Fauconier v. Clarke et al, No. 7:2016cv00301 - Document 38 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Chief United States District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/28/2017. (tvt)
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cl n ' O FC ts Ds c ' - Ks F IE , lm * E A R A 6Z .A ' T ON V Fj LED ' : . I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI CT RGW I A RO AN OK E DI I ON V SI J 22 2 1 UN 27 JULA . I BY; ' D O U GLA S FA U CON I , ER Pl ntf, ai if Ci lAc i No. 1 vi ton 7:6CV301 M EM ORANDUM OPI ON NI H A ROLD CLA RK E,e a . t l, By: o Gln E.Comud H n. e Cli fUnie Stt Diti tJ le td aes src udge Dee f ndmls t. Dougl Fa as uconir a prs rpr e ngpr s ,c e , ione oce di o e omm e d t scvi a ton ptr ua t nce hi i l c i ls nt o 4 U. 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Fa oni rm a t ee a gum e s i s uc e kes hr r nt n uppor ofhi co e i t tO P 8 2 vi a es hi t s nt nton ha 03. ol t s Fis a Foure h A m e m e r gh s Fi s ,he a s t t t t polc i f i l i ld i r t nd t ent nd nt i t . r t s ers ha he i y s ac aly nva i n vi ai n oft Fis Am e olto he rt ndme bec us of is ove br a i to Se ond,he a g t t nt a e t r oad pplcai n. c r ues ha t polc i unc tt i he i y s onsiutonal as a i d t t i tnt ca e a s i vi a i of t Fis pple o he nsa s , l o n olton he rt Am e ndmen . Thid, he c e t r ont nds t t t va ha he gue lng ge of t polc lads t a bir r a ua he i y e o r ta y 3 e or eme i vi a i of t Due Pr s Cl us o t Fouree h Am e m e .1 The nf c nt n olton he oce s a e f he t nt nd nt d fn a t h v mo e f rs mmayj d me t a te ei nods ueta Fa c nire h use ee d n s a e v d o u r u g n , nd h r s ip t h t u o e x a td hi a nitai rm e e .Se Des'Br i Supp. Doc tNo. (s uc e hase used s dmi srtve e dis e f. .n 6, ke 33 EFa onir xha t hi a nitai r medisvi t i t gre nc pr dtrs' .Theis ha be n f l s dmi srtve e e a he nmae iva e oce le .' ) sues ve e uly bref d a a elpef r vi w. i e nd r ' or e e i St andard ofR evi ew Sl z u g n i p o ryg a tdi Sh r i nog n n d s u ea t a ymaeil l mmayj d me t s r pel rn e f û ee s e uie ip t s o n tra t fc a dt . . v n pa t i e t ldt j d me ta amatro lm 'F d R. v. 5 () a t n he . mo i g ry s ni e o u g n s te f a ' e . Ci P. 6 a. t Fo ap ry se d nc t r ieag n n is eo mae il a t oa od s mmayj dg n,t r a t' vie e o as e uie su f tra f c t v i u r u me ti mus beû u hta ar a o a l t yc u dr tr av r itf rteno mo igp ry'An es n t ç c h t e s n bejz o l eu n edc o h n- vn a t. d ro s r ' y. bet Lo b I .4 7U. 2 2, 48(98 ) I d tr nigwh te t g a tamoinf r Li ry b ysnc, 7 S. 4 2 1 6 .n eemi n eh r o rn to o s mmayj g n ,h c u t t e ter c r i t elg tmo t a r b et t n nmo ig u r ud me tt e o r mus viw h e o d n h ih s fvo a l o he o - vn p ry. ry' F o rFa ho s I . . ll tn I d s.I .7 3F.d6 4 61 (t Ci. 9 5 . a t Ter s l o s in .nc v Bt i o n u t.nc, 6 2 0 , 0 4h r 1 8 ) r ng Dic son s us j Fi s A m e rt ndm e C l m s nt ai Ge r ly,a i t r t i hi rght a f r d t hi by t Fis Am e e oft ne a l n nma e e ans s i s fo de o m he r t ndm nt he Co si in. e Pel Pr cmir 41 U. 81 ,8 2 ( 9 4 . nt eprs nc n e t h we r a n tmto S e l v. o t e, 7 S. 7 2 1 7 ) I h io o tx , o ve, n i ae' Fis Am e e rg sm us be ba a e wih o he va i pe ogialc e ns s h nm t s rt ndm nt i ht t l nc d t t r ld nol c onc r , uc a aprs si tmto lne dsofs c iy,dicplne,a ge r ad i sr to Se O' s ion' nsi ina e e urt s i i nd ne al m nitai n. e Lonev. EsaeofSha z 482U. 3 3 ( ) Montam PublgCo .v.Be k,80F. 1 1 tt ba z, S. 42, 49 1987 ; cl ' p c 3d 05, 07 l Fa uconi i er nvoke bot t Fit a Foure h Am e en s TheFi Amendme a ist t f r l s h he fh nd tent ndm t . lh nt pple o he ede a gover e a t Foure hAm e nm nt nd he tent ndmenta ist t sats Se eg.Dus nbet v.Unie Stt , 4 U. pple o he t e . e, . , e ' y td aes 53 S. 1 1 1 7(0 2 C'h Du Prc s Clu eo t Fi Ame d n p o bi teUntdSae , steDu Prc s 6 , 6 2 0 ) F e e o e s a s fhe qh n me t rhi t h ie tts a h e o es s Clus oft Foure hA mendm e pr bist St e ,fom de i ng a pes ofpr ry wihoutç a e he tent nt ohi t he ats r prvi ny ron ope t t due p o eso 1w.'. u ,hec utc n tu sF u o irscam a aF u te t Ame d n cam. r c s fa ')Th st o r o sr e a c ne' li s o renh n me t li ' 4 ( t Ci.1 9 ) ûAjprs nrg lto ta a rd simae 'c n tmto a rg t i G ai i i i 4h r 9 6 .