Kershner v. Wright et al, No. 7:2016cv00063 - Document 59 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Michael F. Urbanski on 4/19/2017. (slt)
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R ERKS OFFI U. , ST COURCE s DI . I AT' ROANOKE, vA FIED L AF2 19 2 1 07 I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I STR I CO U R T CT FO R TH E W E STER N D I STR I T OF VI G I A C R NI R O A N O K E DI I O N V SI JULI C. UDL CLE A EY BY: / DE k CL K . T O BY K ER SH N ER , Pl ntf , ai if C i lA c i N o.7: 6- vvi t on 1 c 0006 3 V. M EM O R AN DU M O PI O N NI B. W RI T,e al, A. GH t . D ef endant . s By: Hon.M i hae F. bansd c l Ur l U ni e St esD i t i tJudge t d at src Toby Ke s r a Vigi ai aepr e ngpr K ,fld acvi rg sc r hne , r ni nm t oce di o ie i l i ht ompl i ant purua tt 42U. C.j1 3.Pl ntf alge t tt rmani dee t,whoaea s itd s n o S. 98 ai if le s ha he e i ng fndan s r s ocae wiht eRi r rhCo rcin l ne (lNCC' a dteVignaDe rme to Co r cins t h ve No t re to a Ce tr çt t ' n h r ii pa t n f re to ) (S E VDOC') fie t pr tc hi fo a atc by a ot rimaelThermani dee nt ', ald o oe t m r m n ta k n he n t. e i ng fnda s fldamo inf rs mmayj d me ta dPlitf rs o d d madn t matrrp f r i e to o u r u g n, n anif e p n e , l g he te ie o diposton. Afe r vi wi t r c d,t c tg a t t r m ani de enda s m o i f s ii tr e e ng he e or he our r n s he e i ng f nt ' ton or sl r u g n . l mmayj d me t Pl ntf w asr t ni t hi ho i uni f om t pr s di ng ha lon M a c 4,201 ai if e ur ng o s us ng t r he i on ni l rh 5, whe a t ri t ,C. e de ,at c d hi o sdeoft A- l ng.An of ri me ael n no he nma e Fil r ta ke m ut i he buidi ûce m dit y r pore t fght o de e t m t so fghtng, de oyed ac m i lm iton t m .Bot e td he i , r r d he o t p i i and pl he ca s he h i a e soppe fghtng a we er sr i wihouti i t St f ta po d Pl ntf t t nm t s t d i i nd r e taned t ncden . a f r ns /e ai if o he medialde rm e twhe e anlr eno e heha l e a i t hi uppe 1p a t brdgeofhi c pa t n r zs t d d ac r tons o s r i nd he i s Kershner v. Wright et al nos p hi nos w asdi f gu e a bl e ng.2 N o f m ali s i ton oft i i nt e nd s e s i r d nd e di or nve tga i he nc de Doc. 59 oc ur ed,a no vi o w a r t i d bec us i w a de m e a m i a t r to c r nd de s e a ne a et s e d nor le ca i n. 1Thec ttr i td t ot rdefndant b aprorm e or m opi on a or r our em nae he he e sy i m andu ni nd de . 2Pli ifalgest tde e ntHoron, teisi in ln siao,o kpitrso Plitf ij re , antf le ha f nda t h n tt o a ivet trto cue f anifsnu is ut g butHoro a st t r i nor cor of hos pit r se si tn ver hat he e s e d ft e c u e xitng. Dockets.Justia.com l t n e d compl nt Pl i ifa lge ge r ly,1 t dt m t tIc d tgo b k n he m nde ai , antf le s ne al & ol he ha oul n' 1 ac t C&D buidi duet t ga m e r Sxt tngandt e t ni m e. Pli ifct shi o l ngs o he ng mbe s e ori hr a e ng' ' antf ie s ' ilonnalc rf ompl i da e M a c 11, ant t d r h 2015 i s , n uppor oft sge r a lga i n.Pl i ifal ge t hi ne al le to antf le d i t ti or lco pl nt G1br n ha nf ma m ai ,ç ough t ya'l a tnton vi r s f m st tIc dn' go ba t o ls te i a eque t or ha oul t ck t C&D buidi duet t e ori n by t ga .A m on h lt r Ige my nos br ke o l ngs o he xt to he ngs t ae , t e o , punc da so dit t c rt sde kbyU oneo t ga me r whower he nd tmpe no he oncee i wal f he ng mbe s e e ori me. . . . W hy di ' ya'1bei vem e ' Def nda As it ntW a denBoo r xt tng ?' 