South End Construction, Inc. v. Tom Brunton Masonry, Inc., No. 7:2012cv00390 - Document 11 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 9/18/12. (sas)
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CL ERKSOFFI CE A R U,: DI O t T . m: m Oe , VA FI LED I TH E U N I ED STA TE S D I N T STR IC T C O U R T FO R TH E W E STE RN D I STR IC T O F V IR G I I N A R O A N O K E D I ISI N V O sEF l22 1 22 JULA C, U LEX CLERK I BK t C P SO UTH EN D CO NSTR UC TI N ,I C . O N , C i lA cton N o.7: c 390 vi i 12- vPl ntff ai i , M EM O R AN D UM O PIN IO N V. TO M BR UN TO N M A SO N RY ,IN C. , D ef endant . By:H on.Jam esC .Turk Seni U nied St es D i ri Judge or t at st ct Thi matri befr t Cour onDee ntsMotont Cha Ve ( tNo.3. s te s o e he t fnda ' i o nge nue Dk . ) Plitf h sfldaBre i Op o iin( t No 6 a dDee d n h sfldaRe l ( tNo. an if a i e if n p st Dk . . ) n fn a t a ie o py Dk . 9. Bohpatesha i c tdade iet pr ee wihou ahe rnga t mat i now rpe ) t ri ve ndiae sr o oc d t t a i nd he ter s i f diposton.Fort r or s ii he easonst f l ,D ef hat olow endant sM oton t Change V enue i D EN I . ' i o s ED 1. BA C K G R O U N D Thi di put a i e outoft b e c ofa c tuc i c r c conc m i a ad ton t s s e rs s he r a h onsr ton ont a t e ng n dii o t W yt Count O f i s i W yt vil V igi a.Pl ntf i t ge a con r c orf t he he y fce n he le, r ni ai i f s he ner l t a t or he a dto a dc n rce wi De e d n t p o i et ema o r wok frt ep o e t P anif d iin n o ta td t f n a t o r v d h s n y r o h rj c. litf h a l ge t tDe e ntf l d t pr de pr le s ha f nda aie o ovi operm a e i l a t pe f r is wor i ac or nc t r a s nd o r o m t k n c da e w ih t co r c .Eve ua l Pl i ift r i t d t s b- on r c a t ra l gedl pr di t he nt a t nt ly, a ntf e m na e he u c t a t f e le y ovi ng num e ous o r unii s f Def nda t c e pe f m a e r ppo t te or e nt o ur r or nc . Pl ntf i ta l fl d t ac i n i t Cicui Cour ofW yt Count a D e e ant ai if nii ly ie he to n he r t t he y nd f nd tmel tldfrr movalbasdondi st j iditon.Pli ifi aVigi acopo ai wiha i y ie o e e veriy urs ci antf s r ni r rton t pr nci pl ofbusi i pal ace ness i Roanoke,V igi a.Defendanti a Fl i com or i w ih a n r ni s or da aton t pr nci pl ofbusness i M ar le,Ter es D ef i pal ace i n yvil m see. endantnow s eekst tans ervenue or f LERK wihi t W e tr DititofVigi afom t Roa t n he se n src r ni r he nokeDi son t t Abi vii o he ngdon Di son. vii Abi on i cl ert D e e nts prnc pa pl e ofbusne sa t W yt vil V igi a whe e ngd s os o f nda ' i i l ac i s nd o he le, r ni , r t c t u ton s t i l a e he ons r c i ie s oc t d. l. l A NA LY SI S A ta frofve i govene by28U. C.j 1 a) i ' t c ninceofpa tes rnse nue s r d S. 404( :tor he onve e F ri a dwin se ,nt eitr s o j sie ad src c u t yta se a ycv l cint a y oh r n t e s s i h n ee t f u tc , itit o r ma rn fr n ii a to o n t e di t i tordi s on wher i m i tha bee br ug o t a di ti tordi s on t w hi h al s rc vi i e t gh ve n o ht r o ny s rc vi i o c l pa tesha c e e ' The d i i n t t a f rle w ihi t s ri ve ons nt d. ' ec s o o r ns e i s t n he ound di c e i oft c r . s r ton he ou t SeeBea La e Sys. Cox Comm' ,l ,11 F.Sup zd51 51 ( D. 2000) Gn m s r v. ns nc. 7 p. 5, 7 E. Va. .