil nc de nt vi nc The de e e pr s nt d a nlmbe ofwine y who t sii d t tBe ry di no ha a f ns e e e l r t s es e tfe ha ve l d t ve r putton f tut lne si t c e a i or r hfl s n he omm l t Furhe ,Tuc rsf r e a nt d co ms ,Lesi l miy. t r ke ' o m r ppoi e t el le A le , t tfed t the t a sa e ntf o Be ry a utTuc rsca e. He a s c im e l n esi ha ook t t me ' m ve l bo r ke , s 4 lo ontr d t ac ur y of t i e ve ta c i whih c ms l had i r uc d i o e de he c ac he nt r iw r ns rpt c ot e ntod e nt vi nce whe n i ac ng Be ry,s ik a l he sa e e durng t m e tng t ts ha no pur ha e mpe hi ve l pect ly r tt m nt i he e i ha he d t c s d c ai 9om Tuc r oc ne ke . 3Beve l tsii d t ts knew t tofi r we ef l ng a wathi he , buts di notknow t i ha tce s r olowi nd c ng r ry e tte ha he he d her l ato . oc ins 4Be ry de c i t cic t nc oft Ale i e viw: vel s rbed he r umsa es he ln ntr e Iwa tyn t a e s Lia( ilb cus Liacnb v l c nrliga v r pu h a dl u t s rig o pp a e s Gul e a e s a e ey o tol nd ey sy n j s ) n f l lket tIwastyi t s vemy lf oka be us 1lve i Lync g and t do2t a et i ha r ng o a ie, y, ca e i n hbur hey oo, nd s esara yatmpe t tk e eyhn a y9o me myc i rna dmyj b. .Lla h ad h ' le d te td o a e v r tig wa m , hl e n d o . ( sj e r eveyt ng. Shet dmes he d e N hi r hi ol he ar ve ng. Tra Tr 7 Be el tsi e t ts etetl e (e!lf wa ben tr ae e ...(y LiaGul, . c e' il . 5. v ry ett d ha h t l i h r ie s ig le tn d i f k l b ) s ilMr Tu k rs gilrend.'TralTr 76.Be rysae t ta ra tt nt mi t ofquesi ng,s so dt i e vi rfi ' i . ve l ttd ha ûe bou we y nues toni he t ppe he ntr ew: lwa n' goi t 1e f Br ns i r pe tt s yi t tlwa onl ha ng hi moneyt tt s t ng o i or o on n es c o a ng ha s y ndi m ha he polc ga me,t t1woul be a r t byt polc de rme . 1s d 11 notdot sbe a e ie ve ha d resed he ie pat nt ai '1 hi c us 11 ge are td i wha It d Mr Ale yea afe heas meal a t quesi . '1 t r se s t ol . ln, h, tr ked l bout he tons TralTr 71. i . ! I. I Proc dur H i t y e al s or Afe ajzy til t eLyn h u g Ciy Cic i Co r c n itd Tu k ro d s b to o tr l ra, h r c b r t rut u t o v ce c e f iG ui n f co i wihi 1000 f eto a s hoola diti i ofc ane t r ors e ntofe e a cane t n , e f c nd srbuton oc i , hid ubs que f ns nd s nt nc d hi t t nt yea s i prs n,wih eghtyea s s pe e e e m o we y r n io t i r us nded. Tuc ra ke ppeae a gti ld, r zng t a ()t t lc ur er d i e cu ig e d nc o d u u eb J n ie Be el ,a d ( )t h t 1 he da o t re n x ldn vie e f r g s y e n fr v ry n 2 he ti c lte e i fndng t e de e s t i tt c c hi . TheVigi a Cour o Appeas ral otr n'd n i i he vi nc ufk en o onvi t m r ni tf l a fnnedt c ctons de ng hi frtas i e ofe r on t m e is a hol ng t tt fi he onvi i , nyi s is sgnm nt ror he rt , nd di ha he s co a sgn e ofe r rwaspr e a l bare unde V a Su Ct R.5 : 8 be a e Tuc r e nd s i m nt r o oc dur ly r d r . p. . A 1 c us ke had f ie t pr e vet i s a ti lwih a r newed moton t srkeorm oto t s tasdet a ld o es r he s ue t ra t e i o ti i n o e i he ve dit The Supr m e Cour ofVigi a t n de led Tuc r spe ii f appe ,hol ng t t r c. e t r ni he ri ke ' tton or al di ha t frt as i he is sgnmentof e r was wihout me i,a t s c ror t rt nd he e ond as i e was pr edtr ly sgnm nt oc la l de a t d be a e i di notaddr s t Vigri Cour ofAppeas'r i a r quied by Va f ule c us t d e s he r ila t l ulng s e r . S p CtR. :7 c( )ii. u . . 5 1 ()1(i) Tuc rfl atm ey ha speii i t cr ui c t butt c tde e hi pe ii ke ied i l bea tton n he ic t our, he our nid s tton a a m o i t r c i r TheVigi a Supr m eCo ts e nty r f s d Tuc r sha a nd ton o e onsde . r ni e ur ubs que l e u e ke ' be s a a a m oton f rr hea i ppe l nd i o e rng. 1 11. C urrentPetii t on On Ocobe 1 201 Tuc rfl by c ms l atm ey f de a ha aspe ii n unde 28 t r 7, 6, ke ied, ot e , i l e r l be tto r U. C. 22 4 r iigfvecams S. j 5 , asn i li ' . 1. The e de e aga ns Tuc r w a l galy i uf i nt a a m a t r o f r vi nc i t ke s e l ns lc e s t e f ede al c tt i ll w ; ons iutona a Couns l was i f e tve f r f ii t us Be ry' vi t ped sa e e s e ne f c i o a lng o e ve l s deo a tt m nt whe i pe c ng he ; n m aM r 4 3. Co e wa i feci f f ii t c l Gi rTuc ra ade e ewines ; uns l s ne f tve or a lng o a l nge ke s f ns t s 4. Co ms wa i feci f f ii t c l Li aGuila ade e ewine s a t el s ne f tve or a lng o a l s l s f ns t s ; nd 5. Co ms wa i feci i conne ton wih t pl aba gan pr s . t el s ne f tve n ci t he e r i oce s Thi ma tr i now be or t c t on Res s te s f e he our ponde ' m oto t dim is Re po n ha nts in o s s . s nde t s c ede t tTuc rha pr pe l e use hi c am si sae c t onc d ha ke s o ry xha t d s l i n t t our. I V. St andard ofRe e viw To obt i f de alha asr le ,a pe ii r mus de an e r be ei f ttone t monsr t t the i En c t i ta e ha s G usody n i v oain o t Co sitin o lws o te te o t Untd Sae . 28 U. . j 2 5 ( i lto f he n ttto r a r rais f he ie tt s' z ' SC. 2 4 $. Un e 28U. C. 2 5 4 h we e , fd r l o r ma n tg a tawrto h b a c pu ba e dr S. j 2 4 *, o v r a e e a c u t y o rn i f a e s o s sd o a ycam t t saec u t e ie o t emeist e st a a j d c to n n li ha a tt o r d cd d n h rt mls h t du iain: ( )Re utd i a d cso ta wa c nrr t ,o iv l e a t e s n be 1 s le n e iin h t s o ta y o r n o v d n mr a o a l a iato of c e ry e t bls Fe r lw,a dee m i d by t Supr me pplc i n , l a l s a ihed de al a s t r ne he e Cour oft Unie St t s or t he t d a e ; ( )Re utd i ad cso ta wa bae o a l ra o a l d tr n to o t 2 s le n e ii n h t s s d n n l e s n be ee miain f he n f t i lgh oft e de eyr s nt i t Stt c t oce di acs n i t he vi nc e e ed n he ae our pr e ng. 28U. C.j2 4 * . t hee a h r , h saec u tsa plc to o g venn f d rllw i S. 25 ( ç r , s e e t