McDonald v. Clarke, No. 7:2016cv00448 - Document 25 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 7/27/2017. (mlh)
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ct ' oF l k a plx cœ r aqxa rcg l a A pFIEDiv T A V( pn NI k L I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I STR I T CO UR T C FO R TH E W E STER N DI STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A R O A N O K E D I SI N VI O JA SON W .M CD O N A LD , Pe ii r, ttone H AROLD W .CLARKE, R e ponde . s nt J 2ï 2 7 UL 9 JUL BY I . u L : , D c , E C A SE N O .7: 16CV 00448 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) M E M O M ND U M O PI I N N O By:H on. ks L.Kier Jac on s Se or U ni e St e D i t i tJudge ni t d at s s r c J s W .M c a on Dona d,a Vigi a i a e pr e di pr K ,tme y fld a peii f r a l r ni nm t oc e ng o i l ie tton o wrtofha a c pus purua t 28U. C.j2254,c lngi t vai t ofhi c i me i be s or , s nt o S. hale ng he ldiy s onfne nt o a ud me ti t Lo s Comt Cic i Co r f ra ga tdmaiiu womdn , l iu n j g n n he uia t y ru t u t o g rvae l o s t ig mai o s c c wot ng by m ob,a c pia t co mi m ai i wo mdi mdi nd ons r cy o m t lcous t ng.Res ponde fl d am o i t nt ie ton o dimi s a M c s s , nd Donad r s l e ponde ma ng t m a trrpe f rdiposton. M c d, ki he te i o s ii Dona d alo fl d l s ie a m oton t a ho i e di c r A fe r vi w o t r or I g a t t m o i t di m i s i o ut r z s ove y. t r e e f he ec d, r n he ton o s s , dim ist pe ii a de t pe ng m o i s s he tton, nd ny he ndi ton. 1 . A. FacualBac gr t k ound Mc Dona d was ti al wih c f nda s Cha a Se ik Goi . The Vigi a l red ong t ode e nt d nd drc ns r ni Co tofAppea ssl a i d t f c sasf l : ur l lmm rze he a t olows Atabout11: p. .on J ne 1 2011,De y J y He ly oft Lo s 00 m u 9, put a nse he ui a Co y Sherf ' Of e we t 288 Kime own Roa i r pons t a 911 c l. unt ifs sc nt o r yt d n es e o al Hef und St veM i ri a dic i fontofar i nc att ta r s .M i rha o e no n th n r esde e ha dd e s no d McDonald v. Clarke Doc. 25 s san dasveetal tcb anijzyt t e uie e r e ys r ey Efe t u tie e r rl i ri nt ha r q rd meg nc u g r . f cs ma r oft ij yweepe ne . he n ur r nna nt On t afe noon of J he t r une 1 2011,Robe tW a s d n be r a pl ye 9, r t on r nk e nd a d hor es s hoesa t r s de e ofDw a She t She t n t W a s t hi hom e t he e i nc yne lon. lo ook t on o s o N e lne Road a a n wi t bout 8: p. . Shelon s i t t w lie W a s ha be n 00 m t a d ha zl t on d e d i ng t tda W a s n wasnotd u l whe Shelon t li ho e. rnki ha y, t o r rk n t ook lm m Kel Goi ( l wa t gilre ofM i r t sse ofChad Goi ly ns Kely) s he rfind no ,he itr ns ( a ) a d t mohe o Se rc Gons( d ik . Ata o t90 p. o J n Ch d , n he t r f d ik i Se rc ) b u :0 m. n u e Dockets.Justia.com 1 2011 Ke l wen t t hos t by n bulnc t r ceve e e ge y m e ca 9, , ly t o he pial m a e o e i m r nc di l te t nt She wa ta pored t t hos t l r m fom t ho e of Le s r a me . s r ns t o he pia oo r he m wi Du ia a 1 1Kime o Ro d E c n lqh d ma ete 9 1c l r g r ig nv n t 1 r ytwn a . M Do ad a d h 1 al e adn Ke l and,usng a f s na ly i ale me,r pore t t Kely ha bee a s ule by he e td ha l d n sa td r b y re d g c n l )a d S d ikboh weep e e ta 1 1Kin ytwn Ro d o fin . M Do ad n e rc t r r sn t 1 n e o a, butM i w a no . nor s t Se i k l t r a oac d She t w ho w qs a pr e s ona I gh e ,a ut dr c a e ppr he lon, of s i l i t r bo fg i M i . Shet t tfedt tSedrc wasups twih M i bec us ofa i htng nor lon esii ha ik e t nor a e n i i nt t t oc ur ed w ih K ely e r i r t t e ni nc de ha c r t l a le ha ve ng. She t n r f e t f g lo e us d o i ht M i r Dulv n h ad E c nad a g i g wih s me n o t t lp o e a d no . ria e r M Do l) r u n t o o e n he ee h n n tle t ni t ç tt tni rsa s' lr a e ng o t bea ha gge ' s . ' Afe he n ve hom e W as r c ve a t l phone cal fo tr ni d , t on e ei d ee l rm g c n lq Afe t e p n c l,Ch d a d M i o a pe rd i a v hil a M Do ad . tr h ho e al a n n r p ae n e ce t W a s s r sde . W a s n a ee t go t t sor wih Cha a M i r t ton' e i nce t o gr d o o he t e t d nd no o ptr ha ebee .W hiet y we eta i Cha t ne t ve c ei t oppost lc s r l he r r velng, d ' d he hi l n he ur ie die ton f o t sor sl ai W he W a s as wha hewasdoi Cha r c i r m he t e' oc ton. n ton ked t ng, d s d he was a di t polc be us he had no drve ' lc ns Cha wa ai voi ng he i e ca e i r s i e e. d s s di as he dr t 288 K i pee ng ove o nneyt own Road,t n t r d i o t d i w a he u ne nt he r ve y. 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M o e v r Do ad mmo we 1h . 7 - 22,12 . . p. r 4 01 ) r o e, W a s n t si d t theco d ce l s t beai be us t ar a waswelil i t d by a t o e tfe ha ul lary ee he tng ca e he e l-lum na e sr e lg . te ti ht The Com m onw e 1h r i he viy upo W a s s e w ine s a ot t how e r W a s a t eled a l n t on' ye t s cc m ; ve , t on a te ha ng pror f l c c i a t the had i tal t d t polc t t Chrs dmitd vi i eony onvitons nd ha nii ly ol he ie ha i J l s t pa ti t bea i bu l t r r s i o m on ook r n he tng, t a e e c nded t ts a e e . A l o,a ti l s e i t ha t t m nt s t r a , om one n he c u to m h d d tce t o o o ac h lo W as n' b e i a daetdtej d e Th j d e o rr o a ee td he d r f lo o n to s rah n lre h u g . e u g wa a k d wheh rab e t ay e ts wo l bea p o rae b t h j d ed tr ne t tats s se te r ah lz r et ud p r p it , u t e u g eemi d ha e t w a unne es a y bec us i woul notha pr uc d ad isbl e de e a W a s n had not s c sr a et d ve od e m s i e vi nc nd t o a t d lnl wf l ora a t rt i ue c e l a uly ppe r mde he M nce. Be yond W a s s t tmony, t Comm onwe 1h a s i r ed phone r co ds t t ton' esi he at lo ntoduc e r ha de o t a e t tChad ha c ac e Shelon o t ni o J 1 2011,a t tM c ona d m nsr t d ha d ont t d t n he ght f une 9, nd ha D l ha madet 911pho c l r ga di Ke l Furhe ,a Ve i W iels c t a ofr or d he ne a l e r ng ly. t r rzon r e s usodin ec ds t tse r ga di c l a t xtm e s ge n o M c nad,Chad,a Se i k. At1 45 p. . esi d e r ng als nd e s a s m ng Do l nd drc 0: m , Yo ' ut o l e ' d. t t pho t tSe i k us d1s nta me s ge sa i û ,oh,Im bo t kilSt ve.' I a 3. he ne ha drc e e s a t tng: ç The f l ng da t ts m ephone t xtd:çoh Im a be i de p s t....Tom oro 1ha t olowi y, ha n e e ç y n e hi rw ve o t kt mylwye .Thi a eralybad.Ime ral ba ' J. al o a r ngs r e l an, e ly d. 