& ( io e u ai n h t b ige n ts o si in l ih s s v ld f t s ra o a yr ltdt lgtmaep noo ia itr ss' Lo ea ev Le , 7 F.d 1 4 1 9 (t e s n bl eae o e ii t e lgc l ne et.' v lc . e 4 2 3 7 , 9 4h ' Ci.2 0 ) (i n Tu n r v.S fe ,48 U. 78 8 ( 9 7 W hehe a p io r g lto r 0 6 ct g r e i aly 2 S. , 4 1 8 :. t r rs n e u ai n r srci s c o e e son i r as bl r lt d de ndso f urf c o s e ti tng pee h r xpr s i s e ona y e ae pe n o a tr : ( )( q te t eei aG ai, ain l o n cin'b t e t prs nr g ain 1 W heh r h r s t ld rto a c n e to ' ewe n he io e ulto v ora to a t i e es a s re by t gove n e ,orwhehe t si e es i c i n nd he nt r t s e td he r m nt t r hi nt r t s S ormoea t r n e t ep lc abtayo irto a' ()wh t e ç len tv t e t s o e d r h o iy r i r r rain l; 2 eh r ' tr aie s r ' a me n o e rii t e rg t ...rman o n t p io imae g' ( )wh t a s f xecsng h ih e i pe o rs n n tsq' 3 a ; i c t desr d gc om moda in woul ha on s c liy sa f i t s and t mpa t he ie c to d ve e trt t f, nma e , he al ai o prs n r oures a ( whehe t r e s a G ous ea y loc ton f io es c ; nd 4) t r hee xit ny l obvi , s at r tve ' t t c lnge r gulto o a ton,whih ma s le na i s' o he hale d e ai n r c i c y ugges t ti i t ha t s ç o r a o b e b ti r ta )a e g eae r s o s t p io c nc r . ç t e s na l, u s i e d n xa g rtd e p n e o rs n o ens' n ns ' L= a 2 0 (uoig Tmme ,4 2 U. a 8 - 2 .Th p io e ha t e bld n o d s r vng te d. t 0 q tn r 8 S. t 9 9 ) e rs n r s h t e f ip o i h r vai i o a p io r g ain Ovetn v.Ba z ta 5 9 U. 1 6,1 2 ( 0 3 .Th r f r,t ldt f rs n e ulto . ro y z et , 3 S. 2 3 2 0 ) e eo e o dee ts mma y j g n Fa c n e mus d mo tae ta t r g lto i n tr a o by fa u r ud me t u o ir t e nsr t h t he e u ain s o e s na l r a e t a l tma e pe ogial i er s or t t t r i a ge ne is of m ae l f t elt d o egii t nol c nt e t ha he e s nui s ue tda ac r ga di is a ia lt t t m ae i l a is See Ba n potrv.La r,356 F. 969, e r ng t pplc biiy o he t ra s t s ue. hr m l mbe t 3d 9 3( t Ci. 0 4 (iigFa Ou P o s.l c v Os r 2 F.d 9 6 99 ( t Ci. 0 :. n 7 9h r 2 0 ) ctn r t r d . n . . ka, 47 3 8 , 2 9h r 2 01 I a l ng whehe a r gulto i r as bl r lt d t a lgii ae pe ogi a i er s,co t nayzi t r e ai n s e ona y e ae o e tm t nol c l nt e t urs @ e i t c ed t gi de e e e t sa e prs ofi i sr r ng day-o- y prs n oper to . r nsnzt o ve f r nc o tt ion fcal ega di t da i o ai ns S eTu n r 48 U. a 8 8 (i n Pr c ne v. a t e , 6U.. 9 , 0 - 5( 9 4 e r e , 2 S. t 4- 5 ct g o u ir M ri z 41 S 3 6 4 4 0 1 7 :. i n A . W het r The e l a V ald,R atonalC o c i he r s i i nne t on The frt Tur r f c or t co t a e s s i whet r t r i a ç i r to l is ne a t he ur ddr s e s he he e s ç d, ai na val c onne ton' be wee t pr s n r a i n a t l tm a e gove n e ali e e tputf c i ' t n he i o egul to nd he egii t r m nt nt r s onva d r t j tf i.l doi s t co te mi t s ope oft rguaton,ispur td c e o usiy t n ng o, he ur xn nes he c he e l i t pore ontnt n u rlo j cie a dt eft e we ntet . el v. tc r 1 4F. u p. 1 6 , 0 e ta b e tv , n h i b t e h wo Ailo Lishe, 0 S p 2d 0 8 1 75 5 ( . W i. 0 0 . n ohe wo d ,t ec u tmu td tr n wh te t e S be t u d ry n W D. s 2 0 ) I t r r s h o r s ee mi e eh r h s j ci n eli g o ve t ep lc i ( )lgtmae ( )ne ta,a ()wheh rt epoiy i çain l rltd t t a h o iy s 1 e i t, 2 url nd 3 i te h l s rto al eae o h t c y o j cie' M a r v.Ar ao 1 8 F.d 1 5 ,1 5 (t Ci.1 9 ) (uoig Th r b r h v. b e tv .' u o ' p i , 8 3 0 4 0 9 9h r 9 9 q tn o n u g Ab ol 4 0U. 4 , 4( 98 :. b t, 9 S. 01 41 1 9 Fis,Siti b y n q e to t t b t j i sc rt a d rh b l ai n a e lgtmae rt ûq s e o d u sin ha oh al e u i n e a ii to r e ii t l y t pe ogi li e e t . 1 Def nda sas e tt tt r ul ton wa pr nol ca ntr ss' d. e nt s r ha he eg ai ' s omul t asa r s tof gaed e ul t i saut y d y t m ant i s c iy,d s i i , a good or r i Vigi a c r to l her t t or ut o i an e urt i cplne nd de n r ni oreci na fclte . f o Ro i o ! 4 Do k tNo. 3 1 Th d fnd n sf rhe a e ta t eç e iin a i is Af. f bns n , c e i 3 - . e ee a t u t r v r h t h ç cso d t e ude s xual e ii m ae il a publc tonsco ani nudiy i am e a m ant i ng o xcl e ly xplct tra s nd ia i nt i ng t s i d t i ani f ciiy s c iy,r habiia i ofe e s a r ducng s xua ha ms m e off m a esa f'1 a lt e urt e lttng f nd r , nd e i e l r s nt e l t f ' d. Pli ifha putf t no e de et t c r r bu c pli t tde e nt ha not a ntf s orh vi nc o he onta y, t om a ns ha f nda s ve pr e e de e ofs xua har s m e o c oduc d vi nc e l a s nt r ompli s ofsa f Howe r de e nt ne d not ant tf . ve , f nda s e s w t ts csci i nt occuwd.CE prs s rntnde ' afda t whih saegqt t ho ha pe i ncde s t CAj ion upei e nts f vi, c tt s ha c ran r g ltd maeil i n tc n o e ,ço l la t v oe c ...'g y c nsiu eqa e ti e uae tra, f o e s r d c ud e d o i ln e , ma j o ttt g s sce ts o n o atr a t p io s cli . Ca e v Le s 4 F.d 1 6 1 21 (t Ci. uf in h wig f h e t o rs n e t t ' s y . wi, 3 51 , 5 9h r ry ' 1 993) I i s f in ta ar g lto ,sj siial n i b s d o a tcp td s c zt p o lms k t s u sce t h t e uain u tfc to s a e n niiae e u iy r be . . 