e tt o r' p iain f o r ig e ea a s W c le g d i mus b s o t be no o y er n o , b t o j ci l l ra o a e' haln e , t t e h wn o t nl ro e us u be t y l e s n bl. ve n ' Ya bor h v. Ge t v 540 U. r ouu nr , S. 5 ( 0 ) Un e ti sa d r , Ga sae c u ts 20 3 . d r h s tn ad & q tt o r' g de e nai t t a cli l c me i pr l t nni ton ha a m a ks rt ecudes f r l ha s r le s l a f i- i ede a bea ei f o ong s a rm nded ju ssc ud a r eo te c re t e so t saec u tsd cso ' Ha i go v. c tr 5 2 tit o l ge n h o rcn s f he tt o r' e iin. n n l n Rih e, 6 ' U. 6 ,1 ( 01 )(ne n l u tto o te ) S. 6 01 2 1 i tr a q o ains mi d . t To e t bls i f ec i as i t nc ,a pe ii ne m us s s a ih ne f tve s s a e tto r t how t tc m s l spe f ha ot e ' r onnmw e f l el b lw a o j cie sa d r o r a o a ln s a d t t he wa p eu ie b te alg d eo n b e tv tn a d f e s n b e e s n ha s rj dc d y h le e deiintpef ma e. St llnd v.W as nkt 466 U. 668,669 ( 984) Coursa y a fce ror nc dcca hi ron, S. 1 . t ppl sr tong pr s e umpto t t c i n ha ouns ls pe f e ' ronua e, es i l r ga di ti m a nc pecaly e r ng ral nage e t a m n nd 5 srtgy,wa wili t r ofras bl pr e sona a ssa .J a 68 To de tat tae s tln he ange e ona e ofsi l s itnce Z t 9. monsr e p eu ie peiin r mus s w tee i a r ao be p o a iiy t t b t f r c t e' rj d c , t o e t t ho h r s e s na l r b b l ha, u o omsls t un ofsina er ,t o c pr e so l ror he utome oft pr e ng woul ha be n difr n. J. a 69 he oc edi d ve e fe e t . t 4. l L t r alegai ' of consi i G e l tons' Ba tt onal e r a e no s t i nt gr t m ror r t ufk e o mds f ha s r le ; t or bea ei f he peii rm us pr f re de e t s ttone t ofe vi nc o uppo thi c am s Ni r o v.Le 971F. 11 11 r s l i . cke s n e, 2d 25, 35 (t Ci. 9 2 . 4h r 1 9 ) V. Pr e alD e aul oc dur f t TheUrie Stt Supr m e Cour hasl he d t ta sa eprs r sha ascai sm a lt d a es e t ong l ha t t ione ' be l m y n tb e trane b af d rlc u tç n ( )t sae c u t( s d cie t a d e s ( o e o e n eti d y e ea o r ç whe 1 a tt o r ha ) e ln d o d rs t s q h camsb c u et eprs n rha f i dt me tasaep o e t a rq ie n a d ()th sae li e a s h io e d al o e tt r c dl l e ur me t' n 2 te tt e r j d me trsso i d p n e ta a e uaesaep o e t a g omd .'M a lsv. o s 5 5 u g n et n n e e d n nd d q t tt r c d l l r t s' p e Th ma , 6 r ' U. 2 6 2 0( 01 )(uoi W ak rv. ri , 6 U. 3 7 31 ( 01 ).A pr c d r l uei S. 6 , 8 2 2 q tng le Ma tn 5 2 S. 0 , 6 2 1) o e u a rl s ade t çi i i r gua l orc it nty a i d by t sae c ut' a i pe ntl fi does qua e tf t s e lry onsse l pple he tt ot ' nd nde nde ç t i n tt e e l o af d rlc n tmto lnlig'' Ye tsv.An eo e 1 6 F.d 2 5 26 (t o d p nd j n e ea o si ina ln .' at g ln , 6 3 5 , 0 4h Ci. 9 9 ( u tngAk v. da o , 0U.. 8 7 ( 9 5 r 1 9 ) q oi e Ol h ma 47 S 6 , 5 1 8 :. ll a ca m i de a t d,t n pe ii rm us f lon t tc am unls he c n s Gf li s f ule he ttone t ai ha l i es a how t t ha c u ea d p eu ieo a f n n na mic rig o j siemih e c ehi d f ut' Belv a s n rj d c r h d me tl s ara e f u tc g t x us s ea l. l . ' Tnl, 3F.S p 2 6 7 6 6( . Va 2 0 )(ingFihe v AnR ln ,1 3 F.d 8 5 8 4 e 41 u p. d 5 , 7 W D. . 0 6 ct i s r . eo e 6 3 3 , 4 ( t Ci. 1 9 :. The t a s ' pr n rq ie a peiine t d mo tae t a t r we e 4h r 9 8 ç u e' o g e u rs c t o r o e nsr t h t hee r t l j ci f cor,'e ena t hi dee e,whih i l e tve a t s' xtr l o s fns ob c mpede hi fom r sng hi cam a a d m r aii s li t n e rirsa e M u a v.Care,4 7 U..4 , 8 ( 9 6 . Th t rj ie'p o g r q ie a a l tg . n' e y rir 7 S 78 48 1 8 ) e t eudc ' r n e ur s p pe ii rt s ttone o how t tt al ged c tt tona vi ai n wo ke t hi a m ala s t n i l ha he le onsiui l ol to r d o s c nd ubsa ta dia tge i e tng hi e ie ti lwih er r of a c nsi i ma tz . J. a 495. s dvana , e ci s ntr la t ro o tmtonal gnitde - t I L M e n ie t e fnd me tlmic ni g o j tc e c p in rq ie apeiin rt prveh s a wh l, h u a na s a a e f usie x e to e ur s t o e o o i t ac t imoce e wih l w r la e e de e whe he i be e ul t y s i ntfc evi nce tl r al nc t ç ne ei bl vi nc t rt xc paor c e ii de , t swo t e wine sac ount ,orc ii a physc le de e t twa no pr e ed a ti .' nlt rhy ye t s c s rtc l i a vi nc - ha s t es nt t ral' S hlpv Deo, 1 U. 2 8 3 4( 9 5 . c u . l 5 3 S. 9 , 2 1 9 ) W . A nal i ys s A. Cl m 1 ai I Cl m 1 Tuc r a g s t tt e de e wa lga l i uf i ntt c c hi of n ai , ke r ue ha he vi nc s e ly ns fc e o onvi t m diti i ofc ai ,bec us Be ry wasa t lquel l uia e'wines . W ihoutBe ry' srbuton oc ne a e ve l l i y ms tbl ' t s ur t ve l s t si o Tuc ralege t tt Comm onwe lh' r i ng e de e wasf a ofTuc r e tm ny, ke l s ha he at s ema ni vi nc oot ge ke l a ng a r e e i t Applbe s wlih onl pr ve t the wasçn t ge r la e a t e vi nd e nt rng he e e', lc y o d ha & he ne a r a t he i tm et c i wa a lgedl c i he rme s le y omm itd. Pe '' Pe .1 Tuc ra l st ti he had,i f c , te ' trs t 2. ' ke lege ha f n at s d coc i t Be ry,t n t Co monwe t woul ha ha a t r me ol a ne o ve l he he m a1h d ve d ç e ndous a mt of t mot die t e de r c vi nce wih whih t co c Mm . Alo t t t r ove ofi e s c d ha t c o nvit ' ' s he wo mde c r fc r oul ve a r se hi i med a ey a t Co monwe t woul ha bee a et i r ucee de e of retd m m i t l nd he m alh d ve n bl o ntod vi nc hi pos es i of o he drz ora ma ke bilfo M s Be ry. Pe '' Pe.1 15. Lasl s s son t r t gs r d l rm . ve l ' trs t 4' ty, Tuc r c t nds t t t ofk e s e ognii of hi voie on t a otpe wa m it n ke on e ha he t r 'r c ton s c he udi a s sake be us t y we e thi y pr dipos d t bele t t t voi t y he r o t a o ca e he r ç ghl e s e o i ve ha he ce he a d n he udi r or ng wa t tofM r Tuc r' Pe '' Pe .1 ec di s ha . ke . trs t 3. ' On die tr vi w,t sa e co t r ed t tt is waspr dur l def ule