'I L B. Pr e alH i t y oc dur s or I 201 a Lo ia Co n y Cic i Co r j r c n itd M c nad o a ga td n 2, u s u t ru t u t u y o v ce Do l f g rvae m ai i wot di m alci wèt ng by mob, a c piac t c mi m ai i lcous m ng, i ous mdi nd ons r y o om t lcous woundi a t c ts nt e li t t nt i ye r i prs n. He a ng, nd he our e enc d lm o we psx a s n io ppea e butt l d, he V igi a Cour of A ppea s a t V i g ni Supr m e Co t de e hi pe ii ns H e f l a r ni t l nd he r i a e ur ni d s tt o . ied m o i t ha t cic tc t odi y hi s nt nc butt c t ef e hi r ques . ton o ve he r ui our m f s e e e, he our r us d s e t l 201 M c n 5, Dona d fl d a tm ey pe ii f a wrt of ha as cor i t Lo s l ie i l tton or i be pus n he uia Cic t Co u r ii s bsa i ly t s m e c am s a hi c r nt peii n.2 The c r ui c r r ui t t asng u t ntal he n l i s s ure tto ic t ou t de e r le . Hebr nid e if oughtt s m e ca m st t Vigi a Supr m e Cour,butt c tr f s d he n li o he r ni e t he our e u e hi ha asa s be ppea . l II. Cl m s ai M c onal r i est f l i c a m s D d a s he olow ng l i : 1Te tm ony e tbls d t K el ownedt phonebutt ts alw e Sedrc t us i. si sa ihe hat ly he ha he lo d ik o e t 2M cD onad di noti udeCl m 8i hi saeha a peii . l d ncl ai n s tt be s tton 3 The Co n at viltd Br d v.M a ya ,3 3 U. 8 ( 9 3 b mmo we l oae a y h r lnd 7 S. 3 1 6 ) y wihhol ng e ul t y i or ton t tcon r di t t t si o oft o y t di xc paor nf ma i ha ta c s he e tm ny he nl t siyi e wine s Ro r çsquir l'W a s e tf ng ye t s , be tç re' ton; 2. The Com m onw e t vi a e Br dy by w ihhol ng i o m a i t t W a s a1h ol t d a t di nf r ton ha t on w as dnl nk' The Comm onwe 1h vi a e Br dy by f ii t dic os t tDNA t si at olt d a a lng o s l e ha e tng had be done o t velc e alege y us d by t de e nt t fe t en n he lil l dl e he f nda s o l e he s eneoft as a t c he s ul; 4. TheCo monwe t vi a e Br y by pr di t de e e w ih f s Br dv m alh olt d ad ovi ng he f ns t al e a . m a e i . The Comm onwe 1h had i or e def ns co elt tW a s n a t ral at nf m d e e uns ha t o nd Cr i J ag ohns we e c i , t y we eno a t ly r l t on r ousns but he r t c ua l e aed; The Comm onweat vi a e Br by wihhol ng e ul t r e de e t t lh olt d ady t di xc pa o y vi nc ha goe di e ty t t c edi lt of t Comm o e lh' wines , Dwa ne s r c l o he r biiy he nw at s t s y Shelo t n; Th Co n at viltdBr d b prs ni gtej r wh t sno k o e mmo we 1 oae a y y e e tn h u y a i w n wn h t be at as vi i i c sae e ' o t ie ctm mpa t tt m nf' f Couns l w a i f e tve f r f ii t f ly a e f tve y c e s ne f c i o a lng o u l nd f ec i l onduc a t n iv siaino tevci sijzisa c u eo ij re ; n n e tg to f h itm' n l e nd a s f n u is a d r 8. The e de e i is t a iy wa i ufi i n t esa ih gu l be vi nc n t otlt s ns fc e t o t bls it yond a r as bl doubt whi h vi a ed M c onal s r ght t de t Fit Si h, e ona e , c ol t D d' i s m r he fh, xt a Fouree h A m endm e st t Co ttli nd t nt nt o he ns it on. t M c onal ha r i e a l of hi cl i s i t Vi gi a Supr m e Co t t r f r , hi D d s as d l s a m n he r ni e ur ; he e o e s camsaep o ry e h use u d rBa rv Co c rn, 20F.d2 , 8(t Ci. 0 0 . li r r pel x a td n e ke . ro a 2 3 76 28 4h r 2 0 ) 4 11 1. St andar ofRe e d viw To obt i f de alha as r le ,a pe ii r mus de an e r be ei f ttone t monsr t t the i Gn c t i ta e ha s ' usody n i v oain o t Co si in o lws o te te o t Un td S ae . 2 U. C.5 2 5 () i lto f he n tmto r a r rais f he ie tt s' 8 S. ' 2 4a. Un e 28 U. C.j 2 5 d , we e,t ef d rlh b a c u tma n tg a tawrto ha e s dr S. 2 4() ho v r h e ea a e s o r y o rn i f ba c r sba e o a ycam t a asaec u t e ie o t emei t e st t du iain: opu s d n n li h t tt o r d cd d n h rt mls ha a j dc to s ( )Re utd i a d cso ta wa c nrr t ,o iv l d a t e s n be 1 s le n e iin h t s o tay o r n ove n mra o a l a ia i of cea l e t bls d Fe r lw,a de e mi d by t Supr pplc ton , l ry s a ihe de al a s t r ne he eme Cour oft Unie St t s or t he t d a e ; ( )Re utdi ad cso t twa bae o a t e s n b ed tr n to o te 2 s le n e iin ha s s d n n mra o a l ee miain f h fcsi lg to t e i e c p e e td i teS aec u t r c e i . a t n lh f he v d n e r s ne n h tt o r p o e dng 2 U. C.j2 4( s e as W iln v.Ta l r 5 U. 36 4 3 1 ( 0 ) G hee a 8 S. 25 *; e lo l ms i y o , 29 S. 2, 0 - 3 20 0 . t r, s W he e,t sa e c tsa ia i ofgove i f r l1w i c le d,i mus be s r he tt our' pplc ton m ng ede a a s hal nge t t hown t be o n to l e e us b to j cieyu r a o b e' Yabo o c v. nr ,5 U. 1 5 ( 0 ) o ny non o , u b e tv l n e s na l. r r u h Ge ty 40 S. , 20 3 . ' Und rt i sa d r ,&a saec u tsd tr nain t a acam lc smei p e ld sfdea e hs tn ad l q tt o r' eemi to h t li a k rt rcu e e rl g h b a r l fs l n a f i- nd djlit c ud a re o te c re t s o t e sae c u ts a e s ei o o g s armi e t ss o l g e n h or cne s f h tt o r' e r d cso ' Harnzo v Rih e,5 2 U. 8 ,1 ( 01 )( mit g itr a q tto s. Th e iin. ri tn . c t r 6 S. 6 01 2 1 o ti n en l uoain ) e ' n AEDPA sanda d i ç ghl def r nta ' t bot f cua fndi a l lco l i ,a t t r s ç y e e il' o h a t l i ngs nd ega ncusons nd he hi p tto e b ast eb r e o p o f d a 1 5 Culnv. n o se, 6 U. 1 0 1 1( 01 ) eiin r e r h u d n f r o .1 . t 0 ; le Pih ltr 5 3 S. 7 , 8 2 1 . A pe ii rc am i i f c i as itnc ofc ttone l i ng nefe tve ssa e ouns lm us s tsy t t pr d t s e t a if he wo- onge e t s tf t i Stillnd v.W as ndo 466 U. 668 ( 984) il e peiine mus s boh e orh n rcca hi n, S. 1 . s- tto r t how t -h d fce tp ro n e a d p eu ie t t ae spaae a d dsi tee ns' S e c rv eiin e fnna c n rj d c ; he wo r e rt n itnc lme t. p n e . ' M u ry,1 F.d2 , 2 3 ( t Ci.1 9 )(mp a i a d d . ra 8 3 29 23 - 3 4h r 9 4 e h ss d e ) Fort fr tpr he i s ong, tt o rm us s pe ii ne t how ç ha c l t ouns lm a e r s s s r oust tco m s t e de r or o e i ha t el w as not f toni a t G ouns ' gua a t d t de e nt by t Si h Am e e ' unc i ng s he c el r n ee he f nda he xt ndm nt' Still nd,466 U . a 68 88. Gl pr rm e ur ofat ne pe f m a e r ma ns sm pl rcca S. t 7t-he ope as e tor y ror nc e i i y r a ona e s unde pr vaii pr e sona nor .' I a 688. Ha a co t ma n an a e s bl nes r e lng of s i l ms' d. t be s urs i t i t tong pr umpton' t t c ms ls co uc f l wihi t S de r nge of r as bl çr s es i ' ha ot e ' nd t e l t n he t wi a e ona e pr e sona a ssa e' I a 689. t c a s utny ofc m s lspe f nua mus beli y of s i l s it nc .' d. t vudii l cr i ot e ' r o nce t lghl de e e i l' a c f r nta , nd ouns li ç nnitd t s tprortes de e mi tilsr t y,a pr st e ' e sG pe te o e i ii , t r ne ri taeg nd es hos c am swih t gr aes c nc sofs c s' I li t he e t t ha e uc es .' d. Fo t s ond pr r he ec ong, a pe ii r mus de o tae t t t r i a G ea ona e ttone t m nsr t ha he e s t s bl r pr biiy t t butf c ms lsunpr e so le s t r s toft pr e ng woul ha oba lt ha, or ot e ' of s i na nor , he e ul he oc edi d ve be n dif r . I a 69 çA r a ona epr biiy i apr biiy s t i ntt t r net e fe ent' d. t 4. ç e s bl oba lt s oba lt ufk e o mde mi he ' c n e c o teo to . I La ty ç an atr e sfiu et r ieameils agu n ( o fd n e f h u c me' d. sl ,ç j ton y' al r o as ' g rte s r me t 1 c nno f m t ba i ofa s c s uli fe tve a ssa eofc ms c am be us t r s tof a t or he s s uc es f ne f c i s it nc ot el l i ca e he e ul t pr ee ng woul notha be n dif r ntha t a t ne r ie t i s ' Unie St t sv. he oc di d ve e fe e d he tor y as d he s ue. ' td ae Ki e,1 7 F.d 8 9 8 3 (t Ci.1 9 ) s eas M o r v. td S ae ,9 4F. u p.7 4 mlr 6 3 8 , 9 5h r 9 9 ; e lo o e Uni tts 3 S p 2 , e 7 ( D. . 