Hicks v. Virginia Department of Corrections, No. 7:2016cv00384 - Document 28 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/27/2017. (slt)
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CLERK'Ar Q; U,:. 8T. ti : OFFI QS X lu RG NQK;,V A FIED L I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FO R TH E W ESTERN DISTR I O F V I G I I CT R N A R O AN O K E DI I O N V SI TH OM S L.HI S; CK N 2 7 9? 1 J LA C. I D BY: CASE NO .7: 16CV00384 c RK CL ERK Pettoner ii , V. M EM O R AN D UM O PI I N N O DI RECTOR,W RGI A NI D EPA RTM ENT O F C O R RE CTI N S, O R e ponde . s nt By:H on.Gln E.Conr e ad C hi fU nie St e D i t i tJudge e t d at s s r c Thom a L.Hiks a Vigi a i ae pr e ng pr K ,fl t s pe ii n f a wrtof s c , r ni nm t oc edi o ed hi tto or i h b a c r u ,p ru n t 28U.. j2 4,c aln i te v ldt o h sc ni e n o a a e s op s us a t o SC. 25 h le gng h ai iy f i o fn me t n fnalor r by t Ra hn i de he ppa nnoc Cot y Cic t Cour c ci hi of a tmpt d m ur r k mt r ui t onvi tng m te e de , malcouswoundi us ofa fr a i t c m m iso ofa f l ii ng, e ie nn n he o sin eony,a r r Re ponde nd obbe y. s nt fl d a m o i t dim is a Hi r s ie ton o j s , nd cks e ponde m adng t ma tr rpe f diposton. Afe d, l he te i or s ii tr r vi w oft r or t c rt ncude t tt pe ii m us bedim is d. e e he ec d, he ou co l s ha he tton t s se 1 . A. FacualBac gr nd t k ou Ar und 8 P. .on Jm e 1 2010,Cl G c 'Deli erwasi hi fontya d whe he o M l 0, yde va k' lng n sr r n wa s i t f e a r d oft ca h i hi poc t Da e a Pa a Delnge ,Cl s s hot n he ac nd obbe he s n s ke . ni l nd ul li r yde' s a da ht ri lw, we e d ng ho e a ot t s m e tm e as t s i . l They on nd ug e -n-a r dvi m r md he n i he hootng notc d Cl l ng on hi bac i t ya d a r hedt c c on hi . Da e r n up a as ie yde yi s k n he r nd us o he k m ni l a nd ked Cl wha ha ha ne a i he ne d hep. As Cl 1 t r bl di he e ie y yde t d ppe d nd f ede l yde ay he e ee ng, xct dl Hicks v. Virginia Department of Corrections Doc. 28 sa e R-e s me,Da el a her bbe m e' Hiksv.Comm o t t d: l hot l ni , nd o d .' c nweat 725 S. 2d 748 751 1h, E. , ( .Ct App. 2) niltsii 1 gue sE ydelt hthewasg Va . 201 .Da e etfed,1 s cl 1 houg onnano ma i,s he t ke t o j tg veif r to a d a1hec u d' JL S i o t eg o n i apo lo boo ,Cl et l us a n o main n l o l . - tl n h r u d n o f l d yd od 'I . l 1Dani andPa alvedbehi Cl . el ul i nd yde Dockets.Justia.com . Da e t tTom Thomps orTho a on, s ota r d hi . l anilt tfe t tCl de ni l ha on, m s 2 h nd obbe m r e esii d ha y m a t s sa e nt tpont ousy'r t rt n i r s ns t s t i d q si ng. Cl de he e t t me s s ane l a he ha n e po e o usane ue toni yde alo i r d ofli s wheherhe woul ge s e hep and whe he he c d t ke hi t t s nquie zs on t d t om l t r oul a m o he hos t l' I pia - d. ' Pa a ha c le 911 a Cl r m aned co ci durng t s r wai f hep t ul d a ld , nd yde e i ns ous i he ho t t or l o n ve. ç ul t tfed t tt r ç san ur ncy i li voie,t theha t t l usa muc a ni t a esi pa ha he e wa ge n ls c ha d o el s h s he c ul Ibeive,bec us he wan' sze i he wa goi t ma i.' J W hie on t o d, le a e s t tr f s ng o ke t'' Z l he gr md,Cl ha a a o otve be ti hi ha whih he t l Da ela Paul t the had ot yde d n ut m i l n s nd, c o d ni nd a ha s ntt e Tom ' t Cul pe t r t ve. Cl alo t ndia e t tt betwasve y i ra t ' o pe r o e de yde s t c t d ha he l i r mpo tnt o fndi & .' l i ng Tom '' d Cl lt rt tfed a Hi ks pr lmi r he rng a i ntfe hi a t ma who s yde a e esii t c ' ei na y a i nd de ii d m s he n hot a r d hi . Be or til Cl did of c us s um ea e t t s i nd obbe m f e ra , yde e a e lt d o he hootng. Afe Cl ' tr yde s de t t Com monwe t fl d a pr t lmoton t alow Cl s sa e nt t Dn ela hi a h, he alh ie e da i o l yde' t t me s o ni nd s sa e nt a t pr lmi r he rng t be al wed i o e denc unde hea s y exc ptons t t me s t he ei na y a i o lo nt vi e r ra e i : e t ute a ofavi tm now de a e a t pr i i r hea t s i xcied tr nce ci ce s d, nd he elm na y dng e tmony ofo who i ne s now de a e The ti lc tg a t d t moton and a l d t t si o a sa e nt i o ce s d. ra our r n e he i lowe he e tm ny nd t t me s nt e de e. vi nc #. Pr edu alH it y oc r s or Thejly c n it dHikso atmp e mt d r maiiu wo n i g u eo afr n m i t o v ce c f te td z e, lco s u d n , s f ie r n r r t c he ommison of. flny,a r bbey,a t ti c ti e t j y' a egae si a eo nd o r nd he ral our mpos d he ur s ggr t s ntnc off t ei - r 'i io e .Hiksa a e a gui t tt cr ui c te ed e e e ory- ghtyea s mprs nm nt c ppe l d, r ng ha he ic t our n' b ()z l t a sae nso Cld Del e, h alg dv ci c ud c meit e d n ea y 1 ' i h t ttme t f y e li r t e le e itm, o l o n o vie c s u ng ng a e ctd u trnc e c pi n t te h a sy r l,a d ()b alwig a tilt etsi ny o n x ie tea e x e to o h e ra u e n 2 y l n t ra h etmo f o 2I tgaor ltrde em i d t tH i us t aisSlom Tho ps .'' nvesi t s ae t r ne ha cks ed he la çm on 2 wine s who we e pr e a t pr lmi r he rng a who hea d t t si ony of Cl t s es r es nt t he e i na y a i nd r he e tm yde De lnge . The Vigi a Coul o Appe s a fr e t c c ins The Supr m e Cour of li r r ni ' f t al fim d he onvi to . e t Vigi at n r f s d Hi 'pe ii f a r ni he e u e cks tton or ppea , nd f rhe de e li pe ii f r hea l a u t r ni d ls tton or e dng. Hiks t n tm ey fl a peii f a wrt of ha a c us i t Ra hn c he i l ied tton or i be s op n he ppa nnoc k Count Cic t Cour, alegi sx cli of i feci a ssa e of c ms a f ur y i ui t l ng i a ms ne f tve s it nc ot el nd o s t ntvecli s Fis, c cai d t tc ms lwa i feci f : ubsa i am . r t Hi ks l me ha ot e s ne f tve or 1. f lng t m o t c tnue t pr lmi r hea i bec us a c tr pore wa not aii o ve o on i he e i na y rng a e our e tr s pr ent es ; fiigt o j c wh nt j r s n t n tst t j d ed dn d lb rto al o be t e he u y e t wo o e o he u g u g eieain; n f ii t c l Ofi e Fi hn a a de e e wine s t t siy a ut wha he ha t d a lng o a l fc r nc m s f ns t s o e tf bo t d ol J m e H ac e t s y a n s kl y o a bouthi i ntfc ton ofH i ; s de ii a i cks 4. f