Barksdale v. Clarke et al, No. 7:2016cv00355 - Document 49 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 8/4/2017. (mlh)
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çk K:ç/ i Q, 91% çqkFr o l ig/ :, : ' l' A RA k ! A T NVIW'V FI LED I THE UV TED STATESDI CT COURT N STRI FOR TH E W ESTERN DISTRI OF VI NI CT RGI A R O AN O K E DI SI N VI O JU LI N BAR K SD A LE, A ALC #* 2 7 2 J U BYJ .U ,c RK * Ci lA c i n N o.7: c 00355 vi t o 16- v- Pl ntf, ai if M EM O M ND U M O PI I N N O H A R O LD C LAR K E ,e aI, t . D efendant s. By: H on.Jac o L.Ki e ks n sr Se or U ni e St esD i t i tJudge ni t d at src i l i ht ompl i ant J in Ba ks e, Vigi ai aepr e di pr K , ied acvi rg sc ula r dal a r ni nm t oc e ng o fl . pls a tt 4 U. 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Jme2 ,1 91 (o cu igta apo po p ro n ll t dc l tfl'sno aç ro 'frp ro e SD. Y.t 0 9 ) c n ldn h t u f es n e,i d ia sat i t t s n'o up s s ke me ' pe o j1 3. f 98 ) ' 2Plitf fldaû to t fl a n e s nmayjd me 'b whihh p o i sb ifo o ig anif e t in o ie me d d u z r u g nt' y c e r vde re pp sn ' mo . a gum e anda t hesi l lr E. Them oto i p a e t t e e Iconsde t a tonala gu en a r nt tac ç osze ' Enc ' in s ntd o he xtnt i r he ddii r m t nd t étc d e l ur . he ta he ncos e Dockets.Justia.com bee f n ound guly ofa l s e gh y- nei tt i lco c i , ncudi tn f rtle t ni it t ea t i t ni nsiutona nvitons i l ng e o lr a e ng bodiy ha m,plnni t c l r n ng o ommi agg a t a s ul upo anon- f nde ,a pos es i ofa t r vaed s a t n ofe r nd s son w ea ors r ned i t m e . pon ha pe ns nz nt Plitf h sb e i s g e ae h usn dtigt emao i o hi c ni e n a Re an if a e n n e r g td o i g t n h j rt f s o fn me t t d r y Oni n. Pli ifco pl i t thewa ç r ta iy'desg t asaLe S i ae o M a c 1 o antf m ans ha s ç bir rl ' i naed a vel nm t n r h 7, 201 a t thewasdesgna e a a Spe i lM a ge nti apf ra oxi ael t nt 5, nd ha i td s c a na me nm t o ppr m t y we y m ont bef r heco m e edt sa ton.3 hs o e m nc hi c i Re Oni sLe lS i a e m a bedesgnaed i oneoft m an caegores I e i d on' ve nm t s y i t n wo i t i ' nt nsve . M a a e n (I > o S e ilMa g' n (iM > . Fr m tj mo tt ja t e t dicSC M n g me t &M > r p ca na e t ç ;4 o je s o e s r sl v C W Y ( ) me S ) i c a ssc tons I i aesa ede i na e asI - I - ,I - a I l s i a i , M nm t r s g t d M O, M 1 M 2, nd M SL6, SM i aes and nm t a e des gna e a SM - , SM - ,SM - a SM r i td s O 5 SL6 i a e m a be r duc d t Le nm t s y e e o vel 1 2, nd SL6. SM - 3Le 1S i no as or d s c iy l lbuti as cilpur ebedas i me . Re Oni i t o y s pe a pos sgn nt d on s he nl ve s t c e e urt eve VDOC f iiy t thous LevelS i t s aclt ha es nma e . 4I i aesar t ei ats M nm t e hos nm e : ( i te poe ta fr e te a do d a l voe c . g h y ma h v a Wqt h tnil o xrme n /r edy iln el ' e y a e n h jU isi in l dut n hsoyidctn t c p blyfre te /e dy voe c n t o a a j sme t itr n iaig he a a ii o xrmed a l iln e mt t a i tsa for ot ofe r Thi gr mos oke woul ha a e e i gans tf her fndes. s oup t n d ve n xtnsve ci i lhitr and lf t et thase c atd s t te r m ede y vi e e has rm na so y iesyl ha s al e o ha xte / adl olnc be ome abe vi a c ace itc. Thepotnta f re r me o de y vi enc i c ha or l har trsi e il o xte r adl ol e s no ei n td dept te ofn e' d i isiuin l aj sme t e e wh n t l ae s i h fe d rs al n ttto