9 6 . 31 E. Va 1 9 ) La ty,t e t bls a Br v vi ai n,: c c e de e ntmus ma ea h of t ee sl o sa ih ad ol to 1 onvi t d f nda a t ke c hz s o n s ( )t e ie ea is ei Ca r bet t a c s d et e b c u ei i e up t r , h wig : 1 he vd nc t su s fvo a l o he c u e , ih r e a s t s xc lao y o be a e i i i a hn ; ( ) te S ae s p r s e te e i e c , Eih r wi f l o r c us t s mpe c ig' 2 h tt u p e s d h v d n e et e l ul r l y i d e tnl ' a ( )Grj dc ...e s d' Scn rv. t e,5 2 U. 5 ,5 6 ( 01 ) na v re ty ; nd 3 p eu ie n ue .' l ne Swi r 6 S. 21 3 2 1 ' i z ( u tn Srcde v Gre , 2 U. 2 3 28 -2 ( 9 9 Tos o p eu ieu d rBr d ,he q o ig til r . e ne 5 7 S. 6 , 1 8 1 9 $. h w rj dc n e a y t e de mus ha be n m a e i .Evi nc i m aera t ft r i ar a ona epr biiy t t vi nce t ve e t ral de e s t il d he e s e s bl oba lt ha , i had t e de e be n dicl e t t de e e t r s toft pr e di woul ha be he vi nc e s os d o he f ns , he e ul he oc e ng d ve en difr nt' Kvlsv.W hily,51 U. 419,433-4 ( 995) Ho ve,tll mee posi lt fee . ' e te 4 S. 3 1 . we r tthe r sbiiy t tan ie oft s l ed i or ai n m i htha heped t de e e,orm i ha afe t d ha tm mdicos nf m to g ve l he f ns ght ve f c e t out m e of t ti l doe not e t bls ç a e i iy' i t c tt i na s ns .' Unie he co he ra , s sa ih m t ralt n he onsiuto l e e' td Sae v. l s 4 U. 9 ,1 9 1 ( 9 6 . tts Agz , 27 S. 7 0 - 0 1 7 ) r l . V Pr edur D e aul oc al f t The Unie St t s Supr m e Cour ha l he d t ta s a e pr s r sha as c a m s m ay td ae e t s ong l ha t t i one ' be l i n tb e trane b af d rlc u tG n ()G sae c u tE s d cie t a d e s(h s j o e n e ti d y e ea o r t whe 1 a tt o r haj e l d o d r s t o e n camsb c u et ep io e h d fie t me tasaep o e l a rq ie n a d ()çh sae li e a s h rs n r a ald o e tt r c dz l e ur me t' n 2 t e tt r j d me trsso id pe d n a a e uaesaep o e t a g o d .' Ma e v Th ma , 6 u g n e t n n e n e t nd d q t tt r c dl l r un s' pls . o s 5 5 r ' U. 2 6 2 0( 01 )( u tn Wak rv Ma t 5 2U.. 0 , 6( 01 :.A pr c dza r l i S. 6 , 8 2 2 q o ig le . ri 6 S 3 7 31 2 1 n, o e l l ue s r a q t ii i i r gul ry o c it n l a id by t sae c ut'and i pe ntt fi does de ua e tf t s e a l r onsse ty pple he t t ot ' nde nde i t i n tçe e g o af d r lc nsi to a r ln .' Ye t v An eo e 1 6 F.d 2 5 26 ( t o d p nd ) n e ea o tt in l ui g'' at . g ln , 6 3 5 , 0 4h u s Ci.1 9 )( u tn Ak v Oka o , 7 U. 6 , 5( 9 5 ) r 9 9 q oi g e . l h ma 4 0 S. 8 7 1 8 ). S a tn v.P ria 20 S. 2 6 0 ( .1 7 )i a a e u t a d id p nd n sae lyo arg n, 5 E.d 8 Va 9 4 s n d q ae n n e e e t tt pr dur ba t t a ieswhe a peii r c d ha r i e a i s attil a on die oce al r ha rs n ttone oul ve a s d n s ue ra nd r ct a pe l b t aldt d s S eVis nv. e 43 F.d41 , 7 (t Ci. 00 )t ri a i a p a, u f i o o o. e n o Tnl, 6 3 2 41 4 h r 2 6 parg n s n e a e u t a did pe d n b r) d q ae n n e n e t a .. t fa c am i de a t d,t n pe ii ne mus f i on t tca m unls he c s w t t t l l i s f ule he tto r t al ha li es an ho ha c u e a dprj ieo afmd me tlmic rig o j siemih e c s l sd fut' Belv. a s n eudc r t n n a s ara e f u tc g t x u e l ea l. l i ' Tr e 41 F. p 2 6 7 6 6 ( . Va 2 0 )(iig F s rv. g l n ,1 3F.d 8 5 8 4 u , 3 Su p. d 5 , 7 W D. . 0 6 ctn ihe An eo e 6 3 3 , 4 (t Ci. 1 98) Th l a s ' p o g rq ie a peiin r t de n tae t a t e e wee 4 h r 9 ). e t u e' r n e ur s c tto e o mo srt h t h r r S be t fco s' e tr a t hs d fn e whc i e e hm fo rii hs cam a al s j ci a tr, x en l o i ee s , ih mp d d i r m asng i li t l o ve ' e rirsa e Mu ry v.Ca e,4 7 U..4 ,48 ( 9 6 . Theç rj d c 'pr n rq ie a ale tg . ra ni r 7 S 78 8 1 8 ) ç eu ie' o g e ur s p pe ii r t s w t t t a l ged c tt tona vi a i w or t hi a t l a s t nta ttone o ho ha he le ons i u i l ol ton ked o s c ua nd ubs a i l dia nt ge,i ec i hi e ie tilwih e r ofaconsiutonalm a t de. I M ea ll s dva a nf tng s ntr ra t ror tt i gniu d. nwiie, t e f d me tl mic rig o j sie e c p in rq ie a p tto e t pr hi ac ual h un n na s ara e f u tc x e to e u rs eiin r o ove s t in c nc .S hu v Deo 51 U. 2 8 3 940( 9 5 . n o e e c lp . l, 3 S. 9 , 3 - 1 9 ) V. Di scussi on A. Cl m 1 ai I Cl m 1 M c n ai , Donal alege t tt Com monwe 1h c mit a Br dy vi a i by d l s ha he at om ted a olton f ii t dicos i or to t tc r c e W as st si ony. Attil W a s n t si d alng o s l e nf ma i n ha ontadit d ton' e tm ra , t o e tfe t talhough he i ta l t d lW e or m e t tCr i J ha t niily ol a nf ce nt ha a g ohns n ha bee pr s nta t s e o d n e e t he c ne oft ci ,he mit J ms f M c ée rme sook ol on or Donal s brt r Ke 3 Ho ve,c dee nt d' ohe , m. we r o- fnda Se i k G oi ,i a pos -r a i e v e ,t d l w e o c m e t t Cr i J drc ns n tti l nt r i w ol a nf r e nt ha a g ohns n w a pr s nta o s ee t t be tng a pa tci t d. M c nad c am st tt sne i o ma i e ils hi t a ne he a i nd ri pa e Do l l i ha hi w nf r ton ntte m o w til ra . On ha asr vi w, heLouiaCount Cic tCou the d: be e e t s y r ui r l Theva ue o Se ik' i e viw i t i pe h W as on whe he Cr g J l f drc s nt r e s o m ac ton t r ai ohns on was a t s ne of t c i e. W a s s c e biiy,howe r wa i a he t he ce he rm ton' r di lt ve , s mpe c d wih r r t whehe Cr g J t ega ds o t r ai ohns wa a t s ne. Fori t nc W a s on s t he ce nsa e, ton wascr se mi d e e i l a os - xn ne xt nsvey boutwhe he Cr i Jo on wasa t s e of t r ag hns t he c ne t ec i ,a d wh W as n h d c a e lsso y a u s en J l o ( il h rme n y to a h ng d l tr bo t e i g oms n. Tra i Tr 28 289,29 300,304) The dee e as c le Dinne Brds w who . 7, 9. fns lo ald n a ha t sii d t tJ e tfe ha ohns a M c on nd Donal s br t rdif sghii a l i a d' o he fer i fc nty n ppea a . r nce ( ilTr 6 3 58 .Thu , d ik' ie tfc to lf J h o a t es e eo t Tra . 5 - ) s Se rc s d n iiain o j o ns n t h c n f he c i i cl a i t t e de e ar ad pr s n ed t c le rme s lmultve o he vi nc le y e e t o ha lnge W a s s ton' c e biiy. Se Loc r v.Commonwe t 34 Va. r di lt e kha t alh, App.3 3 542 S. 2d 1 29, 46, E. , 9 ( 0 ) ( o ig te Br d e ie e ç s smpy mo e o t e s me tpe o 2 01 n tn h a v vd nc i i l r f h n y f wa e de e a woul not we c ude haveputt whol c e i s h a dif r nt vi nc nd d , oncl , he e as n uc fe e l h a t u d r n c n i e e i t vedc ) s e as Unie Stts v. i t s o n emie o fd nc n he r if' e lo td ae g ; Coo r 654 F 3 1 0 , 1 2 ( 0h Ci.2 1 ( d s ls d e i n e t a i pe , d 1 4 1 0 1 t r 01 ) Un ico e vde c h t s . . Gc tumultve of e de ofbi orpa taiy ar a pr e e a t wo d ai vi nce as rilt le dy es nt d nd hus ul ha pr de onl m a gi la ii ls ve ovi d y r na dd tona uppor f t de e e'i notma e il t or he f ns ' s t ra f Br pur e )... or adv pos s Furhe mor , Se ik' i ewi w woul no ha be n hepf l t t r e drc s nt l e d t ve e l u o Mc Donal i gari a ne tilbec us Sed ik t d lw e or eme t t d n ilng w ra a e rc ol a nf cegq nt ha M c onal co m i t d t c i es Se i k' i er e e , D e ec i Cart D d m te he r m . drc s nt vi w r t tve lon J ohns t sii d a t Oc o r 1 201 pos-ralhe rng t tGhe onl t ng on, e tfe t he t be 7, 4 tti a i ha t t y hi t twa difrntEn Se ik' a cou qwast tCri J o wa t r a ha s fee i drc s c nt ha ag ohns n s hee nd tc pa e ' hi ?m'i i t d' everyt ng e s w a t sme Gn ldn Mr Mc n l s le s he a , t cu ig i . Do ad' l ve e .' The Co t f nvol m nt' ur ound De e tve J tci ohns s t tm ony c e bl on' esi r di e. Co i rng t r c d a a w hol Se i k' i t r i w woul not i us d,ha ns de i he e or s e, drc s n e v e d ,f e ve . 