ii t fl a moton t ha J m e Ha l y' sa e ntdiqualfe unde t he r a a lng o e i o ve n s cde s t t me s i d r he a s y rl ue; f ii t c l Ofi e Fi hn asa de e e wine st t siy abouthi i ntfc to o a lng o a l fc r nc m f ns t s o e tf s de iia i n r wha t ofi rt dhi mot r br t r a sse -n-a t s y a t he fce ol s he , o he , nd it ri lw o a boutHi ks c e;a c ' as nd 6. fii t o j c t t t si n o Pa l Deln e , n wigt t u au e Ox co tn. al o b e t o he etmo y f u a l g r k o n ha Pa l s d y ni ng i Hiksa s alege t t c lo l d ha : 7. M s Fi hn m a a f le sae e a tilwhe s s i s s w H iks f c ng t . nc m de a s t tm nt t ra n he a d he a c a i he vi tm ; ci 8. The V igi a Supr m e Cour r ed t t t t s i ony of Pa a D e lnge and She i f r ni e t ul ha he e tm ul li r rf Col i Sm ih s d no ha bee a it d a t i ; me t houl t ve n dm te t ral 9 Th tilc u t re i alwigteCo n at t s w t j r t egm t tij d . e ra o r er d n lo n h mmo we lh o ho he u y h t ha nme t vitm ;a he c i nd 10. vi tm wa no s fom t bl c rbe aus hedi no ha gun powde r i ueon The ci s t hot r he ue a c e d t ve r esd hi . m The Ra hn ppa nnoc Cot y Cic tCour gr n ed t r ponde ' m oton t dim is t co t k mt r ui t a t he es nts i o s s : he ur f u d Cli 7 9 a d 1 b re un e S a tn v.Pa g n 20 E.d 6 0 ( 9 4 ,Cli 8 o n ams , , n 0 a rd d r lvo ni a , 5S. 2 8 1 7 ) am bardbyHe r v. ade 5 6 S. 2 4 5( 0 3 ,a dt therman e o tecamsddno re n v W r n, 7 E.d 9 2 0 ) n ha t e id r f h li i t stsyS rc a dv. ahigtn, 6 U. 6 8( 9 4 . aif tikln W s n o 4 6 S. 6 1 8 ) Hi ksa ald,r ie ai t s m ec am sasi t cr ui c tbutaddi a alega i c ppe e e tr tng he a li n he ic t our ng n l ton t a t crui c u tûaldt i e tf t s b tnc o t ecamsa sre i t (tt h be s h t he ic t o r G ie o d niy he u sa e f h li se td n he sae a a ) f peii a sa et r s f t delalofe c c am . TheVigi a Supr me Cour r f s d tton nd t t he ea ons or he li a h li ' ' r ni e t eue t r viw Hi ' ne cai a dim is d t r t of t peii n be us t cai s we e o e e cks w l m nd s s e he es he tto ca e he l m r t ae e p o e t al d futd u d rVigna Su e Co r Rul 5 1 ()ii. The cour lt r deni d r c dl ly e a le n e r ii prme u t e :7 c(i) r Hi ks m oto t a e c ' i n o m nd. On J y 7,201 Hikstmel fl d a pe ii f r a m i o ha asc usi t f r ul 6, c i y ie tton o t f be op n he ede al dititc r, al gi ni i f c i a ssa ofc src ou t le ng ne nefe tve s it nce ouns lcli sa t s t ntve ca m s3 e am nd wo ubsa i li . Fis,c r t ouns lwa i f e tvef : e s ne f c i or Fal t ( )c n iu t p ei n r h a ig a d( )f l w Hik 'i tu to t h ve ii o 1 o tn e he r l ay e rn , n 2 ol ng mi o c s nsr ci n o a t pr lmi r pr e ngsc i d be aus no c trpo trwa pr e ( ai 1 he ei na y oce di ontnue c e our e re s es nt Cl m a A) nd ; Fal t o j c whe t ej r s n t noe t tej g d dn d l r to ( am 2 ii o b e t n h u y e t wo ts o h ud e u g ei ain Cli ng be a B) nd ; 3 Hiks r ie f cl ms i hi ame c as s our ai n s nded petton, a el n a to l cams i a ha wrten ii nd eve ddiina li n nd it s emen t hi peii Howeve ,Cl msB,D,a E i Hiks s pplme a ei ntca t Cl ms2,4,and3, uppl t o s tton. r ai nd n c ' u e nt r de i l o ai r peci l i Hiks a nde pe ii I or rt mi mi c u i t c tc old e and r r r d hi es tvey, n c ' me d tton. n de o ni ze onf son, he our ons iatd eo de e s cams Hiks'orgi numbe i a ei pa e t s s Hiks'peii doesno haveaCl m C. li . c i nal rngs r n r nhe e . c tton t ai 3. Faii t cal Ofk e Fi hn as a de e e wine s t t siy a lng o l t r nc m f ns t s o e tf boutwha he ha t d t d ol J mes Hac e t s y a a kly o a bout hi i ntfc ton of Hiks a wha t ofi e t d hi s de ii a i c nd t he fc r ol s mohe, r te s a d sse-n lw t s ya o t c s c s ( am 3a dE) t r b oh r, n itri-a o a b u Hik ' a e Cli n ; Falng t i tgae J s Hac e i or rt c le e hi t si ony a tilorfl a ii o nvesi t nme kly n de o ha lng s e tm t ra ie mo int h veHa k e ' sae n ds uai e u d rt h a syr l ( am 4a dD) to o a c ly s ttme t iq lt d n e he e ra ue Cli n ; i 5 Faln t o j c t M s Fic n ' fletsi n t a s s w Hiksa Cld ' h mea . i g o b e t o . n h m s as e tmo y h t he a c t y es o t i 7: P. .o Jme20, 30 M n t 2010, ndt tHi kswasf i Cl a t a tme( am F) a ha c acng yde t.h t i Cli ; 6 Faln t o j c t t Co n at s ds ly n o a .0 c lb r fr am d rng . i g o b e t o he mmo we l i h' ipa i g f 4 ai e ie r u i Hi ks ti whe t ti l c t ha ale y s ve e t a tonal fr nr c r c ' ral n he ra our d r ad e r d he ddii ie m ha ges ( am 1) C1i 1; Fal t o j c t t e tsi n o Cl e Del g r kn wig t t Cld wa o ii o b e t o h e t y f yd li e , o n ha y e s n ng mo n Ox co tn( am l; y n i Cli ) 8. Fa lng t s poe t vi tm ' c o he a f lng t as t sa e f e i s i nts ii o ub na he ci s l t s nd aii o k he tt or nsc c e it ce t n quesi r ga di gun po rr sdue t two d ha pr rai tons e r ng wde e i ha ul ve oved t vi tm wa he ci s n ts o fo t buec rb c u eh ddn th veg np wd rrsd eo hm ( am J; o h t r m he l a e a s e i o a u o e e iu n i Cli ) rd Fal t b i win s J h M c y' ia l y t ie tf Hik i c u tt tej r ' ii o rng te s o n co s n bit o d n iy c s n o r o h u y s ng i a tn in ( am L) te to Cli . Hiks alo al ge t f l ng s t tvecai s c ' s le d he olowi ubsan i l m : 1 D e e e co m s ' af i vi pr pa e f us i t s a e ha a pr ee ng c r di t a 0. f ns t els fda t e r d or e n he t t be s oc di ont a c s lte s n t t ep o e u o o F b u r 4 2 3( am G) a d etr e t o h r s c t r n e r ay , 01 Cli ; n 1 . j r rle o f letsi n wh n ic n ce Hik ( am K) 1 The u y eid n as etmo y e t o vitd c s Cli . 5 Re ponde movest dim isHiks ca msaspr e al ba r d a orwihoutme i, s nt o s s c ' li oc dur ly r e nd/ t rt a Hikshasr ponde t t m o i nd c es d o he ton. I. I St andar ofR e e d vi w To obt i f de a ha asr le ,Hi ksmus de onsr t t thei Gn c t i vi a i an e r l be e if c t m tae ha s l usody n olton i o te Co siui n o lwso te te o te Unie Sae . 