1 Ac di y,t c tbele st tdef nda sha a s td l ii a epe ogi li e e t d. cor ngl he our ive ha e nt ve s ere egtm t nol ca nt r ss i j i s c rt,rh bi tto ,a d r d ig h r sme to fmaesa f S e M a r ,1 8F.d a n al e u iy e a l ain n e ucn aa s n f e l tf. e u o 8 3 t i 1 5 (ç- h r i nod u tta p o e tn t s ft o g ad i g n r li algt t i tr s, 0 9 t l ee s o b h t r tci g he aey f u r s n e ea s e ii e nee t gl ma a t tr ducngs xualhaasme i padiulrlke s i lgii t ') Amae v.Re 1 nd ha e i e r s nt n c a i wie s e tmae. ; tl ' no, 56 F. 1 1 ( C. Ci. 1998 (ihe lgii c of t rha lttve pur e a r 3d 92, 96 D. r ) çf e tma y r he e biiai pos ppeas i s abl ') ndiput e. . ' Se ond,a r gul ton i consde e ç ont ntne r l'whe i f rhe s a i ra o c e ai s i r d ' e - uta ' c n t u t r n mpo tnt r s t ntalgover nti e es ç ea e t t s e so of e es i n. Se Tho nbur h, ubsa i nme ntr t l lt d o he uppr s i n unr xpr so ' e ' r g 490 U. a 41 1 W he prs a i sr t s dr w ditnci çs ey on t bass oft S. t 5- 6. n ion dm nita or a si tons tol l he i he pot n i l i plcai f prs s urt ' i l ng pr ntng fgh s t r gultons a e e ta m i tons or ion ec iy, ncudi ' eve i i t , he e a i r ç o tn - e ta. I .Hee OP 8 32 p o ie a s e ii a d o j cie d snto o n iy. ' ne tn ur l' d r , c ' 0 . r vd s p cfc n b e tv e iin f udt De e n s ha as e td t t r a ons t e l s xua l e ii ma e i s a e a me a f nda t ve s re hat he e s o xcude e ly xplct t ral r i d t f ciiy s urt a ot r l gii ae pe ogial i e ess not t s es i of s ec a lt ec iy nd he e tm t nol c nt r the uppr son pe h. Furhe r ,prs s a e al t nno e ioner r lowed ac e s t o he no obs pe s xual e i t c e ,as c s o t r n- ce e ly xplci ontnt di c s d bel . Thi a e s s s us e ow s cc s ugge t t t t r gul to i not a m e a t c t nt of t s s ha he e a i n s i d t he on e he s c pte h. Thid,t co tfndst OP 80 2 i notts r m o e a t r nde t polc a bir r or r he ur i hat 3. s lo e t s o e r he iy r ta y irtona.'Tur r 48 U. a 8 92.l ma ng t sdeemi ton,Ggl que ton ...i no rai l' ne, 2 S. t 9- n ki hi tr nai lthe si s t whet rt r gulton i f ta he he e ai n ac dvanc t gove n nti ees,onl whehe t gon-ci es he r me ntr t y t r he c e ton ofiil) miht r a ona y ha t fcas g e s bl ve houghtt t i wo d.'Amae, 1 F. a 1 (ii ha t ul ' tl 56 3d t 99 ctng No di e v. h ,5 5U. 1 1 ( 9 2) l t i c s , h d fnd nsc ud rto al b le r l r Ha n 0 S. , 1 1 9 ). n h s a e t e ee a t o l ain ly eive ng t tt r i a c ha he e s onne ton bewe n s xualy e i i a nude i ag a r ha lt to ci t e e l xplct nd m es nd e biia in, prv n ighaa s n o fmaesa t a dr d cngv ro ssc rt c n e n . ej.(i iga e e tn rsme t f e l tf n e u i aiu e u iy o c r s Se .a tndn l / r tona lnk be wee a r ul ton t tpr hi t d t dit in ofcomm e calm ae il t t ai l i t n eg a i ha o bie he sdbuto ri tra s ha we es xualy e i torf tr d nudiy a t saed goa o r ha ltto .Defnda sas r e l xplci eau e t nd he tt l f e biiain) e nt lo no e t pr s s af c pl i d t tr vi ng t i m i publc i ns pr o t t updat d t hat i on t f om a ne ha e ewi he nco ng i ato i r o he e OP 803. c e t d a l xt e el unco f t bl ' a ç ve hosie 'w o k e r nm e .Af .of 2 r ae n ç rm y e m ora e ' nd s n e tl ' r nvi o nt f Ro is n ! 9 Do k tNo 3 - .Ac o dn l t efrtTu n rf co , e uiig av ld rto l bn o , c e . 3 1 c r igy, h is r e a tr r q rn ai, aina 7 c me i n bewee t prs n r gul to a t go r me a i e es a s re s or cto t n he io e ai n nd he ve n nt l nt r t s e td, ugge t t t ss ha t r gulton doesnoti rngeupont pli ifsc tt to lrght . he e a i nfi he antf onsiu i na i s B. A lernatve M eans t i The s c e ond Tu ne f t r lt s t whe he t r a e aler tve m e ns a ia e f r r r acor ea e o t r he e r t nai a val bl o e r sng t a lge y i rnge rg .ç he e ç he a nue 'r m an a ia ef t e cs xe cii he le dl nfi d i ht l r ot r ve s e i va lbl or he xer ie W o tea s re rg t c u t s o l bepatc lryc n co o tet a u eo j d ca d fr n e f h se td ih , o rs h ud riua l o s ius f h me s r f u iil eee c o d t c re to o fcas ....' Tu n r 4 2 U. a 9 ( i to o te ) To a pl ti we o o rcin f il ' r e , 8 S. t 0 ct ins mitd . p y h s ' a f c o ,t c tmus i ntf t rghta is ,kee ng i m i t tGhe rg i que to mus a t r he our t de iy he i t s ue pi n nd ha c i ht n si n t t b v e d s nsbl a e nsve y.'Thor gh,490 U . a 417.I hi pla ngs Fa oni r e i we e i y nd xpa i l ' nbur S. t n s e di , uc e a s rst tOP 803. pr bisnon- c ne s xua ex e son.Pl' Br i Opp' 1 Doc tNo. s e t ha 2 ohi t obs e e l pr s i .s . n n 3, ke 37.Unde sa ng t st be t rghta is i be r tndi hi o he i t s ue, t come cea t tt r a e ale atve m e ns s l r ha he e r tm i a a ia ef exe cii t i rngedrgh . val bl or r sng he nfi i t Fo e mpl,Gpl biain c n ann n iy iusrtve o me ia,e u ain l o r xa e G u lc to s o tiig udt l tai f d c l d c to a, r g l a hr og c l c e m a be a ce a e. OP 8 2, D oc nt opol i a ont nt y c pt bl ' ' 03. ket N o. To t e e t he xt n Fa uconira s rsa rg t nudiy,he ha ac es t s h.Seealo P1' Br i Opp' 11,Doc t e s e t i ht o t s c s o uc s .s . n n ke No.37 (ompli ngt tprs r mus viw t ba ebr s o Vit ont saeofVigi a' c ani ha iones t e he r eat f rus he tt r ni s ofcals a) M or ve,Fa oniri notcompl ni t the doen' ha a c s t wrte f i e l. eo r uc e s ai ng ha s t ve c es o itn de c i i ns of s xual co e . Pl i if a knowldges t t he ha a e s t no o ce , s rpto e ntnt antf c e ha s cc s o n- bs ne s x al e pl i mae il çg a h d y p io esh v a c s t b o i t ep io lb ay ta e u l x i t tra.