3Thec 'r po trtans i M c nal sbr hersna asbot Ki a Ka . our e re r crbed Do d' ot ' me t h m nd m G tt whol c e i s h adif r ntlg a t t r net c i nc i t E he pu e as n uc f e e i ht s o mde mi he onfde e n he ve dit' Thus i doe no m e tt Br sa r f rm aera iy. r c .' , t s t e he ady t nda d o t ilt M c n l v. ake No. 5 0 - 0 5 7 8( . r Ct M a 21 2 5 . Do ad Clr , CL1 - 4 0 , , - Va Ci. . y , 01 ) I a ee wih t sae co ts a yss Couns l r pe t dl i ac d W a s s gr t he t t ur ' nal i. e e a e y mpe he ton' c e biiy;t r f e,Seddc st si ony f t ri a hi W a s n' r a e i ntf ton of r di lt he e or k' e tm urhe mpe c ng t o s ec nt d de ika i Cr g J hns i c ai o on s umultve a i ma e i lt rBr dy.4 Atti l de e e c m s li a i nd m t ra mde a ra, f ns ol e mpea he c d W a s s c edi lt r ga di Cr i J on' pr s nce die ty by poi t dl a ki s ve al ton' r biiy e r ng a g ohns s e e r cl n e y s ng e r quesi s h as ç - f r a y we e yo fom Cr g J tons uc : Gl a wa l ow r u r ai ohns whe you i ntfed,f s l on n de ii aley i ntfed hi ?' Tra Tr 28 Se ond,c ms lc l Br ha t t tf a t t sgnii nt de ii m ' il . 7. c ot e aled ads w o esiy s o he i fca d fe e e , t n Cr g J l o a M c if r nc sbe wee ai o ms n nd Donal sbr he ,i l i hei ,we g ,ha rt e d' ot r ncud ng ght i ht isyl, a sdn t nd l one. TralTr 654i . 57. Thid,at r lhough M c o l spe ii n i l sa 201 a sd vi D nad' tto nc ude 4 f a t fo Se i k sa i t tM c r m drc ttng ha Donal di no pa tci t i t be tng buti t ad a tmpt d t d d t ri pa e n he a i nse te e o sop i, t a fda t die ty c r di t Sed ik' pror sa e e t a i ir l va t t t he fi vi r c l onta cs rc s i t t m n s nd s re e nt o M c o l ' Br dy c ai ss D na d s a l m . The e or ,1 g a t m oton t dimi sast Cl i 1 bec us t sa e c tsfndi r f e r nt he i o s s o am , a e he t t our' i ng w as no c r r t or a unr a ona e a i a i o , f de a l , o a t r s na e t ont a y o, n e s bl pplc ton f e r l aw r n m ea o bl de em i to o f c s t r nai n f a t . B. Cl m 2 ai 4I hi Res e M c n s pons , Donal poi soutt tCr i J o t tfedt M cDonal wasnotpr e dmi d nt ha ag ohns n esii hat d es nt ng t be tng, Howe r Cr g J ms st tmony i kr eva t M c he ai ve , ai ol on' esi s el nt o Donal sc rntBr v cai be aus Cr i d' ure ad l m c e ag J o t tfed a M c onal ss t nci andM c o dha no pr f r a evi nc t tt Comm onweat ohns n esii t D d' en e ng D nal s t ofeed ny de e ha he lh s esed hi t tm ony. Alo,J ms s sae ent confitwih tsi ony fom W a s Chad,Se ik,and uppr s s esi s ol on' ttm s lc t e tm r ton, drc Deeci Ca lonJ on. t tve rt ohns 5TheCommonwe t ne s ppr s t i or ton i t afi t M or r Sedrc sr a aton i a1h ver u esed he nf ma i n he tdavi. eove , ik' ec nt i s pr bl tc bec us ofhi i onsitntsaeme sa hi rpe ed ans r oft1don' r me r'i r s et o ema i a e s nc se tt nt nd s e at we s t t e mbe ' n e pons o t Co he mmonwe lh' quesi a M c at s tons t Donad' s nt i he rng. Att tme,Se ik Goi s d t the was l s e encng a i he i drc ns ai ha drigt fr e (h betn l' M o. ' Tr a 7 ( t 1 , 1 ) çyn o o g t te aig . tHrg . t 6 Oc. 7 20 4 . t ' I Cl i 2,M c n am Dona d c e t tt Co onwe lh c l ont nds ha he mm at omm itd a Br dy vi a i by te a olton wihhol ng t i onna i n t tW a s n wasi oxi t a til t di he nf to ha to nt caed t ra .Spe ii aly,M c nad alege cfc l Do l l s t tBr y w a vi a e be a e e n t ha ad s olt d c us ve hough a l a tone me be oft Louia Comt She ifs t es m r he s t y rf De rm e was a r t tW a s n ha a odo ofa c pa t nt wa e ha to d n r l oholwhe he ga t tm o W as s n ve esi ny, ton' a lged i oxi a i was nots r d wih t de e e a t co e ne r c os - xn ne le nt c ton ha e t he f ns , nd hus uns l ve r se mi d W a s r ga di hi i o c ton l ve . M c t on e r ng s nt xia i e l Dona d as pr f e s a a fda tf o le Goi l lo o f r n fi vi r m r ne ns Br ds w, who ca ms t t s pe s ly wine s d W as c u e a c a ha li ha he r onal t s e t on ons m l ohol dlrng co t zi ur b e kswh l hewa a wi s frte Co n at M c nad ag e ta t eçt y c ul ra ie s t s o h mmo we l ne h. Do l r u s h t h jl o d r ha f und t tadnmke wine si l s c e bl t n as be o ' Pe .7,ECF N o.1 ve o ha n t s s e s r di e ha o r ne. t ' . Mc Donal r ied t i s ofW as si oxi to a hi s nt ncng,on a a ,a i d a s he s ue t on' nt cai n t s e e i ppe l nd n h ssaeh be s6 TheVign aColt fAp e l rj ce t ecam: i tt a a . r ii t o p as ee td h li r Att e sn e i h a ig g c n l )mo e t sta i et evedc ba e o h e tncng e rn , M Do ad v d o e sd h r it s d n alege y ne l di co r e de e t ts m e i t c toom had de e t d l dl w y s ve ed vi nc ha o one n he ourr tce t o o o ac h lo W as n' b e t d rngtil Ats n e cng t etil u g he d r f lo o n to s r ah u i ra. e tn i ,h ra j d e sae t tt al ga i r r ng aloholha bee br tt d ha he le ton ega di c d n oughtt hi a tnton i t o s te i n he mis o W as n stsi n , ndt ej d ewa a k dwh t rab e t ay e ts d t f to ' e tmo y a h u g s s e ehe rah l z r et s o l bea miitrdu n W as n.Th j d esae t tnos c t s wo db h u d d n see po to e u g ttd ha u h e t ul e gi n a i wo d no pr ve s t ul t oduce a isbl e de e,a t r w a no i i a i dm s i e vi nc nd he e s nd c ton W as n h d i td ul wf l I a d to t til u g n td a t es ne cn to a c e ra ul n d iin,he ra j d e oe t h e tn ig l y. he rng t the di notdee ta odoro aco la a i ha d t c ny f l ho boutW a s a ti ,norwas ton t ral t ee a id c to W as n wa u d rte ifu n e Thetil ud ed rid t e h r n n iai n to s n e h n l e c . ra j g el h e moto t s t asde t vedit fndi g c in o e i he r c, i ng M Donal ha not be n de e dq d e nid e ul t y evi nc ... xc pa or de e g c nad c n e d t th wa d n e li rg t maeile c l tr M Do l) o tn s ha e s e id l iht o tra x upao y s e ie et whc h wa e tte t e Brd v. r ln 3 3U. 8 ( 9 2 . vd nc o ih e s n ild md r a v Ma ya d, 7 S. 3 1 6 ) Alh u h t e tilj g r c le beng a p o c e a o t t s s co t t t o g h ra ud e e ald i p r a h d b u he u piin ha W a s s e ld ofa c , hi cr um sa e wa notvei i d by a e de eor ton m le l ohol t s ic t nc s lfe ny vi nc t s i ony a t s nt nc ng hea i t ndi t pr ' as e ton a e tm t he e e i rng e ng o ove t he s ri bout W a s n to ha be t e. Norwas t r e de e t tW as wa i ompe e t t siy. d en nz he e vi nc ha ton s nc t nt o e tf See Tom lns v.Com m onw e t 8 Va.A pp. 21 222- 380 S. 2d 26,29 i on alh, 8, 23, E. ( 9 9 ( u tngBl et v Co n at ,1 2Va 5 8 5 ,1S. 2 2 , 9 1 8 ) q oi mlte . mmo we lh 7 . 