28U.. j 2 5 ( Un e 2 f h n t to r a r rais f h t td tts' ' SC. 2 4 $. d r 8 U. C.j2 5 4 ho ve,afd r lc u t yno g a tam ' o h be sc r u b s d o a y S. 2 4 *, we r e ea o r ma t rn i f a a op s ae n n t cam t a asaec u t e ie o t eme isu ls ta a j dc to li h t tt o r d cd d n h rt ne s h t d u iain; ()Reu td . a d cso t twa c nrr t ,o iv l d a u ra o be 1 s le i n e iin ha s o ta y o r n ove n n e s na l a i to o ,c e ry esa ihed Fe r lw,a de e mi d by t Supr me pplca in f l a l t bls de al a s t r ne he e Co toft U nie St t s or ur he t d a e ; ()Reul d i ad cso t t sbae o a u ra o a ed tr n to o te 2 s t n e iin ha wa s d n n n e s n bl eemiain f h e f c si lghtoft e de epr s nt i t St t c t oce di at n i he vi nc e e ed n he ae our pr e ng. 28U. C.j2 44 .R h r , sh r , h saec u tsa pl ain o g ve n f d rl1w i S. 25 * W ee a e e t e tt o r' p i to f o mig e ea a s c c aln e i mu t b s o t be no o y er n o , b t o jci l u ra o a e' h le g d, t s e h wn o t nl ro e us u b e tvey n e s n bl. ' Yab r ug v. Ge ty 5 U. 1 5 ( 0 ) Un e ti sa ad ça sae c u ts roo h nr , 40 S. , 20 3 . d r h s tnd r , G j tt o r' l de e na i t t a ca m l c me i pr l t nni ton ha li a ks rt ecudes f r l ha as r i s l a f i- i d ede a be elef o ong s a rm nde j dssc ud a reo te c re tis o t esaec u tsd cso ' ri gtn v. c tr 5 2 u t o l g e n h o rcr s f h tt o r' e iin. e 'Harn o Rih e, 6 U. 6 ,1 ( 01 )( mit gi tr a q oains. S. 6 01 2 1 o ti nen l u tto ) n 11 1. Exhaus i and Pr e alD e a t ton oc dur f ul G A)fd rlc u tma no g a tawrto h b a c r u t ap tto e i saec so y t e ea o r y t rn I i f a e s o p s o eiin r n tt u t d t e st peii rha fr te used hi sa er m ed e by pr e i hi cai st t hi s ml s he ttone s is xha t s tt e i s es ntng s l m o he ghe t saec ut' Ba rv.Cor r 220 F. 276,288(t Ci.2000 (iai omitd) To mee tt ot ' ke coan, 3d 4h r ) cttons te . t t e usi r uie e , a peii ne t us ha pr s nt t t sae co t bot t he xha ton eq r m nt tto r l t ve e e ed o he t t ur m h he ope ai f t a t con r lng l galprnci es' Kas v.Al el ,300 F. 48 501 02 r tve ac s nd he toli e i pl . ' i w one 3d 7, - (t Ci. 0 2 (n en lq oainmaksa dctto o te ) 4 h r 2 0 ) itr a u tto r n iai n mitd . 6 Alo ûa h b a p tto e i bard fo s e i g fd r lr ve o a cam t twa s , ç q a e s ei n r s re r m e k n e ea e iw f li ha s l i pr e e t a sae cour a t la l a e e sy'de e on t i pe nt a qua e sat es nt d o tt t nd ce ry nd xpr s l nid he nde nde , de t t e g o n o p o e trld fut' Beme t . weo e 9 F.d 1 3 ,1 4 (t Ci.1 9 )(iig r u d f r c dla e a l' z t v Al l n , 2 3 3 6 3 3 4h r 9 6 ctn Ha sv. e ,48 U. 2 5 2 3 ( 9 9 A p o e t a rlei a e u t tfi i rgual o ni Re d 9 S. 5 , 6 1 8 :. r c dl l t s d q ae ç t s e lry r r l i c n itnl a pid b t esae c mt' a d i d p n n çfi d e n tç e e l o a fd r l o sse ty p le y h tt o ' n n e e de t l t o s o d p nd q n e e a i c tt i lr lng.' Ye tsv.Angeone 1 F.d 255,260( h Ci.1 (uoi Akev. onsiutona ui '' at l , 66 3 4t r 999) q tng Oka o ,4 0 U..6 ,7 ( 9 5 ) Fu te ,la cam t a h s n tbe n prs n e t te lh ma 7 S 8 5 1 8 ). rh r t q li h t a o e e e td o h g hi tsa e c tne rhees m a bete t d ase use i i i c e rt tt cli woul be ghes t t our ve t l s y r a e xha t d f t s l a ha he am d pr edlal ba r unde sae 1w i t pe ii r a tmpt d t pr s nti t t sae co t' oc tr ly red r t t a f he ttone te e o e e t o he t t ur.' Ba e , 2 F.da 28 ( i n Gry v Neh ra ,5 8U. 1 2 1 (99 :. S hcamsae k r 2 0 3 t 8 ct g a . t elnd 1 S. 5 , 61 1 6 uc li r i smutn o l e a se a d d futd.Se Bu k tv Ang lne 2 F.d 1 2 1 3 n 1 ( t i la e usy xh u td n ea le e r e . eo , 08 3 7 , 8 . 1 4h Ci. 9 9 . r19 ) Hiks c e c am s a e e used but de a t d be a e t y we e not pr ry c ' = nt l i r xha t f ule c us he r ope l pr s nt t t Supr me Co tofVigi a Hiksdi no brng a oft e cli s on die t e e ed o he e ur r ni . c d t i ny hes am rc a al a i hi sa e ha ppe , nd n s tt beas a al t Supr m e Cou t of Vigi a f ppe , he e r r ni ound hi c am s s li p o e u al d ful d u d rVa S p Ct R.5 1 ()ii. Ru e 5 1 i a id p nd n a d r c d r l ea t n e . u . . :7 c(i y e ) l :7 s n n e e e t n a quat sa e gr md 'f pr edu al de a t See M ue lr v.Ang one, 181 F. 557,58 de e t t ot o oc r f ul. le el 3d 4 ( odn G r c d r l ea lu e Rue5 1 ()i a i d p n e ta da e u t saeb r'. h lig t o e u a d f ut nd r l :7 c s n n e e d n n d q ae tt a ' p ) Hi ks c nno now pr e t s cai t t Vigi a Supr m e Cour bec us he i c n t es nt he e l ms o he r ni e t a e s ba rd by bot t Vigi a ha ssa e oflmiains Va Code j 8. - A)2) and t re h he r ni bea tmt i tto , . 01654( ( , he s c e sv peiin b r Va Co e j80 - 5 B)2 . S e S ar w v. neDe ' o Co , 9F. u c si e t o a, . d .1 6 4( ( ) e p ro Di pt f m 43 t S p 5 4, 8 - 8( D. . 00 )(o dn ta camsb re b Va Co ej8016 4( ( )ae u p. 8 5 7 8 E. Va 2 6 h li g h t li ar d y . d . - 5 A)2 r n t e iwa ei fd r l b a p o e d n s; a ,51 U. a 1 2 ( li t a camsbard o r ve bl n e e a ha e s r c e i g ) Gry 8 S. t 6 hodng h t li re b Va Co ej8. - 5 ( ( )aeno rve bei fd r l a a pr c e ig ) y . d 016 4 B)2 r t e iwa l n e e a h be s o e dn s . IV . Excuse f D efaul or t A sa eprs ne c n obt n f de alha asr vi ofapr e aly de aule cai i he t t io r a ai e r be e ew oc dm l f t d l m f s o et e ( )c u ea p eu ieo ( )amic rig o j tc . Coem an v Th mo o , 01 h ws ih r 1 a s nd rj d c r 2 s ara e f usie4 l o sn 5 . U. 7 2 7 0( 9 1 . To s w c us , p t in rmus d mo srt t a t eewe eE be tve S. 2 , 5 1 9 ) ho a e a ei o e t t e n tae h t h r r l j ci o f c o s' e e na t hi de e e,whih i ded hi fom r ii hi cli a a e rir sage. a t r , xt r l o s f ns ' c mpe m r asng s a m t n a le t M u ryv. ni r 4 7U. 4 8 4 8( 9 6 .Tos o p eu ie apeiin rmu ts o t a t ra Ca e, 7 S. 7 , 8 1 8 ) h w rj dc , t o e s h w h t he t al ge co tmtonalvi l ton wo ke t hi a tzla s t nta dia nt ge,i eci hi le d nsi i oai r d o s c t nd ubsa il s dva a nf tng s a e tr ti lwih e orofaconsi i lmag t n ie ' a t n' r totona niude.I d. Unde M a tne v.Rva 566U. 1( 2) af dea ha aspeii rma stsy t r ri z n, S. 201 , e rl be ttone y aif he û a e'rquie ntofa ot r s pr edlal dea td cai ofi fe tveasitnc i:( ) ç us ' e r me c n hewie oc tr ly fule l m nef ci ssa e f 1 t ei efcie a ssa c cam i aç u sa ta'o e ()t eç a e'frd ful G o ssl)o h n fe tv sitn e li s t b tn il n ; 2 h E us' o ea t û n its f s ' c c t r bengnoc e oronl i feci c e dudngt saec ltr lrvi pr ee nf' hee i ouns l y nef tve ounsl he tt olae a e ew oc di ; ( )çh sae c laea r ve pr c e ig wa t iiilr ve p o e dng i r s e tt t e 3 ç e tt o ltrl e iw o e dn s he nta e iw r c e i n e p c o h t i feci -s it ceoftilco s cam' a ( sae 1w çe rs t ta i fe tve ne tvea ssr - -ra- r el li ' nd 4) tt a G quie ha n nef ci ; r as it nc - -ralc ms lcli ber ie i a i ta-e i w colatr pr e ng. Fowl rv. ssa e ofti - ot e am as d n n nii lr k e l e al oc edi ' ' e J v e ,7 3 F.d 4 6 461( t Ci.2 4 (uoig Trvio v.Th lr 1 3 S.Ct 1 1 1 8 o nr 5 3 4 , 4h r 01 ) q tn e n ae , 3 . 