unde r c e e he t t urs ul ha he s ue oce aly a t d r Rul 5; () 1(i)a 5A: oft Rllsoft SuprmeCour ofVigi a Fis,Rul 5:7() e 17c ()ii nd 18 he ze he e t r ni. rt e 1 c i a ade t a i pe s n qua e nd nde ndentsae pr dur lba t ta ie whe a pe ii rf ist a es t t oce a r ha rs s ' n ttone al o ddr s t l rc ur' hol ng i adie ta he owe o ts di n r c ppea t t Vigi a Supr m e Co t Se Ye ts 1 F. l o he r ni e ur. e a t, 66 3d a 26 ( lig Ru e 5 1 ()1 (i i a a e u t a d i e n e tsae b r. Se o d Ru e t 4 hodn l ;7 c( )ii s n d q ae n nd pe d n tt a) c n , l ) 5A : i a ade t a i pe ntsa e pr ed la ba t ta ie whe a pe ii rf is t 18 s n qua e nd nde nde t t oc tr l r ha rs s n ttone a l o 5 aly p e e v a is e b ma n a c ne o a e u o j cin a til See.gener l , W e k v. r sr e n su y kig o tmp rn o s b e to t ra. es An eo e 1 6 F.d 2 ,2 0 ( t Ci.1 9 ) Fih rv.Di. Va De to Co . 2 6 W L g ln , 7 3 49 7 4h r 9 9 ; s e rs . p' f n' 01 , 5 7 75 a * ( . Va Se t 2 ,2 6 ( o dngRu e5 1 i a a e u t a d i e e d n 4 7 6, t 2 W D. . p . 9 01 ) h li l A:8 s n d q ae n nd p n e t saeb r. tt a) Fu te,Tu ke f ist e c elsd futb c u eh ha n ts wn c us a p eu ie rh r c r al o x us l ea l e a s e s o ho a e nd fj dc i o amic ni g o j tc . h sn td mo tae t a a o j cie e tma f co p e ne r s a a e f usie He a o e nsrtd h t n b e tv , x e l a tr rve td hi compla wih sa e pr e a r uie e s a t tt al ge c tt tona vi ai n s i nce t t t oc dur l eq r m nt nd ha he le d onsiu i l ol to s t nta l i e t d hi ti , a heha no de o ta e t thei a m a l i ubsa ily nf c e s ral nd s t m nsr t d ha s c ly nnoce . nt6 Re r e s Cli 1 i wihoutm e i. Fe r lha asr vi w ofs cenc ofe de e ga dls , am s t rt de a be e e uG i y vi nc c am s a e lm ie t de e mi ng t t r afe vi wi t e de e i t lg m os li r i t d o t r ni G he , tr e ng he vi nc n he i ht whe t f vor bl t t pr ec i a r tona t ro f tc d ha f a a e o he os uton, ny a i l de f ac oul ve ound t e s ntalelm e sof he s e i e nt t ec b y n ar a o a ed u t' J c s nv. r i i, 4 U. 3 7 31 ( 9 )(mp ss h dme e o d e s n bl o b ' a k o Vicna 4 3 S. 0 , 9 1 79 e hai i o ia) Th fd r lc u tc n ie scru tnila d drc e i e c ,a d t lo te n dgn l. e e ea o r o sd r ic msa ta n ie t v d n e n t lws h a gove n e t be fto a 1r as r m nt he ne i f 1 e onabl i e e e fo t f t pr n t t e s e nf r nc s r m he ac s ove o hos oughtt be o e tbls e ' Untd S ae v.Tr s n,6 7 F.d 1 8 1 21 (t Ci.1 8 ) M o e v r sa ih d. ' ie tts e va t 7 2 01 , 0 4h r 9 2 . ro e , Iwl eet eeaec nfit i tsi n ii f rt ejly a dno t a p l t c u toweg te < h r h r r o l s n e tmo y,t s o h t n t he p el e o r t i h h g c r a e i e c a d j d e t e ce iiiy o t e win s e . I .a 1 212 (iig Untd S ae v v d n e n u g h r db l f h t e s s' d t 0 - 2 ctn t ' ie tts . Fihe, 8 F.d 8 8 8 0 7 (t Ci.1 7 ) s eas M as alv. n e g r 4 9U. 4 2 43 s r 4 4 2 6 , 6 - 0 4 h r 9 3 ; e lo rh l Lo b r e , 5 S. 2 , 4 5Tuc rtfie t ma amoton t srke, a hef ie t movet s asde t vedit' t r f e,he ke Eald o ke i o ti nd ald o o et i he r c'' he eor R d no pr s r t que ton of t s fci y of t evi nce t s di t e e ve he si he ufi enc he de o uppor t co c i . Tuc r v. t he nvitons' ' ke Co n at No 1 7 - 13 si o a 4( . . p. a .1 , 01 ) mmo we 1 h, . 4 8 1 - , l p. t Va CtAp Jn 1 2 2 . p 6Tuc r does notase tnew, r la e e de t twas notpr s t d atti . Tuc c e t ke sr eibl vi nce ha e en e ral ker ontnds hat K rfee tsi n 9o Gig rTuc e a LiaGul ... lal etbihe (ilin c n e'b tTu ke o l t o frd e t y m n e k r nd s i p mo l ce ry sa ls s hs n o e c , u c r ny ' ofer an afi vi 9om Lia. PetrsRes t t M ot t Dimis 1 Fu t r t sae c t ha doc nt d fs fda t s '' p. o he . o s s 2. rhe , he tt ours ve ume e Gi ra Liascr biiy is ;t r f e Tuc rdoe nota s r a c or e cam ofa mali e e unde nge nd s ' edi lt sues he eor , ke s s e t ol abl li c nnoc nc r Sc up. hl 8 ( 9 3 (1 U. C. 2 5 ( )gve fd rlh b a c u t nolc ns t r d tr n ce iii o 18 )1 28 S. j 2 4 d i s e e a a e s o rs ie e o e ee mie r dblt f y wi se wh s d me n rh sb e o s r e b t saetil o tb t o b t e ' . t ss o e e a o a e n b ev d y he tt ra c ur, u n t y h m.) ne ' At til t Comm o ra , he nweat ofe ed sgni a diec a cic sa i l e de e lh f r i fc nt r t nd r um t nta vi nc i udi e ncl ng: yewines t si ony,a o and yi o oft d u ptr has s v ilnc e de e, t s e tm udi de he r g lc e, ur e la e vi nc voi i ntt aton,ml Tuc rs pa kagi t c mi ce de i i k d ke ' c ng e l que. Alhough Tuc r i a hed Be ry t ke mpe c ve l a a tmpt d t co r r s nd te e o ntove t ome e de e he ha no s vi nc , s t hown t tno r tona ti roff c ,bas ha ai l re a t ed on t e de pr e e co d ha f und hi guit beyo a r as bl do . he vi nce es nt d, ul ve o m ly nd e ona e ubt Thesaec t'nzi weenotc rr t o a l e s bl a iai ot fde a tt ours lngs r onta y o, r n l a ona e pplc ton l e r l nr lw, or ba e o a l ea ona e detr i ton of f c s Tuc ' fr t cl m i de a t d a s d n n mr s bl e m na i a t. kers is ai s f ule wihoute us a uli t l wihoutm e i't r f e,t co tg a t t m o i n t dimi sa t xc e nd tma ey t rt he e or he ur r n s he to o s s s , t (l r 1 o zain . # . Cl m 27 ai l Cl i 2,Tuc r a lges t t c n am ke le ha ouns l was i feci f r f ii t us Be ry' e ne f tve o alng o e ve l s vie tp d sae n whe i e c ighe.Heag e t a ( )l o ns l td wih u q eto d o a e ttme t n mp a hn r r u s h t 1 t u e woz to t u sin c l ha e b e a t dz d t ply t vie tp f rt j 'a ()Rh j r sr s o s wo l v e n uho e o a he d o a e o he my' nd 2 t e u y' e p n e ud l ey h v b e dfe e t a ra o a l d u two d lk l ha eb e rie ,i t ej r ha i l a e e n ifr n, nd e s n b e o b ul iey v e n as d f h u y d k ?Re r ngCli 2tzough4, t cic tcot tsae t f l ng: ga di ams lr he r ui u' ttd he olowi El e Co r fn sBe el stsi