7 , 91 E.d 68 26 ( 9 )CC wi e si no rnd rdi o ee tb t efc t th . .sd 1 39 GA t s s t e ee nc mp tn y h a t ha e . i nmk a n t 6 Un e He y v. Wad n.5 6 SE.d 4 5 4 6 ( .2 0 )Vignasaeha m c m' d n trve d r nr r e 7 . 2 9 , 9 Va 0 3 r ii tt be s o t o o e iw s cams t ta e r s d a tiland on die ta al t r f r t ls r as d opi on on t is i 9om t li ha r aie t ra r c ppe ; he e o e he at e one ni he s ue s he Vigni Co r o Ap e l.Se Y1t Nl e k r5 U.. 9 , 0 (9 ) r i a u t f p as e s v. l ma e, 01 S 7 7 8 3 1 91. nn 10 t tm e ofgi ng hi t tm o t e shi c ton i s h t the i t bl t he i vi s esi ny, ml s s ondii s uc ha s ma e o na r t f ct a e nt i a wa t ber i on,a i i f t ti lc ti is r ae a s nd ve s n y o eled nd t s or he ra our n t d srto t d tr ne wh t e o n th s tsi n s o l be r c i e ' ) icein o ee mi eh r r o i etmo y h u d e ev d.l . ' Thus e q as mi a gu , ve ml ng r endo t tt Comm o a t ha i ha he nwe 1h d mput d lno e e c wi dge o te alg to ta W as n s le o ac h l tee wa no e up ty f h l ain h t to meld f lo o, h r s xc lao e e d n ewi hed fo g c nad . Ac o dn l,t etil u g d d n term vie c t l r m M Do lj c r i gy h ra j d e i o r h r f sngt s ta iet v r it e u i o e sd he eb c. ' M c n l v. mmo we lh No 0 7 -2- 5 6( . . p. r 2 20 3 . Do ad Co n at , . 7 3 1 2, - Va Ct Ap Ap . 4, 1 ) la r ewiht eVign aCo r o Ap e l.M c n l o fr t ej d e src le to o ge t h r ii u t f p as Do ad fe s h u g ' e o lcin f a odo ofalohola Br haw' sae e t ts wines e W a s drnl a e de of n r c nd ads s t tm nt ha he t s d ton i dng s vi nce W a s s i oxi a i but pr t t W ato dr nk on t day of hi t si ony doe not ton' nt c ton, oof ha sn n he s e tm s diquaiy orne s a iy i s lf ce s rl mpea h W as a awine s c t on s t s. Unde Tomlns t tilco tha dic e i t de e mi whe he W as was t r i on, he ra ur d s r ton o t r ne t r ton oo itx c tdt tsiy Th j d er me ee ben a pr a h drg r ig a o o o ac h lb t no iae o e tf . e u g e mb rd ig p o c e e a dn n d r f lo o u t r wa no i c ton t t W a s n wa i oxi t a i ompee wine s or t t t he e s ndi a i ha to s nt caed, n nc tnt t s , ha he Comm on a1h was a e t tW as ha c we t war ha t on d onml e a c hol Rega dl s M c m d lo . r es , Donad fis t l al o s how t t t Com m onw e 1h vi a e Br dv; he has no pr n t t e de e of W a s n' ha he a t ol t d a t ove ha vi nc to s ac l ohol c um pton was e ul t y or i a hi t t t Comm o ons i xc paor mpe c ng, ha he nweat kne a lh w nd w ihhel i or ton r ga di W a s n' i oxi ai n,ort tW a s n' drnki wasm ae il t d nf ma i e r ng t o s nt c to ha t o s i ng tra . The ef e Igr ntt m o i t dim is a t Cli 2,be a e t sa e co ts r i r or , a he ton o s s s o am c us he t t ur' ulng w a no c r r t or a l e s bl a ia i of f de al l or a t e ona e s t onta y o, n mr a ona e pplc ton , e r aw, n mr as bl de e mi ton off c s t r nai a t. C. Cl m 3 ai I Cl i 3, M c o l alege t t t Com m onw e lh vi a ed Br n am D na d l s ha he a t ol t ady by f lng t aii o ds l s ta DNA tsi wa n ve d n o tev h cea d maeil f u a tes e o t e ico e h t etng s e r o e n i e il n tras o nd t h c ne f h be tng. I hi petton,M c ai n s ii Donad i tal sa est tt Comm onweat vi a e Br dy by l nii ly tt ha he 1h olt d a f ii t dicos t tDNA t si had bee done,butlt c a ii s t the bele st tt alng o s l e ha e tng n aer l rfe ha ive ha he maeil wee n ve tse . He c n e d t a t eune td tn te eo e u d sl s d DNA tras r e r e td o tn s h t h t se a d h r f r n ico e ) e de e was e ul t y a ad isbl t r W or a v.Comm onweat 636 S. 2d 368 vi nc xc pa or nd m s i e mde km n lh, E. ( . 0 6 b c us t eCo n at ' fiu et ts t maeil ds rdt t t r ug ne s Va 2 0 ) e a e h mmo we lh s al r o et he tras ice is he ho o h s t s lm and good f t oft i si ton. I s aih he nve tgai 7 n uppor ofhi cai , M c Dona d s isas a c wa a l ubm t e r h n'nt f rt ve c e. o he hil On ha asr viw,t sa ec t l t f l wi be e e he t t our he d he olo ng: ( c nad c n o s o t u t se DNA wa e up t r o maeilt e M Do l q n n t h w he n e td s xc lao y r tra md r Br dy. The e i S c tmto l r uie e t t t pr e uton m a a a r s E onsi i na eq r m nt ha he os c i no ke c omplt a de al d ac ot i t t de e e ofalpolc i si t y wo k e e nd t ie c mtng o he f ns 1 i e nve tga or r o a c s . M o r v.ll o s 4 U. 7 6 7 5 ( 9 2 ;s e as Ky e v. n a e' ' oe li i, 08 S. 8 , 9 1 7 ) e lo ls n W h te ,51 U. 41 ,4 6 3 ( 9 5 (( h Co si in i n tvoae e r ily 4 S. 9 3 - 7 1 9 ) $T) e n tmto s o iltd vey ç tme t go r i he ve nmen f is or c t al hoos s nott dic os e de e t t mi htpr ve e o s l e vi nc ha g o he pf t t de e e.W eha ne rhed t tt Consiu i de a a o n l ul o he f ns ve ve l ha he tt ton m nds n pe fl p lc ( o ve s h ap lc mih wok o ti p a tc ....) I ac s ie o iy h we r uc o iy g t r u n r cie '. n ae ' i vi t e t d s me s mpl s t Supr m e Co toft Uzie St t s he d nvol ng mt s e e n a e , he e ur he lt d a e l tepo sbii t tt u tse maeil ma ha ee upae t d fnd n çs h si ly ha he netd tras ( v xc l td he ee a tç t i not e nough t s ts y t sa r of co tt tona m a e i iy. Adz o a if he t nda d nslu i l t ralt ' ' ona v. Yo n bo d, 8U. 51 5 ,1 2( 9 8.Thee up ty vau o u tse o u g lo 48 S , 6 0 1 8 ) xc lao le f netd r t vaia e e de i tbe a r nt' f e dic r l m a t d by Br v. ma l bl vi nce t mus ppa e 'be or s ove y s nda e ad I ;s e as Unt d S ae v.Ag r,4 7 U. 9 ,1 9 1 (9 6 (The me e d. e lo ie tts u s 2 S. 7 0 - 0 1 7 ) t t r pos i lt t ta ie ofund s l e i o ma i m i tha hel d t d e e sbiiy ha n tm i cos d nf r ton gh ve pe he ef ns , ormi htha afe t d t out ome oft tildoe notesa ih ç t raiy'i g ve f c e he c he ra s t bls ma e i lt n t ec n t uin l e s . Fu te mo e M c n l ' a srinta h c udh ve h o si to a s n e' rh r r , Do ad s se t h t e o l a t ). o u e teifr to t dsrdttejoieiv siaini se uaiea dfl sd h no main o ice i h l n etg to s p c ltv n al c s s o t fs wi gBrd p eu iei t sc s .Theci d dn to cl i t c r h r o ho n a y rj d c n hl a e rme i o c t n he a . r The c e wasprma iy abou t t si o ofW as a i rm i tng pho as i rl t he e tm ny t on nd nc i na i ne c ls M c nad ha n ts o ta p e e tn t j r wih i o main a u al. Do l s o h wn h t rs n ig he u y t nfr to bo t t e td s mpls 9o t c rwo d t t who e c s i s h adif r ntlgh mt se a e m he a ul t he put l a e n uc fe e i t ast unde mi t co i ncei t ve di . Kyl s 51 U . a 435. o r ne he nfde n he r ct' ' e , 4 S. t 1 I W or n,t Vigi a Supr me Cour hed t t t Commonwe t ha vi atd Brdy f not n kma he r ni e t l ha he a1h d ol e a or dicosng,des t a t n fl' polcy,sgniia exc paor evi nc t tr ule 9om s pa ae butr ae sl i pie n t ope ie' i i fc nt ul t y de e ha es td e rt elt d hw e tgai . Spect aly, si tons ik l - <- hei i d a p o euo h sa d t t lnno a y fv rbee d nc k o t teoh r tl ndviu l r sc tr a uy o e r f n a o a l vie e n wn o h tes gq a tng on t gover nts be f i t ca e i udi t polc ' I t s ca e t ci he nme ' hal n he s , ncl ng he ie. n hi s , he ' Co n at c n e e ta teh siaos k o e g o ( sp rt c s)wa c r a l t mmo we 1 o c d s h t h wetg tr' n wld e f a e aae a e s hagebe o h t Commonweat Furhemor ,t ti co tsdicovey o de pl nl ma t d di l ur of he lh. t r e he ral ur' s r r r ai y nda e scos e s h i o mai ' uc nf r ton.' Wok n, 3 SE.da 3 5(u t Kylsv Whie , 4U.. 9 4 7(9 5 rma 6 6 . 