Thomas et al v. Carmeuse Lime & Stone, Inc., No. 7:2012cv00413 - Document 38 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 12/17/12. (sas)
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I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FO R THE W ESTERN DI STRI O F VI CT RGI A NI R OANOK E DI SI VI ON rdw/Šs OFFIE U,:.D/ . C ATROANOK ST COURT E, VA FI LED BEC 1. 2 1 ' 22 7 a u BY: JUSTI D.THO M AS & N I RENE S.THO M AS, Cas No. 7: 2- ve : 1 c 0041 JCT 3- Pl i if , antfs c, uoLR cu x urx EPLTY cLERI J < M FM OM NRUM OPI ON NI By:Jam e C .Tur s k Seni U nie St t sD i t i tJudge or td a e src CARM EUSE LI E & STONE,I , M NC. and O- M I N NEM LS ( CHEM STONE) COM PANY, De e nt. f nda s ) ) ) ) Thi ma tri be or t Cour o t De e n s M o i n t Dim isPl i if ' s te s f e he t n he f nda t ' to o s s antfs Am e d Compl i .ECF N o.33. antfsfl d ar s nde ant Pl i if îe e pons ,ECF No.34,a De e n sfl d e nd f nda t ie a R e y,ECF N o. The Cour hea d a g e on t m o i on N ove be 29,201 a t pl 35. t r r um nt he ton m r 2, nd he m a tri now rpe f de i i Fort r as nss tf rh be o De e nt 'M o i t Dim is te s i or c son. he e o e o t l w, f nda s ton o s s t Am e he nded Compl i ,ECF No.33, sDENI . ant i ED Addii ly,wih t ag ee e of tona l t he r m nt Pli tfs c u e a e p e sda teh a ig Plitfs rq e tf raPrlmi r Ij n to , anif' o ns l s x r se t h e rn , anif ' e u s o ei nay nu cin pr vi l tke unde advie nt i DI I e ousy a n r s me , s SM SSED W I OUT PREJUDI AS M OO T. To TH CE 1 t extntt ta gum e ss tf rh i De enda Car e e' M o i t Di mist orgi l he e ha r nt e o t n f nt m us s ton o s s he i na Compl i ,ECF N o.1 a t r lt d bre i r ma n ge manea trt flng oft Am e d ant 9, nd he ea e i fng e i r fe he ii he nde Co pl nt t ea gum e sa e a es e he en. TheM o i t Dim ist Orgi m ai , hos r ton o s s he i nal nt r ddr s d r i 2 1Asexpl ned by Pl ntfs'couns ,teAme d dCo lit e v sa yrq et o ijn t e ai ai if el h n e mpan rmo e n e u s fr nu ci v r if tus u rt Ame e ComplitPlitfsn ln rse aprlmi r lj ci ele;h , nde he nd d an, anif o o ge e k ei nay nun ton. 2 Specik aly, t orgna M o int Dimis(ie o yb Ca me e stf rht e a g n s t l he ii l to o s s fld nl y r us ) e o t hr e r ume t. Fis,Ca m eus a gued t tCount One and Two f l t sa ea s t i cl m f r i be et rt r er ha s aied o t t ubsantve ai or elef caus hey o yr q se ij cier le .S c nd,tc n e de t tt Co ant ss b e tt d s s a be a e nl e ue td n un tv eif e o i o t n d ha he mpli wa u j c o imis l c us Compli ,ECF No.1 , i ot r s DENI AS M O OT. ant 9 s he wie ED FACTUAL AND PRO CEDUR AL BACK GROUND A . Fac ualBackgr t ound Ass tf t i t Cour ' prorOr i t sc s , t Pl n if J tn D.Thom a & e orh n he ts i der n hi a e he aitfs usi s l e S. r ne Thom a ,r i nt ofOhi own ce t n r lpr ry c itng ofa oxi a ey 1 s esde s o, rai ea ope t onssi ppr m t l 90 a rsi Bu h n n, r i i (t ePr p r ',n Boeo r Co mt ,d n iidb c t yrc r s ce n c a a Vig n a dh o e Y ) i ttu t t y ie tfe y omt e o d t a p o 4 - 2o teTa Ma Th Pr p ryicu e a o dso h u e(t eSo eHo s ' s lt 3 2 n h x p. e o e t n l d s n l tne o s Gh tn u e), t whi h i f d by ane r y nam als i a num e ousout l ng orf c se ab t prng, nd r buidi s ounda i fom tons r o buidi .ECFNo.25,Ame ut l ngs ndedCo ant( r i tr<Am.Compl' !9. co di t mpli he enafe t .) Ac r ng o ' t a fda tofPli if 'pr f r t r t St neHous ti a e e lnt a r r e mpl he fi vi antf s ofe ed xpe q he o e és n xc le , nd a e, xn e of1 t c t y c o alAm e i a ar hie t e. ECF No. De . Da e B. Thor !3.ti 8 h en ur ol ni rc n c t c ur ' ' 4, cl of ni l p Is Sa e'nt sns t tc onilstlr di notfeq ntybuidsonehous s 1 !!3- Noone t r 'i he e e ha ol a e tes d r ue l l t r e .d. 4. c r ty r i si t St Hous a i a r nty hasnotbee oc upi f rs etme. uren l esde n he one e, nd t ppa e l n c ed o om i De e ntCa us Li e & St i a D e a a e co po a i w ih isprnc pa pl c of f nda nne e m one s l w r r r ton t t i i l a e busnes i Pitbur Pe yl a. townsa oper t a lm e t m i ngpl ntt ti i s n ts gh, nns vani l nd aes i sone ni a ha s a j c n t Plitfs p o e t De e d n O- M ieas( e tne Co a yi awh l d a e t o an if' r p ry. fn a t N n r l Ch mso ) mp n s ol y owne s i a y ofCa meus a hol ttet a l s apori oft soneoft Pr pery.3 d ubsdir r e nd ds il o t ea t ton he t he o t Plitfsf ie t na O- ( mso )M i r l Co n asade e a ta t tO- wa a an if ald o me N Che t ne neas mpa y fnd n nd ha N s n i s ndipensi e pa t Thid and fnaly,Canneus s bl ry. r i l e oughtdim isalon t gr s s he oundst Pl ntfsalege i hat ai if l n t Co ant h iCa me e' rg t aer titd b a 1 49De d, utt tDe donyplc s he mpli t a r us s ih s r esrce y n 8 e b ha e l a e r t itonson m i ng i t St Hous i occ ed,and Pl ntfsha notaleged t tt St House esrc i ni f he one e s upi ai if ve l ha he one i oc ed.Thefr tt oft et eear s cupi is wo hes hr gument wer m oot by t flng ofPl ntf s Am e s e ed he ii ai if ' nded Complit whih rmo dt s p rt c n ss e i ij ncier le a d as a de O- M i rl a a an s c e ve he e a ae ou t e kng n u tv eif n lo d d N nea s s pary.The fnalar t i gumenti t orgi m oton t dim is i notm oot by t flng oft Amended n he i nal i o s s s ed he ii he Compl ntand i addr s her n. ai s es ed ei 3Alho h i rc nie t a o yO- M i r s(n n tCa me e a t al o t emi rl t ug t e og z s h t nl N neal a d o r us ) c u l wns h ne a y rght on t Pr t t Cour r er t t Def nt cole i y he ei i s he opery, he t ef s o he enda s l ctvel r n. Thediput be wee t pa tesc s e t n he ri once nst e e ofDe e nt rght t m i r he xtnt f nda s' i s o ne lm e t on t Pr pe t . Forpu pos soft sM oto t Dimis t Cou twila c ptastue i sone he o ry r e hi i n o s s , he r l ce r t wel- e ded al ga i oft Am e d Com pl nt fld Oc o 1 201 ECF N o. 25.I he lpl a le tons he nde ai , ie t ber 9, 2. n t i Am e d Co pl nt t Pl ntfsal t ta inde t ede ' xec edi 18 (t her nde m ai , he ai if l ha n é ntt ed'e ut n 49 ihe ege i r t 1 De 'i t be nni ofDee t c noftte.Tha de ds verdt lmet on 849 ed' s he gi ng ) fndans' hai il t e e e he i sone t Pr pe t c e tng as pa a ee tt i t sone.4I t n c he o ry, r a i e r t sa e n he t t he onve ownerhi oft tsone yed s p ha t e tt t J hnS. is n a d as s d 1 7a r so a j c n ln i fesmpe Am. mp . ! sae o o W lo , n lo ol 2 c e f da e t a d n e i l. Co l! 11-1 20. 