n wa c ro rtd b tep ies rela c tp o te ' h u t id v ry' et y s orboae y h ol u v i n e a e f h I mo c l ta a i whih de r ns cton, c monsr t peii r s d coc ne t Be ry. The vi otpe ofes a taed ttone ol ai o ve l de a fr c mplt e pa ain f r te j r s d cso t beiv Be el d s ie te i a b n o ee x ln to o h uy' e iin o le e v ry ept h mpe c me t ac mpls d by c el Pl e i t pr r c e of t tsi ny atti ,t cai co ihe ouns . ac d n he ope ontxt he e tmo ral he l ms ?eetdb ptto e adhi cretct e a u tt asrin ta Mr Moc we wa rsne y ei nr n s urn omsl mo n o set s ht . rho r s i o mefe i f noti r fctve or ntoduci evi ncet twasi ng de ha nadmisbl a t thad be n e e t t s i e nd ha e xpos d o he Co r a pej r sb r e t a ss ted fn ea atmeb fr Mr Mo c o rsiv le n i u t s ruy u o n d o sit h ee s t i eoe . rh we ' n ov me t n . t c e.AlhoughM r M or he as t . chowe kne t prorsae e hadbee m a Be ry' t tm ony r w he i ttm nt n de, ve l s esi rv ae ( k rs itmae as cae e g ge i c n u td sg e t p r ert afa d u o e e ld Tuc e') n i t so its n a d n o d c ein d o ep tae ru p n t sComt Tuc ra hi wi e s splce Mn M o c we i a untnabl poston,a Tuc hi ke nd s m s e a d r ho r n n e e ii nd ker cn blm eM r M o c we f t cr umsanc t tldt hi co c i nnot a . r ho r or he ic t ej ha e o s nviton. Tu k rv Dil n No C11 0 8 5 - 0 si o a 4- ( . r Ct S p.1 , 1 ) c e . l , . .3 0 2 9 0 , l p. t 5 Va Ci. . e t 5 20 5 . ma p s e Be el svie tpe p era sae n i wh c s e s i s e h d f ley i iae ( e n v ry' d o a d r til ttme t n ih h ad h a as l mpl td q c Tuc r a des i d herr a onsf doi s ' Pe '' Pe .1 ke , nd crbe es or ng o. trs t 7. ' On ha asr viw,t cr ui co t co l d' be e e he ic t trt ncude . The Co tfndst tt vi o oft saeme woul no ha be n ad isbl ur i ha he de he t t nt d t ve e m s i e. M r M or ho r i . c we mpea hed J nnie Be ry usng he pror i c e f r ve l i r i nconsse it nt sa e nt m a t Lesi Ale Be ry ad itd ha ng made t sae e s t t me s de o le l n. ve l m te vi he t tm nt . Be us Beve l a ted t sa e e t ,e rnsc e de e wa notad isbl ca e ry dmit he t t m n s xti i vi nc s m si e t pr t sae nt ha be nmade Se Va.R.Evi 2: 3()i) ChalsE o ove he ttme s d e . e d. 61 a (i; re F n ,TV La o Ev d n e i Vigna j 4- ()1,a 1 7 (t e .20 3 . de d w f i e c n r ii 5 c( ) t 4 6h d 0 ) Be us t vi w> no ad isbl t rt s c r mnsa es ti c m s ls ca e he deo s t m s i e mde he e ic t nc s ral ot e ' pe f m a e wa not de i int Furhem or be a e pro i onsse ror nc s fce . t r e, c us i r nc it nt saeme s a e a isbl onl f r pur e of i ac e a no as t t nt r dm s i e y o pos s mpe hm nt nd t s t n i e de e,s eNe e t Adm ' v. mt r 207 Va.335,340,1 S. 2d ubsa tve vi nc e bl t. r Ht e , 50 E. 1 5 1 9 ( 9 6 ,a be a e t Co n at ' e i e c o h r s wa s 1 , 1 1 6 ) nd c us he mmo we lh s v d n e t e wie s o o e whemig Tuc e c ns w n p eu iefo Mr M o c o rsd cso n t v r l n , k r a ho o rj dc r m . rh we ' e iin o t i r o nt oduc t vi o. e he de Tuc r No. 3008259- si op. t3. ke , CL1 00, lp a The c ta e wih t sa e c tsa yss t ti c ur ' nzi wasc r tunde our gr es t he tt our' nal i : he ral o ts lng orec r Vigi a 1 w be aus Gf t wines a t m a ng t sa e t t pror i onsse r ni a c e û he t s dmis ki he t t men , he i nc it nt i saeme may notbepr ve by e rnsce de .'Cuni v.Co onwe 1h,51 S. 2d 335, t t nt o d xti i vi nce' e mm at 5 E. 3 2 ( .Ct Ap 1 9 ) (iig Br wn v Pees 1 7 S. 2 6 5 6 9 ( .1 61 Un e 4 Va . p. 9 9 ctn o . tr, 1 E.d 9 , 9 Va 9 :. d r S rcca d Gan atr e sf ile t r iea meils apl n g c n tfr t eba i o a til n , t q to n y' alr o as l l t rte s r me t l n no o m h ss f s e s uli fe tve a ssa ofc ms lcai be a e t r ul oft pr e ng woul not ucc s f ne f c i s itnce ot e l m c us he es t he oc edi d ha bee dif r ntha t a t ne r ie t i s ' Unie St t s v.I ml r 167 F. 889, ve n fe e d he tor y a s d he s ue. ' td ae ti e , 3d 8 3 (t Ci. 9 9 ; e as M o r v. l e S ae , 3 F. u p. 2 , 31( D. . 9 6 . 9 5h r 1 9 ) s e lo o e Urtd tts 9 4 S p 7 4 7 E. Va 1 9 ) i Tuc r as e t t c ke s rs hat ouns ls pe f m a e was dek int be us t e de e ' ror nc t e ca e he vi nce was ad si e rl ng upon Zikl v.Commonweat 55 S. 2d 24 ( misbl, eyi re 1h, E. Va.1 949) a J s v. nd one Co n at ,6 0 S. 2 8 9 ( . p.Ct 20 7 . I Zil ,t e Co nwe l rb te mmo we l 5 E.d 5 Va Ap h . 0 ) n rde h mmo at e u td h 8 The Vigi a Ruls ofEvi nce had notyetbe n i e nt , b tter ls& iqn tatre itn r ni e de e mplme ed u h ue E d o le xsig dl evi ntay docrne ort vibiiy ofca e lw i exit e prort J y 1 201 whe t y ca i o e fc ' de ir ti he a lt s a n senc i o ul , 2, n he me nt fe t' Ca o v. mmo at,8 S. 2 1 4 1 2( . . p. 01 ) mp s Co nwe 1 00 E.d 7 , 8 Va CtAp 2 7 . h ç o d c rce'e d nc wih e i e c o as cfcb d a t tsi n 9o aj g wh h d G o haa tr' vie e t v d n e f pe ii a c :e tmo y m ud e o a g c c e t de e ntofa c onvit d he f nda dme ye r be o e. The Vigni Supr m e Cour ofAppe shed as fr ri a e t al l t a r b t g g o c a a tre i e c wi s e i a t o ba c n u twa hg l p eudca h t e udn o d h r ce v d n e t p ct cs f d o d c s ihy rj iil h k a d r q ie r v ra. Zil ,5 SE.d a 29 3 (( h Sae c n tp o e s cfc a t t n e ur d e es l rde 5 . 