91 , 91 ( 1 :. 20 3 A ts t tal'cl i i one t t ha m e i. M ari z, 566 U . a 1 To e t bls Gubs an i ' a m s ha s rt tne S. t 4. sa ih i ef ci a ssa e apeiin rmu ts w t a c t e' pef r nc fl b lw a o j cie n fe tve sitnc , tto e s ho h t oms ls ro ma e el eo n be tv 4Hiksdoe no ague a col a e cai ofac li c s tr or bl l m ma nnoce underSc up v. Deo 51 U..2 8( 9 5 nce hl l, 3 S 9 1 9 ) a d Mc i i v P r i ,1 3 S Ct 12 (01 )ta wo l alw frrviw o hi camsrgadls o hs n ouccn . ekns 3 . . 9 4 2 3 h t ud lo o e e f s li e r e s f i dea t He hasno a s red a a u i e e a g ful. t s e t n ctal nnoc nc r umentorpr f r a t r la e'e denc i s ofeed ny ç new eibl' vi e n uppor o tf hi alg to s Theeoe t c u t e n t d rs t mic rig o j siee c pin s le ain . rfr,he o rned o a des he s ara e fu tc x e to . 8 sa a d o r a o a e s a ta h wa p eu ie b t e alg d d sce tpef r n e tnd r f e s n blne s nd h t e s rj d c d y h le e e in ro ma c . Src lnd v.W a hngo 4 6 U. 6 8 6 9 ( 9 4 . Colt a pl a sr n prsl to t a tika s i tn, 6 S. 6 , 6 1 8 ) t' p y to g e l in h t ts mp c ms ' pe f ma e,e pe i ly r ga di ti lm a ot els ror nc s c al e r ng l a nage nta sr t y,wa wihi t r nge me nd taeg s t n he a o ra o be p o e so la ssa c . I a 6 9 To d mo srt p eu ie p tto e mus f e s na l r f sina sitn e d. t 8 . e n tae rj dc , ei n r t i s how t r i ar ms na epr biiy t t butf c ms lst of s i le r ,t out ome of he e s e o bl oba lt ha, or ot e ' mpr e sona ror he c t pr e ng woul ha bee dif r nt I a 694. ç r alegai ns'ofc tm tona e r he oce di d ve n fe e . d. t ç e l to ' Ba onsi i l ror a e nots t intgr mds f habe r i ;t pe ii rmus pr f revi nc t s por hi r ufk e ot or as elef he ttone t ofe de e o up t s cams Nik ro v. e 9 F.d 1 25 1 35(t Ci. 9 2 . li . é es n Le , 71 2 1 , 1 4 h r 1 9 ) V. A nal s ysi Unr viwabl Cl ms e e e ai I Cli 1 Hi ks a gue t ttilc n a m 0, c r s ha ra ouns lc r c e he s l i a a fda tpr pa e e ontadit d r e f n n fi vi e r d f t cr ui co tha spr e ng.5 H ow ever, or he ic t ur bea oc edi ac le g t Vigna ssaeh be sc r u pr c e ig ( c n o pr vd ab ss haln e o r ii' tt a a o p s o e dn s q n n t o ie a i f rf d rlh be sr l f S eBr a tv.M aya ,8 8 F.d 49 ,4 3 ( t Ci. o e ea a a ei . e y n e r lnd 4 2 2 9 4h r 1 8 ) ( o dn t a er r a d irguaiis i c n e to wi sae p s9 8 h l ig h t ro s n re lrte n o n cin t tt o t h c n ito p o e dn saen tc g ia l o fd r l a e sr ve . o v ci n r c e ig r o o nz be n e ea h b a e iw) W rR tv Anc ln ,1 F.d 1 1 1 9 ( t Ci.1 9 ) Fe e a h be speiin r ma n t ih . eo e 51 3 5 , 5 4h r 9 8 . d r l a a t o e s y o t c lnge a sae pos- onvi to r i bec us çt peii r i notç t ne a a r ul ofa hale tt tc ci n ulng a e lhe ttone s deai d s es t d cso o t (tt c urli t e saeha e sa to 'b trt e i i c t d pt s a tt te e iin f he sae o t n h tt b a cin, u ah r s n uso y l u n o h r r ln o t e o i ia tilc u t' Or e v.Tr e 2 3 F.S p 2 7 ,7 7 ( D.Va 20 2 ui g f h rgn l ra o r. b ' u, 3 u p. d 49 8 E. . 0) 5Hiks ale ton i alo wihoutme i. Hiksaserst tco lc r ce herel by sai on one c ' lga i s s t rt c s t ha unse ontaditd s f t tng oc sont tt Vigi aSupr meCour a fr d t ti co tsr i t tt he r a evi ewa a isbl, ca i ha he r ni e t flme he ral ur' ulng ha he a s y denc s dm s i e a t lng Hikson a he oc aso t tt co thel t e de et bei dmisbl Hiksa a st conf e nd eli c not r c in ha he ur d he vi nc o na s i e. c ppe r o us co els s uns ' umma y of t Vigi a Supr me Comïs a gume t tt i l i o e uson of t he r a r he r ni e ' r nt ha he ncuson r xcl i he a s y evi ewa ir l ant çe i ...t hea sy t tmony s d notha bee a te a t tt da e -ndenc s r eev çven f he ra esi houl ve n dmitd nd ha he ughtri lw a d S eifs o l n th v b e p r te t tsi a o ttep ei n r h a ig Eh Vigni S p e a n h rf h ud o a e e n emitd o etf b u h rl ay e rn , te r i a u rme y mi Co t o n ta)teewa si sfkin e ie c t baeac n ito o 'P trsS pp.oteAm. t 1 , urf u d h t h r s tl u t e t vd n e o s o vcin m' e'' u lt h l Pe. 8 ECF N o. Atac 1 7, t h. . ( u tn W rg t 1 F.d a 1 9) Theeo e Cli 1 i no c g ia l o fd r lh b a q oi g ih, 51 3 t 5 .. rf r , am 0 s t o nz be n e e a a e s 1eV 1 . * eW Alo,Cl m 11i dea t unde Slyt v.Para n,205 S. 2d 680,682 ( 1 4) s ai s fuled r a on ria E. Va. 97 , be us Hiksc d ha r ie t is on die ta al butf l t do s Se Vi on v. ca e c oul ve as d he s ue r c ppe , aied o o. e ns Tr e 4 6 F.d 41 ,41 (t Ci.2 6 t ria i a a e uae a d id pe d n b r u , 3 3 2 7 4h r 00 ) pnrg n s n d q t n n e n e t a ). M a t e d e n ta py, n Hik ha no s wn c u ea p eu ieo amic ni g o j sie ri z o s o p l a d c s s t ho a s nd rj d c r s a a e f u tc n e xcus shi de a t6 e s f ul. #. M ari zCl ms tne ai (lin 1 za r Hi ks' cai s of i feci a ssa e of c uns l k m ei a c lm ne f tve s it nc o el ac zt nd, t us a e not h , r ç ubsa il' Ac di y,t co tfnds t t t e cai s a e ba e fom f de alha as ç t nta . s ' cor ngl he ur i ha hes l m r n'd r e r be r vi w. e e I Cli 1 Hiksa srst ttilc u e wa i fe tv fr( )fiig t f l w h s n am , c se t ha ra o nsl s nefcie o 1 aln o ol i o isr cin t ha e te p ei n r p o e d n sG tt b c n iu d' a ()f rf iig t n tu to o v h r l ay r c e i g 1 o e o tn e ,1 nd 2 o aln o mi no ' m ovet c i t pr lmi yhe rng be a e ac t e rtrwasnotpr s nt o ontnue he e i nar a i c us our r po e ee . Fis,Hiks'a l a i a e c l o y. He ha no pr de a s rt c leg