2, Pl i if c e t tt 18 Det pl c d anum be ofr src i on t c antfs ontnd ha he 49 d ae r e titons he onve nc ya e oflm eso ,howe r by r er ngi pora rg st t Pl i if 'pr de es ori i e es, G . i t ne ve , es vi m tnt i ht o he antfs e c s -n-ntr t Re ds I pa tc a ,asdic s d i mor de a lhe ei Pli if a lge t tt De ynol . n riul r s us e n e t i r n, antfs le ha he ed pr hi t a qua r ng a tvii i t a e oft St Hous a ya d,a f t rc e o bis ny ryi c i tes n he r a hè one e nd r nd urhe ont nd t tt s ha he copeoft ya d mus bem e s e by wha woul ha bee i ude i t Re l ' he r t am d t d ve n ncl d n he yno ds ya d i 1 r n 849,whih woul ha i l d anatr s i on t pr ry ne rt hous a c d ve ncude ttal prng he ope t a he e, nd û û r out l ngs. I ! 1 numeous buidi ' d. 2. ' Afe W is sde t aCom mi sone wasa nt t a i serhi e tt ,a t tr lon' a h, si r ppoi ed o dm nit s sa e nd he Comm isone e c ed c ran de dsi 1 01a 1 w ih r pe tt bo h f e i e e t i s i r xe ut e ti e n 9 nd 902 t es c o t e ntr ss n W is n' ln a d so erg t. Co . ! 1 - 6. c r i t Pli tfs t s d e lo s a d n tn ih s Am. mpl! 3 1 Ac o dng o anif,he e e ds conve d o y apori ofW is slm e t rgh si t Pr pe t Thus Pl i if 'Co pl n ye nl ton lon' i sone i t n he o ry. , antfs m ait al ge t tDe e n ss c de onl t apori oft lmesone i t Pr pe t whih le s ha f nda t uc ee d y o ton he i t n he o ry, c f rhe lmist i e e ntove t Pr t Ja u t r i t her asme r he opery... 4 The A m ende Com pl i tt a s t t t i 1 d a n hen s ers ha , n 924, he i vi l who had be n de d, t ndi dua s e ede 4See Bosi v. Bosi, S. 2 5 ,5 4 ( 1 7)(xplii t ta o rma c ve t e tc tc 99 E.d 91 9 Va. 95 e anng ha n wne y on y h underyi m i al and e l ng ner s xceptf om t oper i oft conve r he aton he yancet s f oft l whih he urace he and, c sve st mie a e tt fo t es f c et t a c e t st s p r t ett s. e r he n r l sae r m h ura e sae nd r ae wo e a ae sae ) vi t 1 a 1 2 de ds l nd a lmesone rght pr vi l owne by W is c a he 901 nd 90 e , a nd i t i s e ousy d lon onve d ye a1 t i pr pe t i e e t unde t edee t t W is Li Co ny, whi he dt m l her o ry nt r ss r hos ds o he lon me mpa ch l he u tl1 9 L.! 1 . c r i t Plitfs i 1 9 t eW i o Li Co n c n e e a ni 9 2.d 7 Ac o dng o an if,n 9 2,h l n me mpa y o v y d o s po to ofispr ry owne i f smpl t J m e Ri rLi t Compa , a co ri n t ope t d n ee i e o n s ve mesone ny nd nveye a d por i oft lm esone wihi t Pr ry, a wi ton he i t t n he ope t nd t houtrfr et a prorde d.és ! 18 eeenc o ny i e J ! - 20. si t i er s lt rco ye t O- M i r l. Thi s he nt e t ae nve d o N ne as l t i Ame d Compli t Pl ntfss e decar t y r lefi t f m oft n her nde a n , ai if e k l aor e i n he or he f l ng de l r tons: olowi caai a.hede e nt do notown any lm e t ori i almi ng/ r i rght t f nda s i sone ncdent ni quary ng i s be aht o1 soneho ea isya dtndt e e ands peoft ae ne t he d t us nd t r a he xtnt co he ra aomdteh u es b e tt s c lmiain , r t h o s u j c o u h i tto ) b.t de e nt ha no rgh t bls,qua r o t kea y a so wihi he f nda s ve i t o a t r y, r a wa ny t ne t n t a e s r mdi t o1 sonehous , he r a urol ng he d t e c.he de e t f ndan sha no rghtt dit b, m a o desr t o1 sonehous t ve i o sur da ge, r toy he d t e a do t y r a j i igteh u e n /r he ad do nn h o s , d.t de e nt ha no r g t des r da a ,orot r i e i e f r w ih he f nda s ve i ht o t oy, m ge he w s nt r e e t t naur s i t wa e s c oft ol sonehous he t al prng, he t r our e he d t e; e ted fn a t o o l tel so e(n c re p n i ge s me t i hs i .h ee d ns wn ny h i t n a d o r s o d n a e n rg t) n me adic e eand s ii d pori oft Pr ry be ng hafoft gr y ven of s rt pec fe ton he ope t i l he e i lm e t w hi h nm s i a s hw ese l diec i a r st s hw es e i s one c n out t r y r ton c os he out tm q re oft Thom asPr ry, ua t r he ope t f t de e ntsea e ntt a ce st s lm ie lmeso hol ngsi . he f nda ' s me o c s he e i t d i t ne di s c onfnedt t s m ear a a t def nda sha no rg t a us o o he a e nd he e nt ve i ht o ny e r bur t t szf c o rwhih t y do noto t c r pondi lm e t den o he lr a e ve c he wn he ores ng i sone rg s a i ht , nd g. de l r ton de i ng t me hodst tCn meus ma orm a notus t a caai fni he t ha r e y y eo a c st lm ie n o soflm e t i ownsplr ua t t l c es he i t d m unt i sone t zs nt o he angua a ge nd m e ni oft 1 49 de a ng he 8 ed. ECF N o.25,A m .Com pl at 11-12. . 4 B. ProceduralB ackground Att s m etme Pli if fl t rorgi lCompl nt t y a s fld am oton f he a i antfs ied hei i na ai , he lo ie i or Te o ayRetann Or e a P ei n r ljmcin rq e tn ta teCo r p o ii c r mp rr sri ig d r nd r l ay n t to , e u sig h t h u t r hbt o e mi drli by Cn us o t Pr ry. I pa tc ar Pl i if w e e co e ned t tt st s ilng nne e n he ope t n ri ul , a ntf s r nc r ha hi e t drli whih wast bec ilng, c o onduc e i e ry Aug t mi c us dnma t t St Ho e o td n a l us, ght a e ges o he one us r t s i Ba ed i pa to r pr s nt tonsm a t i i a afi vi by a Ca us empl he prng. s n r n e e e ai de o t n n fda t cne e oyee andr pr e ai by Def nda s c e es nt tons e nt ' ouns la t TRO he rng, t Cour f e t he a i he t oundt tPli if ha antfs h df i dt et biha e tte n t a ij n to s a al o sa ls n nilme t o n nu cin. e The e a r ppea st be s t ntaldia e ntbewee t pa te a t t e e of r o ubsa i s gr eme t n he ri s s o he xt nt De e nt 'lmeso rg sa Def nda t as a f nda s i t ne i ht nd e n s lo ppea t di a e wih Pli tfs'des rpton