2 t - 2 G T) e tt n no r v pe ii cs o ç s o t e d fn a tsba c a a r' .l J n s t p o e u o paa h a e ml c ry pc d h w h ee d n ' d h r de.) n o e ,he r s c tr rp r s d d her - ike ' sae e st tt de e ntha m a d ng apolc i e t tm nt ha he f nda d de mi i e nt noga i The de e ntve m e l ton. f nda he nty diag e d wih t pr e ut r s c r c e ton o hi sa e e s a he a tmpt d t s s re t he os c o ' ha a t dza i f s t tm nt , nd te e o how v d o f oa e o t eitr iw t t ej r t e tbih c n e tf rt esae n s Ho v r t i e o t g f h n e ve o h u y o sa ls o tx o h ttme t. we e ,he Co n at o j ce o h a s y g o n s a d t til c u t h l te f oa e t be mmo we 1h b e td n e ra r u d , n he ra o r ed h o t g o i dmisbl . On a al t Vigi a Cour of Appeas he d t t t vi o was ad isbl na s i e ppe , he r ni t l l ha he de m si e b c u etgl p l n d d n ta k f ra miso o t v d oa f rt t t o te sae ns e a s lap el t i o s o d sin f he ie tpe o he nz f h ttme t a h ma e d rn t itro ai n kahe,he wa td t ej r t se t e e n e ti wlih t s d u ig he n er g to . t r ne h u y o e h o tx n l he e c sa e e sa o isonswe e ma a de e mi f t m s l swhih c r cerz i n oft tt m nt nd m s i r de nd t r ne or he e ve c ha a t iato he i onsse eswa a c ae. J ne ,650 S. 2d a 867. nc itnci s c ur t ' o s ' E. t s ral Tuc r m ii e pr t bo h ca el a t f t9 of hi own ti . Fis, Zikl i ke snt r e s t s aw nd he acs rt r e s ir lva tbe us t Commonwe t di no a tmptt r butc r c e e de e wih s ik ree n ca e he alh d t te o e ha a tr vi nc t pect a t. S c n , o si n ta p ia eb c us ( )t Co n at e trd t ef l ta s rp cs e o d J ne s o p lc bl e a e 1 he mmo we 1 n ee h ul r n cit h f rt e jzy t rv e a d () Be ry wa n tt d fn a t a d net e s e n r Tu ke o h t o e iw, n 2 vel s o he ee d n , n ih r h o c r r diput t c r c e i ton ort s t nc oft i onsse saeme s s ed he ha a t rza i he ubsa e he nc it nt t t nt . 9I hi peiin,Tuc rsaes n s tto ke tt : Thevi wa notie tnscevi nc 'ofs m eot ,s r t i nsse saemen wih whih deo s çxti i de e' o her epa ae nco itnt tt t t c t de e ewihedt i he f ns s o mpea h M s. c Beve l Thevi o wt-t i onsse sae nt a whe ry. de z he nc itnt t tme , nd n ç co se a nn Ms Be el ted fn eha e ey rg tt c nfo th r(n tejr lwi te r s-x miig . v ry,h ee s d v r ih o o rn e a d h u y t h h e tc e ofherprori onsse saementr t rt nr l ng o as t ndpa a a et t xac ontnt i nc itnt tt , ahe ha eyi n horha r phr s ha c ns dM s. very' wor i o s t ngot rt n wha s a tlly s d. onde e Be l s ds nt omehi he ha t he c tal ai P trsPe.1 (mp ssi oiia) Hefrh ralg st t<iftesaec u tsa aysswls c ret iwo l e'' t 8 e hai n rgn l. u te le e ha ll h tt o r' n l i al orc,t ud E m e n t tati wine sco r ed wih ...a i nsse polce i e ki sae tc d neve be c a ha ral t s nfont t n nco itnt i ntr ew ttmen oul r ongo ed nt wi tea ma ta srp o rc r iglf tetsi n o itr iw, nt go n ta tepic o pa e o diia t h c lrn cit r e o dn o) h etmo y r neve o he ru d h th e e f p r r gtl h dic ...s how co tt e Exti i evi e.' I s ome nsiutd e rnsc denc '' d. Furhe ,Tuc rsunde sa ng ofe rnsc and i rnscevi nc i i orec .o Unde t r ke ' rt ndi xti i nti i de e s nc r tl r Vigi al w, r ni a ( wine si a ci nalca ema bec os-xn ne ast pr vi sae s a) t s n rmi s y r se mi d o e ous ttment ma eb hm i m iig o r d e it wrtn ,rlt t t es be tmatro d y i n tn r e uc d n o iig eai o h u j c te f ve t pr ee ng ...a i he a t isge ne s he s l be al he oc di nd f dmis t nui nes , hal lowed t ma o ke hi own e a ton ofi. s xpl na i t Va Co e j1 .- 6 ..Theeo e t ewdte ta s rp o Be e l'. tr iw c ul b usdt . d . 92 2 8 1 rf r ,h tn r n cit f v ry si e ve o d e e o n i a Be ry. The vi o woul be c i r d e lnsc e de ,howe r a a s a mpe ch ve l de d onsde e xti i vi nce ve , nd s oon s Be ry admit ma ng t sae e s t vi o wa i dmi sbl t pr et rt tBe ry ve l ted ki he tt m nt, he de s na s i e o ove ihe ha ve l ha m a t sa e nt ,ort tt sa e e swe e i f c ,tue Tuc ra s c endst tt d de he t t me s ha he t tm nt r , n a t r . ke lo ont ha he vi o de o tae Beve l sbi s He ha no a lged,wih s cf t wha t vi w o d de m nsr t d ry' a . s t le t pe ikiy, t he deo ul ha s ve hown t tt ta c i di not r ga dl s ,def ns c ha he r ns rpt d ; e r e s e e ouns l e e e t ta c ,t e ntr d he r ns dpt he a d o al te vd o i t e i e c wih n o j ci n fo t e Co nwe l a d a1wee u i , t h ie no v d n e t o b e to r m h mmo at n l r d h, ma ea albl t t ej r .1Th r f r,hejlywa a l t sea dh a t ef litr iw. d y i e o h u y1 e eo e t t a r s b e o e n e r h uln e ve M or ove , t sa e ha a c t c l d t t i he Comm onwe lh' e de e e r he tt be s our oncude ha ç t at s vi nc ohe ie wa o r l n ,Tu ke c n s w nop eu iefo g ee s c un e ')d cso t m s s vewhemig c r a ho rj d c ' m d fn e o s ls e iin r n tt ito u et vie E t j r q' c e , 6 1 4 8 5 - 0 si o a 3. Th c t t o o n r d c he d o t he u y . o 'Tu k r No. 1 3 0 2 9 0 , lp p. t e ot r a r e wi t e crui c u t a lss Un e S rc a d,tcoms li n tie fci meey g e s t h ic t o r' nay i. d r tikln G l t e s o n fe t h s l ve rl be us he ove l ks o jr t gy whie vi l nty pur ui a he . W iln sv.Kely,81 ca e roo ne ta e l gia l s ng not r' ' li m l 6 F. 9 9 9 0 (t Ci.1 8 )(iig Src ln , 66U. a 6 9 ;S li v. rh Caoi ,5 7 2d 3 , 5 4h r 9 7 ct tika d 4 n S. t 8 ) ale No t r l 8 na F. 6 6 6 (t Ci.1 7 )( tika da isp o n weeç o itn e t p o t j dca 2d 3 , 40 4h r 9 8 Src ln nd t r ge y r l t n e d d o r moe u iil n s c gue sng on que to ofsrtgy a ba i ast handlng ofa wine s' Counsls e ond- s i sins tae s sc he i t s. ). e' 1 I t e i pea hm e c ext i rnsc evi nc c e 9om t wine s dti t e i ton; 0 n h m c nt ont , nti i de e om s he t s u ng he xam nai mea l e rnsce de i e de ea te o sdet twines ' e mi ton. nwhie, xti i vi nce s vi nc dmitd uti ha t ss xa nai 1 ANerMr. Ale st tmony,t c tal 1 ln' esi he our lowedt i e viw vi o t bee e edi o e de e.Tra Tr he ntr e de o ntr nt vi nc il . 