ûEq c a rs n r a e c e s o o ks n h rs n irr h t y c co a n g a c de c i i of s xual a t .'P1' Br n Opp' 1 D oc t N o. 37. C D OC nt i r phi s rptons e c s ' .s .i n 1, ke C V al s prs r ac es t s e ii co e (uch ast viw s lowlq iones c s o ome xplct ntnt s o e hows wih e ii s x t xplct e s e onVDOC pr de c bl sai a newo ktlvii ... . I a 13. c di y,i c nes ovi d a e ttons nd t r ee son )' d. t Ac or ngl t ' 8 E i I f 1 ( i cla t tpl i ifa ot r prs r ha ac es t non- c ne s xualy e i i c e t s e r ha antf nd he ione s ve c s o obs e e l xplct ont n , abe tnots c i i publcai ns t t de e nt a r ' a l d t se lng,fght,as a t, l i ubs rpton i to ha f nda s ve t n ea o t a i c s s uls gn i a ot r d suptve aci te by ofe r t tt e t n i tt i ls c iy a t mblng, nd he ir i tvii s f nde s ha hr a e nsiutona e urt nd he 'Af ' f s ft o o fn e sa d saf a ey f fe d r n tf. . fRo is n !6 Do k t . 3 1 s eas Amae,1 6F.d o bn o , c e No 3 - ; e lo tl 5 3 a 201(i ngt trgultonspr bii sxual e ii maei stsidt s c Tur r t fndi ha e ai ohi tng e ly xplct tral aife he e ond ne fco be a et er g ain lf çheimaefe t e j ya1 itn f r o s f a tr c us h e ulto s e tt n t re o n o 1wrte o ms f mu ). t C. I pac oft D e i d A cc m odat on m t he s re om i Tt i t t t r Ttr rf t ,l ti pa tt de ie a omm odai woul ha mlng o he hid lne acor i wha m c he sr d cc ton d ve on s urt sat i ts a t alocain ofprs r oures't c tmus as wha wo d ec iy tfl nmae , nd he l to ion es c , he our t k t ul ' be t i c ofa l ng pli ift r ceve publc tonsc t ni nudiy.I co i i t s he mpa t lowi antf o e i ia i on ai ng t n nsderng hi f t ,t c tr le on t Unie St t s Cour of Appe l f t N i h Cicui' e ba acor he our e is he t d a e t a s or he nt r ts n nc de son i M a o: cii n m ( q c a c s (o v do sp biain ,icudn Ply v ma a i , c ul la S u h c e s t a u u lc to s n l ig a bo g znel o d e d t ba trng of s xua l e i i ma e i s and a t m i l co pa ions whih o re i e ly xplct t ral na o ca m rs c c ud i tnlla t sg t b t e i mae . s fg t j o r ien to yt e o l n u e d o h s ewe n n ts The e ih s e pad z o nl h sft o j i e ly e , b t as oh r imae . M o e v r aey f al mpo e s u lo t e n ts r o e, al wi ... ce s t s xual e ii m ae il wo d e lo ng ac s o e ly xplct tra s ul xpos t f mal e he e e dee i ofi e s...t s xualha as me a ahosiewor e r nm e . t nton fc r o e r s nt nd tl k nvio nt . . . 188 F. a 1061 62.Afe addr s i t s c er ,t Ni h Cic tt n uphe d a prs 3d t tr e sng he e onc ns he nt r ui he l ion r ul ton t t pr hi t i t s fom pos e sng s xua l e ii m ae il t t c ai d eg a i ha o bis nma e r s s i e ly xplc t tra s ha ont ne f ont nudiy.Se i r al t e d. D . W het t R egul i I an E xaggerat R esponse her he aton s ed The f t a sna Tt e f t t c ur a es e i whe he OP 803. i a ourh nd l mlr acor he o t ddr s s s t r 2 s n e a g rtd r s ns t t j i' c nc r s I matn t i iq iy h a e c o a r a y x g eae epo e o he als o en . n lig hs n ur ,t e bsn e f e d at r tve i e de eoft r as bl nes ofaprs r gu ai n.Tt e ,48 U . a 90- . le na i s vi nc he e ona e s ion e l to mz r 2 S. t 91 I ! . llfa i maecama tc np itt a atr ai et a f l a c mmo ae t ep io rsrg t i l n n t li n a on o n len tv h t ' l c o d ts h rs ne' ihs g uy at.# mi muscos t valdpe ogiali ee t,ac tmay c nsde t ta evi ncet tt . ni . ç t o i nol c ntr ss our o i r ha s de ha he r gul to doe nots tsy t r as bl r ai hi sa d.'I a 91.Thi i nota çl s e ai n s aif he e ona e eltons p tndar ' d. t s s çea t r srci at m ai t t' a t bur n i o t prs rc le ng t r a i t s e ti tve le tve es ' nd he de s n he ione hal ngi he egulton o how t t t r a e ob ous e y at m ai s t t r gulto O' ne 482 U. a 350;s e alo ha he e r vi , as le tve o he e ai n. Lo , S t e s Ca e ,4 F.d a 1 2 (ç i i c mb n u n t e p io e st p it t a atr tve t a sy 3 t 5 3 1t s n u e t po h rs n r o on o n l nai h t I e a c mmo ae terrg t a d mii sc s t sc rt itr ss' (mp a i i o iia) c o d ts h i ih s t e nmi o t o e u i n ee t.) e h ss n rgn l. y ' He e Fa oni ra g t te o s who f luncomf tbl r viwi t i omi r , uc e r ues ha mpl yee ee ora e e e ng he nc ng publcai nsca smpl a k o he m a lr i to n i y s t r i oom e pl swho a eno s ofe d t r vi w t m oyee r t o f nde o e e he m a e i s Fa oni r a s a s t t tt V D OC c n ba c r a n ve t ral . uc e l o s ers ha he a n e t i ndor who ha a t m pt d t s ve te e o cr um ve VDOC pr edur sby m acng nudepit e ofprs r swi sa s se saval bl ic nt oc e li c ur s ione ' ve nd itr ia e. P1' Br i Opp' 4- D oc tN o.37.The e a g e sa e una ii .s . n n 5, ke s r um nt r va lng. Fis ,pl i ifi nots eki a e st nude pit z ofot i t s wi a sse s r t antf s e ng cc s o cu es her nma e' ves nd itr a ha no co pl ne t t s h non- om me cil i es ar una l bl t hi . Se ond, nd s t m ai d ha uc c r a mag e vaia e o m c pli if s at r tves do not a e s s m e ofVDOC' r tona e f pr bii publc tons antf le na i ddr s o S a i l s or ohi tng i ai c t i ng nudiy,i l ng t r ha ltton ofs xua ofende swho,ass xua ofe r ,a e on a ni t ncudi he e biia i e l f r e l f nde s r no a l d t pos e s s h publcai t lowe o s s uc i tons whie o s r s d r l s , and t potntal l n upe vie eea e he e i h rsme to j i saf AE o Ro is n ! 