2 t 7 q oi ng e . t v 51 S 41 , 3 1 9 $. l M c n l v Clr e No. 5 0 - 0 9 1 ( . r Ct M a 21 2 5 . Do ad . ak , CL1 - 4 0 , - 0 Va Ci. . y , 01 ) Ia eewih t Louia Cot y Cic tCo tshol ng t tM c gr t he s mt r ui ur ' di ha Dona d f l t s l ais o how t t ha t ma e i lwo d ha bee e ul t y a hi s ulto r r ng t polc i si ton he t ra ul ve n xc paor nd s pec ai n ega di he ie nve tga i does no s tsy t r r m e s of e t r W or n o Br dy. Hi c e di not i ve t aif he equie nt ihe kma r a s as d nvol co plc t d f e i s e m i a e or nsc cince o muli e r l t d i si a i ' i i ved al e wines , r tpl e a e nve tg tons t nvol , ! ye t s code e nti plc ton,a cr lm sa i l i i i tngphoner or . f nda m i a i nd ic l t ntaly ncrm na i ec ds The ef e I gr nt t moton t dim is as t Cl m 3, be us t sa e c ts r or , a he i o s s o ai ca e he t t our' a j iain wa n t c n rr t , o a t e s n be a p iain o , f d r l lw, o a dudc to s o o tay o r n mr a o a l p lc to f e ea a r n t e ona ede e na i n o f c s mr as bl t nni to f a t. D. Cl ms4 5 and 6 ai , , Cl m s4, 5,a 6 a e a1de a t d unde Pa ca 8 ai nd r 1 f ule r ni n. I Cl i 4,M c n am Donal a g s t tt Comm o e 1h c d r ue ha he nw at omm it a Br vi ai n by ted adv ol to pr d ng t def ns wih f s Br dy m ae i lpro t ti l t tCr g J hns wa W a s s ovi i he e e t ale a t ra i r o ra : ha ai o on s ton' c i .9 H ow e r bec us t Comm onweat pr de t gilo ma i t t def ns pr ti ousn ve , a e he lh ovi d hi rf r ton o he e e e ral a M c ona d f ie t r i e t i s a ti l or on diec a a ,t c a m i ba r d unde nd D l a l d o a s he s ue t r a r t ppe l he l i s r e r Pa rca Rega dl s ,t cli f l on t m e isbec us none oft r quie nt ofBr dv ri n. r e s he a m ais he rt a e he e r me s a 8Mc n l d e n talg o d mo srt c u ea d p eudc o afmd me tlmic rig o j sie Do ad o s o l e r e n tae a s n rj ie r t a n a sara e f u tc ; e teeo e In e no a de sp tnil xc ssfrhsd fut S eBl k tv An eo e 2 F.d 1 2 1 3n 1 (t h rfr, e d t d rs oe ta e u e o i ea l. e z e . a ln , 08 3 7 , 8 .0 4h r Ci. 0 )( l n ta, sp tin rber b r nt riec u ea dp eu ieo ata in c n e ac u t e dno r 2 00 hodig h ta eio e as ude o as a s n rj dc r cu ln o e c , o r n e t t c n ie ete i n tasre b p tt n r. I hspeio ,M c n l icu e boh a asd vt9o S dik o sd r i r f o setd y eii e) n i tin Do ad n ld s t n f a i m e rc h o t G oi sai t M cDonal di nottkepm'i t beai a tsi ony 9om Cr i J m s t tM c o l wa ns ttng hat d d a t n he tng nd e tm ag ol on ha D nad s notpr e att s ene Howe r M c nal doesnota art a e a acua i e a g es nt he c . ve , Do d ppe o ssrt n t l nnoc nce r umen .Re r e s I t ga dls , c udet tt l ryi camsar wihoutme i. oncl ha he mdel ng li e t rt 9w as t tfeda t t tJ ms wa nothi cousn. ton esii t dalha ol on s s i 13 aes tsid ()t eif r to i n te c l tr o i a hig 1 ()t e ei n e ie c t a r aife : 1 h n o main s o x upao y r mpe c n ,0 2 h r s o vd n e h t t Co he mmonwe t kne ors ese t i or ton, ( t i or toni notmaeil alh w uppr s d he nf mai and 3) he nf mai s tra. I Cl m 5,M c o l a s r s t t t Com m o ea t c m it d a Br y vi a i by n ai D na d s e t ha he nw 1h om te ad ol ton w ihhol ng e ul t y e de r ga di t c e biiy of Dwa t di xc pa or vi nce e r ng he r di lt yne Shet lon. Spe i ly, c scal Mc nad ç o b le e s t a S lo ' n mb ra tetme E wa no o tep o erc r so Do l t w eiv g) h t het n s u e t h i 1 s t n h h n e o d f n tenl rg t a S lo s i Ch d Gonsc le hm fo ' t 1 (ho nl r o te ) h t mbe ) h t hetn ad a i ald i r m. . 2 p ne l s mitd . 'Pe mbe M c nad sa e t f l ng i t c r ntpeii ( hi i or to wa e ul t y t t Do l t t s he olowi n he ure tton: T s nf ma i n s xc paor o he dee ea s ul vebe nt dove byt Commonwe lhbeor ti .'Jl fns nd ho d' e ume r he at f e ral' -s t Fis,snc t st t d ng' oc ured a til M c r t i e hi G hhol i ' c r t ra , Dona d co d ha r i e t i s a wi l ul ve a s d he s ue t tila o die t a ra nd n r c ppea ;t r or ,t cai i ba r under Pa ca M or ve ,t sa e l he ef e he l m s red ni n. eo r he t t ha a co tf und t tM c na d ha nots be s ur o ha Do l d hown t tt Comm onwe lh s es e f vor bl ha he at uppr s d a a e e de . I a ee wih t Loui a Count Cic t Co ts a l i be a e M c nad ha no vi nce gr t he s y r ui ur' nayss c us Do l s t f cu l s p o tdt cam.Se Nik ro v Le , 71F.d 1 2 ,1 3 ( t Ci.1 9 )(l r a tal u p re he li y e c es n . e 9 2 1 5 1 5 4h r 9 2 s e Ba alegai ns'of co tt tonale r a e not s fc e gr l to ' nsiu i ror r uf ii nt ounds f ha as r i f t pe ii r or be ele ' he ttone , mus pr fe e i e c t s p o t i cams) t o fr v d n e o u p r h s li .. l Cli 6,M c n am Dona d c e t tt Comm onweat c l ont nds ha he lh omm itd aBr y vi ai n by te ad ol to p e e tng aG as i a tsae n' t t j y d ng s ne ig. M i rsd u he ,Sei r sn i l le mp c ttme t o he m mi e tncn f ' no ' a g tr l na M ike sa e t ts wa notw o l s t ts c d tke c r ofM i be aus he di no c y, tt d ha he s rdng o ha he oul a a e nor c e d t lket be l taone,had s i ur s a ha a c l lke mi i o ef l e z e , nd d hid-i nd.M c Dona d s l upporshi cai wih t s lm t a 911 c l 1 f o N ove be 11 2011, n whi h M i ke ç ol di pa c t the f t rha m ade a l og r m m r , i c c y t d s t h ha r a he d t t e t t a d he gr ndm ot r and t M r M i di no t ke li m edi a i a w as Gi ng hr a s ow r r a he , hat . nor d t a ls c ton nd lvi wih hi gil e on Ki t s rgi nd nneyTown Rd.' Pe .1 '' t 4. 1 I i uncea 9o t r c d why t Commonweat t 0 t s l r m he e or he lh houghtt tW as a Cr i J on we e ha ton nd ag ohns r c i . Neve t ls ,M c ousns rhee s Donal doe not pr fr a e de s ng t t W a s n ma fle sae nt d s ofe ny vi nce howi ha to de as ttme s r r ng hi r ato t Cr i J on;t r or t i o mato woul noti a W as ega di s el in o ag ohns he ef e,he nf r in d mpe ch ton. On ha s r vi t cr ui c t f md t t G c bea e ew, he ic t our ot ha t Dona d pr s nt no e de , M l ee s vi nce icu ig ta fo t e 91 c l l g ta s o E c e s sae n i fle F rh nn r , n l dn h t r m h 1 al o , h t h ws Mik y') ttme t s as . u te o e M c nad coul ha c le d t vitm i c sae e a ti oron a a' a t c am Do l d ve hal nge he ci mpa t t tm nt t ral ppe l' nd he l i wa t u bard b Pa i a M c nad v.Clr e No. 5 0 0 ,1 ( .Ci.Ct M a 21 s h s re y n z n. Do l ak , CL1 -4- 0 2 Va r . y , 2 5 .1a rewiht saec u tsa lss c n l ha n ts o t tt Co n at 01 ) g e t he tt o r' nay i.M Do ad s o h wn ha he mmo we 1h vo ae Br d be a eheha no p o uc d a y e i e c s o n t a t eif r to wa ( ) iltd a y c us s t r d e n v d n e h wig h t h n o mai n s 1 e up t r o i a hng ()s p rs e b tèCo nwe 1 o ()maeil xc lao y r mpe c i ,2 u p e s d y h mmo at r 3 tra . h, The e or 1 gr t t m o i t dimis Cli s 4, 5, a 6 bec us t ca ms ar r f e, an