r o s gr e t a n if ci i ast wha dee a ei Def nda s c i ofttet t m i r rg s wha t o t ds r n e nt ' han il o he ne al i ht , t ypesoft na e e ncis c ran oft edee c e t d, wha t lng geofc ti oft edee mea e ti hos ds r a e and t he a ua era n hos ds n. N o t l s f pur e ofr i o t i m otont dim is De e n sa eet tt nehees s or pos s ulng n her i o s s , f nda t gr ha he a l to oft Compl i mus be a ce t a t u Thi Co tt a s legai ns he ant t c p ed s r e. s ur hus s umes f pur e of , or pos s r lng on t m oton t dim is t tDe e nt 'c i ofttei pr ry s tf t i t ui he i o s s , ha f nda s han il s ope l e orh n he Am e d Com pl i .6 nde a nt 51 pa r s b e e l fldwiht eCou t(lho hno s r un roah , antfsa s r n pe s u s qu nty ie t h r at ug t wo n de t ) Pli if se t t t c e drli by Ca m eus i f dam aged t s i on t Pr ry.See.e. ,ECF No.28 a 2hat he or ilng r e n act he prng he ope t g. t 4.They f herass tt tCa m e sr wa erwhieengage i cor drli and nonet es urt er ha r use tuck t l d n e ilng hel s contnued dr li ECF No.28 at3.I t si accur e,i i diec l conta y t t prors or i ilng. f hi s at t s r ty r r o he i w n r es nt i t t Courtby Car eus sem pl epr e atons o he m e' oyee,Cl Col a who t tfed t Car ay em n, esi hat meus s e' pr tcei cor drli wer t srke wa e woul bet %sop i edi el a drl ele ac i f e ilng e o ti tr d o st mm at y nd il s wher ' ECF N o. e.' 8 Colma De . 6. o t i dae Pli if ha eno fld acam s e i mone d mag sa ar s t , e n cl! As f h s t , antfs v t ie li e kng y a e s e ul oft aleged damaget t s i he l o he prng. 6The Courtsr ol i oft i uesr s by t m oton t dim is i complca ed by wha ' es uton he ss aied he i o s s s it t a ar t be a atemptby D ef ppe s o n t endant t avoi as ng t Cour t consde mat ral out de t so d ki he to i r e i s si he pla ng a t a dc nv ri t i moto t dimisit amo in frs e di s nd o voi o e tng her in o s s n o to o ummayj dg nt Fo r u me . r exampl Def e, endant m ake r er s ef encest t rown tte s ch,s ECF No.35 at3 n.2,and do noteve o hei il ear ee n a tt a t e 1 49De di i t i c i oftte. ei a 2n. ( tngt tPlitfsalg W is n i dmi h t h 8 e s n her han il Se d. t l no i ha an if le e lo s Came e sp e e e s -n-ne e t ot mi r lrg t) seas ECF No.1 a 5(umma ii t i r us ' r d c sori itr s t he nea ih s; e lo 9t s rzng her a g n a ou t Re l De da d sai t tç v n i i a nle t t Pr e t,(t d sn plc r ume t b t he ynods e n ttng ha s e f t p is o he op ry ij oe ot a e e 5 De e nt ofe s ve a a gume si s f nda s f r e r l r nt n uppor oft i M oto t Dimis whi h t t her i n o s s , c he Co r a d e s si tr , he trte n nn t eb ssf ris u idcin u t d rs e n u n a r is x miig h a i o t j rs ito . C. Jur s c i of Cour i di t on t Alho h Def nda sha nots t ug e nt ve oughtdimis loft Ame s sa he nded Compl i f rlc of ant o a k s b e tmatr mi dcin,hsCo r n n t ee sh sad t t a s r is l o iso u j c te j s ito t i u t o eh ls a u y o su e tef f t wn j s ito S eGo z lzv. lr 1 2 S. . 41 6 8( 01 ) P an if iv k t i Co r' midcin. e n ae Thae , 3 Ct 6 , 4 2 2 . litfs n o e hs u ts dv riyj rs cin pls a t o2 U. C. 1 3 whc r q ie t t h p risb ctz nso ie st u idito , t u n t 8 S. j 3 2, ih e ur s ha t e a t e i e f r e i dfe e tSae a t a t eç te i c nr v rye e d s t es m o v leo $ 50 0 ifr n tt s nd h t h t tr n o to e s xc e l) h u r au f 7 ,0 , ma exc usveofi e essand c t.' ta a st s e t tt pa te a ecii e ofdifr nt l i nt r t oss'I ppe r mdiput d ha he ri s r tz ns fe e sa es Fort r a onsdic s d beow ,heCour f rhe c udest tt n o -ntt . he e s s us e l t t u t r oncl ha he m unti con r r y r quie e i m e he e. tove s e r m nt s t r TheAm e d Compl i doe no c an a e ii c am f rmoneydnmage ;r t , nde ant s t ont i n xplct l i o s aher ter le s u h i d caao yi n t e1Gn a to ss e igd ca ao yo ijmcier l f i i h eif o g t s e lrtr n am . t ci n e kn e lrt r r nt tv ei ,t s l e wele tb ih dt t h n t i c nr v ryi me s rdb t ev leo t o j c o te l sa ls e ha t e momtn o to e s s a u e y h au f he be t f h ltgain.' eHuntv.W as Stt Appl Adve .Co n, 2U. 333,347( 977) Tha ii to 'Se h. ae e r mm' 43 S. 1 . t v l ei a c ran dç yt elr e o t fg rs t ij n to s(rd ca ao yj dg n 'j au s se tie d h ag r f wo i u e :he nu cin' o e lr tr u me ts b worh t t pl i iforisc tt t de e t o he antf t os o he f ndant' J Ta I v. as er 624 F.d 635, . TH xs nc. Fr hi , ' 3 639 r srcinso Came e squ ryi )(mp ssa e ) The h veno p ovi da y d ume t, etito n r us ' a r nf' e ha i dd d . y a t r de n oc n s however t s , o how t rchai oftte.Accor ngl t Cour i l twih es entaly an i ompl er d hei n il di y, he t s ef t s i l nc et ecor t eval e t r pe i pr t rght oft pari o uat he es ctve opery i s he tes. l any event t Cour i notbei as t gr ntt decl at y r i soughta t ssage and n , he ts ng ked o a he ar or elef t hi t , t Courtr ogni t addii docum ent m ay eve ualy be pr he ec zes hat tonal s nt l oduce t tl t dif ent d ha ead o fer concl onsc r ng afnalde e m i i oft r pe i pr t rght oft pari TheCour' usi once ni i t r naton he es ctve opery i s he tes. ts iquiy a t spon i lmie t t us ldeemiai o aRue 1 b ( )mo int ds s , t r n r t hi it s i td o he ua tr n ton n l 2( )6 to o imis whehe t Compl ntf l t sat acl m f r i .Her asdi c se her n,Pl ntfshavealeged s t i he ai ais o t e ai or elef e, s us d ei ai if l ufk ent f ct t sat apl bl cl m f r if a s o t e ausi e ai or ele . 