7 Do ke No.3 - .Fa c n e ' s g eto s o a a s n f al tf f bn o , c t 3 1 u o irs u g sin f ha ng dif e sa fr vi w t m a zi sorofpr lbii ce t n ve r do nota e st s vi fer nt t f e e he ga ne oli tng rai hdo s ddr s he e c e s.Se Fre v.Kol e za 923 F. 1 1 (t Ci.1 ) ( di t t a onc nl e ind odzic k, 2d 26, 28 9h r 991 hol ng ha n i a e 'pr pos a t r tve w as i de t w he e i s ts i d s e,bu not a l oft pr s n nm t s o ed le na i na qua e r t a i fe om t l, he i o ofkil'co ens. f as nc r ) 10 Addii l t e de e i c t s t tt VDOC s t s ve ye r de em i ng t tonaly, he vi nc ndi a e ha he pen e n a s tr ni he s b tn eo as ia l rg lto Se Af.o Ro i s n ! 7, c tNo.3 - . e n t o u sa c f utbe e u ain. e f f b n o Do ke 3 1 Th momt f tm e s ntde i r tng s i pe lbe a i ugge t t tt r ul ton i no a e gge a ed r s s s ha he eg a i s t n xa r t e pons t t e s i e o he xi tng c e s Co eq nty,afe a l zi t r gul to ptr ua t t f f c o se mc aed i onc m . ns ue l tr na y ng he e ai n ls nt o he our a t r nt i t n Tur r t c t c l s t t OP 8 2 %i r as bl r lt t l gii t pe ogial ne , he our onc ude ha 03. çs e ona y e aed o e tma e nol c i e ess'a doesnotofe Fa onir sFis Am e nt r t' nd f nd uc e ' r t ndme rg s Love a e,472 F. a 1 nt i ht . lc 3d t 99 (ii Tune,482U. a 8 . ctng r r S. t 4) The co t as not s t tm a o he c u' ha uphe d prs r gultons t t ba ur lo e ha ny t r ot t ve s l ion e a i ha n pit i nudiy.See Hog a v.Robi on,N o.7: 5CV0069 201 U. Dit LEXI 40993,a c oral t ln ns 1 4, 7 S. s. S t * 4 ( , Va M a.21 2 7 ( s r J) (ri a d a an c u t h ve u h l c re to a 1 W D. . r , 01 ) Kie , . çfme n g i, o rs a p ed or cin l û ofi i l 'polcis t t ha ba r f 1 fontl nudiy i publc tons a rvi a c r c i l fc a s i e ha ve red u1 r a t n iai r i ng t ore tona fcl is' ; rs n Le a Ne v. t l , 2:3 2 , 01 U. Dit LEXI 4 2 8 a *1 a ii e .) P io c l ws S ol No. 1 CV4 4 2 5 S. s. t ' e S 3 2 ,t 3 1 ( D.Va M a.3 ,2 5 (u v yn e itn c s lw a d e sn S rs n rg lt ns o 5 E. . r 1 01 ) s r e ig x sig a ea d r sig ç io e u ai p o p s x al t e d maeil a d n t t a G rs n a d ji a miitao s c n c nsi to al e u ly h me tra' n oi h t l io n al d n sr tr a o tt in ly ' ng p u rsrc p r o rp y a smia çe u l e pl i'wrtn sa p o o r p s). n J ne v.S l etit o n g a h nd i lr s x al x i t i g nd h t g a h ' l o s at y c i La e Co n y 5 3F.d 1 4 ,1 5 - 6 ( 0h Ci. 0 7 ,teUntd S ae Co r o Ap e l fr k u t , 0 3 1 7 1 5 5 1 t r 2 0 ) h ie tts u t f p as o t Te h Cic t uphel a r g a i t t ba d ç e ly e i i m a e i ,' i l ng he nt r ui d e ulton ha nne f xual xplct t ral' ncudi s pho ogr phs of e t a xpos d Sbr a t a ge t l,'butdi notpr bi çs xual e ii pr e o e G e s s nd nia s' d ohi t te ly xplct os r pi t es of c ot d wom e m e ' Si lry, i Am ael t D. Cic t uphe d t f de a cur l he n/ n.' mia l n t , he C. r ui l he e r l Bur u of Pr s s a i to of w ha i c m o y known a t S i n Am e ea i on' pplca i n t s om nl s he t g Ens ndm e t' n ' Ama e , 15 F. a 21 The Ensgn Am e e pr bis t diti uto of c t l 6 3d t 4. i ndm nt ohi t he srb i n omm e cil r a m a e i l i f der l pr s t r a n e a i ons t t i t e ly e i i' o t e t e nudiy.' Re l to ha s t xua l xplc t' r t a ur s s f t ' gu a i ns pr ul t d pur ua t t n nd e dei nudiy as( pit i de ci whe ege t laor om ga e s nt o he me m nt fne t 1 coral pi ton a r niai f m ae br ssar e e l ea t e xpos ' I Nude il ta i ofme c l ed a i ,a a hr pol c ed. d. ' lusr tons di a , uc tonal nd nt o ogial c e ta e e e e a t r gultonspr ont n r xc pt d nd he e a i omul t d ptr ua t t Ensgn Am e ga e ls nt o he i ndme do no nt t r src non- cora s xua l e ii m ae i l I a 1 Appl ng t f urpa tTur rt s,t e tit pi t i l e ly xplct tra . d. t 94. yi he o - r ne e t he D. Cic t u l t r gulto a c l d t i s C. r ui phed he e ai n nd oncude hat t uppors a lgii ae gove n e t l t e tm t r m na o j cie r h b l ain Se i a 1 - 7 The c u tb le st tte isa tc s i adn t b e tv ' e a ii to . e d. t 96 9 . . t o r eive ha h n tn a e s l o Amae. tl E. Ove bre h r adt Fa uconir al ge bot a f c a c le e le s h a i l hal nge and a asa id c le n - pple hal nge t OP 803. o 2. ç i c l s a e dif vo ed ... .' W a h.Stt Grt v.W ah.Stt Re ia Pm' t al halenge r sa r Fac ' s ae ame s ae publc n t #, 5 2U. 4 2, 4 ( 0 ) Th r aet wa si whih aplitf ma mo n af ca c aln e 5 S. 4 4 9 2 08 . ee r wo y n c an if y u t a il h le g t s a ut o r gul ton:by de ons r tng t G s t of c r um s a e e s s unde whi h t o tt e r e ai m t a i hat s e no ic t nc s xit r c he ge ulto qwo l b v ld'o b s wi ta t e lw i d v r r a ( c usja s bsa ta r g ain u d e ai' r y ho ng h t h a s ç eb o d be a e u tn il o n mbe o is a piai n a e u c n tmto a,j d e i r lto t te sau es pli y u r f t p lc to s r n o si in l u g d n eain o h ttt ' anl lgtmaes e 'I (iai n o te ) Untd S ae v.Se n ,5 9 U. 4 0 4 3 ( 01 ) e i t we p. d. ctto s mi d ; ie tts tve s 5 S. 