1 60. sr t taegy was t dic edi Be ry: c ms l s ce s u l i a d Be ry' i ul t y o s r t ve l ot e uc s f ly mpe che ve l s nc paor t tmony a he c r tr f tuhfzne s e e ed t ta c ,audi a vi of he esi nd r ha ace or r t ll s , nt r he r ns dpt o, nd deo r ic nsse t sae n s it e ie c ,a d iplr d jlo s t e a n t e Ale itr iw n o itn ttme t no vd n e n n o e t r o x mie h ln n e ve r m a e il durng c osng ar me .1 Tucker cnnnot s w t t c ms ls f lze t us vi o t ra s i l i pl nt 2 ho ha ot e ' ailr o e de f t ge of Be ry' a ted f s sa e e s woul ha wih a r a ona e pr ba lt oo a ve l s dmit ale tt m nt d ve, t e s bl o biiy, c ngedt out ome oft ti . Rega dl s e n i t vi we ea isbl c ms lsus of ha he c he ral r es , ve f he deo r dm s i e, ot e ' e a wrte ta c i i tad of vi f a wms notl r as bl,a s d notbe s c itn r ns rpt nse deo oot ge m e ona e nd houl e ondgu s d on c lt r lr viw . Tuc rm a dia eewih c ms lsc c i m e lm t pr e t es e ola e a e e ke y s gr t ot e ' hoi e n dil o es n Be ry' flesae n st teju b t ec n o s w t tc t e wa ief ci . vel s as ttme t o h ty, u h n n t ho ha omsl s n fe t ve The sa ecour' nzi wasnotc r r t oran I r as bl a ia i of Stiklnd, tt ts lng onta y o, m e ona e pplc ton , rc a o bas d on a um ea o bl de e na i of f t . Tuc r f l t s r e n s na è t nni ton acs ke ais o how t e se e of he xit nc d sce tpef r n e a d prj d c ;te eo e t e mo in t d s s a t Cli 2 wi b e in ro ma c n eu ie h r f r, h to o imis s o am l e l gr t d. an e C. Cl m 3 ai I Cl i 3,Tuc r a gue t tco e wa i fe tve f f lng t cal hi m o he , n am ke r s ha uns l s ne f c i or aii o l s t r Gi r Tuc r a a wine s As pa t of hi sa e ha as peii n,Tuc r a tc nge ke , s t s. r s t t be tto ke ta hed a l te e tr pur tdl wrte by M sm o he i 2011 I t misve,Gi rTuc ri onnst o W hom i pore y itn t rn . n he s i nge ke nf T t M a Conce ' ofhe wilngnes t t tf t tBe ry t aruly cole s a s he t f l ey y m ' r li s o esiy ha ve l e f l rf s ed c me o a s l i plc t Tuc rt bot he a Lia Guil Tuc ra s rst tbec us Ghe pr e uton' c s m i a e ke o h r nd s l. ke s e t ha a et t os c i s a e r t a m os en i e y on Be r y' t s i ony,' c m s l w as i f c i f no c lng M s esed l t tr l ve l s e tm ' ot e nef e tve or t ali . Tuc rt li i htBe ry' bi and sr m o i t f brc t . Pe '' Res t t M ot t ke o lghlg ve l s as tong tve o a i a e tr s p. o he .o D i m i s8. s s ' ' 1 Rr sca e s ul bedecde a ryou r viw t CD . . . I wiltket t mi esa t et nt 2 'hi s ho d i d he e e he t l a weny nut nd hos we y m i t wils w t de epto ...So we a k you t he r n t t ta crpt I' be n i r uce TheCD i nues l ho he c in s o a ke o he rns i . ts e ntod d. s i r ed. TralTr 1 90. ntoduc ' i . 85' ' 13 Onha asr viw,t cr ui c t l be e e he ic t our hed: For t s m e r a on t vi ot pe w a i he n e s he de a s nadm i s bl ,G i r Tuc r s t s i ony s i e nge ke ' e tm a bout a s a e e s B e r y m a woul no ha be n a i s bl a ny t t m nt ve l de d t ve e dm s i e s s t ntve e de e a onl admisbl as i pe hme e de i Be ry ubsa i vi nc nd y si e m ac nt vi nce f ve l de e t sa e e s M o e ve ,be a e of Be ry' t tmony,a be us ni d he t t m nt . r o r c us ve l s esi nd ca e Gi rTuc rsve ce had be us i t ofe e Gi rTuc rwa a ve y nge ke ' hi l en ed n he f ns , nge ke s r da r nge ous wine s a t r we e rs t t t Comm onwe lh c d e ii t s s he e r iks ha he at oul lct i o ton c nf nna i onobor tng Tuc r s i ve e i t c e a i or a i ai ke ' nvol m nt n he dm nd nf m ton a ut t pr tr me of t f le e ul t r vi otpe by Lia Guil The bo he oc te nt he a s xc pa o y de a s l. Cour fnds c ms ' de ii t pr s ntt tmony fom Gi r Tuc r a t ti ot els c son o e e esi r nge ke t he s nt ncng he dng onl r t rt n a t guitphas oft ti lwhe et r wa e e i a y, a he ha t he l e he ra r he e s a rs of a po e ily dn ik t nta l magi c os - xa i ton a ng r s e m na i boutmate s r a e t t tr elt d o he c mmiso o teo fns , sn tu ra o be a d Tu ke wa n t eudc d o sin f h fe e wa o n e s na l, n c r s o prj ie by c m s l sdec s on. ot e ' ii Tuc r N o.CL1 ke , 3008259- s i op. t300, lp a 4. The c ta e wih t sa e co ts a yss Fe r c t r vi wi Sti a our gr es t he t t ur ' nal i . de al ours e e ng rcklnd c am s ç ve c li G gi ouns lwi ltt i de e ni whih wines est c la pa toft i ti l e de a iude n t nni ng c t s o al s r he r ra srtgy.'Unie Sttsv.Dyes,730F3d 35 364 ( hCi.201 ;s as W is v.Gre tae ' td ae s 4, 4t r 3) ee lo lon e ne, 1 5 F.d 3 6 4 4 ( t Ci.1 98 ( u tn Pr etv Tho o 9 6 F. 1 6 ,1 71n9 ( t 5 3 9 , 0 4h r 9 ) q o ig u t . mps n, 9 2d 5 0 5 . 4h Ci.1 9 )( e iinsa o twh ttp so e ie et ito uc tl o e o tilsr tg , nd r 9 3 t cso b u a y e f vd nc o n r d e a' n s f ra tae y a r e atr e sha g e tltmd o wh r t y c n f c tej y satn in a d wha s r o g to n y ve ra ai e n ee he a o us h ur ' te to n t ot f j e i e c t yc nc o s n t oito uc .). v d n e he a h o e o t n r d e' ' Cot e c d ha us Gi r Tuc r t a tc Be l s cr di lt e pe i ly i ms l oul ve ed nge ke o ta k very' e biiy, s c al f Be ry de e t alege t a f c e so Ho ve ,co elc d ha r ogni d,a a ve l nid he l d e rul onf s i n. we r uns oul ve ec ze s m a trofti lsr t gy,t tM s Tuc rwa a potntaly da er uswine s M s Tuc r sc r te ra ta e ha . kç s e i l ng o t s . . ke ' a w as a t s e o t c e a Be r y' a l ge c e s o occ e a t hom e a i t t he c ne f he dm nd ve l s le d onf s i n un'd t he nd n he pr s nc ofLi a Guil w ho had pr s tr d a har s e Be ry. Couns lc d ha r a ona y ee e s l, e sl e nd a s d ve l e oul ve e s bl be n ptr ui t sr t ofm i m i ng pot n i ly dn agi c os - xa nai n fom Gi r e ls ng he taegy ni zi e tal m ng r s e mi to r nge 14 Tuc r whie sil s e s tly i a hi Be ry' c e biiy wih t Ale i e v e a ke l tl ucc s fll mpe c ng ve l s r di lt t he ln ntr i w nd dn a ng c r trwines e . m gi ha ace t s s Re a de s Tu ke h s n t d mo sr td p eu ie Fis, te Co n at g r ls, c r a o e n tae rj dc . rt h mmo we 1h sgrika l c r ae Beve l st tmony wih s ve a polc of e s a t s vela i lf nty orobor t d ry' esi t e r l ie fc r , nd he ur ilnce m ae il c im e Be ry' ve son ofe nt. Sec t ra s onfr d ve l s r i ve s ond,Tuc