tons r onc us r s t ovi d ny uppor f hi c am t o< s l i t tco i ng,orhavi a c tr pore pr e ,woul ha r s t i f vor bl e denc ha ntnui ng our e tr es nt d ve e uled n a a e vi e. Hi a s ri nt tCld t si p i, a b e s o i li h a , ssu e i h ss llh a d s se t ha y e t n an h d e n h t n l e d wa ln'd n i peec n o wa s 6 M a tnez c n onl be us d t s ri a y e o how c us f i fe tve as itnc of c elatt i talha as a e or ne fc i ssa e ouns he nii be pr edig. oce n 7The cour i e rt Cl m 1 t bet cou e wa i f c i f f lng t co i t hea i , not t ntp es ai o hat ns l s nefe tve or aii o ntnue he rng f lngt ha t he i R t bec i d. Thelte i m e ils bec et hea i wasnotc i d.The aii o ve he arng not o ontnue ' ' a tr s rte s aus he rng ontnue c u ts itrrtto i b ltrd b Hik 'sae n t t<th d fnse wa a a mii m e t ld t a o r' nep eain s osee y c s ttme t ha t le ee ll s t l nmu nie o t c niullc . Pe ' Am. t5 ECFNo. o tn an e' frs Pe. , ' 7. on . . .o xyt i ' i no pr of t thi consiutona rg s we e vi aed o t tt vi a i 8 tt i l i ht r ol t r ha he ol ton oc n,' s t o ha s fm dn nt ly a f t hi ti l Unde Ni ke s ba e al ga i a e nots t intgr mdsf l me al feced s ra . r c r on, r le tons r ufk e ot or ha asr lel Se nd,co ms lsdecson t notc i t he rng i par oft ti lsr t gy be ei t co t e' ii o ontnue he a i s t he ra ta e t a i lf t c u s lsp o e so a j g n .Ne Yo k v Hi , 28U. 1 0,1 5 1 ( 0 0 h t s e t o o n e' r fs in l ud me t w r . l 5 l S. 1 1 - 6 2 0 ) Csc e ui g matr a e pli l a n t o e f r whih a r e n b c t e g neal l h d ln tes r any mo g h s o c g e me t y oms l e rly c nto s. .( ny c u s li i ap sto t a s s t eb n fto d ti n o ted ly t te o r l . Oj l o n e s n o iin o se s h e ei r erme t f h ea o h dee nts c e.) Theeor ,Cl m 1 f l t r bot prngs i Stil nd and i no fnda ' as '. ' rf e ai ais mde h o n rcda s t Es t tal'mderM a tne Gubsan i 'l ri z. Cl i s 2,5,6,a 7 am nd I Cli 2 Hik alg st a c u e wa ief ci e f rf i n t o j c t te til n am , c s l e h t o nsl s n fe tv o al g o be t o h 'a e i r c ur' a s r t çwo n ts' fo te j r a l g whehe t e sn e c s wo l r n o ts n we o i t o e ' ' m h u y sdn r t r h e tn e ud u co e utvey or c nc r nty. Fis,t e rc r s o ta t ej r o y sn o noe t te ns c i l o ure l rt h e o d h ws h t h u y nl e t ne t o h j g d n tep n s me tp a e Thej r t s e t l o i t es n e e i s dwo l ud e mi g h u ih n h s . u y G h d o c w f h e tnc s mpo e u d wi n nm co ec i l or c ure l ' a t c tE orecl a we e t t çhe we e no t ns utvey onc r nty,' nd he our G r ty ns r d ha t y r t o c c once t m s ve wih wha ha ne a tr r .' Hiksv. Di. De tofConn N o.CL1 m he el s t t ppe d fe wa ds'i c r. p' , 3- 2 3, t7( . r Ct J 9, 1 ) ECF No. 8 Ata h. 0 a Va Ci. . un 20 5 , 1 , tc 6.Ast esaeh be sv u t t d t e h tt a a o r noe ,h til u g ' a we wa ac re tsae n o lw.Vie v. n y, 5 F.d 3 2 3 9( t Ci. ra j d es ns r s or c ttme t f a n s Mu c 5 3 2 4 , 4 4h r 1 7 ) (( h pl s me tfx d b t j r i no fn lo a s lt,sn e is fn i o t 9 7 < Tj e nih n le y he u y s t i a r b oue i c t idng n he 1 p o e p nih n i s b e tt s s nso b tetil u g ...Th v r ito tej r i t r p r u s me t s u j c o u pe in y h ra j d e e e dc f h u y s he fxi ofma mum punihme whi ma bes r ed. Couns li noti feci f fii t i ng xi s nt ch y e v ' l. e s nef tve or alng o ma ea f tl o j cin. S e M o d v.P l 4 F.d 1 ,1 (t Ci 2 0 )(o dn t a k ui be to e e o y ok, 08 3 41 51 4 h n 0 5 h l ig h t c t e i n trq ie t fl i oo smo in ) oms l s o e u rd o ie v lu to s. 8 Oxyt i i a hor ocn s mone us d as a medi ton t f iiat chidbit, pr s bl Hi me nt t e cai o aclt e l rh' e uma y cks a he pr s rptonpankilr Oxycon i eci i i le , tn. I Cli 5 Hiks a g e ta c t e wa i efcie f r f ing t o jc t M s n am , c r u s h t oms l s n fe tv o al o be t o . i Fi hn ' t si ony be a e i wa f le. Howe r c el c le d M s Fi hn ' nc m s e tm c us t s a s ve , ouns hal nge . nc m s i n ii a i t si o by c tng doubton he a lt t s e, hr de tfc ton e tm ny msi r biiy o e t ough f ige a whiedrvi ola nd l i ng, wh twa g ig o i fo t Cld Del g rs h me Tr 2 - 4 (ço o e y u p s te a s on n n r n y e li e ' o . . 717 ç nc o a s h n S d e y i yo wil a yviw o t i ae wo l beb o k db te s c re t '. Hik fist dv wa ,f u l, n e f hs r a ud l c e y re , o rct) c s al o l s w t tc t e' d cso no t o j c wa i fe tv a ssa eo c u s lb c u ep tig ho ha oms ls e iin t o be t s nefcie sitnc f o n e e a s u t n tece blt o Ms Fic m' tsi n t t ej r b c si d u to h re e t s cams h rdii y f . n hn s etmo y o h u y y a t o b n e y wi s li i ng ne c udha eb e ar a o a l tiltci .Se Ar l v. t,1 3F.d 1 5 ,1 2 6 (t Ci. o l v e n e s n b e ra a tc e nod Evat 1 3 3 2 36 - 3 4h r 1 9 )( t e' d cso t p t win s'ce i ii t tej r i ta o o j cig c udha e 9 7 Coms ls e iin o u a t e s rd blt o h u y nse d f b e tn o l v y be np r o ar a o a l til tae y . e a t f e s n be ra srtg ) l Cli 6 Hiksc n e d ta c u s l si fe tv f rf iigt o j c o mo efra n am , c o tn s h t o n e wa nefcie o aln o b e t r v o m iti lwhe t Com mon e lh i toduc a . c i fr n m i o e de e,ast wea sra n he w at n r ed 40 alber ie r nt vi nc he pon Gn lme a dprj d c dt j r t c nvcin' Hik p o et t a t e .0 c l rpitlwa G fn d n eu ie he u y o o ito . c s r tss h t h 4 ai so s i ' be ir l va a un c s rl i mm aor i t Cl De lnge ti be us c ms l ha re e nt nd ne es a iy nia t y n he yde li r ral ca e ot e d s e s uly s ve e c r ucc s f l e r d ha ges r ga di ot r fr n ms i l ng t .40 cai r wea e r ng he ie r , nc udi he lbe pon. , Ne rhe e s t . c i rsr r wasr lva be a eHi ksha ta t . cai rpit ve t l s , he 40 albe en m ee nt c us c d r ded he 40 lbe sol f rt . cai rsr r us d t s o he 38 lbe en m e o hootCl De lnge .Tr 1 9 208- . yde li r . 