6 , 7 2 0 . i ' t ç-j e S p e Co r h sln d ca e ta a sa ec n o b h l u c n ttto a i i h s ll h u rme u t a o g e lr d h t tmt p n t e ed n o si in l f t a gu c n t u in la p iain. Untd S ae v M o r ,6 6 F.d 31 ,31 ( t Ci.2 2 (iig o si to a p lc to ' ie tts . o e 6 3 3 8 4h r 01 ) ctn t ' W ah. tt Grng , 5 U. a 4 9 . s S ae a e 5 2 S. t 4 ) He e Fauc e co e r, oni r ntnds t t 0P 8 2 i f caly i i be us of is br ad h. ha 03. s a i l nvald ca e t e t n 1 t onsrc s onsiutonaly ot c e Nnmel he as e t t t is br y, s rs ha t oad ba on a 1 nudiy c tit c tt i l pr e t d e es i s h aspos es i ofnon- c ne,s xualy- xplci ma e i l aswe la s ec no xpr son, uc s son obs e e l e i t t ra , l s pe h t pr t c e by t Cons iuton.See P1' Br i Opp' 7, oc tN o.37.A sdi c s d a ve t oe td he tt i .s . n n D ke s us e bo , he 12 r ul ton cea l doe no ban a1 non- c ne s xualy e ii ma e i ,a Fa onirad is eg ai l ry s t 1 obs e e l xplct t ral nd uc e m t h t rs nes o t i z e , 5 3 t 0 (TJ e e uain y t ta p i o r have accesst alem atves. SeeAm atl 1 6F.d a 2 2(t h rg lto b is ( tnnso y r srcspcu e ;ap io e ma ra a yhn h pla e .)(mp a i i oi ia) e nl e tit it r s rs n r y e d n tig e e s s' e h ss n rgn l. ' Furhemo e Gl heea saue rgultse e svec t r r , lwj r ttt e ae xpr si onduc,t s ope oft saue doe no t he c he ttt s t rn e iu c n tmto a u ls iso r ra t i n t n yra, u s b tn il swelj d e i e d r t n o si in l ne s t veb e d h s o o l e lb t u sa ta a l,u g d n rlto t t sau esplil lgtmae s e ' Os onev.Oh o 4 5 U. 1 3 1 2 ( 9 0 eain o he ttt ' any e ii t we p. b r ' i , 9 S. 0 , 1 1 9 ) (iain o te ) He e Fa c n e h sno d mo tae a ra a s bsa ta o r r a t ctto s mitd . r , u o ir a t e nsr td e l nd u tn il veb e dh, e pe i ly r l t t t lgii ae s c iy i e e t a nc d by t r gulto I ed,he s c al e aed o he e tm t e urt ntr ss dva e he e ai n. nde r c i d a co of Es r m a i afe hi a al de e e ve py quie gazne tr s ppe , monsr i t lc of ove br a h. tatng he a k r e dt Sai dif r nty, t r gul i s tsi s Tur rs de a f r as d fe e l he e aton aife ne ' m nd or e onablnes a i i not e s nd t s ove br d. r oa I . Fourt e h A m e I e nt ndm e Cl m s nt ai A . Faci C halenge al l Fa onir c uc e ompli t OP 803. i f c al unco tt i lbe us i i ildei d a ns hat 2 s a i ly nsiutona ca e t s l- fne and l ds t a bir y e or me i vi a i oft Due Pr s Cl us o t Foure nt ea o z tar nf ce nt n olton he oce s a e f he te h Am e ndme .Spe i aly,Fa oni rc e t tt r ulton i i r s i yva be a e nt cfc l uc e ont nds ha he eg a i s mpe mi sbl gue c us i fist d fn E mp sz s' S e OP 8 3. 5I B)(r hiiig imae fo rc ii o t al o ei e f ha ie . e e ' 0 2 VI p o btn n t s r m e evng r pos e sng i aeralt e s s i ç t i hat mphasze e i tor gr phi de ci ns or de c i i of s xua m i s xplci a c pi to s rptons e l acs' t' ) 2 Thecou not t tt pl n l rt es ha he ai angua ofOP 8 .2doespr hi tpublc tons whehe pit i orwrte ge 03 o bi iai , t r coral itn, t te pha ieSe ii orgr phi de c i ordes rpto ofs xuala t.'OP 803. 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( fiil c r e wih h nsi i n f t 4 e si l ee ae a i oiy tes o . o fcas hag d t u i ilje f re n )f rrs lto o a Adho a d s b e t b ss wi teatn a td n e so ts n o c me t o e ou in n n c n u j ci a i, t h te d n a g r f ve h abirr a ds i nao ya iai 'l a 370- ( tngGr yne v.Civ ofRoc o d,408 r tay nd icrmi tr pplc ton. d. t 71 cii ' a d t kfr U. 1 4 1 8 0 ( 9 2). g er lst a r src e p e so as of n t eFis Ame d n S. 0 , 0 - 9 1 7 ) Va u ue h t e tit x r sin lo fe d h rt n me t be us t i unceti me ngsc l fe m ofs e h.Z a 371. ca e her ran ani hil redo pe c J t The voi f rva nes docrne unde t Due Pr e s Cl us i gr d-o - gue s ti r he oc s a e s ound i t ed n he prn i e o f i wanng o n tc .S t v.Go u n 41 U. 5 6 5 2 ( 9 4 .Th d crn icpls f ar r i r oie mih a e , 5 S. 6 , 7 1 7 ) e o tie f ddr s a l as t conne t d butdic ee due pr s co e s:fr t t tr ult d pa te ç es es t e t wo a ce srt oce s nc m is , ha eg a e ri s s d know wha i r quie o t m s t y m a a t a co di y;s co pr ii n a houl t s e r d f he o he y c c r ngl e nd, ec so nd gui ncea e ne es a y s t tt e e or i t 1 w d nota ti a a bir r ordic i i t r da r c s r o ha hos nf cng he a o c n n r ta y s rm na o y wa . 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Fa r l,449 F. a 485 t o e nayzi he he i l pplc tons he a '' r el 3d t ( i Hofma Esaesv.Flpsde. f nEsae ,455U. 489,495( 98 ) quotng f n tt i i Hofma tts S. 1 2). Fis, t c ' addr s e whehe t r gul to gi s a qua e notc of wha i r t he oul t ess t r he e ai n ve de t ie t s pr hi t d.He e OP 803. pas esm use .OP 803. pr de a ls ofe mpl sofm a e i t t o bie r, 2 s tr 2 ovi s it xn e t ral ha S mphasz e ii org a c de c i o des rptons ofs xua acs'a s c sc l no es t e ies xplc t r phi pitons r c i i e l t' nd pe i aly t t tOP 803. $s 1notbe us d t e udepublcai nst tde c i s xuala t i t c e ha 2 thal e o xcl i to ha s rbe e c s n he ont xt o a so y o mo a ta h n ...Er pu lc to s g n r l rc g z d a h vng a t tco f tr r rl e c ig o j biaingq e e al e o nie s a i ri i r y s l em' vaue' OP 8 32 j I H)A)1-5 .Fu t r r t e rmand ro ti po t n o t e ir y l . t ' 0 . 