3 e nt ssa r ke dn t 1 le r ponded t t i or a c pl i s yi K-he e w a no w a t ve iy. es o he nf m l om a nt a ng, t - r l s y o rf ' ' Def ntHoron s enda t poke wih Pli ifafe t fghtt dic st ale e ori t a ntf tr he i o s us he lged xt ton. Howe ,Pli ifdi no sa ea s cii name ,c lnumber ,d t ,ori o ma i a ver antf d t t t ny pe fc s el s a es nf r ton boutt he alege e ori Furhe r Pl i ifdi notdic sa col e ton be wee i ae Fi l r l d xt ton. t nno e, antf d s us ny m c i t n nm t ede and t al ge e ori Nonet l s , ai ifbei ve de e an sLt J. .Hae a J s n he le d xt ton. he e s Pl ntf le s f nd t . M l nd a o Hi nsç houl ha 'known ofars ofa tckbe a ePl i ift d t s t def nda s ggi t s d ve' ik ta c us antf ol he e wo e nt be or t a tckt tFil rwa hi ng co r ba s ci aly a i o s d ttoo gt fom f e he ta ha e de s di nta nd, pe sc l n mpr vie a t m, r sa f t f. Ho t a r t t be o et fght Pli ifa i eFi de we e bo h hous d i t ron ve s ha , f r he i , a ntf nd nmat el r r t e n he s nmepod wihoutanyi i nta t tt r i no r o d t a Pl i ifaz Fi l rha a t ncde nd ha he e s ec r h t antf ld ede d ny , hi t y ofc pl i s i s s o a t r a i be or t i f gh . s or om a nt , s ue , r le c tons f e he r i t 1I. De e d n slldamoi nfrs mmayj d me t ag igta t yaee tt dt fn a t ie to o u r u g n , r un h the r nil o e qualfe i miy.Quaii i miype t l r me ofiil pef mi dicei r iid mmt t lfed mmt t nnis G n nt fcas ror ng s rtona y gove f ncins...(obe s ede fom la lt frcvi dn ge i ofrast i co uc doe not u to t j hil d r ibiiy o i l ma s ns a her nd t s 3The er e e d f m sa enoti t r co d. s efr nce or r n he e r 2 vi a ecla l e t ihed sa u o y orc tt i lrght ofwhih ar as bl pe s wo d olt e ry sabls tt t r onsiutona i s c e ona e r on ul ha e1, w1' Halw v. tc r l, 5 U. 8 0 8 8( 98 ) On ead fnd n rie t v :1 , ' ro Fiz ead 4 7 S. 0 , 1 1 2 . c ee a t as s he .0 1 1 . quai d i muniy def ns ,apl i ifbe z t bm de t s lfe m t e e antf a s he n o how t ta de e ntsc ha f nda ' onduc t viltdt ep an ifsrg t v n v Mu h 9 4F.d1 8 1 8 (t Ci. 9 3 . oae h litf ih .Br a t . t , 9 2 0 2, 0 6 4h r 1 9 ) A pat i e tte t s mmayj dg n it ep e dng ,heds l s dmaeil o fl, ry s n ild o u r u me t f h la i s t ico e tras n e a a afi vis s w t tt r i no ge ne di put a t a m at r a f c . 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Cart, 7 U. 31 , 2 ( 9 6 .I temo a tstsist sb ld n te t e ltx p v. tet4 7 S. 7 3 5 1 8 ) f h v n aife hi t e ,h n h r non- ova m us s tf rh s cfcf t t tde m nt t e o t pe ii acs ha monsr t t e se eofage nediput of ta e he xit nc nui s e f c f ti .l a 322- A c t a no r ol diputd f t,wegh t e de e,o m a a t or ral d. t 24. our m y t es ve s e acs i he vi nc r ke d tr n t nso c e iiiy Rusel . ir d n Co p, 5F.d 1 2 ,1 3 ( t Ci.1 9 ) eemiai f r db l . s l v M co y e r .6 3 2 9 2 9 4h r 9 5 ; o t S s be v. u y 7 7F.d 1 9 1 2 (t Ci. 9 6 .I se d ac u t c e t a tu te o e e M mh , 9 2 7 , 8 4 h r 1 8 ) n ta , o r a c p s s r e h e de e oft non- ovi pa t a r s vesa1 i e na c lc s a i e e s i t no vi nc he m ng ry nd e ol 1 nt r l onfi t nd nf r nce n he n- mo i pat sfv r Chab n a e d Frnc v S t , 9 F.d4 6 41 (t Ci. 9 9 . vng ry' a o . r o n c s e a e . mih 5 7 2 0 , 4 4 h r 1 7 ) Ho ve,t eeu s p o tds e uain . .sn te o g t d f a as we r tmqr n u p re p c lto . i o n u h o e e t umma yj d me t g r ug n moton.'Enni v. tlAs ' o Bus & Ed .Ra o.nc,53F. 55,62(t Ci.1 ) i ' s Na ' sn f . uc di I . 3d 4h r 995 . 