a dut n v n e mi e y pr di mor t n a yea or c int polt, and c peatve be vi a ovi ng e ha r ompla , ie oo r i ha or nd att tiude. Ale nai l t ofe r may pr e a r i y dir i a tr tvqy, he fnde esnt outnel suptve nd t e tni patrofbe vi a a tt . Alo i ude ofe r i a c r t f hr ae ng te ha or nd tiude s ncl s fnde s nc r e aed or anot i c i t tput t a rs 9om ot rofe s orous rme ha s hem t ik he f nder. SM i aesa et ei aes nm t r hos nm t : ( h ma ds a a isi o a aj sme thso yidc tn rp ae ds ztv Wl o y iply n n tmin l du t n itr n iaig e e td inpie t be vi a lwe l lf iii ,ahitr offghtng wih saf orofkndes,a or ha or t o r eve acltes so y i i t tf l r nd/ vi e dir i be o a lw e lvelf ciii ,ahit y offghtng wilsaf or olnt suptve havir t o r e a ltes sor i i tl t f o fn es a do voln rssa c twad asafitre to rs lig i h r t fe d r, n /r l e t eitn e o r s tf n evn in eut n am o n satoh roln r wi u t itn t h k sro sh r o teitn t ki, r tfl te fb des t the ne t o wo e eiu am r h ne to l o ho l s ro da a t t f iiy,a w hee r s bl i e v ntons a t lw e e ius m ge o he aclt nd r ea ona e nt r e i t he o r s miy l lhavenotbee s ce suli ei nai dir ptvebe vir . ec t eve n uc s f n lmi tng s u i ha o s 5I aesi I - o SM - c enott patci ei t S e D o npr am orc i t e bi nm t n M O r O hoos o zi pat n he t p- w ogr ontnue o xhi t i ppr it be vi .Co eque l t y donotbe ftfom t St Down pr grmmi a i t a r eve na oprae ha or ns nty,he ne i r he epo a ng nd nse d ec i t ba i r r m e sa f de t i at i VD OC s ilho i u t. he sc equie nt for d o nm es n peca usng nis 2 6' Stu t e Li ng Phas 1and t n t Pha e2. Gr dua i fom Pha e2 m a st i t s r c ur d vi e he o s a ton r s ke he nma e ei bl t be a sg d t Le l5 a hous d i age r lpopul i t t lgi e o s i ne o ve nd e n ne a aton mi. W hen Le lS i a e e bi postvebe vi r and s e s uly c m plt esa ihe ve nm t s xhi t ii ha o s ucc s f l o ee t bls d goa s t y a er wa dedwih m o eprvie svi ar duc i i t i s miy cas ii a i .A1 l, he r e r t r i l ge a e ton n her ec t l sfc tons 1 Le lS i a e a egi n t opporu t t pa tci t i t G le Se i y agoa ve nm t s r ve he t niy o ri pa e n he û lnge res' cha ' l ode ed,i e i ba e s gr ton ho i pln f i a e t sudypr s ilgoa svi nt nc ntve- s d e egai usng a or nm t s o t o- oca l a s ve wor e n kbooks A mulidicplna y gr p ofsa fwho wor i t ho i lni c le t . t- s i i r ou tf k n he usng l t al d he Uni M ana m e Te m ta ksa r t se ch Le lS i ae' we kl pe f ma ef t ngs t ge nt n r c nd a e a ve nm t s e y ror nc or hi lkepe s i ronalhygi ne r pe t a sa ng f c tasa hiva epr r st wa d t ne e , es c , nd t ndi or oun c e bl og es o r he xt l e s c iy l ve . Co m s or a s r t e ch i a e' pa tc pa i n a i om pl t ,pos tve ow r e urt e l l el s l o a e a nm t s r i i to s nc ee ii e f t orco plt St f i bot g o s d communi a et r tngst i t s for, m e e. a f n h r ups houl c t he ai o nma e , a knowl c edgepostvepe f r a , a m o i t i t sf ri ove e . An I orSM ii r o m nce nd tva e nma e o mpr m nt6 M i t who doesnots tsy pr r m c ie i a an tm ec bede e aGse down't al wer nma e a if og n rt ra t y i an ni d çt p 'o o c a sfc ton orr tlne t ali he cas ii a i lve . l s ii a i e tr d o lg r l sfc ton e l W hiehedi a nc t ough t Stp- wn pr a a wa ho e i l s r srci l d dva e hr he e Do ogr m nd s us d n e s e ti tve St u tle Li ng as i e sdurng 