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V( . i al, h ee d l lo i tt e OP 803. i a sa r d ma r whih alowe prs s a ce s t c ran nsiut d 2 n t gge e nne , c l d ioner c s o e ti publc i nsf ra G e ou pe i ' M e .t Faclt Uni Hea ,Doc No.33- The c t iato o d phas t rod. m o iiy ' t ds ket 1. our t r f e c l st ta pe s ofor na y i elge woul unde sa wha t r gulton he e or oncude ha r on di z nt li nce d rt nd t he e a i pr bis. e FCC,567 U . a 253. ohi t Se S. t Fa nirdoe no c uco e s t ompli t the wa notalowe a ce st m ae ilt te an ha s l d c s o t ra ha mpha ies sz gr phi de c i ofs xuala t .I t a hi as e tonsa ie o oft f tt tprs n ofk il a c pitons e c s nse d, s s ri rs ut he ac ha i o t a s yr bied hi fom pos e sng ma e i st tc an nudiy.Be us t pl i lng ge oft ohi t m r ss i t ral ha ont i t ca e he an a ua he r gul ton c e ry s a e t t pr s ne s m a no pos e s publca i ns t t c a n nudiy, e ai l a l t t s ha i o r y t ss i to ha ont i t Fa oni rc motcli t thewa wihoutnotc a t wha i pr c i d. uc e ar am ha s t ie s o t s os rbe Sec ond,t c tadd e s whehe t lngua oft r gulton i s fcinty c e z he our r s es t r he a ge he e a i s ufi e l l a t ti pr dess sce gui nc t go r prs ofi i l Se Kolnde v.La o 461U. ha t ovi uf int da e o ve n ion fc as. e e r ws n, S. 35 3 8( 9 3 ( ( h mo ei o tn a p c o t ev g ne sd crn i n ta t a noie b t 2, 5 1 8 ) &T) e r mp ra t s e t f h a ue s o ti e s o cu l tc , u t t ot rprncpa elm e oft doc rne t r quieme t ta l i lt e e t bls m i m a he he i i l e nt he ti he e r nt ha eg saur sa ih ni l g ieie t g v r 1w e f r e n ' (iain o te ) çplre t ca i a d p e ie ud l s o o en a n o c me t' ctto s mi d . E e fc lrt n r cs n ) t g y gui nc ha ne rbee r r d e n ofr ul tonst tr src e e sveaci t ' W a d v. da e ve ve n equie ve eg ai ha e tit xpr s i tviy.' r Ro kAg i s Ra im, 91U. 78 , 9 ( 9 9 . c an t cs 4 S. 1 7 4 1 8 ) He e f t s m er as t tt r gul to gi a quat notc ofwha i pr hi t d, r , or he a e on ha he e ai n ves de e i e t s o bie t c tbei ve t tr ul to gi ss fc e g da et prs o fcal.OP 803. s t f rh he our le s ha eg ai n ve ufi i nt ui nc o ion fi i s 2 es o t c e r quie e st g de prs ad i sr t s i a e m a notpos es c e t tc ai l ar e r m nt o ui i on m ni ta or : nm t s y s s ont nt ha ont ns n dt , ih i d fn d i o j ci d ti,a dt er g ain p o i e e a e o t etpeo u iy whc s ei e n b e t eal n h e ulto r v d s x mpls f h y f ve ma e i lt tde t ra ha smpha i ese i to g a cde c i orde c i i ofs xuala s'OP 80 2 sz xplci r r phi pitons s rptons e ct. ' 3. j 1 B) ( ( ()() M o e v r p b iain ae d sp r v d i t e c n b t e s n b y j V( , H)A) 1-5 . ro e , u lc to s r ia p o e f h y a e ç a o a l r doc e ed' t vi a e t sa r cea l a tc a e i t r gulto a quesi bl um nt ' o olt he t nda ds l ry ri ult d n he e ai n nd tona e publc tonsar s ntt a ne r t r pary,t t e pe s PRC.Se Ga dne v.M oul No. i ai e e o utal hid t he hr e- r on e r r d, 7:2 CV0 4 9 20 4 U. Dit LEXI 9 5 ,a # 3 ( . Va J l 1 ,201 )( n a J) 1 0 2 , 1 S. s. S 5 45 t 2 W D. . uy 4 4 Co rd, . ( s si a i t s due pr e s cam pa taly be us t publcai a is ç r dimisng n nmae' oc s li ri l ca e he i tons t sue < e we rvi e eweda dia o d...byt PRC asadiitr tdpa t '. nd sppr ve he sneese ry' l B. As A pple C hale id l nge I r ii hi va nes c le e, Fa oni i r quie t demonsr e t t t n a sng s gue s ha lng uc er s e r d o tat ha he r gul ton i vag i a lofis a i a i .W e ge ,950 F.Su 2d a 832. e e, he r gul t o e a i s ue n 1 t pplc tons i l pp. t H r t e ai n pr hi t ofe s fom r c i ng publc to t t c an nudiy.The e i no de t t t o bis f nder r e evi i ai ns ha ont i t r s ba e ha Pl yboy m ag i c t ns nudiy, a Fa oni r w a pr ve e f om r e vi sx i s s of a az ne on ai t nd uc e s e nt d r ec i ng i s ue 16 Plyboy m a zi Thea i to oft r gulton t Plyboy maga nei ce ,a Fa oni r a ga ne. pplcai n he e a i o a zi s lar nd uc e t r or c nno s t i hi f c a vag ne scli a he c nnotde he ef e a t usan s a i l ue s a m s n monsr t t tt r ul ton ta e ha he eg ai i va i a1ofisa iatons s gue n 1 t pplc i . N o t e s t f c t t a s a u e i c tt i l a wrten doe notpr c ude a c t ne hel s , he a t ha t t t s ons iutona s it s el our fo de i ng whehe t sa e ha bee a i i a pa tc a c e i a wa a t vi ae r m c di t r he t mt s n ppled n ri ulr as n y s o ol t vaiu c n tt to a p o ii n .S eHM v.Con r 4 3 F. 1 6 1 9 (t Ci.1 7 )(iig ro s o siui n l r v so s e ie, 8 2d 3 , 3 4 h r 9 3 ctn Ed r sv. o t Cao ia 37 U. 2 9 2 5( 9 3 Attrtbu h,h f c t a Fa c nirwa wad S u h r ln , 2 S. 2 , 3 1 6 :. ss ls t e a t h t u o e s g an e a e s t t Oc o r 2015 is of Es uie mag i , whih c ans a c oon r t d cc s o he t be s ue q r azne c ont i M de c i o nudiy,but nott is s of Pl yboy m a i bec us t y co an pit i piton f t he s