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St t d dif r nty,prs of i a sa e notla e i t G w t unde l ng f c s a e f e e l i on fci l r i bl f hey G kne he ryi a t b t le e (l ett o n l)ta ters t whihtefcsg vers wa i u sa ta o u beiv d ab i ms u dy h t h ik o c h a t a ie s ns b tn il r none se .'I a 844;s eI 535F. a 141(ttngt tiwa i ufi e t s a xitnt' d. t e ko, 3d t sai ha t s ns fcint o how d fnd n t h udh ve'e o nz das b tnil iko h r . ee a tt o l a 'r c g ie u sa ta rs f n m) s I Da s rv. tn be ', 7 F.d3 (t Ci. 01 ) teFo rh Cic i Co r o n n e S a s ny 7 2 3 40 4h r 2 4 ,h u t rut u t f Appe l va a e a diti co tsor rfndi a dipu eofm ae i lf t a de ng qualfe a s c t d srct ur' de i ng s t t ra ac s nd nyi ii d i ni i afit et prtc c s .Th r c r o s mma yj g n r v ae t a t eimae mmu t n alr o oe t a e e e o d n u r ud me t e e ld h t h n t, y l Da e , ol a g r Of e Boyd, ha hewa edt got t ou sder r to ca Ofi e ns r t d ua d, ûc r t t nt o o he t i ec eai n ge. fc r Boyd as i ne g oupsof i a est ea h r r a i ca bas d o i a e c t l l ,t sg d r nm t o c ec e ton ge e n nm t s' us ody eve s he 4Pli ifsdifgu ed,b o e n s i a ij r s fkin frti a ay i.Se , ..1ov S rv , 3 antf' si r r k n o e s n nu y uf e t o hs n lss e eg,k . h e e 5 5 F3d2 5 2 (t Ci. 0 ) . 2 , 41 4h r 2 08. 4 l a i oft i e c l i t f ciiy,a da ai ac oc ton he nmats' els n he a lt nd t n omput rgene a e S c a Housng e - r t d pe i l i Uni (S 'Re ots Of rBo dplc dDa s ri a o tierc e to c g wi tr e t t HU' p l G ) t ke y a e n e n n u sd e rain a e t h e h ot ri aes oneofwhom woul bet a s ia who ha ne rm e Da e bef r . 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C.j 1 arui t tOfie Boydwasdelbe ael e ue r S. 983, g ng ha fc r i rt y i fe e tt as t nta rs ofhn Ofi e Bo a gue t t diti tc tt thedi no ndif r n o ubsa i l ik nn. fc r yd r d o he src our ha d t ha eac la esaeof n b c u eç ewa n ta r o a yf css g si t tgh v up bl tt mid e a s G s o wae f n a t ug e t ha t e h ng a sia jpos dapa tculrtr a t Da e.'I a 347.Thedititc t ldi Da e ' salnt e ri a h e t o ns r' d. t src our nze n nsrs f avora s tt m a trf ti l prma iy be us Ofi e Bo as i nd e he te or ra , i rl ca e fc r yd sgned Da e ,aco ced ns r nvi t s x ofe r t t s m er r a i c a t a s lnt whowa alnown vi l ntga e f nde , o he n ec e ton age s he s aia , s c oe ng me r a dt t nsrsij re o c re whe Of e Bo dlf t ea e t u e vsd.Th mbe, n ha Da e ' n u is c u rd n fc r y e th r a ms p r ie e Cour ofAppe l r ve s d, i prma iy t tt her or a ama trof1w f l t s t a s e r e notng i rl ha t ec d s t te ' a ais o how t t ha g fc r Bo dmu t v a prcae t a h sa to la i gDa e a d g ea s ia t tg t e ofie) y s ha e p e itd h t i c f e v n nsr n t s alnj o eh r h i a uns r i ed a e c e t a e es i rs t D a e ' s e y on t tbas s' I a 348. n n upe v s r a r a ed n xc s ve i k o ns r s af t ha i . d. t ' TheCour ofAppeasrj ce Da e' agume t tçtwa t ous t g fc r Boydt t t l ee td ns rs r nt ha t s obvi ' o ofiej i ha 5TheSIU Re ti l d i ats na e a i nttc tonnum be sa not a :s r tor or r y' I por ncude nm e , m s nd de ii ai r nd ed ny (epa aj j de s ' whihaeodr dsrbigwh ec imaeso l b kp sprt 9o i teS F rea e asprto c r res eci n o ah n t h ud e et eaae m n h HU. o x mgl, eaain or rwoul pr ventt i atswho ha pr o l f de d e wo nm e d eviusy ought9om pari pai i t s m er c e tonpe i tci tng n he a e r a l rod. 5 p a igDa e i ar ce to c g wi Lh a s ia t a dia n t ae t up r ie wo l lcn nsr n e rain a e t t e saln) n e vig he r a