û l decdi amoint ta frvenueg rj 1 a1t c ts d c i rt i ng to o rnse unde 404(),he our houl onsde he plitf sc oieo ve u , o ve inc t t win se a dp ris a dt eitr s o j sie' anif h c f n e c n ne e o he t e s s n a t , n h n ee t f u tc . e ' G en. Crai LLC v. a r Entr .l , 92F. p. d 503, 4 ( . Va. 2)1 e ton Le pfog e s.nc.1 Sup 2 50 W D. 200 . A lhough ne t rpary r s t i s i bre i i a t ihe t aied he s ue n i tng, t ppea st t Co tt tt a ton r o he ur ha he c i co d no ha bee br ul t ve n oughti t Abi n he ngdon Di son a t tt r f eta f rt Abi on i vii nd ha he e or r nse o ngd s i pprprae.Secin l a sae t tve ma beta fre t a t viin wheei na o it to 404() tts ha nue y rnser d o ny t so di r t m i ha bee b ought'V e i pr pe ,ort a ton m i htha bee br ght ve n r . nue s o r he c i ' g ve n ought unde 28 , r U. C.j1 ( i S. 391b) n: ( ) u iildsrc i wh c a yd fn a t eie ,fal ee d n saer sd ns 1 aj d ca itit n ih n ee d n r sd s i l d fn a t r e i e t oft St t i w hi t di t i ti l a ed; he a e n ch he sr c s oc t ()aj dca d src i whc as bsa ta pat f h e e t o o sinsgvng 2 u iil itit n ih u tn il r o t e v n s r miso ii rs t t cam occ rd, as tnta pa t pr ryt ti t s j to ie o he li ure or ubsa il r of ope t ha s he ubec f t a ton i st t d'or he c i s iua e , ( i t r i noditi i whiha acinmayohe wiebebr 3) f hee s srctn c n to t r s oughtaspr de ovi d i t i s cin a yj d ca d src i whc a yd fnd n i s be tt t ec u ts n hs e to , n u iil ititn ih n ee a t s u j c o h o r' pe s l urs ci wihrs c t s haci rona j iditon t epe t o uc ton. lThe Pari sdipu e i t rbref whe he t f u s e ton clus i t c r c r r st a pa tc a f nl te s t n hei i s t r he or m el c i a e n he ont a t equie hat r iul r o m bec e Theca ea enty gr t Pli ift rghtt s e taf um , tDe e tco endsPl ntf wai d hosn. lus ppar l ans antf he i o elc or bu f ndan nt ai if ve t rgh t s ec a f r . aus t e a e s tc e r as nst de t Def ndantsm oton,t Cour doe not he i t o el t o um Bec e her r ufi i nt e o o ny he e ' i he t s addr sst f um s l cton cl e. e he or e e i aus The Loc lRul s a e t tve r esw ihi t W e t r Di t i tofVi gi a ope a e a t a es t t ha nue ul t n he s e n sr c r ni r t s hough û src'i j1391i r pl e by( vii 'W . Va.Ge R. b) Theef e,ia r t t û tit'n di s e ac d t son.' D. di n. 2( . r or t ppeas o he Cou t ha t def nda tdoe no r s de i t Abi on D i son,no e nt gi ng rs t t r t t he e n s t e i n he ngd vi i ve s vi i e o he cam o c re i teAb n d nDiiin n p o ryta i t es be to tea to i lc td li c u r d n h i g o vso , o rpet h t s h u jc f h cin s o ae i teAbn d nDiiin, n ta De e d n i n ts be tt p ro a j rs ito i te n h ig o v so a d h t fn a t s o u jc o e s n lu id ci n n h A bi ngdon D i s on. vi i The onl r tona e f tans e t t Abi don Di s on pr y a i l or r f r o he ng vi i opounde by d Def nda ti t tAbi e n s ha ngdon i hal t di t e be we n t pa te Ther f e, a i ven i s f he sanc t e he r i s. e or pl c ng