201 hewasr t r d t SM - sausa trr cevi r ctr d vi sgnm nt i 4, e u ne o O t t fe e i ng i tt i lc r i Se e r201 a i M a c 201 Pli ifco pl nst theha nsiutona ha ges n pt mbe 4 nd n r h 5. antf m ai ha s ar a co pl td t Chal ngeSe i wor le dy m ee he le res kbooksa ye be n t l t r t r t wo kboo nd t e o d o esa the r ks a ha r m ai d cl s i d a SM - s nc M a c 1 201 H o e r Pl i ifhasvi l t nd s e ne a s ûe s O i e r h 7, 5. w ve , a ntf o a ed i tt i lr l s s nc be ng de i t Le lS,a i a esi t St pnsim ona u e i e i s gna ed ve nd nm t n he e Dow n pr a a e ogr m r 6I a tont t Uni M ana e Te m ' we y pr p e sr tngs t I tt ina Cls ik a i gem nt a s ekl o s ai , he nsiuto l a st ton n ddii o he t Auh rt CI 'r uieyrviwsal e rg to imae a p o i tl e eynn t d y .Thel rve a d toiy CA' o tn l e e lsge ain n ts p r xmaey v r iey a s ) CA e iws n a sonr om m e tonsf sep i r as so r duc i ,a a1cls iia i de si m a bea aedt ough ct ec ndai or t nc e e r e tons nd 1 a sfc ton ci ons y ppe l hr , t Ofe rGre ePr dur . he f nde ivanc oce e 3 e c e t r m ai fe ofdicplna y i r c i .Be a et Chale Se i si ac tve xpe t d o e n r e s i i r nfa tons c us he lnge re s ognii bas pr n , nma e ,lkePl ntf , ed ogr m i t s i ai if who i urc r ora ec i r d t sile bi nc ha ges r onsde e o tl xhi t be vi rpr e sar dee ha o oblm e medt ha no ye a edt Chale Se i 'i pr d t ug o ve t t dopt he lnge res m ove ho ht pa tr a s i ls ls Cons que l d s ptve i t sma ber m o d om t St pte ns nd oc a kil. e nty, inl i nma e y e ve he e Down pr a orm a ber quie t r t r t Cha lnge Se i s ogr m y e r d o esa t he le re . Pli ifwa pl e i pr - arng a i sr tve s gr gai a Re Oni a tr antf s ac d n e he i dm nita i e e ton t d on fe r c vi a i tt tona c r i M a c 201 On Apri1 201 Pli tf wasr l a e om e ei ng n nsiui l ha ge n r h 5. i 5, 5, a n if ee s d a nita i s r ga i a a sg t SM - Pl ntf dmi sr tve eg e ton nd s i ned o O. ai ifwasmoved i o d s i i r nt i cplna y s e ton be we n Se e r 1 a Ocober1 201 be a e ofanot rdicplna y egr ga i t e pt mbe 8 nd t 8, 5, c us he s i i r c ci n,a wa t n r l s d ba k t SM - Pl n if sc a sfc ton wa r duc d t SM onvi to nd s he eea e c o O. aitf l s iia i se e o I a a undic os d tm e a o Dec mbe 2,201 t I de e ne t tSM - r m ane t tn s l e i , nd n e r 6, he CA t nni d ha I e i d he a opr a e ho i l ve . ppr i t usng e l D urng t tm e r e tt tls c e, a e Le S i a e w e e pe m it d nlm e ous i he i el van o li as m l vel nm t s r r te l r pe s lpr pe t s s c o hi be ng; ow e s a t hbnz h;a c l nda ;a pe a a e s r ona o ry: hoe ; l t ng; ddi t l ; oot s ae r n; n ddr s book; ppr m ael f t fr tcas sn ;r a ngm a e i ;r adi gl s es a r di a a o a oxi t y ory is- l s tmps e di t ral e ng a s ' a o; n udi , pl ye ;ba tre ;c a r te is omb;har us s vi r z ; t h; ibr h; ha ng a or wa c wedd ng ba e gl s es pr s rbe i nd; ye a s ' e c i d , media ie s ard r lgi ie 7 Le 1S i aesa er sr i d i ha ufsa s cde , c l t m ; l ei ous t ms. ve nm t r e tane n ndc f nd ha l s a e srp s a c d,a a ees re by s ver lofi e swhe ve t y l a t i cel . r ti e r he nd r co td e a fc r ne r he e ve her ls I a SM i t a e a f de sm iarprvie s 1I i aesha t f l ng M nd mna es r for d i l i l ge .A1 M nm t d he olowi m i mlm prvie :t lbr r bookspe wee r lgi a l ga ma é i l i t c l; ni l i l ges wo i a y r k; e i ous nd e