ms e vs d ud h ha ldt a atc ' JLa 348ve e o n ta k. I t 49. ' -. I c nr s t Da s r Le r v. vn so Comt 5 F.d4 ( t Ci. 0 8 , n n o tat o n e , ay Liic t n t y, 28 3 38 6h r 2 0 ) a d Odom v.So hCaolnaDe me ofCore tons 349F.d765( h Ci. ut r i pm nt rci , 3 4t r 2003) aet , r wo exa esofc r tona ofi e sexhi tng dei r t i fe e t a s t ta rs ofi ae mpl orec i l fc r bii lbe a e ndif r nce o ubsan i l ik nm t vi e e.l Le r t Cour ofAppeasf rt Si h Cic ta fr d t dititco tsde al olnc n a y, he t l o he xt r ui fime he src ur ' ni o ac re to a ofc rsmoinf rs mmayj d me tb c u eter c r e tbih d f o r ci n l fie ' to o u r u g n e a s h e o d sa ls e delber t i f e e .Theofi ert d t deai e t notdic sli pe i c i lc r i ae ndif r nce fc ol he t ne o s us ls nd ng dm na ha ge f ral ge y r pi ani ye rol g r be us a he i aem i a tc hi f i, he o le dl a ng ne- a - d il ca e not r nm t ght ta k m or t t ofi e s e n l t d ot ri aesa utt dea ne sa lge s x ofe e a t ofi r fc r ubs que ty ol he nm t bo he t i e' le d e f ns , nd he fce di no hi t pr ec t de ane fom a s tnta rs ofha m . 5 F. a 441 Si lry i d t ng o ot t he t i e r ubsa i l ik r 28 3d t . mia l n Odom , he Cour ofAppe l f t Fo t Cic tr ve s a di ti tco ts gr n ofs m a y t t a s or he ur h r ui e r ed s r c ur ' a t um z j d me tt c re to a o fc r o t eq e to o d lb rt id fee c .Th prs n r Od m, u g n o o rcin l fies n h u sin f ei eae n ifr n e e io e, o t d c r c i of r ofhi f a ofpm i a i t s a t o fc r s w t pariulr ol ore tonal sce s s er culr nma e , nd he f e s a he tc a i aest e t n Odo ,a tmptt br k i o Odom ' c l,a goa ot st a t k Odom . nm t hr a e m te o ea nt s el nd d her o tac Vmi sa ft d t ofi r t moveOdom t s ey,butt ofi e sal d t pa tc a ous t f ol he fce s o o af t he fc r lowe he riulr i est at c Odom a s i Odo gotwha hede e v d f bei a s t h.349F. a nmat o ta k nd ad m t s r e 0r ng nic 3d t 7 .I b t Le r a dOd m,h otc r s be tv l rc g z dt es b tn il iko s ro s 71 n oh ay n o te f e s u j ciey e o nie h u sa ta rs f eiu i ha f cngt i t - antfs ye t t no se t pr e tt prs r f o t kno nu a i he nma e pl i if , t hey ook tps o ot c he ione s r m he wn rsk. i I c r s t Le r a O do ,Def nda sa e e il d t q lf e i m uriy a n ont a t o a v nd m e nt r ntte o ua ii d m lt nd s mma yj d me tb c us t rc r e e wh nv e di al h mo tfv rb et Plitf u r u g n e a e he e od, v n e iwe n i t s a o a l o anit g l 6 f ist de o taea de e ntsdei r t i if r nce. Ther c d l c a e de eofa al o m nsr t ny f nda ' lbe a e nd fe e e or a ks ny vi nc s pa a i or rora c lc wha s ve bewe n Pli ifa Fi l rbe or t at c e r ton de ny onfi t toe r t e antf nd ede f e he ta k. Alhoug Pl i ifc am si hi i or a co pli fl d a trt fghtt theha o t h antf l i n s nf m l m a nt ie fe he i ha d ompli d ane ge r lyt uns i d sa fabou Gg ngex ori 'nvol ng uns c fe i t s t r i no ne a l o pec/e t f t ta t ton'i vi pe iid nma e , he e s e de : t s vi nc o ugges t ta nn e de e ntwa dei r t l i fe e t a s t n i rs t ha ny m d f nda s lbe a ey ndif r nt o ubsa tal ik t tFi de ora ot rpm i ulri t pos d a s t nta rs t Pl n ifon o bef r M a c ha el r ny he c a nma e e ubsa il ik o aitf r o e rh 4, 5 Plitf ag si hsrs n et tes mmayj g n moint a d l rt 201 . an if r ue n i epo s o h u r ud me t to h t ei ae be i fe e es ndif r nc houl be i e r d f om t f c t the t ol Lt J. .H a e & J s n Hi nst t d nf r e r he a t ha ç d . 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