1The Amended Com pl ntalo c ai a gener pr ai s ont ns al ayerf r i r or elef equesi , i es ence,a1 tng n s l ot r i t w hi Pl ntf smi beentted. her elef o ch ai if ght il (t Ci. 0)(ii Di v. war , F. 699,71 ( h Ci 2002). r t Ame 4h r201 ctng xon Ed ds 290 3d 0 4t r ) Hee,he nded . Co pl i alege t ta o ti con r r y e e $75,000. Compl!5. Cour ma m ant l s ha m un n tove s xce ds Am. . The t y as c i re de outi t Compli t deemi whehe urs ci e ss See lo onsde vi nce sde he ant o tr ne t rj iditon xit . Unie S aç e rl Vu v r v. a h v 5 5F.d3 7 3 8( t Ci. 0 )Th c s iv l sa td tts x e. v u u J d g , 5 3 3 , 5 4h r 20 9 . e a e n ove diput o rt pos i edn ag t s e ve he sbl m e o--ordt tuci n o - aho ebuiti t l t c nt r a sr to f m l n he B h e u y nd dee e by Pli if 'e r t beahit rcandr r sr c ur . Se ECFNo. Thor Af.!!3m d antf s xpe t o so i a e tu t e e 4, p. f, 5. Addii l t Ame d Compl i a lge t Pl n if 'pr ry t a sa oxi t l tonaly, he nde ant le s hat aitfs ope t ot l ppr ma ey 1 a r s a publcpr ry tx r c dsf Bot t tCo y a s s t val oft lnd 9O c e , nd i ope t a e or or eour unt s e s he ue he a owne byt Thoma e a mor t n$200, Seewww. eourbil y. m ( opet tx d he s s t e ha 000. bott t lpa co pr ry a r c r ss ac a l b n me(atvstdDe . 2, 2 ) I lg t ft fd t t fn nsha e e o d e r h b e y a ls iie c 1 201 ).n ih o he a ha Dee da t v tke t poston t tt y a ee ild t de toy t s f ceoft Pr pe t , i ne be, o a n he ii ha he r ntte o sr he ura he o ry f ed t exe c s t rrght wih r ga d t t lm e t t y own, hepot nta cos t Pl ntfsi a r i e hei i s t e r o he i sone he t e i l t o ai if s t laS t val ofhafoft 1 nd. Thus t Cour fndst t n o -n- on r r y e t he ue l he a 8 he t i hat he m unti c tove s , r quie nti s tsi d. e r me s aife I AN A LY SIS I. A . St andards G over ng M oton t D i m i s ni i o s s To s r ve a m oton t di m i s t pl ntf s alega i m us t t t a cl m t r le t t u vi i o s s , he ai if ' l tons t l a e ai o e i f ha s i plusbl onisf e. As r f v.I l 556U. 662, ( s a i e t ac ' hc o t qba, ' S. 678 2009)( ttonomitd) Thi ciai te . s t equiest pl ntf t a tc a ef c s when a ce e a tu t tthow 't tt pl n ifhas l r he ai if o riult a t , r c pt d s r e, ha s ha he aitf sa e a c ai e ilng hi t r le ,ie ,t ç a i lt of e tte e t r i f ''Fr i v. t t d l m ntti m o e i f . . he pl us biiy n il m nt o ele .' anc s Gic mel, 8 F.d 1 6 1 3(t Ci. 09 (u tn l b l 5 6U. a 6 ) I t sc s ,h a o li 5 8 3 8 , 9 4h r 20 ) q o ig q a, 5 S. t 78. n hi a e te 8TheCour' concl i i alo c it w ih def ns couns ' sa e ent whe e ai ngt ts uson s s onssent t e e els t t m , n xpl ni he poe ilb de t De e da t ofa ij nci p o biigc edrlig,ha Came s sc ta twi a tnta ur n o f n n s n n u ton r hi tn or iln t t r u e' onr c t h t r pat us f t c r drlig, sworha r i tl $7 00 ECFNo. Tr o 94/2 hid rwj torhe oe iln wa t ppoxmaey 5, 0. 23, . f / 1 Hearngat22i 23. Am e d Compli r f st a i or a e byr f r nc anum be ofdee , whi h t Cour nde a nt e er o nd nc por t s e e e e r ds c he t hi t cc pt he l e d a s n he ompli a tu a s c nsde she e9Alhough t sCour a e st welplade f ct i t c lo o i r r . t ant s r e, - s eGiratno v. ohns 521F. 298, 302( h Ci. e ar a J on, 3d 4t r 2008) wheet r i at onfitbewe n , r hee s ç lc t e c t ba ea lga i oft c he r le tons he ompli 'and a a t he e bi, ûhe e bi pr vais' ant' ny tac d xhi t i xhi t e l . t ' Fa te leI t sv. ye tvil nvesor Comme ci Buider . l , F. 1 r al l s nc.936 2d 462,1 ( hCi.1 ) 465 4t r 991. Ac or ngl t sCour cr t t aleg tonsofPl ntfs Amen Compli a tu , but c di y, hi t edis he l a i ai if ' ded ant s r e onl i of ra t ea lgatonsdo notc lc wih t de dsa tc d t r t . Se j. y ns a s hos le i onti t t he e ta he he eo e lo B. Doe t 1849De Re r Oc upanc Fort Resrcin o Quarr ng s he ed quie c y he tito n yi dwihi t yard' t appl I So, Pl ntfsFai t St t a Cl m f Re if d t n he 'o y? f Do ai if l o ae ai or le Be caus The Do NotAlegeTheHous I O c upi e y l e s c ed? Defnda s fr ta g e nt ' is r ument a i or aed fom Cn me e' org na M oton t Dimi s , s nc por t r r us s i i l i o s s , i t tPli if ha f l d t sa ea cai f r i fbe a e Pli if s k t r src s ha antfs ve aie o tt l m or ele c us antfs ee o e tit De e f ndant mi ng rg sunde t 1 Dee whih De enda sc e onl r tit t s' ni i ht r he 849 d, c f nt ont nd y esrc s he lmesoneowne ' rght i t St Ho e i oc upi d.Be us t Compl i doesno a lge i t rs i s f he one us s c e ca e he ant t le t tt St Hous i cure l oc upid,1 Def nda sm ant i t tt 18 De doesnot ha he one e s r nty c e 0 e nt i an ha he 49 ed r ti t i mi ng a tvii s Thus t y co e t tPl i if 'Am e d Compli t t t esrd her ni c i te . , he nt nd ha antfs nde a n , o he e e i r i son t 18 De doe no sa eacl m f r if Fort r s e aned xt nt t ele he 49 ed, s t t t ai or ele he ea ons xpli h r i,heCo r rj csti a g me t een t u t ee t h s r u n . Asno e t Ame t d, he nded Compl i a r t tt 1 Dee s ve edt m i r rght ant ve s ha he 849 d e r he ne al i s f om t es a e oft Pl ntf s pr de s or i i e e t Re r he t t he ai if ' e ce s -n-nt r s , ynol ,and c ds onve t m t O - ' yed he o N s 9Doi s do sno c vett moi t dimisi oo f smmayj gme .S eMarx ng o e t on r he ton o s s nt ne or u r ud nt e ti Ca tlM a . d- v. a i poit l ,5 6F.d 1 2,1 6 (t Ci. 00 . pia mt Fun LP Be rng n .nc. 7 3 7 7 4 h r 2 9) 1 I i notdiput t t St Hous hasbeen unoccupi f s 0ts s ed hat he one e ed or ome tm e. Def nt alo r y i enda s s el on zoni r dss i t tt Pr ry i noteve cur e l zoned f r i ntallvi and ciet ng ecor how ng ha he ope t s n r nty or esde i i ng t o outofcicui a hort f t pr ii t ta %f der cour i consde ng a moton t dim ismay - - r t ut iy or he oposton ha çe al t n i ri i o s s tk udcal tc o c unyz i odi nc s'ECFNo. a 4n. Be a et z ni o teh s a ej ii noie f o t onng r na e . ' 30 t 2. cus he o ng f h ou e doesnotafectt Cour ' concl onsher n,i doesnotGke i o accountany zoni r ti i . f he ts usi ei t nt ng esrctons 8 pr de s ori i e es,W is I pe tne pa t t 1 D ee pr ded t t pur uantt t e ce s -n-nt r t lon. n ri nt r, he 849 d ovi ha , s o he pa te 'a e m e , ri s gr e nt Re dsdi ...s lt t s i W is n, ynol d el o he a d l o unde c ran r e ti q aiiains a s b e t oc ranp iie e te ene rs e , u lfc to , nd u j c t e ti rvlg s h r i xp e s d al t soneand r k upon e r pori n ofhi o l nd . . . , l he t oc ve y to s wn a t et