ue a gazne, a e he nt i coral d p cin o n dt,s e s me a i c n itn . we e,lthec nsi u e rieo s me e ito s f u i e ms o wh t n o sse t Ho v r çj o co s xecs f o y r s l ci t i e or e e ...ts no is l a f de a consiutona vi a i ''Shue v.He ng, e e tviy n nf c m nt i t tef e r l tt i l olton.' ni No 10 . :4CV1 2 20 6 U. Dit LEXI 7 4 0 a * ( . N. J n.1 ,2 0 ) (u tn 01 , 0 S. s. S 3 0 , t 21 M D. C. a 2 0 6 q oi g Oye v.Bo e ,3 8 U. 4 ,4 6 ( 9 2) s e as Brn o v.Ditito Coumba Bd.o lr ls 6 S. 48 5 1 6 ); e lo a d n src f l i f Pao e 8 3F.d6 4 6 0( C. r 1 8 )( g o e e ydv r e c i t a p iain lt a1w r l, 2 2 4 , 5 D. Ci. 9 7 çNl t v r ie g n e n he p lc to ol a t gv srs t ( c n t ui n l cam.) S n igap io i a i r i aeyd f utl e tkig ie ie o a o si to aq li ' .l nn rs n s n nod n tl isc l md ra n t ' Ru . . . (n )sp rto o p wesc nc r sc u e ap lc o j iilrsri t'Tu n r 48 U. a d e a ain f o r o en o ns l o iy f udca e tan . r e , 2 S. ' a 8 - 5 Co rs S s a c r s b tn ild frn e t te p o e so lj g n o p io t 4 8 . u t t t c o d u sa ta eee c o h r f sina ud me t f rs n mu a i sr t s who be r a sgni a r s nsbiiy f de i ng t l tma e goas of a dm nita or , a i fc nt e po i lt or fni he egii t l c onrci ns s t m a f r detnui ng t mos a oprae mea t ac ompls t m . to yse nd o e ni he t ppr i t ns o c ih he ' ' Ove t 539 U. a 13 A r gul ton ç ron, S. t 2. e ai t pr duce s e i Snco it nc e , butwha m a may o e m ng i nsse i s' t y a ppea t be i nsse r s t a e not ne e s rl sgns of a bir rne s or ir tonalt ' r o nco it nt e uls r c s a iy i r ta i s ra i iy. ' Thom bur 490 U . a 417 n. gh, S. t 15. 17 , l Thor ch,t r gultonsa i s ga i vi lwa de t di c e i t e ude n nbur he e a i t s ue ve ndi dua r ns he s r ton o xcl books f r c e - e r as ns fom t r own f ciii .490 U .S.a 417.Spe ik a l t o ont ntbas d e o r hei a ltes t c t ly, he r g lto alwe awa d n t rj d ap b iain l ny i i i d tr n d d ti n a t t e u ain lo d r e o ee u lc to t l f t s ee mie erme tl o he o s curt good o de ,o dici i oft i tt i ori i mi htf c ltt c na a tviy.' I e iy, r r r s plne he nsiuton f t g a iiae dmi l c i t ' d. a 4 4.Asa rs l o ti rg lto c ran i c n itn iswee p oe td t aie a r s t e t0 e ut f h s e uain, e ti n o sse ce r rj ce o rs co s h vai f iiis Se t a 417 n.5.The SuprmeCo toft Unie Stts c l t t rous aclte . e i t 1 e ur he td ae oncuded ha s h i onssenc e we enotf tlbe a e t r gultons al wed f f iip s c fc a yss uc nc it i s r aa c us he e a i lo or aclt pe ii nal i t ta oun e f t pm iulrc r tmsa e t te hw a de f ce Se i a 428. ha cc t d or he c a icl tnc s ha ac r n a d. e d. t I t si tnc ,t r gulton a is ve t t Diecoroft VDOC a t Chi fof n hi nsa e he e a i t s ue s s he r t he nd he e Cor e tons O pe a i rci r tons w ih t a ho iy t ve o a de s on by t PR C. Se OP 803. t he ut r t o t ci i he e 2 jI E)3 .Fa o ir wa iiil d ne a c s t t Oco e is e o Es uie ma a i V( ( ) uc ne s ntal e id c e s o he t b r su f g r g zne y be a e i c ai d a c roon de c i n t N o t e s Fa oni r r c ve t s is of c us t ont ne at pitng udiy. nehels , uc e e ei d hi sue. Es uie m a zi a tr he a ald t ad r e decson. De e n Ro ns Chif of g r ga ne fe ppe e he ve s ii f nda t bi on, e Cor cin Opeai n ,g a td Fa c n e' rq e tlafe f rh rds u 7o a d ( e a e o re to s rto s rn e u o irs e u s t ltr u te ic s in n b c us f l te t tly o t e ma a ie' Se Ofe d r Gre a c Repo e- Le l11 Co .Ex.7 h j oai f h g zn . e fn e iv n e s ns t ' ve 1, mpl , Docket1-1. The c r bei ve t tRobi o sa tonsi ve t e r ie ofdi c e i oft t ou t le s ha ns n' c i nvol d he xe c s s r ton he ype t tG sta tonaly bee e r t t t e ri eofprs ofi a s' He t v.Hem s 459 ha i r dii l ha n ntused o he xpe ts ion fcil . wit ' l , U. 4 0 47 ( 9 3 . rc ito o ema a i ec n an n o ec ro nd p ci gn dt a tr S. 6 , 0 1 8 ) The e ep f n g zn o tii g n a to e itn u iy fe a a a of a ne tve dec s on r ga di ac es t t tm a z ne s m pl does notde ons r t n ppe l ga i i i e r ng c s o ha ga i i y m ta e t t r ul ton i i pe m i s bl va hat he eg a i s m r s i y gue as a i i t s pa tc a c e o i al of is - ppled n hi ri ul r as r n l t a i to .Si pl put i lghtof t r ulton' r ha lt tve a s c iy pup os ,t pplcai ns m y , n i he eg a i s e biiai nd e urt es he c tc nnotfnd a c tt i lvi ai n whe Robi on a l d Fa oni rt pos e s one our n i onsiutona olto n ns lowe uc e o ss 18 m a z ne c ani a sngl c roon de c i ofnudiy a a t s m e tme, Fauconi r w as ga i ont i ng i e a t piton t nd, t he a i e de e sx is ofadif r ntmaga i ,whih c an nlm e ousde c insofpit ilnudiy. ni d i s ues fee zne c ont i l r pi to c ora t Se L= (tT) e s f a d et e to eain o a p io o a d y t - y bai h sta i o al e d G h ae n f n p rto f rs n n a -oda ss a r dt n ly ( ki i b e e t td t te e p rie o p io o fcas' I ta ,Ro i o u e h sj g n t e n nmse o h x e t f rs n fiil. nse d bns n s d i ud me t o s ). dee ne t t t çot lt of t m a zi ' wa r nt d e pton. 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