rhasnotpr f e a a fda t ke ofer d n fi vi o Gig rTuc rst si n . Se Un td S ae v As i ,9 2 F. 6 3,6 0( t Ci.1 91 f n e ke ' e t y e ie tt s . hmi 3 2d 4 5 7h r 9 ) mo (lEj de ea t tsi ny ofaputtvewine smus g rly bepr e e i t f m Gg vi nc bout he etmo ai t s t eneal esntd n he or of a t lt si o by t wine s or on a fda t A de e ntc nno smpl sae t tt c ua e tm ny he t s fi vi. f nda a t i y t t ha he t tmony woul ha be n f vor bl s fs r i s ulton wilno s t i a i f c i esi d ve e a a e; el- e vng pec a i l t usan n nefe tve a ssa c cam.) sitn e 1i ' . ' The sa e c tsr i wa notc r r t ora t e ona e i e r t ton of f de a tt our' ulng s onta y o, n mr as bl nt p e a i ,e rl lw,orbas d o a t ea ona e dee m i ton o f c s Tuc rha no s a e n n mr s bl t r na i f a t . ke s t hown t tc ms ls ha ot e ' f iur t c l Gi rTuc ra awine swa de i n pe f m a e,ort ti c ms lhad c l al e o a l nge ke s t s s fc e t ror nq ha f ot e aled M s Tuc ,t r was a r % ona e pr ba lt t tt o c e of t ti lwo d ha be n . ker he e e bl o biiy ha he ut om he ra ul ve e dif r nt t r f e, hecour gr nt 'hem o i t dim isa t Cl m 3. fe e ; he e or t t a st ton o s s s o ai D. Cl m 4 ai I Cl i 4,Tuc ra lgest tc n am ke le ha opns lwa i fe tve f f ii t calLia Guilasa e s ne f c i or a lng o l s l de e e wines Tuc rpr f r a a da tfom M s Guildes rbi he puttvet si ony: f ns t s. ke ofe s n o vi r . l c i ng r ai e tm t ts waspr s nta Applbe swih Tuc ron Se e r30,2011 and t s di nots e ha he ee t e e' t ke pt mbe , hat he d e Tuc r e t r pos es o diti t c i Tuc r a gue t t O e ry ha ar adv ac us d ke ihe s s r srbu e ocane. ke r s ha ve l d le c e Guil o i opre y dlrng t Comm onwe t s c s i czef t r was no pe s i e l f mpr it zi he alh' a e n li , he e nni sbl r tonae t rStiklnd f tilco elt l veBe ry' t tmony unr bute by de lni ai l mde rc a or ra uns o ea ve l s esi e td ci ng t utlz ...t e ul t y t tm o pr f r d by Lia Guil' Pe '' Re p.t t M ot t o iie he xc pa or esi ny ofe e s 1. ' tr s s o he .o Dimis1 (mp ssi o ia) s s 0 e hai n dgn l. ' On ha asr viw,t Lync be e e he hbur Ciy Cic tCo the d: g t r ui ur l Cot e ' a ûda tr te t t tM r M or howe de i d no t calGuilbe a e ms ls f vi el c s ha . c r c de t o l l c us s wa i a i i a er l tons p wih Tuc r wasi r er t o pe ng dnz he s n n ntm t e ai hi t ke , nca c aed n ndi g c ge ,a he c edi lt wa dn a by t r velton durng t ti t t har s nd r r biiy s m ged he e a i i he ral ha s was i ve i t pr ur me of t f le vi o t si he nvol d n he oc e nt he a s de e tmony. M r . M or how e s a e ,t s Guil w a i i a e y i ved w ih M r Tuc r a s c r t t s 1 . l s ntm t l nvol M t . ke nd he wa i a ce a e a t tm e oft ti lon pe ng dr g c r . M s Guils s nc r r t d t he i he ra ndi u ha ges . l' c ed biiy be me an is a tr M s Be ry t sii d i r f r nc t t f le r i lt ca s ue fe . ve l e tfe n e e e e o he a s vd o d po i o ' ( s o d n ' Ex ii 1. Be el ' tsi n lf n d u t ie e st n. Re p n e ts hbt ) v ry s e t y e t o o b i ' mo t tLia Guili i daed he i o pr di a f s vi o de ii Guilalo ha s l ntmi t r nt ovi ng ale de poston. l s c omm t caed wih Be l t s tup t m e tng a wli h Tuc r s d Beve l mi t t very o e he e i t lc ke ol ry t c i t wa i ve i t c i e. Guil c d ha be n c os he ocane, hus s nvol d n he rm l oul ve e r s e a n d a u h r r l i ( c e 'q d u - e ln e tr rs a d c u d h v x mie bo t e oe n Tu k rs r g d aig n ep ie n o l a e be n c os e m i e e i l noto y a e r s xn ned xtnsvey nl bouthe pe s la tonsi c r i r r ona ci n oe cng t f le sae e fom J nnie Be ry buta he as tt m nt r e f r ve l boutwhehe Tuc c l t r ker oluded wih t he t pr tr t tf s sa e nt The c tfndst de ii no t calLia r o ocle ha ale t t me . our i he c son t o l s Gu l wa n td fce tp ro ma c ,a d ( c r fist d mo taep eu ie il s o eiin ef r n e n Tu ke) al o e nsr t rj d c fo t de ii n no t c l Guila rs ave y dn i c os - xn i ton. r m he c so t o al l nd ik r mag ng r s e m na i Tuc r N o.C 1 ke , 1 3008 259- s i op. a 4. The c t a e w ih t s a e co ts a l i . 00, lp t our gr es t he t t ur ' na ys s Fis,Tuc r c nno s w t t co e ' pe f ma rt ke n t ho ha uns ls ror nce was dek i n . Col s c d t et m el oul r as bl ha be n ptr ui a sr t gy t tm i m i d dedm e alc os - xn i ton whie e ona y ve e ls ng ta e ha ni ze t nt r s e m na i l silefeci l i tl f tvey mpea li Be ry. Cot elcoul ha r ogni d t tLia Guilwoul be clng ve l ms d ve ec ze ha s l d s b e tt p tnil s v r l d ma ig co se n n to . S wa Tu ke' grfin h d u j c o o e tal e eey a gn r s- x miain he s c rs ilre d, a y f c lt t a waspr e f t c r l buy,ha c r d Be ry t s k wih Tuc rs a iiaed nd es nt or he ontoled d oe ce ve l o pea t ke ' fr tat m e i a a tmptt de r ud t c t wa t ri c me ,a hadha as e Be ry is to y n n te o fa he our, s mde ndit nt nd r s d ve l on Fac boo ladi up t t til Sec Tuc rcn e k e ng o he ra. ond, ke nnots prj ce fom c e' how eudi r ounsls de i i n be aus a t c s o c e lhough Li a Gtils t tm o w o d ha f t i pe c d Be ry,c li s ll ' es i ny ul ve urher m a he ve l a lng he a7a wines as pr e t d a s rousrs ofpr e tc c os - xn i ton. Re r e s t r t s lo es n e ei ik obl ma i r s e m na i ga dl s , he 1 6 1 Comm o nweat se de eno o y coro r t d Be ry' t si ny,butwast m hem i ' lh' vi nc t nl r bo a e ve l s e tnp û ove l ng' i e tbls ngTuc r sguit n sa ihi ke ' l. The c t c l our oncudes t t t sa e co ts de ii n w a no c r r t o a ha he t t ur' c so s t onta y o, r n unr a ona e i e r t ton of Sti klnd,o a t ea o bl de em i to off c s t r f e e s bl nt p e ai , rc a r n mr s na e t r nai n a t ; he e or , t co tgr nt t moton t dim isa t Cl i 4. he ur. a s he i o s s s o am E. Cl m 5 ai l Cli 5, Tuc r a r t t c n am ke ve s ha ouns