rwih c ti rght ofwa ove hi t s i Re ds own og he t era n i s y r s he a d ynol ' l nd: si ntlet t or wine s h t tt s i Reynol a Thi nde tr her f e t s et ha he ad ds andhi wie f t s r lc i r tonsbef ementone a s f , or he eve a onsde ai or i d s movi t m t t sc ng he o hi onve nce ha a s gi n,gr nt d, ya , ve lo ve a e ba ga ne a s d,a do he e gi ,gr nt ba gan, s l a r i d nd ol nd r by ve a , r i e l nd c onve t t s i W is a hi heisa a sgnsf e r a1t y, o he ad lon nd s r nd s i or ve , l he soneorr ofe r ki a pa tc a l a1lm e t t ock ve y nd, nd riulry 1 i sone,o r qua resoflm e t oro he ki ofsonesi a upo a a ri i sone, t r nd t n nd n ny nd e r pori oft s i Re ds o l nd whih wasowne by ve y ton he ad ynol ' wn a c d hi a t dae ofs d ag ee nt wih t prvieg t t s i m t he t ai r me , t he i l e o he ad W is hi her oras i ,offeei r s ,eg e s a r gr s at lon, s is sgns r ng e s r s , nd e es , al tmes t e era qua r a t t s m eawa ort l i , o nt nd r y, nd ake he n y, o c tuc kinsa bt n t s mei o lme,o t s i Re ds onsr t l nd u' he a nt i n he a d ynol ' ow n l nd .... a And t si t be a pe pe ua prvieg hi s o r t l i l e. Am . Compl,Ex.A a 272- ofDe d Book 31. . t 73 e l me a ey f l ng t f e ng c m di t l olowi he or goi onve nc ,howe r t 18 De pr vi t t ya e ve , he 49 ed o des ha t c ya eoft sonti ude anumbe ofr titons J a 273Cs hi pori oft he onve nc he t ncl d r esrci .Z t - s ton he r c nr c a dc n y n e i s be th we e t tef l wiglmiain o q ai to . .) o ta t n o ve a c , s u j c o v r o h ol n i tto s r u lt ins .' o ka ' Fore mpl i r e ve t Reynol ,durng t tr ofhi own lf t a lt t bt ' ac ran xn e, t es r d o ds i he e m s ie, he biiy o un e ti a ou oflme e r yea ,a r s r d f Rey ds a f hi her oras i ns t rghtt m nt i ve y r nd e e ve or nol , nd or s is sg , he i o E ake a m a us ofa s one upon hi own l nd ... tm a be s t bl a nee ulf s t nd ke e ny t s a t ha y uia e nd df or buidi pum os son hi own lnd. I I a s r quiespa e t Re ds hi heisa l ng e s a ' d. t l o e r ' ym nt o ynol , s r nd a sgns f a da a t t c opso t l nd r uli fom bur ng ort ng a y a oft s i , or ny m ge o he r n he a es tng r ni aki wa ny he sone.Se i t e ê, The conveyance oft easem ental o cont ned t f l i res rcton,t m eani of he s ai he olow ng t i i he ng whi h i diput d by t pa te he e: c s s e he ris r And i i alo a ee a t r t be we n t pa test tt t s s gr d nd mde sood t e he ri ha he s d W is hi her oras i ,i nott bls, orquany,ort ke ai lon, s is sgns s o at a awa a sonewihi t e l ur oft ya d a tc t t y, ny t t n he nc os e he r ta hed o he s i Re ds pr s ntdwelng hous t spr son i i e ed a d ynol ' e e li e; hi ovii s ns rt t pr e t f iv oft s d R e o ot ct he am l he ai vnol .and ofhi he rsor ds s i as i ,or ot pe s w ho m a be i t oc s zns her r ons v n he cupanc oft v he - house f rom annovance. Am Co l, A a 3(mp a i a d d ( ri a tr h ç r Retit nl.l nter mp .Ex. t e h ss d e ) heen fe t e t d srci ' l I h i Ya o Compli ,Pl n if c e t tt heya d'i as t nta a e a ound t Ho eandt t ant aitf s ont nd ha d t r ' s ubsa il r a r he us ha Dee nsaepr hi tdfom e gi i a mi ngaci te (s cal moden- y fnda t r o bie r nga ng n ny ni tviis epe ily r da mehodsofq r ng)t tmi c wihi theyad.1 Reyi ont e t uaryi ha ght ome t n d t r '2 l ng he mpha iedpori ' sz ton oft Ya d Re titon, f nda sa g t tt r titonson mi ng a tvii sC t n t he r src i De e nt r ue ha he esrc i ni c i te i hi he wi e l ur oft ya d'a e onl lm ie i t hous i occ e Bec us Pl i if ha not ncos e he r ' r y i t d f he e s upid. a e antfs ve alg di t eCo an t tt Ho ei o c p e , fn a t c ne t a dhe@ 8 9 De d l e n h mplit ha he us s c u id Dee d n s o tnd h tç 1 4 1 e , e t eve i i a i t t Pr ry,doe notpl c r srci on Ca me e' qua r ng. Thus n f t pples o he ope t s a e e titons r us s ryi ' ' , De enda sc e t tt Compli tf ist sa eac eofa ton a mus be dim is d. f nt ont nd ha he a n a l o tt aus c i nd t s se The Co ti notpe s d by De e ant a gum e . pl n r adi oft lng ur s r uade f nd s' r nt A ai e ng he a uageof t De d pl ce ar src i on a lbl tng,qua r ngort ki a y ofsonewihi t he e a s e ti ton l asi ryi a ng wa t t n he e l ur oft ya d.By isown tnns t e pha i d lng gee a nswhy t tr srci n i ncos e he r t e , he m sze a ua xpli ha e tito s i e td,butt r src i on aci te wihi t e os eoft ya d i no c tone upon ns re he e titon tvii s t n he ncl ur he r s t ondii d' occ nc e i il ori plc ty.I ed, e e nt do no poi t a l ngua i t 1 49 upa y, xplc ty m i il nde D f nda s t nt o ny a ge n he 8 1 The Cour utlzesher n t uncerii ttansa i 'pr ded by t Pl ntf s butnot t t 1 t ii ei he tfed sr lton' ovi he ai if , es ha i appear t t Courtt dif a l tsi l f om t orgi deed.Fore t s o he o fer t eas lghty r he i nal xampl whie t e, l he ha rte 1849 Deed i s ewhatdit ul t re i appea t t Cour t t wordtencl ur ' i ndw itn s om fk t o ad, t rs o he t hat he s os e' n t tansa i i act l s l (i os e'and t tt phr e çt spr son i' ac ualy r he r lton s ualy peled sncl ur ' ha he as dhi ovii s' t l eadsdhi i s t pr son bei ' l any eve ,f pur esoft smoton,t Cour w iltea t ta l ton ofer d as ovi i ng. n ' nt or pos hi i he t l r t he r ns ai f e cor ec . r t 1 The pari alo di e aboutt am ountofI t woul have cons iut çt ya d' i 2 tes s sagr e he and hat d tt ed 'he r ' n l 4 Co r-eg, Compl! 1 (le ngt tt d r'wo dha icud dt srnga 8 9. mpae ..Am. . 