69- 2, 211 Fu t r h camst tc u s lwa i efcie f rn to j ci t t e ifn t r rhe, e li ha o n e s n fe tv o o be tng o h n lmmao y n tteo t e i n e Ho v r te d cso n tt o j c9wa av 1d ti lsr t gy, b c u e at f he vde c . we e, h e iin o o be t s ai ra ta e e a s r a o j cin c u dha e d a tej r satn in e n fzte t t ee d nc . S eEva sv. n be to o l v r wn h u y' te to ve t h r o h vie e e r n Tho s n 88 F.d 1 7 1 5( t Ci.1 9 ( o dn ta d cdngwh t e t o j c o n t sa mo o , 1 2 1 , 2 4h r 98 ) h l ig h t e ii eh r o b e t r o i 9I c u slh d oj ce t te i lmmaoy n tr o te e d n e i wo l h v b e te sc n f o n e a b etd o h nfa tr aue f h vie c , t ud a e e n h e o d o j cin rg r ig te sme e ie c . Co nslh d ara y oj ce o rlv nc go n s K o sl:You be to e adn h a vd n e u e a le d be td n ee a e ru d : r un e) r Ho r Im g ig t o j c t ter lv n eo s mehn t tto pa e i J n ay o 20 0' Tr 1 . Th no, ' on o be t o h ee a c f o tig ha o k lc n a u r f 1 . . 71 e ' Co n at ct ee:4- i ( 0cl e)fer .. i g igt b cn etdwi t sc n ! nta we mmowel omtrd tl s . ai r i am .s on o e o n ce t he eo d u ht h llh 4 b r h beiv wa tes oigwe p n.An s i' n c sayt plc g e.0c l r g ni ( c s)p seso 'I. le e s h ho tn a o d o ts e e sr o a e t 4 ai ) u n Hik ' o sslm' d h be tcia d cso ta l to n y ma r ui eyl; o r v. ie S e , 3 F. u p. 2 7 7 a tc l e iin h t t tr e s ke o tn l' M o e Untd uts 9 4 S p 7 4, 2 a ( D. .1 9 )(t d e ,a1 a tto r r c g iet tn ti rq e ty i i b te t r man E. Va 9 6 Gn e d l prci nes e o nz ha o nfe u n l, t s etr o e i l i sln t a t d a atni n t a matr b o fdn a o j cin. Co rs to r c g ie ie t h n o rw te to o te y fe g n b e to u t, o , e o nz c un e' a tno i srtg ctil e vo .) o s ls u o my n tae i ra b ha ir' . ' I Cli 7 Hiks sae h t c u s lwa ie fci f r fiig t o j c t Cl e n am , c tt sta o n e s n fe t o al o b e t o yd ve n Del g rstsi n be a e Cld wa o Ox n i ml ha j s b e s t s e i al , li e ' etmo y c us y e s n yco tn d d u t e n ho; p cfc ly n co elf ie t fl a m oton t obti Cl s t c ogy r por,ha a c uns al d o ie i o a n yde' oxi ol e t ve ompe e y he rng, t nc a i ent t s l r ni aw ça oroutihte l Cl ' t tmony a a i ompet wines .o Under Vigi a l , lll rg xcude yde s esi s n nc win s i c mp tn t tsiy. . i he ç se s l) t e c p ct t o e v , r c le t t e s s o ee t o etf . f po ss es h a a iy o bsr e e olc, c muni ae e n s a i elge l fn e a we st t quesi as d ofhi orhe wih a om c t ve t , nd nt li nty r m ns r o he tons ke m r t c c o nes ofa dut t s a t t uh.' J sv.Com monwe 1h,526 S. 2d 281 287ons i us s y o pe k he r t '' one at E. , 88 ( . . p. 0 )(uoi Gre wa v. mmo we 1h 4 7S. 2 2 4, 27( .1 9 :.I Va CtAp 20 0 q tng e n v Co n at , 8 E.d 2 2 Va 9 7 n hi pe ii n,Hi ks al ge t tbe a e Cl sured hi wor ,ha r ce l 'nde gone s ve e s tto c le s ha c us yde l r s ds d e nty u r e r ta l a,a wa o pankilr ,he wa a i ompee wines . Howe r wine sco pe e y r lm nd s n i le s s n nc tnt t s ve , t s m t nc i an e r m ey l ba , a Hi ks f is as a m a tr of 1w t al ge s fc e t f c s t s xte l ow r nd c a l te a o le ufi i n a t o de onsr t t tCl wasi ompe e t1 m tae ha yde nc tn . 1 1 TheAsitntAto ne Gene a i t pr s ntca ei epr td Hiks'pe ii asi f tveas itnc of 0 ssa tr y r l n he e e s ntr ee c tton nefeci ssa e c u s lfrtal gt oj c t Pa l Del g rstsi n o tego n ta s eusdOx co t ' Rep'' Br o n e o l in o b et o ua ln e' etmo y n h ru d h t h e y ni ' s ts . fi i n. 1 ECF No.1 Howe r Hiks flngs ce l r frt Cl Deli rbei i 5, 8. ve , c ' ii lary ee o yde lnge ng ncompee t tsiy,notPa a tnt o e tf ul Del g r 1 -Del g rwa o Ox n t a tetmeo tsi n a d silu e a d co ' cr . Pe ' ln e: 4 . li e s n ycogli t h i f etmo y n tl nd r o trs ae' frs i M1 n n ' S p .t Am.P t 2 -4 ECF No 7 Atah 1 Alo ; .Del g rha iultga me t i hsbri wa u pl o e. 32 , . , tc . s, $ Mr ln e d b le g nus n i an, s i su ig wo d , tme r o e e t gi) a d wa o ( y lji)an roi wi o tad co Eq c n e t' lnfn ) r s no moy f v ns sc, n s n Ox contn ac t t u o tr's o s n ' c h Pe ' Res t M ot t Dimis6,ECF No.27. Thesaeha ascom'as a e s d t cl m asPa aDeli r frs p. o . o s s tt be t lo ddr s e he ai ul lnge usng Oxyco i Re r e s ofHiks'i e i Cl m 7,he a s rsno e de t tPa a Delngerwa on i ntn. ga dls c ntnt n ai set vi nce ha ul li s Oxycontn att tme ofhe t si i he i r etmony;t r or ,i t cai wasmea t rf rt Pa a Deli r i i sil heef e f he l m nt o e e o ul lnge , t s tl wihoutm e i. t rt 1 Att t e hol , Eede a ha a co pusr i doesno le f ero sofsae l 'be aus Gi i nott 1 he k s d ç r l be s r f elef t i or r r tt aw' c e it s he pr nc of a f de a habe cour t r xami sae c tdee mi tons on sae-a que tons' Esel v. ovi e e rl as t o ee ne tt- our tr na i tt lw si .' tle Mc ie 5 2 U. 6 6 - 8( 9 )( odn t tfd rlh b a c u t cu o l rve saec u td cso so Gur, 0 S. 2, 7 6 1 91 h lig ha e ea a e s o rs a ny e iw tt-o r e iin n sae1w i ted cso wa s o ta e u a t voaed epocs) l Vigna Gth a misblyo e ie c i tt a fh e iin s o urg o s s o ilt u r es. n rii, lje d siii f vd n e s t wihi t dic ei oft ti c ' a alhough t Vigi a Cour ofAppe s di notdiecl a e s a t n he s r ton he ral oul ' nd t , he r ni t al d r ty ddr s 1 3 To s uppor hi c am ,Hi ks m e e y o lys t po e il sde e f c s of Oxycontn,a t s li c r l uta he t nta i fe t i ge a c uton r ga d ng isus i e de l a de lt t pa int ,a a a lga i n t tCl ner l a i e r i t e n l ry nd biiaed te s nd n le to ha yde di no ha a vai pr s dpton. Hi sae e sa e s fs r i a c us r a he of e s d t ve ld e c i s t tm nt r el- e vng nd oncl o y nd fr n p o fta Cldewa s d b l ae b hi ij r a alg dp i kle us t a ito u to o o ro h t y s o e ii td y s nu y nd le e an ilr e h t nr d cin f t t t si he e tmony i o e de e vi aed Hiks c nsiu i lrg s nt vi nc ol t c ' o tt tona i ht .Rega dl s co ms ' dec son r es , t els ii n tt o j c t t si n a d i ta pu tewin s e 'c e iii t t ej r c ul h v be n o o b e t o e tmo y n nse d t h t e s s r db ly o h u y o d a e e t . pa tofar as bl ti lsr t t e or c ms lspe f m a e wa notdek intast Cli r e ona e ra taegy; her f e, ot e ' ror nc s t e o am 7. Se Ar d,11 F. a 1 2e nol 3 3d t 36 63. F rh r Hik f ist d mo taeprj d c fo c t e' f i r t o jc i Cli 2, u te, c s al o e nsr t eu ie r m omsls al e o be t n ams u 5, 6, a nd Se Untd Sae v.W o d 8 9 F. 9 7 9 3 3 ( C.Ci. 1 8 ) (iig e ie tts o , 7 2d 2 , 3 - 4 D. r 9 9 ctn Ki l nv. o ts n 47 U. 3 5 3 5 (98 ) C ( op e al n acam o ief cie e s mmema M rio , 7 S. 6 , 7 1 6 ) ûTq r v i o li f n fe tv n s of c ouns l a de e nt m us s e, f nda t how t t t r i a te ona e pr biiy t t but f t ha he e s r as bl oba lt ha, or he c ms lst of s i ler r ,t r s toft pr e di wotl ha be n dif r nt ...t ot e ' mpr e sona r o s he e ul he oc e ng ld ve e fe e ' he d fn a tmu ts o t tte ( cam ha mei a dt a t eewa ara o a l p s iii t t ee d n s h w ha h q li s rt n h t h r s e s n b e o sblt ha y t ev r itwo l h v b e dfee t. .' .Hik ma e n s c s wi g tu ,Cli 2 5 h e dc ud a e e n ifrn . .) c s k s o u h ho n ; h s ams , , ' 6,a 7 do nots ts y et rpr unde Stikl nd,a a eno Gs t nta 'unde M a tne nd a if ihe ong r rc a nd r t tubsa il' r ri z. c ompeenc is ,t c tdi uphol t ti c tsr i t tCl ' tsi t y sue he our d d he ral our' ulng ha ydes e tmony wa ad s i e unde he r a s misbl r asy e c pin . Hik v Co n at,7 SE.d 7 ,7 2 5 ( .Ct Ap 201 ) I hspeiin,Hik cts x e to s c s . mmo we 1 25 . 2 48 5 - 5 Va . p. 2. n i tt h o cs i e UntdSae v Lasn 5 6F.d7 9(t Ci.1 7 )a Harsv. to ,3 5F.d5 2(t Ci. 0 , tb t i tts . ro , 9 2 5 8h r 9 9 nd ri Cotn 6 3 5 7h r 20 4)bu oh e c e a et ii l La s t deens r se bec us a e ul t y wines a r d t be u vaia e,bu as s r mavalng. n ren, he f e e td a e n xc paor t s ppea e o na lbl t t wi s b cmea albes rl atra dr o nn tec s wo l n th v peudc d t g en n. I he me s e n v ia l hot fe n e pe ig h a e ud o a e rj ie he ov rme t n y Ha rs c m s w a i feci i a mur rti f f ii t obti at col r po twhih woul ha s ri, ol el s ne f tve n de ral or alng o an oxi ogy e r c d ve hown t tt vitm ha bee unde t i l nce of ac ha he ci d n r he nfue lohola c i a t tme t peii r kil t vitm. nd ocane t he i he ttone led he ci Be aus t peiine asere a s l- e e a g entand t t c ogy r por r fece upon t vi i ' c e he tto r s td efdefns r um he oxiol e t e l td he ctm s be a ira tetmeo tevci sd ah,h rpo tç scic lo Eh peiin rs d fn e' 3 F.da 5 6 h vo t h i f h it m' et te e r ç wa rt a t te t o e ') ee s . 65 3 t 5 . i t ' Hik ddno h v awi esb cmea albeatrted fns rse b tb fr coigaj met l i Lasn; cs i t a e t s eo vial fe h ee e etd u eoe lsn ru ns i n ro n ke Cl Deli rwa nota e paor wines ,a hedi beor ti .Alo,unlket peli ri Ha rs Hiks yde lnge s n xcul t y t s nd ed f e ral s i he ttone n ri, c doesnotar e t the s Cl i s fde e e a t tco elwa i f tve f notobti ng a t c ogy gu ha hot yde n el- f ns nd ha uns s nefeci or ani oxiol r po of Cl a t tme oft s i i t d,he agues t tco elwas i fe tve f no o ani a e rt yde t he i he hootng; nsea r ha uns nef ci or t bt i ng t c ogyr por a t tmeofCl stsi oxiol e t t he i yde' e tmony. 14 ii i. Cl m 3 ai I Cli 3,Hiksa s rst tcom s lwapi feci f rf lng t c lOf rFi hn n am c s e t ha t e ne f tve o aii o al fce nc m as a de e e wine s t t siy a f ns t s o e tf bout wha he ha t d J m e Ha l y t s y a t d ol a s cde o a bout hi s i ntfc ton o Hi ks a wha Ofi e Fi ha t d hi m o he ,br he ,a sse -n-a t de i a i f c nd t fc r nc m ol s t r ot r nd it r i lw o s y a utHiks c e.TheRa hn a bo c ' as ppa nnoc Co mt Cic tCou hel t : k t y r ui rt d hat Elheewa no e de e Ofie Fi hnm tza d f hi fmiyt t tf a ' r s vi nc fc r nc T ar nge or s n l o esiy nd i e tf Mr Hik . F rh r t e Ea tt a ( c rFi h mlwa a o fc ro d niy . c s' u te , h f c h t Ox e nc n s n fie n s e a dhi moh rtsi dt a s s w M1 Hik a Eh v ci ss o )o te c ne n s te e tfe h t he a . c s t t e it . m' h p n h da i q si was br y n ue ton ought out durng c os - m i ton a a gu a i r sexn na i nd r ed t s ntncng. And, defns c ms l sae t t thlr i ntsc ton of t e e i ' ' e e ot e tts ha l e de i ai he d f n a twa s be tt co se n n to a d is ce i l y o lc t ee f e e d n s u j c o r s -x miain n t rdbit , r a k h ro , i wa a gue d li c osng a pl nt' s r d trng l i r me . Hiks v Co n at ,No.CL1 - 0 ,a 9 1 ( .Ci.Ct J n.9 2 5 ,ECF No.1 , c . mmo we lh 3 2 3 t - 0 Va r . u , 01 ) 8 Ata h.6. The co ta e wih t sa e ha as c ts a yss Hi ks doe notofe a tc ur gr es t he t t be our' nal i . c s f r ny s uppori f c s f r hi c l o y al ga i of a Fi ha c piac t ha Ha kl y a t a t o s onc us r le ton ng nc m ons r y o ve c e nd f m iy m e r t tf a ns Hiks Re r e s Hiks ha not pr f r a a sda t of a l mbe s esiy gai t c . ga dl s , c s ofe ed n f vi Ofke Fi hn ' pur re f vor bl t tmony, c pr sf t lt hi cli . SeeBea rv. f r nc m s po td a a e esi wM h ove a a o s a m ve Th mp o 9 F.d 1 8 ,1 9 (t Ci.1 9 ) Fu te , oms l st tla to iy t ma a e o s n, 3 3 1 6 1 5 4 h r 9 6 . rh r c t e ha ç z uh rt o n g fl t c n u to t til. .a lt ecin mus a c p t c n e u nc so t lwy rsd cso he o d c f he ra . lnd h le t t e e t he o s q e e f he a e ' e iin t f r o co se n n t n,(r t d cd n tt p tc ran wi se o t sa d. Ta l rv o o g r s-x miai o) o e i e o o u e ti t s s n he tn ' y o . o ne ' Iln i, 4U. 4 , 8( 9 8 .Be a s Ofi e Fnc n G udn tc o rt wi d fns lio s 48 S. 00 41 1 8 ) c u e tc r i h m l l o o peae t ee e wo h c ms l a woul nothave ha a hi f vo a e t s f r t def ns ,'co ms lm a a ot e nd d d nyt ng a r bl o ay o he e e' t e de r as bl t t c lde i i n t notc l O o ce Fi hnm t t tf H i ks v.Com m o e t N o. e ona e ac i a c s o o al r nc o es iy. c nw alh, CL1 - 0 a 8 ( . r Ct Jm. , 1 ) ECF No 1 , tc .6 32 3, t Va Ci. . t 9 20 5 , . 