ue n t A bi on Di s on w oul vi a e t Loca Rul a t M oton s ul be de e he ngd vii d ol t he l es nd he i ho d ni d. Howeve,be us t parisha notbree t is ,a t j 1 a is hasbe nbree r ca e he te ve ifd he sue nd he 404() sue e ifd a t Cour r ac t s m e de i i on t e gr nd he t e hes he a c son hos ounds t Cour,outofa a , he t n bunda of nce ca i wilpr e wiht j1 a a l i. uton, l oc ed t he 404() nayss A . Pl ntf ' Choi ofForum ai i f s ce A pl i if s c ce off um i t c ly e tte t c i r bl de er nc e pe i l a ntf hoi or s ypi a l n il d o ons de a e f e e, s c aly whe t s ti fl tnt ditita di soni whih(hepli if r i s'Glmor a n he ui s ied k he src nd vii n c t antfl esde . a g n i ' CoalCo p. Rat r Gr .PLC,854F. r v. nes p. supp.436, ( . Va.1 (ii Kose v. 437 W D. 993) ctng tr Lu nne M u . s. , U. 518, ( 947) l ed,t deea t pli ifsc c a mbe ns t Ca Co.330 S. 524 1 ).nde o f t he antf' hoie d f n a tmu tn r l s o ta lheb ln eo e ute i i gi o h r fvo gn )ta ee d n s o mal h w h t t aa c f q i s s n h s r ej a r a d h t y t i j cale onomyandc ninc t aIparisfvors ti a he f r m.'#.a 437udii c onve e e o l te a ui n not r o u 'J t 48 ( tngEl i v. had,620F.Supp. 68 ( . Va.1 (mpha i a dl;se quoi drdce Bouc r 678, 4 W D. 985) e ss dde ) e as Akesv. & W Ry.Co.378F. 78 80(t Ci.1 )( tngt pl ntf ha ihe lo r N , 2d , 4h r 967 noi he ai if s i t prmayrg ...oc ehi f t 'a t ts lci i i ea iyt beove t o f). i r iht t hoos s orz ' nd ha ee ton s s m, not sl o rhrwf To avoi t a i a i ofde er nc D e e nta g s w ih no c t ton t a hort d he pplc ton f e e, f nda r ue , t ia i o ut iy, t tt sde e e e i l tw he a pl i ifi taly fl i sa e c t t de e n r m o ha hi f r nc s os n a ntf nii l ies n t t our but he f nda t e ves t f de alc rtHowe r t Cour tndst tde i ng t gi t no m a wei g a e t o e r ou . ve , he ti ha clni o ve he r l ght r nt d o pl i if s c c off nl i s a i t nc w oul ha s ver ldi adva age . a ntf hoi e o m n uch n ns a e d ve e a s nt s M os i por a l pl i if a e en il d t r y on t nor alope a i o 28 U . C. t m t nty, a ntf s r tte o el he m r ton f S. j 1 () AsDefnda ha poi edou,(l he ac s i rmo dt f r c t ii 441a . e nt s nt t ûwl n a e s e ve o edeal our,t s a t tc l pl e i ûheditita di sone a i t plcewhee(hesae aci i uomaialy ac d n t src nd vii mbrcng he a r t tt) ton s pe ng.'( . 4a 2(ii 28U. C.j1 ()) W'e Pli iftldac ei t ndi '' DktNo. t ctng S. 441a). h n antf ie as n he W yt Count Cic tCo tag ns a di r e D e e nt i m us ha e c ed,o a l a t he y r ui ur ai t ve s f nda , t t ve xpe t r t e s f ese t tDee ntwoul r movet c s t fdealc tByopeai ofj1 () or e n,ha fnda de he a e o e r our. rton 44la, r m o lw oul t a o a i aly pl c t c e i t Roa e va d hus ut m tc l a e he as n he noke di s on,s nc W yt Col t i vi i i e he m y s wihi t Roa t n he nokeDi sonpe t Loc Rul . . Va.Ge R. a)7 .Pli iflkey vii r he al es W D. n. 2( () antf i l f es w a i e d t sr s t butDe enda ' r mova doesnotr b Pl i ifsc c ofa1 or a nd nt nde hi e ul, f nts e l o antf hoie 1 a j dc tv weg t I d e , an ifsae fal,û So t En h dee tdt isiuet s d u iaie ih . n e d Plitf tts lty çf u h d a lce o n tt t hi l a toni fderlc r,i woul ha i tt e t sa toni t Ro ci n e a ou t t d ve nsiutd hi ci n he anokeDi son. ( . 