2 algi ha he t d' ul ve n l e he pi nd ya n r usou b li s ; No. Th pAf. 9( r wo d h vei lde ë sltl a 5a d ume o t uidng ) ECF 4, or f ! yad ul a ncu d t ite s n a p e tal mor t n 1 a r ' wihECFNo. a 8 De sOp t M o .orTRO ( fnd n s a srin otn il y e ha 0 ces' t ) 7 t , f' p.o t f Dee a t ' s e to t a t tr n og < r atc dt t .. ho e'smo elmie ta Plitfss get. h t he e miol y I d ta he o he . us 'i r i t d h n an if ug s) ya l0 De d t ti ca e t r e vai ofrght i pr s d on t hous beng oc upi d a onl e ha ndi t s he es r ton i s s emie he e i c e nd y a i a l ng a t hous i o upi d. Tha i ,t Ya d Re t i ton doesno s a e t ti i pples s o s he e s cc e t s he r s rc i t t t ha t s a i a eonl s l ng a t hous i oc upi d, oronl i t hous i occ e ort tt pplc bl y o o s he es c e y f he e s upi d, ha he r ti i ex r i t hous i no oc upid.l esrcton pies f he es t c e 3 l e i i e n plusbl t tt lng geco e ni l c nc 'oft hous nde d, t s ve a i e ha he a ua nc r ng ç upa y' he oc e modii onl io he pe s ' a doesnoteve a y t t f mii so Re dsorhi her or fes y ût r r ons' nd n ppl o he n le f ynol s is as i .Tha i,t pr vii c d ber f re t a pr e tng fom n sgns t s he o son oul e e r d o s ot c i r nnoya t e gr : nce hr e oups ()t efmiyo Re n l s ( ) h f miyo Re n l s h iso a sg ; n ( )ohe p ro 1 h a l f y o d ; 2 t e a l f y o d ' er r sins a d 3 t r es ns who m a bti t occ nc oft hous Unde s h a i ew e ai , t fna s nt ncea y n he upa y he e. r uc n nt t t ton he i l e e s a plc bet Plitfs wo l bera a lh sp o so i i e tdt p o e t h fmile q. . p ia l o anif, u d e d s ' i r vii n s nsre o r tc t e a lis . t o g y lss her a da sg s. .r m a o a c . Un rt sr a i ,o , c u n y f Re nod 'l is n sin . fo nn y n e' de hi e dng t o o c pa c ' wo d be ir l va . ul re e nt M or ove ,unde De e nt 'pr f r i ep r t ton,t rght oft o roft e r r f nda s ofe ed nt e ai ht i s he wne he mi r le tt woul va y de ndi on whehe t owne soft s c e t t we elvi i ne a sa e d r pe ng t r he r he uda e sae r i ng n t hous a a gi n poi orno ,whih woul s em t pr he e t ny ve nt t c d e o oducea m a ousr ulsa l dt no l es t nd ea o unc ti y ast t rg sofbot pari .Suppos ,f e erant o he i ht h tes e or xampl t tno oner i d i t hous e, ha esde n he e f aye rort butt n t owne soft s f eesaer t nedt t home. or a wo, he he r he urac t t eur o he Unde r De e f ndan s'i e r t ton,t o r oft mi r le t t woul ha t a lt t m i t nt p e ai he wne s he ne a sa e d ve he biiy o ne, wihoutr src i e n i t encos eoft ya d,a e n t t e en ofdesr ngt t e titon, ve n he l ur he r nd ve o he xt t toyi he hom e,s l a t r w e e no r i nt .Butt y t w oul be pr bied f o doi s upon o ong s he e r es de s he hen d ohi t r m ng o t slf ceowne s r t n t t i hom e. ts e st t Cour hi hl unlkey t teihe he tra r ' e ur o her l e m o he t g y i l ha t r Re dsorW is c d ha i e d s h a i e r t ton a t tm et Dee wa ynol lon oul ve ntnde uc n ntm ea i t he i he d s 1 The Cour ' concl on i t sr d r 3 ts usi n hi egar ender i unne s y t addr st pa i ale a i st ces ar o es he rtes' t m tve ar ent i t eve t occ ncy i r r d,i udi t ra gum s n he nt hat upa s equie ncl ng hei rgum ent concem i t applcabiiy s ng he i lt oft Rul A gai tPer uii . he e ns pet tes r co de e r d. Ac or ngl t Cour co l c di y, he t ncudest tDe e nt l ga rg t m i t Pr pe t ha f nda s' e l i ht o ne he o ry ( ih, salg di t eCo li tto fo t 1 4 De d i s be t ot eYad wh c a l e n h mpan ,l ws r m he 8 9 e ) s u j c t h r e Re tito r ga dl s oft oc pa y oft Hous Thus t Co pl ntsat avi bl c am srci n, e r e s he cu nc he e. , he m ai t es a e l i f rr le i t ti s e a de l r ton oft r s c i r g s oft pa te wih r gar t t t o e i f n ha t e ks caai he e pe tve i ht he ri s t e d o ha r src i Ac di l t t e e De e n s moton t dim iss eksdim is lon t s e titon. cor ngy, o he xt nt f nda t ' i o s s e s sa hi g ot d,i i DENI . r m ts ED C. W hatPor i of St R i s i t Pr r y D o t 1 ,1 t on one ght n he ope t he 901 902,and 199 Dee 2 ds C onve t D e y o fendant Predecessors? s' De e d n s r manngag n sf u o t res b e u n d e s( 1 01 1 0 a d fn a t' e ii r ume t oc s n h e u s q e t e d a 9 , 9 2 n 1992Dee t tPl ntfsalegeaei Dee nt c i oftte.Spectc ly,heAme d d) ha ai if l r n fnda s' han il ii al t nde Co pl ntal ge t t s eque t t Reynol Dee t ts ve e t m i r lrg sa m ai le s ha , ubs nt o he ds d ha e r d he ne a i ht nd c onve t m t W is t ewe et de dse utd by a Comm ison o be l oft yed he o lon, her r wo e xec e s i n ha f he e t t ofJ S.W is n,as c s -n-n e es t t owne oft m i r rg s t 1 a sa e ohn lo uc es ori i t r t o he r he ne al i ht ,he 901 nd 1 Dee .The 1 Dee c 902 ds 901 d onveys fom W is n t De e nt pr de s o s ,r lo o f nda s' e ce s r : g lo t lme tneo teln o t elt G. W . y od , AJ1 f he i so n h a d f h ae B. Re n ls n w i n meo La naPi e ( ePr p ry , d onngt a o o n n f vii t r t o e tl a j ii he b ve z h lnds a aong t ve n ofgr y lmesone on s i Reynol lnds a , nd l he i e i t , ad ds a e e ngi aSou h- ese l die ton,t a lnet e hundr d xt ndi n t W t ry r c i o i hr e e f e fom t lneoft E. lon lnd .... e t r he i he Dil a Am. mp . 1 , n Ex btC. i lry t e1 0 De d sae ta i ç loc n e sa1h Co l! 4 a d hii S mial, h 9 2 e tts h tt G s o v y 1 te a soneont lndofLa ni Piz r(hePr ryq fom lneofç r lno.2,twhihpace ha t he a vi a te t opet ,r i s ce pa it c r l s heeoo eb e c n e e bys i c mmiso e . . y (h 1 01De d ) h n eSo t W e t o rtf r e n o v y d ad o sin r . b t e 9 e jte c uh st E. l n' ln . . Am. mp . 1 , hii D. Dil s ie .' o ' Co l! 6 Ex bt The 1 D e i t n conve ç... ft ve nsoflm es o on a 200 ac e t a to 992 ed, n ur ys $ hal he i i t ne r rc f ln b ln i t ( o s s p e e e s r, nda j i ig g 3 6a r ta tas c n e e l si a d eo gng o Th ma e ' r d c so q a do nn a 0 ce rc lo o v y d ; ad ha ft bem e s e al t ve nsoflm e t fom t di son lneofs i 3 a r ta ti a l o a ur d ong he i i sone r he vii i a d 06 c e r c n s hwese l die ton. Am .Compl ! 1 a dEx. a 3 out t ry r c i ' ' . (8 n E t. Thepa tesdiput t pr pe i e pr t to a sgnika eoft s t e de . ri s e he o r nt r e ai n nd i f nc he e hr e eds Pli if cli t tt 1 Dee % a e onl apa tc a gr ven oflmesonet te e a ntfs am ha he 901 d ç ntd y gr riulr ey i i t ha xt nds i t l rhal oft pr ryi as t se l lne' ndt t(nl lmeso a n he owt f he ope t n ouhwe try i 'a ha ç o i tne bove g ( o te s o t i ge v i o l so ewa e e c n e e . Am. mpl!21 The1 0 n rh at 9 h s ry en f i t n s v n o v y d' me ' Co . . 