8 Ata h .Thee oe Cli 3 d e n t rf r , am o s o s ts y et rpr ofStill nd a i notû ubsa i l' ai f ihe ong rcca nd s & t nta 'unde M a tne s r ri z. i v. Cl i 4 am I Cl m 4,Hi ks a gu t t c ms l wa i f c i whe s f l t i tga e n ai c r es ha ot e s nefe tve n he aied o nvesi t J s Hàcce i or rt c l nge hi t tm ony o fl a moton t ha Ha kl y' saeme ame lly n de o hale s esi r ie i o ve c e s t t nt diq lfe a he r a Fis,Hi kshasnotde onsr t d wha f vor bl e de e woul ha s uaii d s a s y. r t c m ta e t a a e vi nc d ve r s td fo iv siain. S e Be ve,9 F.d a 1 9 C( n alg to o ia e u t eul r m n e tg to e e a r 3 3 t 1 5 A) le ain f n d q ae i si to does no wara ha s r i a en a pr f of wha f vo a e e de e or nve tgai n t r nt bea elef bs t ofer t a r bl vi nc tsi n wo l h v b e p o u e . S c nd Hiksh sn td mo srtd h w a dto a e t y ud a e e n r d c d' e o , c a o e n tae o d iin l mo ). i si a i wo d ha a f t t out ome oft ti l SeeM oa nve tg ton ul ve feced he c he ra . wad v.Ande s 1 F. r on, 43 3d 9 2,9 8 (t Ci.1 98 CA d f n a twho alg sa fiu et i v si ae o te p r o h s 4 4 5h r 9 ) ee d n l e al r o n e tg t n h a t f i e co ms m us alege wih s cfct wha t i tga i woul ha r veaed a how i t el t l t pe ii iy t he nvesi ton d ve e l nd t wo l h v atr d t e o to o t e ti1'. GW jto ta s cfc a tnn tv s o n o ud a e l e h uc me f h ra .) l i u pe ii, fi aie h wig f e ' l h wha t m isng e de e o t si o woul ha be n . t he s i vi nc r e tm ny d ve e :t i ve y difc t t as es i s r f ul o s s whehe co els pe f ma was de i e ,a ne dy i t r uns ' r or nce fcint nd a mpos i e t de e mi whe he t sbl o t r ne t r he p tto e wa p eudc db a y d fce isi c u t ef r n e'l An es nv. li ,1 eiin r s rj ie y n eiince n o r p ro ma c .'. d ro Co l 8 ' ns F.d 1 0 ,1 21(t Ci.1 9 )(u tn Untd Sae e rlPa tev La e 9 F.d6 4 701 3 2 8 2 5h r 9 4 q o ig ie tts x e. re . n , 26 2 9 , ( t Ci.1 91) Attil Hiksdd c n rd c Ha kly' tsi n sih l b sai g t the 7h r 9 ). ra, e i o ta it c e s etmo y l ty y ttn ha g had ne r m e Ha e None hees ,Cl i 4 i e iey t u ve t ckly. t l s am s ntr l ms ppored by f c s he does not t a t: alege s cii f a e e de et ti si ton woul ha r ve l d,a he doe no s l pe fc avor bl vi nc ha nve tga i d ve e a e nd s t how how a i si ton ofHac e woul ha a f t t out ome o t til n nve tga i kly d ve feced he c f he ra . Furhe , H i co pl ns t t H acde s t tm ony s ul ha bee di qualf e a t r cks m ai ha l y' esi ho d ve n s ii d s he s y. Ho ve ,Ha kl y ha pe s ar a we r c e d r onalknowldge o t f t t ryi hi t tm o Fis, e f he acs mde l ng s esi ny. rt Ha l y t tse t tCl had i r e Hikst Ha kly a ç ommy Tho ps m ' Tr 238. cde esi d ha yde ntoduc d c o c e s T m o ' . Se nd,Ha kl y t tfed t t he kne t t Cl ge r l c ni d a sgnii a n ot of co c e esii ha w ha yde ne aly a e i fc nt m mt m one o hi pe s n be a e Cl r n a c h busnes a had m a c y n s r o c us yde a as i s nd de hangef rHa kly a tr o c e fe pur ha e a r pais Tr 240- Co e wa noti feci f r f ii t m a a i ous c s s nd e r . . 43. uns l s ne f tve o alng o ke vol m oton. See M oody,408 F. a 1 . The e or ,Cl i 4 doe not s ts y et r pr ng of i 3d t 51 r f e am s a if ihe o Stikl nd a i notts t ta'underM ari . rc a nd s &ubsan i l' tnez v. Cl i 8 am I Cl m 8,Hi a g st tc n ai cks r ue ha ouns lwa i fe tve f f ii t as t sae f e i e s ne f c i or alng o k he tt or nsc s e itwhy,i Cl De lnge had bee s fom i i t bl c r prm e r sdue had no cints f yde li r n hot r nsde he ue a , i r e i t bee f n ound i va i pl c i t ca ,o Cl Delnge ' cl hes a o Cl De lnge n rous a es n he r n yde li rs ot , nd n yde li r hi ef I hi pe ii n,Hiks a ks que to wihout a tmptng t a we t m a m a s ms l. n s tto c s si ns t te i o ns r he nd ke co l or sa e e s abo how,i c ncus y tt m nt ut f ouns lha q si ne t s i ts,t t tmony woul e d ue to d he cen it he esi d ha bee f vor bl Una we ed que to a l al c usons l c ng f c ua s ve n a a e. ns r si ns nd eg oncl i a ki a t l uppor t cn nnot s ts y t def r nta sa r t r Stiklnd. M o e r whe co e c os a if he e e il t nda d mde rc a r ove , n uns l r s e mi d t f e i o fc r c xn ne he or nsc fi e , ouns l q si e ue toned ma a pe t of t f e i pr e s ny s c s he or nsc oc s , i l ng whe e t i tga o gahe e t prm e , t pos i lt of ta f r nc of t ncudi r he nvesi t r t r d he i r he sbiiy r nse e e he prm e ,a t i biiy oft f e i s e itt de e mi how ol t prme s i r nd he na lt he or nsc cints o t r ne d he i r ampl wa . e s Tr 444- I ge r l ha sco t t r r uc a t s ond gu st t c i ofti ll . 45. n ne a , bea urs t e el t nt o ec a es he a tcs ra awye s' r, ' a wine squesi ng i a m a troftilsr tgy. Goods v.Unied St t ,56 F. 1 , nd t s toni s te ra tae on t aes 4 2d 071 1 7 (t Ci.1 7 ) ee o e Cli 8d sno s tsy et rpr n u d rS rc a d i no 0 2 4h r 9 7 .Th rf r , am oe t aif i he o g n e tikln s t ç ubsa il'mde M ari z. G tnta 't r s tne Cl m 9 ai l Cli 9 Hik alg st a c u s lwa ief cief rno noiyngt j r ta J l n am , c s le e h t o n e s n fe tv o t tf i he u y h t om M ccoy ha f ie t i ntf Hi i c lta t m a t twaswih Cl Delnge a ot t d a ld o de iy cks n otr s he n ha t yde li r r md he tm e oft s i M c i he hootng. coy t si d t the s w a ma s a ng t De lnge o t ni htof e tfe ha a n pe ki o li r n he g J me 1 , butM cco di notr cog z hi .2 M c t 0 nw at s y d e nie m : coy sa e i r pons t t Comm o e lh' tt d n es e o he q sinng t t t ma c ul ha e b e Hik ,b t c u s l o j ce t t e a we a ueto i ha he n o d v e n c s u o n e be td o h ns r s s c ltv , ih tetil o r s san d.Tr 28 - 8 Afe c u s lss san d o j cin,h pe uaie whc h ra c u t u ti e . 7 8 . tr o n e' u ti e b e to te jzy wa wela r t tM c y h df ie t i e tf Hik a t ema wi Deln e o t e t r s l wa e ha co a ald o d niy c s s h n t lig r n h h nih o te s o tn . Hik c n o s o de in p rb ma c o prj ie fo c t e' g t f h h oi g c s n n t h w fce t e lr n e r eudc r m oms ls f i r t rieaek o fcst tej r .Th r fr ,Cli 9 d e n ts tsy et e p o g o al e o etrt n wn a t o h u y ee o e am o s o aif ih r r n f u Stiklnd a i notç ubsa il' rc a nd s G t nta 'unde M a t z. s r ri ne VI . For t r s ns sae t c twil gr nt t moton t dimis Al c am s a e he ea o t td, he our l a he i o s s. l li r pr e a l ba r wiho e us a or no c za e on f r l ha as r vi w. An oc dm ly red t ut xc e nd/ t ogni bl ede a be e e appr it or rwile e t sda opra e de l nt r hi y. The Cl r i dieced t s nd c e oft s me or ndum o ni and a c pa ng e k s r t o e opi s hi m a pi on c om nyi or rt Hiksa t c de o c nd o ouns lofr c d f Res e e or or ponde . nt M E R: i :9 dyo zn, 0 7 NTE Ths a r u e2 1 . ChifUnie St t sDititJ e t d a e src udge 1 R s w ( ma a Deln e')b tldd 'rc g iehm, n Idd 'ge aral g o lo a hm. Tr 2 I a a n t lig rs, u int e o nz i a d int t e l o d o k t i ' . y ' 284. 18