l t ras n he e l 1Ac s t s pes pr pet i pr biedwhenani t move om Le 5t Le S. Fo nmae s vel o vel ce s o ome ronal o ry s ohi t r e xampl t Le S im aema nol rpos es aphoo abum,abet at t us ca e ha r hif,tl s e,he vel n t y onge s s t l l, oohbr h s , ndke c es emi s s acac aor s as e ,boar ga s plyi ca ds a acofeemug.Thes ie woul beso edt it hoe , lult , ungl s s d me , a ng r , nd f e tms d tr mtl he i aei s ntt alw e lvelf ciiy. nm t s e o o r e a lt 4 commi s r e s a y; ducai la r lgi t e so pr r diplye on apod wa l ar di a tona nd ei ous elvii n og nms s a d l; a o; n audi pl ye ; ndi dua i c lco r c i lpr r ms t holr ofouti 8r c eai n perw e k' o a r i vi l n- el r e tona og a ; wo zs sde e r to e, t t nt m i ephonec l pe m ont t e s we spe we k;a ano c ac vii f wo we p nut als r h; hr e ho r r e nd n- ont t st or o hourpe w e .9 I a esi I l ve sl s r ti tve t n l - r c i gr a e con e o ne r ek nm t n M e l e s esr c i ha M 0 e e ve e t r t nt r fe nc oft pdvie lkem o elbr yboo pe wee a m o ea es a va i t ofi r que y he lges i r i ar ks r k nd r cc s nd rey n- c ltlviinp o rms I - a l S i mae ma h ve o s a dn tby 1 - a dSM el ee so r g n . M 2 nd M- L6 n ts y a j b , n o a l, M 2 n 2 i a e m a r cevec r to lpr r mmi i gr psofu t fve i es Pe polc I nm t s y e i oreci na og a ng n ou p o i nmat . r i y, M a SM i aesr evet s met pe ofm easa s r d t t ge r lpopul ton, I a nd nm t ec i he n y s l s e ve o he ne a ai but M nd SM i ae e tt i m e l al i t i c ls1 nm t s a her a s one n her e l. 0 Pl i ifc antf ompli aboutt c tonsofc me e a a SM i t a Re Oni a ns he ondii onf m nt s n nma e t d on. Healg dy ç sb e s b e tdt (n /rwi bes b e tdt i tef l e' me tl l s l e l ç e n u j ce o a do l u j ce o n h m z l' n a il s e ha l r : ne a ni m a us t tde a,r titon ofgoodtm ec e t';Gma lbiiy ofa tvii , nd ght r ;he ç ni l esrc i i r dis' t vaia lt t c i tes e r e w hi h i / co l i t pr s i i er c i i f rhe a e ofPl i ifs nvionm nt c s or nc us ve o o- oc al nt a tons n u t r nc a ntf rha iiain, l ben ec' I n ey he d c s ls o se pa d (oPlitY sbeig e bltto wel ig, t .,G xit , a a he ,o s f le n t an i 'a ' le PTS 'l h sc l eeirto l so weg t ec'ç ee rto o e esg t(u t c n tn D' i y ia d tro ain/ f i h, t' l tdoain f y ih d e o o sa t ;p os ;d e po u et e rmeyb i h fuo e c n elg t i c 1s' o ho ro rc e to fv tme p r x s r o xte l rg t l r s e c ih s n e1)' ne u f e r ain i e i s e ; w ee s e st e tm esa w e k;c viy s a c s whe ve l a ng t c l;vi t ly no pe s n k; how r hr e i e a t e r he ne r e vi he e l r ua l ro 8I we t rdoesnotalow f outier c eai ,r c e in oc si t pod. f ahe l or sd e r ton e r ato cur n he 9SM i aesa i ae a Le 6 Stucur d Li hgPhas s1a 2ar ge r l a fr t s m e nm t nd nm ts t vel r t e vi e nd e nealy fo ded he a Emi mum'prvie asI i e ,butSM i t a egr ntd mo eprvie squike ast y ç tp down' ' ni ' i lges M nmats nmaes r a e r i lge c r he s e s ' sc rt lv l.F re mpe SM imae h v e rira c s t j b a daepemitdmoevstt na dmo e eu i e es o xa l, n ts a e al c es o o s n r r t y e e r ii i n r ao phonec l. als 1 Ani ae' cls iiato i r duce fom Leve St Le 6 Stuc t e Li ng whe sa fdeem i sa 0 nm t s a sfc in s e d r l o vel r tl d vi r n t f tr ne n SM - i eha s if corl co eedt ChalngeSere c ul a Mc e t be o algoasofSM 2 nmat s ats a t iy mplt he le is unic um nd hived he