92 De a co di t Pl i if ,me el c ed, c r ng o antfs r y omplt d t c e e he onve nc oft r m ande oft ya e he e i r he lmeso on t tgr y vei Ba ed o t s Pli tf sc am t t a m os,t De e nt ha i t ne ha e n. s n hi , a n if l i ha , t t he f nda s ve sonerg sonl ast t tpori oft Pr ry. y f t rc e t tt 1 De d t i ht y o ha ton he ope t The urhe ont nd ha he 992 e c n e e o l ap rin ( l o t t o v y di te 1 0 a d 1 0 De dsl o v y d ny o to hat f ha c n e e n h 9 2 n 9 2 e . l 4 Def nda scoun e t tbo h t 1 a 1 De , t i pl i t r s c e nt t r ha t he 901 nd 902 eds by her an e m , onve t y he e tr mi r le t t co ye by t 1 De Ast t 1 De d,De e nt a guet tt n ie ne a sa e nve d he 849 ed. o he 992 e f nda s r ha o t e t t tt 1 Dee c he xt nt ha he 992 d onveye l s t n a 1oft m i r lrg si t Pr ry,i d e s ha l he ne a i ht n he ope t t c e t d ac t na y i t mi r lesa e Unde t ss e ro,De e rae o-e nc n he ne a t t . r hi c na i f ndan sas e tt tt y a e a t s r ha he r t t ver las ac t na i t e ieesa ea t tasaco-e n ,t y ha a c st t e ie he y e t o-e nt n he ntr t t nd ha t na t he ve c es o he ntr m i r lesae.Fr t s De e nt m'uet tPl i if l k sa ng t brng a ca m ne a t t om hi, f nda s g ha antfs ac t ndi o i ny li c le ngDef nda s rghtt ac s t lm e t a a guet to y a c tna wo d ha ha lngi e nt ' i o ce s he i sone nd r ha nl o-e nt ul ve sandi t pur ue s h ac am . t ng o s uc li 1 The quesi ofhow much oft soneDef nt own on t Pr rt i a sgnii ntone. 4 ton he t enda s he ope y s i fca Thi i s beca e i Pl ntf s'i er e i oft Dee i cor ec ,and Def ss o us f ai if nt pr uton he ds s r t endant onl own t s y he lm esone rght on a pori oft Pr t t Def ndant thol no i dent m i ng eas i t i s ton he opery, hen e s G d nci al ni ementt and o t oug t pr pet whe ei do sno owntec re p dig lme t ne'Am. hr h he o ry r t e t h o r s on n i so . ' Compl!2 Pu . 2. t dif e l Def nt have dno rghtt i erer wih any par oft s f oft Pr t i whih fer nty, enda s t i o nt f e t t he ur ace he opery n c ghe d no as o t l so . J ;s eas Clyb r v.Ca laRe As Co lCo.I . 1 5 S. t y oJ t lo wn he i t ne' #. e lo a o n me ' mil d h a . nc, 0 E. 11 1 2- ( 1 20 ( wn rofc a i Pr pe t A o norg t us t nn l ormi sun rs fc 7, 2 23 Va. 9 ) o e o l n o ry wns iht o e u e s ne de ura e o P o et A o c a1 o lsy n , n tu e c t imo e c a tru hto etn es rm a f rp r n e 1c a i o e a d h s a h i t v s o lho g h s u n l fo n y me aj i n pic o lndwheelas o co lihst own ro tec a tep se o t rg t oft donig e e f a r t lo wns a rg t,he e f h o lrsa ss n he ihs he o r i f esmpl o Pr p ryA) wne s n e i e f o e t . Pli if diag e t tt 1 De d c e t d azo-e antf s s r e ha he 992 e r a e tnmwy,bute n i i di Pl i if ve f t d, antfs a guet tt y none he e sha sandi t a s r t i cai si t slws t r ha he t l s ve t ng o s e t he r l m n hi a ui. I a e sng t s c n ddr s i he e ompei c am s t Cour r c t ge r lc ncus o t t upo tng l i ,he t ea hes he ne a o l i n ha , n ac r ulr viw oft lng geoft 1 ,1 a ef e e he a ua he 901 902, nd 1 De , antfsha a t ve y a 992 eds Pl i if vt, t he r las,a s re a i er e ai oft ede t tc d ç a i y'lm i Def nda s m i r e t s e td n nt pr t ton hos eds ha oul d usbl ' i t e nt ' ne al pl r g s on t Pr r y.A c r ngl di m i s w oul be i ppr i t i ht he ope t co di y, s s al d na opr a e. Fis ofal t Cour i notc nc d t tt 19 a 1 Dee a eascea a r t l, he ts onvi e ha he 01 nd 902 ds r l r nd pli asDef nda sc e Buti a e nt e n i t et de conve t e ie y of an e nt ont nd. n ny ve , ve f hos wo eds yed he ntr t t lmeso rght t t Pr ry, he s e nt1 De d pl i y onl co yshaft he i t ne i s o he ope t t ubs que 992 e anl y nve l he ve ns oflm e t ne I e D e enda sdo nota gue i t i m oto t di m i st tt 1 i i s o . nde d, f nt r n he r i n o s s ha he 992 De c ed onveye t e iei e es i t lm e t on t Pr pe t SeeRe r lv ECF No. a d he ntr nt r t n he i sone he o ry. ne al 33 t 6- Thus c e tng t c i ofttea lga i i t Compli ,a m os De e nt s ce ded 7. , r dii he han il le tons n he ant t t f nda s uc e onl t hal oft lm es o r ght on t Pr ry.1 y o f he i t ne i s he ope t 5 Sec ond, he Cour nee notr s ve a t ss age whe he t 1 D e was s t t d e ol , t hi t , t r he 992 ed o i fnie i de i na i t pr ry c nde i t n s g tng he ope t onveye t ti c e t d at nanc i c d ha t r a e e y n omm on,r t rt n a ahe ha sv r de tt . e ECF No 3 a 6( f n a t s ag i g a dctngHo e & DeJ r e t v e e e sae S e . 3 t De e d n s o r u n , n ii dc s an t . e Tho non,1 S. 8 866- ( 19 f rt pr ii t taSe yi commoni r t 20 E. 65, 68 Va. 24) o he oposton ha t nanc n t s c ea e i a d fniedesgnai oft s ve a pa t oft lnd'cn r t d f de i t i ton he e r l rs he a nnot< l atd o t be oc e n he g o n b f lo n s hd sg ain').n ta ,h Co r d tr n st a e e i t eDe d r u d y o lwig uc e in to ' I se d t e u t eemie h t v n f h e c eaed ac t na y,t doesnotladt t c l i n Def nt wa ,whi h i t t r t o-e nc hat e o he onc uso enda s nt c s ha Pl i i f l c s andi t sop t m i ng bec us t a e no a co-e a ntf s a k t ng o t he ni a e hey r t t nanta ow n no rght t nd i so t so .ECF No.33. he t ne 1 Def nt cont t t a ualy own t entr y, butt y ha notpr 5 enda s end hat hey ct l he iet he ve oduced any deeds orevi dence s i a conveya oft r ai ng hal notconveyed by t 1 Deed. how ng nce he em ni f he 992 14 S a dn meeyr q ie a ij r i fc- a ivai no alg lyp oe tditrs . . tn ig r l e ur s n nu y n a t n n so f e al rt ce ne et . Luinv.Dee r ofW idlf,504U. 555,560( 99 . antfsceal haveapr e tbl a fndes l ie S. 1 2) Pli if l ry otca e i e es i t resat and i e urng t ti i bur ned onl by t e e e e st ar lgaly nt r t n hei t e n ns i ha t s de y hos as m nt hat e e l e or a e. ndee asPli tfsnot ,i i e iey a o it f aco tt de lr t nf ce bl I d, a n if e t s ntr l ppr pra e or ur o ca e he r pe tve rght ofaszf c owl and mi r lowne when s h adiput a es Se eg. es c i i s lr a e wr ne a r uc s e ds . e. . , Ros Coa Co. Col 249F. 600( h Ci.1 (fimi dititc tsde lrtonof s l v. e, 2d 4t r 957) afr ng sTc our' caai r pe tverght bewe nt s fc ownera owne ofacoa ett) s eas Cl n v. es ci i s t e he ura e nd r l sae; e lo aybor Ca laRe As Co l . 