he ton o s s am nd a e he li e pr dur ly def ule wihou e us ,a t sa eha a c tsf di we enotc ta yt oce a l a t d t t xc e nd he tt be s our' m ngs r on r r o, ora t e s bl a i ton of f de all w, a t e s bl de e nai off c s n mr a ona e pplcai , e r a or n mr a ona e t nni ton a t . Cl m 7 ai I Cl m 7,M c nad a guest tc n ai Do l r ha ouns lwa i fe tve f f ii t f ly i tga e e s ne f c i or a lng o ' l nvesi t u t vci s ij re a d c u e o ij re . S cfc l M c n l alg st tc u s lwa he itm' nu is n a s f nu is pe iial y, Do ad le e ha o n e s una e t pr ry c os - xnmi M i r s tea i physca Dr M a k Sha fe bec us bl o ope l r se ne no ' r tng i in, . r fr y, a e co el ne r obti d t doc o ' m e c l r or . I com s l ha obt i t r co ds uns ve a ne he t r s di a ec ds f l e d aned he e r , c t e wo l ha eds o ee a Au u t2 1lte ta wa Gndrc giqc nr s t wha t e oms l ud v ic v r d n g s 01 etr h t s i ie t sc o ta t o t h i doc ort sii d t a ti l' Pe .1 l s t e tfe o t ra . t 8. n uppor ofli cai , c ' t ls l m M Donal pr de onepageofDr d ovi s . Shape st si ony a not sfo M i ' Augus 2011f l w- vii. t y' e tm nd e ' m nors r t olo up st Thesa eha asco 'f tt be ul ound t t t ha : Mc n l ha stsidn ih rtel efl ln e'n rteI rj dc 'prn o Do ad s aife ete h G rom' c ' o h G eu ie' o g f p a ? Stikl nd. Dr Sha fe t tfe t t t vitm, St ve M mor a ve a t rc a . fr y esii d ha he c i e , ni d t he hos t lwih alr bl coti li he d.Dr Sha fe r m ove a lr pi c o pia t a ge ood l n ls a . fr y e d a ge e e f M i r s s li or r t r m o t bl c o . Acc di t Shaf y,M i r no ' kul n de o e ve he ood l t or ng o ge no w oul ha di d w ihoutt s ge y. Fi ly,D r Sha f e t tfed t t M i r s d ve e t he ur r na l . f r y esi i ha no ' c ton i pr d ove s ve a we ks buthe wilha a s a fom t s ge y ondii m ove r e rl e , l ve c r r he ur r f r lf a pos i e s z e . o ie nd s bl ei ur s Dr Sha fe s tsi . fr y' e tmony wa m os r lva t t t c r o agg a t d s t ee n o he ha ge f r va e m ai i woundi An elm e o a a t m ai i woundi i t tt lcous ng. e nt f ggr vaed lcous ng s ha he v ci i t e eey ij r d a d i c us d t s fe p r ne t a d sg iia t itm s G v r l nu e n s a e o u fr e ma n n in fc n s p y ia i i nt'Va Co ej 1 .- .( .W h l Dr S f y' Au u t9 h sc l mpanne . . d 82 512 A) ie . hage s g s , ' 2011 lte no es M i r s'mpr m e t i he lhl i t sx wee f l wi e tr t no ' i ove n n at l n he i ks olo ng stge y,not ng i t lte s ws t ta a a t malci wot ng di tr r hi n he e tr ho ha n ggr va ed i ous mdi d not oc tr M i w a s il l f w ih a pe m a nt s a . See e. , H a l v. cl. nor s tl e t t r ne c r . g. w dns Co n at Re o d No 0 0 -4- 2 5 Va Ap LEXI 1 6 a * @ a mmo we 1h, c r . 9 8 1 2, 01 . p. S 3,t 4 . Ct Ap Ap .1 ,201 )(p o dn a g a ae maiiu womdng c n ito . p. r 5 5 u h l ig g rv td l o s t i o vcin c whe e s i vitm woul be l f fo s ge y a(lr s ar a pe ma nta r hootng c i d e t r m ur r ça ge c , r ne nd sg iia tph sc li ime f Th ,a sl n t a c u e h d n to ti e infc n y ia mpar n ). us sl g h t o ns l a o ban d mi t Augus 9,2011l te ,i wo d notha madeadif r ncei us d a ti l he t e tr t ul ve fe e f e t ra . M c n l v. ak , CL1 - 4 0 ,1 - 5 ( . r CtM a 21 2 5 . ctto st ta s rp Do ad Clr e No. 5 0 - 0 4 1 Va Ci. . y , 01 ) (iain o r n cit o te ) mitd . Ia eewih t Louia Coun y Cic tCour' a l i . No hi i Dr Sha fe snot gr t he s t r ui ts nayss t ng n . fr y' es or t tmony s esi uppors t c e i n t t M i di not s f r a a a t ma ii t he ont nto ha nor d ufe n ggr vaed lc ous woundi Si we ks a trt e e ge y s ge y,Dr Sha fe s pl a a s prs t tM i r ng. x e fe he m r nc ur r . fr y' e s nt ur ie ha no wa d i gs wel o sn tatrt fc t t i rsiju e r q ie tep r n n rmo a o s o n o l d e o le he a t ha M no ' nti s e ur d h ema e t e v l f pa tofli s l l vi ape ne s r M c r ls kul, ea ng nua nt ca . Donal ha notpr ve et rpr o St l nd d s o n ihe ong f dcda be a e co elwasnoti f e tve f rf lng t purue a m eil s a pl e . Se Ki e ,1 c us uns ne f c i o aii o s rte s r m nt e ml r 67 F. a 893. The e or I gr ntt m o i n t dimis as t Cli 7 be us t sae co ts 3d t r f e, a he to o s s o am ca e he t t ur' aj d c to wa n t c n rr t , o a l e s na e itr rtto o ,fd r l lw, o a du iain s o o tay o r n mr a o bl n ep eain f e e a a r n t ea ona ede e mi ton off t . mr s bl t r na i acs Cl m 8 ai La ty,i Cli 8,M c sl n am Donal a r t tt evi nc wa i uo ce t s d ve s ha he de e s ns int o uppor hi t s c c i nsbe aus t onl e de o li pa tcpa i i t be tng o M i wasW a s s onvito c e he y vi nce f ls ri i ton n he a i f nor ton' Gdubi ' e w ines t s i ony. Pe . 22. Fur he , M c ona d c ai s t t W a s G a ç ous' ye t s e tm t t r D l l m ha t on t s w 1 Dr S ae n td t tMio E e illa y dfiul wi wo d h aig fv r c ls n u e , 1 . h f y oe ha n r s ned n ifc t t d y h un e l , e e, hi , a sa n l vomii he che ,me tng, ada s moc dys u to ors ec dit t ... a plas d t thei doi s wel' Res Ex. f ncin, pe h fkuly 1 m e e ha s ng o 1. ' p. 1 a 1, , t ECF N o.22. i oxi a e durng hi t si nt c t d i s e tmony,whih woul ha at r d bot hi m e o y oft i i ntand ' c d ve le e h s m r he ncde hi r ibiiy a til' Pe .22. He a lgest t a be t t evi nc onl s s ela lt t ra -' t le ha, t s, he de e y howst the co d ha ul ha be pr s ntd i t a t r t o ve en e e ur ng he le ca i n. Fe a ha as r vi w of s fcenc of e de e c am s a e lmied t de e mi ng der l be e e ufi i y vi nc l i r i t o t r ni ç t r a trviwi t e de e i t lg m os f vor bl t t pr e uton,an r to l ç he , fe e ng he vi nc n he i ht t a a e o he os c i whe y ai na t r of f c c d ha f nd t e s nta e e t o t c i be de a t oul ve o he s e i l l men s f he rme yond a r a ona e do .' e s bl ubt' J c s n v.Vi ii,4 3 U. 3 7,31 (9 9 (mp a i i o ii a) The fdea c u t ako m na 4 S. 0 9 1 7 ) e h ss n rgn l. e rl o r c i r cr tnsan i l a die t e de , a t lows t g nme t be t of a1 onsde s icu t ta nd r c vi nce nd G l a he over nt he nek l r as bl i e e esfom t f c spr n t t e s e ona e nf r nc r he a t ove o hos oughtt be esa ihe ' Unied St t sv. o tbls d. ' t ae Trs a t 6 7 F. 1 1 ,1 21 ( t Ci.1 8 ) M o e v r çwj ee t ee a e c n lcs i e v n , 7 2d 0 8 0 4h r 9 2 . r o e, G h r h r r o fit n l t si n ,i i f rt j r a d n tt a p lae c u tt weg t e e d n e a d j g te e tmo y t s o he u y n o he p elt o r o ih h vie c n ud e h ce i ii o t ewin s e . I . t1 212 (iigUntdS ae v. s e , 8 F. 8 8 8 0 7 r dblt f h t e s s' d a 0 - 2 ctn ie tts Fih r 4 4 2d 6 , 6 - 0 y ' ( t Ci.1 7 ) c r d ne , 5U. 9 4 ( 9 49; e as M as l v Lo bec r 4 9U. 4 2 4h r 9 3 , e t e id 41 S. 2 1 7 ( s e lo rhal . n r e, 5 S. 2 , 4 4 ( 9 3 (2 U. C. j 2 5 4 ) gv s fd r l h b a c t t no lc ns t r d tr ne 3 1 8 ) : 8 S. 1 2 4 d ie e e a a e s ol s r ie e o e eemi c e biiy ofwine s s whos de e norha be n obs rv d by t sae tilc t butnotby r di lt t se e m a s e e e he t t ra our, t (r.) l)1' 1r ' I rj ci M c nad' s fiin y a g me to dr c a pe l t e Vigna Co r o n ee tng Do l s