l was i feci i t pl a ba gai pr es . e ne f tve n he e r n oc s S e iial ,c t e' ûe t a a tilt ito uc t e ( 1n vie ,a hs c repo ig p cfc ly omsls l fz l t ra o n r d e h Ale 1 d o nd i or s ndn r s rf s lt c l Gig fTu k ra Lia Gui a d fns wi e s s c mp eey l e mie te e u a o al n e c e nd s l s et e t se , o ltl md r n d h l n pr ti r tona et tha be n pr s nt t M r Tuc f t ni down t Com monwe lh' e ral a i l ha d e e e ed o . ker or ur ng he at s ofe . Pe '' Pe .26. Tuc rf t ral gest tcouns lhad aç e roblgai n't t l Tuc r f r' tr s t ' ke urhe le ha e l a cl i to ' o el ke i c ms lf tt tt unc r a e s f ot e el ha G an orobor t d uggesi fom Be ry ofi l nc ha ng be n e re ton r ve l nfue e vi e xe td on he by a po e il de e e wines woul s e r t nta f ns t s d om how pr l t de e e fom c li t t ecude he f ns r alng ha wine s' s t tTucke coul m a a i o m e de ii n on whehe t ac ptt pla ba ga n. t s , o ha ' r d ke n nf r d c so t r o ce he e r i Pe ' Pe . fr s t 29. On ha asr viw,t Lync be e e he hbur Ciy Cic tCour he d t f l ng: g t r ui t l he olowi Th Co r rj cs Tuc e ' c n e to ta he i e tte t h v te e u t ee t k rs o tn in h t s n ild o a e h Co n at spla o fr ri ttd Th Co r ha rj ce te id vd a mmo we lh' e fe ensae . e u t s ee td h n i iu l c am s of i fe tve as itnc of c m s l Tuc r does not alege t t M r li ne f c i s sa e ot e . ke l ha . M or howe f ie t a iehi o t pl ofe ,s M i s iv. y 1 S.Ct c r a ld o pprs m f he ea f r ee s our Fr e, 32 . 1 0 ( 01 ) o t t51.M o c o rerne u l a vs d hm a o talg lr l 4 9 2 2 , r ha 1 rh we ro o sy d ie i b u e a te . z a ia e t hi c e,t a f c i t pl decson. Se La lr v.Cooper pplc bl o s as hus fe tng he ea ii e fle , 1 S.Ct 1 76)( 2) The c ta e sM r Mor 32 . 3( 201 . our cc pt . chowe ' tsi rs etmonyt the ha ç dnotmakea gu r nt so pr iest M r Tuc rr r ng t out omeof t di ny a a ee r om s o . ke ega di he c hs til' ( s o d n ' Ex ii 1 . A d cso by c u s la o tt e us o i ra. Re p n e ts hbt ) ' e iin o ne b u h e f wines esd t s udng a tildoesnotpr de gr mds f ra de e ntS r vi apla ra ovi ot o f nda o e ve e o frh h srj ce , n Mr M o c we ' tcia d cso'n tt p e e tc ran fe e a ee td a d . rho rs a tc l e iin o o rs n e ti e de e i lg ofr ve a in ofa s he et pr s ntf let tmony t t Co t vi nc n i ht e l to c m o e e a s esi o he ur pr desno ba i f r a fndi ofdek i n pero ma . Se Ni v.W hiesde ovi ss o i ng t e t f r nce e x t i , 4 5U. 1 7( 98 ) 7 S. 5 1 6 . Tuc r v.Dil a N o.CL1 ke lm n, 3008 259- si o a 5. 00, lp p. t The c uta ee wih t sa e c tsdecson. TheAEDPA a Stiklnd' pr ny ot' gr s t he t t our' ii nd rc a s oge do not s uppor t pr ii t t f de a ha s c t m a r i t t a pla ba ga n unde t he oposton ha e r l bea ours y ensa e e r i r Tuc ' cr lm sa es Tuc r does notcli t t c ms l al d t a ie Tuc r of t kers icl t nc . ke a m ha ot e :f ie o pprs ke he e se e oft pla de ,i o m e Tuc rofa i r e tl lr et tpr cl d Tuc rfo xitnc he e al nf r d ke n nco r c ega ul ha e ude ke ' m r a ce i t pl a ba gan, o f ie t plr ue pla ne i to a al i a c e ofcea gul.3 c ptng he e r i r al d o zs e gotai ns t l n as l r it1 Cot elma ha c nge hi mi a ms y ve ha d s nd boutc lng Gi a Lia Uuila wine s ,but ali nger nd s l s t ses c ouns lne mil d Tuc rby at dngli o r l sr t gy ofi a hi Be ry' c e biiy. e ver se ke le zs ve a l ta e mpe c ng ve l s r di lt The cr ui c ts r lng w a no c r y t o a um e ona e i e r t ton of ic t our' ui s t ontar o, r n as bl nt m e a i , Sti klnd,or ba e on a t ea o bl de e mi ton of f c s Tuc r has no s rc a sd n mr s na e t r nai a t. ke t hown t t ha co elspe f ma e dudng t pl a ba gan pr s wasde i int a he f ist s uns ' ror nc .he e r i oce s fce , nd al o how t , hat butf c ms lsal ged e r ,he woul ha pl d guit t r f e t c tgr nt t m o i or ot e ' le ror d ve e ly; he e or , he our a s he ton t dimi sast Cl i 5. o s s o am 1 Tuc rcie s r c e , icu igFre Lalr Uni d Sae v. a n n. 8Fe Ap ' 51( t Ci. 3 ke ts eveal as s n ldn y , fe, t tts Brn o 4 d. px 4h r e 2 0 ) a dFodv Pe tn,1 3 S.. 31 (9 ) b tno s p o tTu k rsag me t S eF v , 6 U..1 3 0 2 , n r . vo 6 E 2d 4 1 68, u ne u p r c e' ru n . e r e 5 6 S 3 , 1 - (01)( u sl si fetv frn tifr n d fn a to tee se eo pe bagans)Lalr5 6 3840 2 2 Co ne wa nefcie o o nomip eed n fh xitnc f la r i .; fe, 6 U. 1 6 1 2(01 )( u e wa i fetv frifrun d fn a to ic re tlg l uet tldted fn a t S. 5 , 6 2 2 Co nsl s nefcie o non g ee d n f n orc e a r l ha e h ee d n t Ro l)o to a o p ru iyt pla g it a drc ietelwe sne eta wa ofrdt hi ' ; n no o lse u n n p o tnt o ed uly n eev h o r e tnc h t s fee o m.) Brn n, ' 4 Fe . pxa 5 ( d fn a tcn ma eac lrbecam o iefcieassa c wh nc t e:()fist 8 d Ap ' t 3 A ee d n a k oo a l li f n fe tv sitn e e omsl 1 al o c mmt ct te pe o fr ()gv s er n o s a vc d ng pe n g tains o () fi t p rue pe o miae h la fe, 2 ie ro e u d ie mi la e oito , r 3 al o u s la s ng tain i acs whr g i wa cerlFod 13S. 2da 3 51 ( u sl siefciewhe h ddn t eoito sn ae ee ul s la.; r, 6 E. t 1-6 Co newa nfetv n e i o t rq et c niu n ea rb mgip itdwi i amatro miue beo e(ee d nl s1e .l e u s a o t a c le e t pone t n te f n ts fr d fn a twa tid' . n a h - ' 18 VI. I Fort r as sa e t c twilgr ntt m otont dim is am 1i pr d a l he e ons t t d, he our l ' he i o s s .Cli a s oee ur ly bar d wihoute us ,r r es ,a1ca ms a e wiho me i. A n a opr a e o de w ile e re t xc e' ega dl s 1 li r t ut rt ppr i t r r l nt r t sda hi y. The Clr i die t d t s nd c e oft s me or ndlm o ri n a a co pa ng e k s r c e o e opi s hi m a l pilo nd c m nyi or rt Tuc ra t c de o ke nd o ouns lofr c d f Res e e or or ponde . nt E ER: hsl dyo Au ut2 1. NT T i 6 a f g s, 0 7 Unie Stt Diti tJ t d a es src udge 1 9