1 5S. 1 7( .1 2 )(e ov n cam b o h b o ro mil d h a Co, 0 E. 1 Va 9 0 rs li g li r ug t y wne f s ra ee tt c le gn e tn o e sme t ih sb c a o e) Li t p risi t ctd u fc sae haln ig x e t f a e n rg t y o l wn r. ke he a t n he ie e c s s Pli if a Def nda sher ar owner ofdif r nte tt si a c a e , a ntfs nd e nt e e s fe e sa e n omm on pa c ofr al r el e e t t ,a t y sa ea c o a e a plusbl cli t tDe e nt a ei ope l i ere i sa e nd he tt ol r bl nd a i e am ha f nda s r mpr ry nt f rng wih t i pr t rg s TheM otont Dimi son t g oundsofl c ofsandi mus be t her opery i ht . i o s s he r a k t ng t de e ni d. l s t t Cour c udest tdim is la t ssag ofPli if 'r m ani cli s n hor, he t oncl ha s s a t hi t e antf s e i ng am woul bei ppr it snc Pli if ha sa e acli t ti t a i eon isf t. Se d na opra e i e a ntfs ve t t d am ha s l usbl pl t ac ' e ' I ba ,55 U . a 678.Acc di l f a 1oft f e ngr s , e nt 'M oto t q l 6 S. t or ng y, or l he or goi ea ons Def nda s in o D i m i s ECF No. i DENI .6 s s, 33, s ED 1 1 I addii t t e isuesconcem i physi ar wher Def 6n ton o hes s ng cal eas e endant m a be r tit fom s y esrc ed r mi ng( ec s o teYa dRe titono b c us t e lc ofown rhi o rt e ieyofte ni b au e f h r srci r e a e h y a k e s p ve he ntr t h mie a e tt c repon n wiht Pr e t , anif'Ame edComplitas c aln ste n r l sae o rs dig t he op ry) Plitfs nd an lo h le ge h ma nneri whi Def n ch endant ar m i ng ori end t m i t lmesonet own.Specik aly,Pl ntfs s e ni nt o qe he i t hey f l ai if alg ta tema n ro miigi l tdt temeh d c ne ae b Re n lsa tet ta h l e h th n e f nn s i e o h to s o tmjltd y y od th i h t e e mi me conve t m i alrght i 1 yed he ner i s n 849,and t t e met hat hos hodsar sl f l mor lm ied t t e gnikanty e i t han he meh se oy dt da Se ECF No. ! 1 - 2 (fi a to Plitfs pr fe e e et Dr Th p t od mpl e o y. e 4 ! 0 1 a ld vi f anif ' o fr d xp r . or e ani wha i uar ng'a ç atn ' a ta tmeof1 49De d . nr s ns , f n nt a g xpli ng t s ryi ' nd t sig'me n t i q bl 8 e ) l e po e De e da s r ue t tt wor ng oft l849 Deed pl ha he di he aced nor ti i on t m et orm a ri whi t lm esone esrctons he hod nne n ch he i t wa t b mi d, n i fc e r s l r f r t f a ti l'ECF No. a 8; Compl, A a 3. s o e ne a d n a t xp e sy e e s o < slng . bl ' 30 t Am. vEx. t Def nt f he poi t t f tt tVigi acourshavenot t t onl way t e r tlmesone enda s urt r nt o he ac ha r ni t ed hat he y o xtac i t i fo t s ra e ECF No. a 8( ii Be r v. lo 1 4 S. 6 ,6 ( .1 28 s r m he u f c . 30 t ctng u y Shet n, 4 E. 29 33 Va 9 :. 15 1 1 CONCLU SI 1. ON Fort r as sa e a he e ons t t d bove t Cour DENI Def nda s M oton t Dimist , he t ES e nt ' i o s s he Co pl nt ECF No. Addii ly,wih t a e me ofPli if 'co e a e es e a m ai . 33. tona l t he gr e nt antf s uns l s xpr s d t t h ai g Plitfs r q etf raPrlmi aylj ncin, e ECFNo 2 p e iusytk n he e rn , anif ' e u s o ei n r nu to s e . , rv o l a e t ra vie t i DI I mde d s men , s SM SSED W I OUT PREJUDI AS M O OT . Fi ly,t t e e TH CE na l o he xt nt t ta g e ss tf rh i Defnda Ca me e' M oton t Dimi st o i na Compl i ha r um nt e o t n e nt r us s i o s s he rgi l ant ECF, No.1 a t r lt bre r ma n ge m a a trt tlng oft Am e d Compli t 9, nd he ea ed iûng e i r ne fe he i i he nde an, a ha be n i or a e by t pa tesi t i b i fng o t s e ntM oton t Dimi s nd ve e nc por t d he ri n her re i n he ubs que i o s s, t e a g e sha be n a e s d a pa toft nzi on t s c m o i t hos r um nt ve e ddr s e s r he lng he e ond ton o dim is Ac di y,Ca me e' frtM oton t Dim ist Orgi Compli ,ECF No.1 s s . cor ngl r us s is i o s s he i nal ant 9, i DENI AS M O OT. s ED ENTER :Thi l s a ofDe mbe , 2012. y ce r Z onor bl J m esC . a e a T Se o Unie Stt sDititJ ni r t d a e src udge The e appeart be competng l pri pl a t t s i ue.Com pa e.e. ,Yukon Pocahonl s r o i egal nci es s o hi ss r g. Co lCo. Ralf,2 S. 2 55 ,56 - 4 ( 1 )( mi rsrg t aeS tlmie .. t s c a v. tif 4 E.d 9 3 6 Va. 943 a ne ' ih s r < i td .o u h no applancesaswer i exit i e n sence when t gr wasmade,butm a keep pacew ih t pr es ofs ey he ant y t he ogr s ocit a mod r ive i s' a dBe r ,1 S. a 63 (e og zn i 1 ,ha o ywa lme t nec n nd e n n nton ' n u v 44 E. t 3 r c niig,n 928 t t nl y i so a ) ber ove i by lqua r ng,whih r quiest t ng of ofany t soi t tm ay le above i a bl ti em d s t r yi c e r he aki f op l ha i t nd as t of. eei nohi lf whe telme t ei tk n.lwihTrylrv. lwa l S. 2d5 , 3 f Th r s t ng e t n h i son s a e ' t a o Holo y, 42 E. 21 52 ' ( .1 65 ( ii t ç lme tr r l ofc nsr tont tt pu pos ori e to awrte isr me t Va 9 ) ctng he é e n ay u e o tuci ha he r e ntn f itn n tu n e mus bed tr ne fo t lng g us di t lg to t cr u tnc su e whihi wa wrte ' t ee mi d r m he a ua e e n he ih f he ic msa e nd r c t s itn' ) a Lo v. ya Ea l Coas l .27 S. 2 91 9 ( . 1 0)(ndic s ig p sbl lmiai s nd we Gu n ge l. nc, 3 E.d , 3 W Va. 98 i s u sn os i e i tton on an eas ent hol ng t tç us may bem ade ofa rghtofwa dif r fom t esabls a t em di ha t e no i - - y, f e ent r hat t ihed t he tm e ofisc eaton soast bur t s vi esat t a gr erext t n wascont m plt att tm e i t r i o den he er ent t e o eat ent ha e a ed he i oft g a .) Gie t a t Cour ha deemi dta Plitfsha esae aplusbl cl m a he rnt' . v n h t he ' t s t r ne h t an if v ttd a i e ai nd s vi am oton t dim i ,t Cour need notr ol t sis a t stm e. ur ve i o s ss he t es ve hi s ue t hi i 16