havir l 2.'hepur eofLeve 6Stucur dLi ng i t r i r ei tsi o as ile r F pos l r t e vi s o entoduc nmae nt oca nvionme a t t s t i nt nd o et her r adi s f rposi eta frt t ge r lpopulton a Leve 5.Pha e 1i t a esngl c l a ealwe t e ne s o sbl rnse o he ne a ai t l s nmaes r i e eled, r ld d o e tac la e ert podi vi l ar unr sr neddulng s xi el nd nt he ndi dualy, e etai i howe sa r r ton, ve i viuala gr r nd eceai ha ndi d nd oup tea y, no o tierceto t h u sp rwe k ma lse t a i b o s a dwaka aro pt tednn h rp ej y usd e rain wo o r e e , y itn o udo o k , n l s u o h iig halt e tg oupmeas Phas 2 i tsha t s meprviege a Pha e 1buta ehous d wih ac l t lo a r l. e nmae ve he a il ss s r e t elmae. 5 t pe s co a t commi s r prvie sup t $40pe m ont lm ie s l to o c o r on nt c ; s a y i lge o r h; i t d eeci n f ommis r say goods we rng sa e is d s swih l spa ngt n s ke s whih ca eskneepa n;no ; a i t t -s ue hoe t es ddi ha nea r , c us i e ducai o voc tonalopporu te be i a tba i educ ton f a GED ;a beng ton r a i tnii s sdes dul sc a i or nd i c pe ld t s vehi bea d i vi a i ofhi r lgi be if . om le o ha s r n olton s e i ous le s Pl i ifc antf ompli t thewa notgi n pro no i ,t o runiyt pa tcpae i a a ns ha s ve i r tce he ppo t t o rii t n heai ora m i tn e a ton f hi a sgnmen t SM . 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I Dee d n sag et a t e a ee tte t q aiidi miya ds fn a t r u h t h y r n ild o u l e mml t n umma yj d me t f r u g n. Quaiidi r t p r t G o r me to fcasp ro migd sr to ayf n to s. .t b q lfe mmu ly e mis G ve n n fiil e fr n ic ei n r u cin . go e i g s e de fom la lt f c vi dn hil d r ibiiy or i l mage i of a t i c s ns ar s her onduc doe no vi ae cea l t s t ol t l ry e tbls d sat o y o c tt i lrg sofwhi ar as bl pe s woul ha known. s a ihe t ut r r onsiutona i ht ch e ona e ron d ve ' ' Halw v. t r d,457U. 800,81 ( 98 ;I r Ale 1 F. 58 593(t Ci.1 ro Fizgeal S. 8 1 2) n e ln, 06 3d 2, 4h r 997) (1Aq ofi alma cam q lse i &E n fci y li kuai d mmuniya l ashi a to aenotce ryetbls dt t s ong s cins r lal sa ihe o . bebe t bomdai ofhi dicei r a hort ') Onceadefnda riest q lfe yond he t res s s rtonay ut iy. . 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DitLEXI 11 2, t*23, 983 ibiiy.'1 Pa a y, 7:2c 39, 3 S. s. S 718 a . 20 3W L 4 51 3 , t* ( . Va J l 2 , 01 )( r e tM ..(iigBr o v Be r , 6 1 4 2 6 a 8 W D. . uy 2 2 3 Sag n , J) ctn o ks . a d 1 7 F. x 9 3 9 5( r Ci. 0 69; e as M o lv. p' o S c S r s, 36U. 6 8 6 3 App' 2 , 2 3 d r 2 0 ( s e lo nel De t f o . e v .4 S. 5 , 6 n., 919 ( 9 8 .F te r, cam t tp io o fcash ven t o lwe tero 7 6 - 4 1 7 ) urh nno e a li ha rs n fiil a o f lo d h i wn i pe ntpolci s orpr edur s a s doe nots a e a c ns i tonalc a m . Se .e. , nie nde nde ie oc e lo s t t o tm i li e R. U t d S ae v. c r s 44 U. 7 , 2 5 ( 9 9 ; c i v Cn y. fFara , 0 F. 1 9 1 6 tts Ca ee , 0 S. 41 75 - 5 1 7 ) Rico . t o if x 9 7 2d 45 , 4 9 ( t Ci.1 9 ) Ac o dngy Dee d n saee tte t q aiidi nt a ds mma y 4h r 9 0 . c r i l , fn a t r n ild o u l e mmu iy n n r f j d me to te eb s s u g n n h s ae . I . 