6 vii ' DktNo. ' a 4.Roano i t i alve frPl ntf:Sout End' prncpa plc ofbusne sa is t ) ke s he de nue o ai if h s i i l ae i s nd t c ouns ls ofi esa e i Roanoke a W yt Coun y i i t Roa e ' tc r n , nd he t s n he noke D i son. tt f de a vi i Tha he e r l c t e w a no Pl n i f sfr tde tna i doe notm e n t tPl n i f sc c ofa sa e ourhous s t ai t f ' i s s i ton s a ha ai t f ' hoi e tt c twihi t Roa our t n he nokeDi son, t f lknowl eoft opeai ofj1 () s dbe vii wih ul edg he rton 441a, houl gi n no de e enc i c i r ng a ta f rofve a t rD e e ve f r e n ons de i r ns e nue f e f ndantexe c s t r g of r i ed he i ht r oval em . Th r aeo h rr a o t rjc Dee d n ' c ne to , ic s de tn ieyi a ee r t e e s ns o ee t fn a ts o tn in d suse x e sv l n r e ca e f om t Di t i tofM i s t . ec nt s r he sr c nne o a' TheCour rj t t c entont tapli ifsc c off u i e ttedt l s t eecs he ont i ha antf hoie or m s nil o es deee i t j1 a a l i i t pli ifi tal fl s ti saec r. frnce n he 404() nayss f he antf niily ied ui n tt ou t I woul be il calt so i t d logi o ncentpl ntf st fl di s t cas i f ai if o ie ver iy es n ederalcourti n t fr ti t nce Fis ,s h a i en i coul r s ti an i r a e i t num be he i s ns a . r t uc n nc tve d e ul n nc e s n he r o c s sfldi fd rlc u t t ad bius u idcin l a i. c n s c a f a e i n e e a o r wi u o j rs ito a b ss Se o d, u h n e h i en i coul unde ne i e es sofc iy a c d de r tf om t nc tve d nni nt r t om t nd oul tac r he opporunii t ts a e c t ha t de i q tons ofs a e l w . e Le n v. t tes ha t t our s ve o c de ues i t t a Se vi Com m er e Ene gy.l , U . c r nc. S. ,1 S. . 23,2336,17 L. 2d 11 30 Ct 23 6 Ed. 31 ( 0 .Mor fnda ntly,j 1 a i ' fdealudii hous ke pi 201 ) e u me al 404() s ç e r j cal e e ng a m e ur dea i wih t pl em entoflt gaton. V a D us n v. r a k,376 as e, lng t he ac ii i ' n ' e Ba r c U. 61 624-25( 964) W hehe t pli ifi tal el t t pl et S. 2, 1 . t r he antf niily eced o ac he ltgai i saeorfderlc ti ofltl i ti t j l a a yss ii ton n tt e a our s ite mpor n he 404() nal i, whih i vesprma iy a e mi ton ofc c nvol i rl n xa nai onve enc f t sba e on ni e acor s d ge a ogr phy.l t pli ifee t d t plc t ltgai i apa tculrsat t n f he a ntf lc e o a e he ii ton n ri a t e, ht t tc c i e il d t def r nc r z e sofw he he t pl i ifi t a l ha hoi e s ntte o e e e, ega dl s t r he a ntf nii ly e ec e t pl ce t ltga i i a s a e orf de alc t e i t ts a e. l t d o a he ii ton n t t e r ourhous n ha t t Oinv. e Thomps 824F.Supp. 898, - ( M i 201 .Buts eDeitv.W as ngt on, 2d 90506 D. nn. 0) e s hi on Uni Me Ct.385F.Supp.2d772,774( D.112005)( lni wihouta yss t gve v. d. r, S. 1. deci ng, t nal i,o i wegh t pli ifwhe c ewa i tal fldi saec t. Cour deci st gi i i t o antf n as s niily ie n tt our) The t lne o ve s no d frn e'ot ePli tf sc o c of e uea Dee d n h ss g e td( tNo. a 2 a d eee c 't h anif h ie v n s fn a t a u g se Dk . 