u fce c r u n n ie t p a, h r ii u t f Appe sfr tf md t tW a s st tm ony wa noti r nty i r bl : al is ot ha ton' esi s nhe e l nc edi e Elh j r s w a dhe r W as ntsiy a dc e ie h sv rin o e ns dl e ' e u y a n ad to e t , n r dtd i e so f ve t. t' l f 'h c e biiy of t wine s s a t weght ac or t e de a e ma tr r di lt he t s e nd he i c ded he vi nce r te s s el f t f t fnde who hast o r uniy t s e a he rt te de e a ol y or he ac i r he ppo t t o e nd a ha vi nc s i i pr s nt ' Sa t s e e ed.' ndova v.Com m onw e 1h,20 V a.App. 1 138,455 S. 2d l at 33, E. 730,73 ( 2 1995) W as n' prorfl co ci ,posi eit cain a t . to s i eony nvitons sbl noxi to t he tme oft ofe e,a pro i nsse sae e sa1we em a tr e o ed on i he f ns nd i r nco it nt t tm nt 1 r te s xpl r c o se n n to Thej r wa e tte t r s l c nlcsi t etsi n a d r s-x miain. u y s nild o e ove o tit n h etmo y n e de e. See R ols o v. Com m onw e 1h, 11 V a A pp.535,547, 399 S. 2d vi nc ' ' lt n at . E. 8 8 ( 991 . W eca s y W as stsi 23, 30 1 ) nnot a ton' e tmony wa Gi rnty i rdi e s tnhe e l nce bl, o s co r r t hlman e de e ast r nde i unworhy ofbei f' Fihe v. r o nta y o l xpe nc o e rt t le .' s r Co n at, 28Va 2 6 2 9 3 S. 2d20 20 ( 9 4 . mmo we 1h 2 . 9 , 9 , 21 E. 2, 4 1 8 ) M c n l v. mmo we l No. 7 3 1 - , ( . . p. r 2 , 01 ) Do ad Co n at h, 0 7 - 2 2 3 Va CtAp Ap . 4 2 3 . S c nd t ea pelt c u tas rj ce M c n l sc ne to t th wa n tp r o e o , h p lae o r lo ee td Do ad' o tn in ha e s o é t f t gr t tbe tM i : he oup ha a nor W as n tsi d u e uvo al t a ( Do ad e g g d i te atc I iil , to etfe n q i c ly h t Mc n lq n a e n h ta k. ntal y E c n lqg a be W as n b t e am wh n W as n g to to t e v hil. M Do ad rb d to y h r e to o u f h e ce W as nk w ( c n l j a t eae wa wel ll n td.Afe ( Do ll to ne M Do ad , nd h r a s l ilmiae l tr Mc nad r la e W as n sa ,h j ie t eg o p t tpls e M i r k oc e hm t ee s d to ' nn e on d h r u ha t u d no , n k d i o r t g ot a be thi . Thus t e denc wass t intt pr ve be nd a he r md, nd a m , he vi e ufk e o o yo r a o a l d u tt a ( Do ad wa g i y o a g a ae maiiu wo n ig e s n b e o b h t Mc n l) s ul f g rv td lco s u dn t a malci wo mdi by am o nd i ous t ng b. I at3d. 4. La ty,t cour of a a s uphe d M cDo d' c ci n of co pia y1 t c sl he t ppe l l nal s onvito ns r c 2 o omm k m a ii uswoundi . lc o ng' Th f csa d crl tn e ,c n iee t g te ,p o e t t( c n l )ma e e a t n icl a c s o sd r d o eh r r v d ha M Do ad d ms a a r e n wihohest maiiu l womdM io .Kel h dbe nij rd o n g e me t t t r o lco sy t n r ly a e n u e n t e ni ofJ y 1 2011 a Sed ik wa ups twih M i r a a r ul. I he ve ng ul 9, , nd rc s e t no s es t n fc, d iktidt g tS lo t fg tMi o , u S et nr f s d g c n lj a t Se rc re o e hetn o ih n r b t h lo eu e . M Do ad wa he r o t t lphone t e t ng t be t s e s a d n he ee hr aeni o a om one. Subs que l Cha e nty, d pike up M i wih t pr t ns ofati t t sor t plr ha ebee . I t a c d nor t he e e e rp o he t e o zc s r nse d, Ch d d lv r d M i r t t Kine twn Ro d a d e s whee E c n lj a ei ee no o he n yo a d rs r M Do ad , Se r c a o he sw er w a tng. The gr be tM i vi e l The e de e d i k, nd t r e ii oup a nor ol nty. vi nc prve b yo ar a o bed u tta ( c nad wa g i yo c n pr c . o d e nd e s na l o b h t M Do lq s ul f o s ia y t I a 4. d. t 1 a e wih t sa e c ts a l e . Gr e M c gr e t he t t our' nays s antd, Donal s Ca e Pr s nt S ve al d' s e e s e r i t nce of c lc i t tm o a i nsse t sa e nt by t prnci l a t nsa s onfi tng esi ny nd nco it n t t me s he i pa s nd he wine s s but f de a ha a c t do not G edeenni ' c e biiy of wine s s a ti l t se, e r l be s ours s t ne' r di lt r t s e t ra . l t d,ha a c t def r t t f t fnder The Com m onw e t pr ns ea be s our s e o he ac i . alh oduce s t n i ldiec d ubs a t a r t 1 Vigi adefne cons r c a R n a e m e be wee t orm or pe s by s eco e td a ton t 2 r ni i s pia y s a gr e nt t n wo e r ons om nc re c i o c mmia ofne' Wrc tv Co n at, 9 S. 2d71 , 3( . 98 ) o t n fe s. ih . mmo we l 2 7 E. 1 71 Va 1 2 . ' h 18 a d cru tn ile i e e s p o t g t jly s fn i ;t ee o e d s ie d fns c u s l n ic msa ta v d nc u p ri he t ' idng h rf r , e p t ee e o n e n r r pe t dl i pe hi W a s t ver c w a not s out a ous t t no r t o lt i r of f t e a e y m ac ng t on, he di t s o r ge ha a i na re ac c d ha f oul ve ound M c Dona d g ly. The e or l gr nt t m o i n t dimi s a t Cli 8, l uit r f e, a he to o s s s o am b c u et e sae c ur' a j iain wa n tc nr r t,o a t e s n b e a piain o , e a s h tt o t dudc to s o o tay o r n mr a o a l p lc to f s f de a l w , a unr s na e de e m i ton o f c s e r l a or n ea o bl t r na i f a t . V l. 3 R ul 6 M ot on f D i covery1 e i or s O n J nua y 30, 2017, M c onal f l d a m oton f r d s a r D d ie i o i cove y s e ng ac es t t r e ki c s o he Oco e 1 ,2 4 he rng ta s rp . Un e Rue 6 aj g ma ,frg o c u e a to ie a tb r 7 01 ai ' n cit d r l , ud e y o o d a s , uh rz r pa t t c ry o onduc dic r t rt Fe r lRul s ofCi lPr ed e A peii rm a s t s ove y mde he de a e vi oc ur . ttone y how good ca ewhe e ç pe fca l to be o et c ' s us r l cii legai ns f r he oul how r as t bele t tt pe ii r s t e on o ive ha he ttone m a i t f c s a e f ly de l pe be a e t de y, f he a t r ul ve o d, bl o monsr t t the i ...e ild t r lef' ta e ha s ntte o ei . ' Brc v.Grmlv,5 0 U..8 ,9 8 0 ( 9 7 ( u tn Harsv. lo ,3 4 U. 28 ,30 ay a e 2 S 99 0 - 9 1 9 ) q o ig ri Nes n 9 S. 6 0 ( 9 9 M c n l a g st a hec n tds u eDee tveCalo J h s n' tsi n wih u 1 6 $. Do ad r ue h t n no ip t t ci rt n o n o s etmo y t o t t ta c i s buthedoe notofe s ik alegai nsde he r ns rpt , s f r pecf l to monsr tng t the wilbe e tted t ta i ha l n il o r i . Pr s a y,M c elef e um bl Dona d wildiag e wih t d t c i ' t si ony;howe r l ha l l s r e t he e e tve s e tm ve , ve ale r ady a l d M c nayze Donal s c am s a f md t m me ils ; f rhe dico r wil not d' l i nd ot he rte s u t r s ve y l pr deapahwa t ha a r le . ovi t y o be s ei f The e o e Ide M c r f r , ny Donal sm oton. d' i V Il. For t f e ng r as ns I gr ntR e po nts m o i n t d s i s di m i s t pe ii he or goi e o , a s nde ' t o o i m s , s s he tton f a wrto ha a c pus a de Pe ii rspe ng moton. Ba e upo m y snd ng t t or i f be s or , nd ny ttone ' ndi i sd n i ha . 1 M cDonal fl am oto pur ua t Rul 6 oft Fe r RulsofCi lPr dtr , butlkeym e nta 3 d ied in s nt o e he de al e vi oce le i l a Rul 6 moton purua t t Rul Goveni Se ton 225 Cas s Whih i e lyswih Rul 74 oft Fedeal e i s nt o he es r ng ci 4 e , c ntm a t e he r Rul ofCi lPr edur es vi oc e. Peii rhasnotm a t r quiie s t nta s ttone de he e st ubsa il howi ofa de a o a c tmtona rg as ng ni i f onsi i i iht r q ie by2 U. C. 2 3c , c ri c t o a p aa lt i d r e e ur d 8 S. j 25 4) a e ti ae f p e lbi y s el d. t i i ENTER: Thi r da o J y, y f ul 2016. C Se o U rie St t s D it i tJ ni lt d a e s r c udge