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W iki on,5 U . a 221 22;s e r ns e o e dve s ondii onfne nt' l ns ' 45 S. t e Alg v. oni , F. 1098,1101( h Ci.1 (tsqgr td c nfne nti no pe # lood M s 724 2d 4t r 984) tl e egae o i me s t rq t o sitin l' Ho v r asae ce tdl ryitr s ma e it f h imaep it t t mc n ttto a. z ). we e, tt-rae i t n ee t y xs i t e n t ons o G be a ba i f a i t r s ore c ai n i sa er gulto 't a d t c to ofhi s s or n n e e t xpe t to n t t e a i ns' o voi he ondii ns s c ne e t rt s r ton c a sfc ton s he ea Re Oni a as s oM m nt mde he eg egai l s ii a i c m t d on nd lo howst tt e ha hos c ondii nsi pos a y ca a s g fca ha ds p i r l i t t o d na y i i nt o pr s to m e t pi l nd i nii nt r hi n e aton o he r i r nc de s f i on l e1 sa di v Co e , 1 U. 4 2, 8 ( 9 5 ) reo 7 0F.da 2 0 Onl i t imae i. nn f 2 nn z 5 5 S. 7 4 4 1 9 ) P it , 8 3 t 5 . y f he n t . 1 Thenor i ba ei f aprs rar t R ndii dit e by aprs rsconvitona 2 matve s lne or ione e he co tons catd ione ' ci nd sne e. . o tttn tetr i r i ie t o p io l e' Ic ma v Silz, 91F.d5 7 5 7(t Ci. e tnc . c nsiuig h o dnay ncd ns f rs n i .' n u a . trhz 7 3 1 , 2 4h r f' 2 1 ) Ge ea p p lto i t baeiei ti c s .S ei.c. it, 8 F.da 2 3(o c rigp io r 0 5 . n rl o uain s he s l n hs ae e d; fPreo 7 0 3 t 5 c n enn rsnes n sne e t d ah .Co e u nl, anifsd srp ino c n io so d ahr w aen t tra t ti e tnc d o et) nsq e ty Plit ' ecito f o dt n n e t o r o maeilo h s f i a l i, nayss s tsi bot çondii doe t DuePr s Cl us r quie apa tc a m e sleofpr edtr l a ifes h tons s he oce s a e e r riulr a tr oc la pr t c i bef r ade i to o albe t i e e t 1 o e ton o e prvai n f i ry nt r s . d. 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Do n l 41 U. 5 9 5 6 o e r e o d r, 6 S. 8 3 20 2 ; e lf Mc n el 8 S. 3 , 5 , ( 9 4 (: hefc t t rs nesrti rg t t e teDuePr c s Clu ei nowa i le 1 7 ) GT) a t ha p io r ean i hs md r h ( o es a s n y mpis ta te erg t a en t u j c t rsrcinsi s db t en tr o t r gmet wl c t e h t h s ihs r o s b e t o e tito mpo e y h au e f he e i o l h h y i h v b e lwf l c mmitd.) s eas Grh m v Como , 9 U. 3 6 45 (98 )(G t a e e n a ul o te ' ; e lo a a . r r 4 0 S. 8 , 5 1 9 ç y ' No e e yp ho s o e e e i ima ltrse ume e sr i tepe c o aj g ' c a e s v r us r h v , v n f t y ae e m r c say n h a e f ud es h mb r v oae t eFo rhAme d n . 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Sa n,51 U . a 485;s e ed our f a ' ndi 5 S. t e 10 Gat nv. yo , 46F.d3 0, 43(t Ci. 9 )( od n t a c a e i ap io e ' so Ta lr 9 2 4 3 4 h r 1 91 h li g h t h ng s n rs n rs to ain v rain o d iyr ui , h ng si c n iinso c n i me t(ncu i t c to , a ito s f al o tne c a e n o dto f o fne n i ldng l ad ritai s gr to ,a t de alofprvie - matr wlihe r prs ne c n milsrtve e egain) nd he ni i lges tes lc ve y io r a a i pa ea e c t m pl t byhi o i nals nt nc t prs n - a enec s a y f nci nsof ntci t r on e aed s rgi e e e o io r e s dl u to prs m a ion nage ntt tmus belf t t br d dic e i ofprs admi sr t r t e bl me ha t e t o he oa s r ton ion nita o s o na e t m t ma g t prs n s fl a def e ty'. he o na e he io s aey n fkin l' ) Thedur ton a c to ofPl ntf sc a i nd ondii ns ai if onsne nta Re Oni do noti i a et me t d on mplc t he conc r dic sd i W iki onv. tn,545U. 209, ( ) a I lmaav.Stri ens suse n l ns Ausi S. 213 2005 , nd ncl ilng, 791F. 517,51 ( hCi. 5 .I W iki o t Supr meCo tf t ti t hada 3d 9 4t r 201 ) n l ns n,he e ur ound ha nmaes pr t c e lbe t i e e ti a di a sgnme t a sat çs ma 'prs W ihout o e t d i ry nt r s n voi ng s i nt o t e