9 t ) n gr nt t Roa ke Di son t us lweghtac or d t t Pl i ifsc c off um . a s he no vii he ua i c de o he antf hoi e or B. Conveni ence to the W i ness and Partes t es i The s c f t t Cour m us co i e i t c e ond ac or he t t ns d r s he onve enc oft w ines e a ni e he t s s nd pa te .Se Ge Cr ton LLC,1 2 F. pp. a 504.I s por ofta f ri t c s t t ri s e n. ea i 9 Su 2d t n up t r ns e rng he a e o he Abi don D i son, he D e e n poi soutt tW yt vil , he l a i oft s c t uc i ng vi i t f nda t nt ha he le t oc ton hi ons r ton dipu e i 55 m ie f om t f de alc t e i A bi n a 78 m ie f om t f de al s t s l s r he e r ourhous n ngdo nd l s r he e r c r hous i Roa ou t e n noke.The non- r y wine s a t i woul lkel ha t ta lf om pa t t s es t ral d i y ve o r ve r W yt vil t Roa he le o noke orA bi ngdon. t non- ry w ines e ,t r f e, he c t e a e For he pa t t s s he e or t ourhous s r r oughl e dit nt bu Abi y qui sa , t ngdon i si l cos r s lghty l e . Thedif r ncei ven be fe e n ue come i s mpora twhe co pa i t dit e f rt pa t tn n m rng he sanc o he ry w ines Pl ntf sprnci pl ofbusi t ses. ai i f i pal ace ness,aswel asiscounsels of i ar l ed i l t ' fces, e ocat n Roa noke a a e t c os t t f de a c t e i Roa nd r hus l e o he e r l ourhous n noke. fve w e e t a f r t I nue r r ns ered o Abi on, antf sta lwoul belngt ne fo af w m ie t 1 De e ntsprncpa ngd Pli if r ve d e he d r m e l s o 36. f nda ' i i l pl eofbusne si i M a n il,Tenne s ,1 m iesfom Abi ac i s s n r le s ee 52 l r ngdon a 285m ie fom nd ls r Roa noke. e e nt s c D f nda ' ouns lha isof i esi Br sol V igi a a ut 1 m iesf om A bi e s t fc n i t , r ni , bo 5 l r ngdon. Tr ns e t A bi don w oul m a t ti ll a i r a fr o ng d ke he r a oc ton oughl eq dit ntbe w e t t pa te y ui s a t en he wo r i s a m a gi ly c os rf t non- r y w ine s ,who w oul lke y be c enta e i W yt nd r na l l e or he pa t t s es d i l onc r t d n he Cou y. nt TheCoursfndst t dif r ncefom W yt vil t Abi t i hat he fe e r he le o ngdon a Roa ke t nd no , he ta di t nc f t no pary w ines es i ne i bl The di f r nc i di t nce i o y 23 r vel s a e or he n- t t s , s glgi e. fe e e n sa s nl m ie o I er t t 81 a s al di f r nc o a sr t h ofr d w he e posed s e lm isr ac 70 l s n nt s a e , m l f e e e n t e c oa r t pe d i t e h m ph. l t d,i i a dif r nc of 15 t 20 m i t s f rt non- ry w ine s s W hie t A l ol t s f e e e o nu e o he pa t t s e . l he dit nc dif r nta i g e t rf t pa t w ine s s t c s a e f e e i l s r a e or he ry t s e , he onve e e ofpa' w ine s i a ni nc ly t s es s t l s e c i r ton i t tans erofve a ys sbe a e t y a epr s ed t be w ilng t e s r ons de a i n he r f nue nal i c us he r e um o li o tsiyi eihe f r m.SeeStt StCa tlCor v. t,855F.Supp.1 1 ( D.Te e tf n t r o u ae . pia p. Dene 92, 98 S. x. 1 4) 99 . A 1 i a l t conve e e f t s s i l f vorD e e nt Abi l n l, he ni nc ac or lghty a f nda . ngdon i s e ha c os r s om w t l e t W yt vil t n Roa o he le ha noke i a m uc c os rt M a yvil ,Te s ee s nd h l e o r le nne s . C. lnt erest ofJust ce s i Asn td teCo r mu t loc nsd rtekn