çuper x' ion. t unde goi apoi - poi c r ng ntby- nt ompa io o t c ii nsbe we n s gr to a ge r rs n f he ond to t e e egai n nd ne al po a i t Supr m eCour ditngu s d t s r x c tonsfo nor ls gr ga i pulton,he e t si ihe he upe ma ondii r m ma e e ton f t eeprm a y r s ns Fis , nma e i t s or hr i r ea o . r t i t s n he upenna prs we e G prve ofam os a x ion r t i d l t ny de e r nme a ors ns y si ia ofal os a 1hlma c ac . nvio nt l e or tmul nd m t l l n ont t W iki o 545U . a l ns n, S. t 21 Se nd, hei a e we eas i d t t s r x prs f G i fniepe i oftme, 4. co t nm t s r sgne o he upe ma ion or ç nde i t rod i an lmie onl by (he i t ss ne e. J Thid,i t ot r s ei bl f paol l t i td y t q nmae' e tnc ' d. r nmaes he wie lgi e or r e os ' ta eiiiiywh l i rs ne a t es pe ma p io I . t21 .çAl y o t e ec n iins h t lgb l t ie mp io d t h u r x rs n. d a 5 l n f h s o dto g sa igao mih n t s fce t oce t al e t itrs,(u)tl nt g t r, te tndn lne g t o be uf in t rae i ry ne et b t ac o ehelq h y b e i s gja ay ia a dsg i a t r s i wi i t ec re to a c n e t' 1 a 2 4 mpo ed n t pc l n insc n had hp t n h or cin l o tx ' d. t 2 . h Si ia l i I lm a t Fourh Cic tf m l r y n nc l a, he t r ui ound a pr e t lbe t i e es i a di a s g e ot c ed i ry nt r t n voi ng s i nm nt 1 Thec tonsa t s r xprs i uded,ial s a1 u nc na ti po ii d e e t te 3 ondii t he upe ma ion ncl s lmot lh ma o tc s r hbt , v n o h g e poi t tc nt ha onverai i notpe tedfom c lt cel t lght t s ton s nuit r el o l; he i , houghi m a bedi med,i on f 24 hour ; t y m s or s En )e ecs i f r1h l p rd y b t nyi as lid o r o ' I. t 232 Th S p e Co r n tdta a d x rie s o ol e a , u o l n maln o r o m. d a 2 -4. e u rme u t oe h t r ' t lckofhum a c ac w a t m os ditnci oft s lvi c tons I a 224. he a n ont t s he t si tve he e i ng ondii . d. t 11 t So h Ca olna' s r a bas d on t prs rst nt ye rco i m e t r a is o ut r i s upe m x e he ione ' we y- a nfne nt he e nd t ioltng a r src i lvi c tons i udi ahi y i ru i srp s r h e r tm ehe s a i nd e titve i ng ondii , ncl ng ghl nt sve ti ea c ve y i l f hi c lf t e y yea s 791F. a 531 32. e t s el or w nt r. 3d t - Ta n t t r t co e nse pous d i W iki on a I tmaaf uson t i fnie ke oge he , he nc r s e n l ns nd ncl oc he nde i t na u e ofs r tr upe mu c i me . I W il on,prs n polce pr de G i c ton how onfne nt n l dns io i is ovi d ç ndia i no ln gni mae ma b ic reae gtt s p r x o c a sg e t r . 5 U. a 21 . o g a n tq y e n ac rtd a he u e ma j n e s in d hee' 45 S. t 5 ' Al o, i r quied i r ue r viw oft c ntnue a opra e s ofa i t ss i s polcy e r nfeq nt e e he o i d ppr it ne s n nma e' pecsc s gr ga i sa us oncei taly,t ry d afe li a va , nd a e e ton tt : nii l hit ays tr ls ni l a nnualy t pafe .I a 21 l he tr d. t 7. Thepolc i I m a r quied a i tm tona cl sscai n c i y n nol a e r n nsi i l as i to omm itet e l t t i ae' te o vauae he nm t s sa tse r t ry days 791F. a 522- Sout Ca olnapolc pr dedt tt i t t tz ve y hit . 3d t 23. h r i i y ovi ha he nma e c d q lf f r cls i to a r l a efom t s nna by a hivi a çi ove e oul uaiy or e a sfca in nd e e s r he upe x c e ng n çmpr m nt i be vi rl ve .' I Sout Ca olna polc f t rde i d ç ha orl ve ' asi l ng a n ha o e l' d. h r i i y urhe f ne l vi e l' nc udi be c e rdi cplna y r or a t saf' e l ton oft i e' ove alc l a s i i r ec d nd he t f s vaua i he nmat s r l ompla . I a 5 ince d. t 22. 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Se e. ,Sa n,51 U. a 487. onsiutonal o e t i ry ntr t n voii ha as iiai e. g. ndi 5 S. t 15 2 9F.d6 8 6 4( t Ci. 0 ).Hemu t e ts w t a t p lc i n tçe s n byr ltd 3 3 4 , 5 4h r 2 01) s n x ho h the oiy s o ç a o a l eae r t En qlgtmaepe o o ia itrss' Ve e 2 3F.da 7 2 Th see n r q ie te o a y e ii t n l gc ln ee t. n v, 9 3 t 3 . i lme t e urs h ' i aet i l gef t s fc e t o r om et pr sl pto ofr a ona e s a i dt nm t o t e acs ufii nt o ve c al he e lm i n e s bl ne s pple o prs polc e .'I Rela eon l be sa c l i nsi i ufi int Se e. , l At.Cor ion ii s' d. i nc a l nd oncuso s ns fce . e. :.Bel l p. v. mbl, 5 U. 5 4 5 5( 0 7 . Two v 5 0 S. 4 , 5 2 0 ) Thet gr wo oups- SM i t sa ge a popul to i ae - a e no sm ia l nma e nd ner l ai n nm t s r t i lry sm a e a i t ss cliy cls iia i n i ba e o hi i vi li tt i dicplna y i t d; n nma e' e trt a sfc to s s d n s ndi dua nsi onal s i i r m lit y. M o e r t dif r ntte t ntoft s t g oupst rStplsor r ove , he fe e r a me he e wo r mde e Down pr a i ogr m s r to ly r lt d t l ii a e s l- vi ntpe ogi a g l. Se .e. ,Ove tn v.Ba e t, ai nal ea e o egtm t , efe de nol c l oas e c. ro zz ta 5 9U. 1 6 1 3( 0 ) M o e ve, litf fist e tbl hitni n l rp r o e u 3 S. 2 , 3 20 3 . ro r P an if al o sa i n e to a o u p s f l s dic i i ton.Consde i t ecr lm sa e ,Pl i ifsplce nti Le lS doesnot s rm na i i rng hes ic l t nc s antf ' a me n ve vi a et Equa Pr e ton Clus a Def nda sa ee il d t q lfe i mt t a olt he l ot c i a e, nd e nt r ntte o uaii d m miy nd s mma'j d me tf rt scam. u t u g n o hi li y V I. Pl ntf g ne aly co l st thi condii o co i m e co tt t c u a ai if e r l ncude ha s tons f nfne nt nsiu e r el nd unus lpunihm e i vi ai oft Ei h Ame m e . To e t bls s h acli ,a i m a e ua s nt n ol ton he ght nd nt sa ih uc am n n t mus s o t a : 1 o j ciey tede lv to wa s fkin l sro s i ta t ec aln e t h w h t ( ) b e tv l,h pi ain s u t e ty ei u ,n h t h h le g d o fca a t c u e d na o Ghemi ma cv lz dme szeo l esne e ste i a d( ) f il cs a s d e il f G ni l iiie al f i ' c siis' n 2 t r f ' s be tvey,hed f n a t rs no fcasa tdwi t ei eaeid fee et i maeh at o u j ci l t e e d n p io fiil ce t G lb rt n ifrnc o n t e l r hd h s ft ' Fame v. e n,511U. 8 8 (994)(ntr lquoai makso te .The aey.' r r Brnna S. 25, 34 1 i ena tton r mitd) i m a e m us s n t t how ç i fc ntphys c ore otonalha m , a gr ve r s o s h hn ' G gnii a s i al m i r or a ik f uc nny' r uli fom t chalng c tons Shakkav.Smih,71F. 16 166( hCi.1 . es tng r he le ed ondii . t 3d 2, 4t r 995) 1 6 Pl i ifsal ga i do nots antf le tons how t theha s f r d a Ei ht Am e e tvi ai ha s ufe e ny g h ndm n ol ton duet hi e re e i t St po s xpe i nc s n he e Down pr a . 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Fort f eg ng r as ,Igr ntPl i ifsSmoton t fl n e he or oi e ons a antf ' t i o ie m nded s ma y um r j d me t'd s s e wih u p eu ietecam a o tas tlme t r e , imis sal li u g n ' imis s t o t rj dc h li b u ete n o d r ds se 1 cams agans de e ntl ua Tr t e Ten , a gr nt De enda s m o i f s i t f nda r l eam nt m ' nd a s f nt ' tons or umma y ' r ' J udgm e . nt ENTER : Tii ls -' e da ofAugus,201 y t 7. # e ' U rie St t s D it i tJ tt d a e s r c udge 18