ee t o j sie'S eGe . e to LLC, o e ,h u t s as o i e h d trss f u tc . e n Cr ai n i ' 1 2 F.Supp. a 504.Def nda a s m a ot rm ice l ne a gum e si s 9 2d t e nt l o kes he s la ous r nt n uppor of t t a f r i ve r ns e r ng nue. r t i a guest tbe us A bi Fis , t r ha ca e ngdon i c os rt W yt Count a s t vi w s l e o he y, ie e w oul be m or c d e onve enti one w e e de m e a opra e durng ti l Sec ni f r e d ppr i t i r a . ond,Def nda e nt aguest tmovi t tilt Abi nwoul ma ils lkeyf ur r t betmpe t r ha ng he ra o ngdo d ke t es i l orj o s o e td o drvebyt W yt Co yOfiesf a i o rviw oft s e tmat oft ltgai i he he unt fc or n mprpe e he ubjc ter he ii ton. Thr Dee da tag e t a Abng o i ai e ta lc to 'wh r t j r p l u dn t id, fn n r u s h t i d n s ' url o ain' ee he u y oo wo l o n i udeW yt Coun y r i nt,who t De e ntf r wilbebi s d a i ti. ncl he t esde s m he f nda ea s l a e gans t The Cour hasale a e s d Def nda ' st vi a g e by no i t m i m a t r ady ddr s e e nts ie ew r um nt tng he ni l 23- ie dif r nc be w e n hol ng t t i li Abi don ve s Roa m 1 fe e e t e di he ra n ng r us noke. t r or a Furhe m e, s Plitf h sp itdo t ç siev e aer r.nt i isa c ,h wo kwhihi t es b e t f an if a one u ,t lt iws r a e l h s n tn e t e r c s h u j c o g t saci et rwa notdone,ha be nrplc dori now co rdup. ( . 6,a 7. hi ton ihe s s e e ae s vee ' DktNo. t ) ' Be a e oft s i i unlke y t ta s t vi w w ilbe ne ded. s s h, he pos i lt o s vi 1 c us hi , t s i l ha ie e l e A uc t sbiiy f a ng 5 t 20 mi e i t unlkel e ntofast vi w i o yt si es f c orf vorngDe e o nut s n he i y ve ie e s nl he lght t a t a i f ndant . De e n ' s c a g e nm sc e t De e f nda ts e ond r um nt ountr o f ndan ' frta g e .I Abi ts is r um nt f ngdon i s c os rt W yt Count f pur e ofa s t vi w , he i i al o c os rf pur esof l e o he y or pos s ie e t n t s s l e or pos i r p rv e b j r r . sag me tfvo sPlitf o a latd e n tfv rDee d n . mp o e iws y u o s Thi r u n a r an if r t e s o s o a o fn a t Ast t Dee ntsworyt tt j ypoolma becompos dofW yt Count o he fnda ' r ha he ur y e he y r s de s who w oul be bi e aga ns i,t Cour i unpe s de f a l s t o r as . r t e i nt d as d i t t he ts r ua d or t ea t w e ons Fis , teei o l as l l eioo t a aW yh Co nyme e wo l b o t ej r sn ete h r s ny mal i l d h t k h te u t mb r u d e n h u y, ic h popul ton ofW yt Co t i ve y s a la t popul ton oft Roa ai he un y s r m l nd he ai he noke a e al i ve y r a one s r lr e S c n , h po sbii o ab a e j r ro j r r t ap e ee n dat u ea u a ag . e o d t e si l y f is d u o r u o wih rd tnnie ti d bo t t t pa tc a de e nti a w a a r s a r s t tv r di e i de i d t r ri ul r f nda s l ys i k, i k ha oi r s s gne o educ i notelm i t e, f i na e. Th tn ee t o j sie' a tro l sihl fv r De e d n . e t trss f u tc 'fco n y l t a o s fn a t i g y D . Sum m ary Afe e au tn teag me t o tepat s teCo r tn st a teitr sso j tc tr v lai g h r u n s f h ri ,h u ti d h t h nee t f usie e f c or a t c a t s nd he onve enc oft no pa t w ines e a e e s taly non- ac or one w a ort ni e he n- ry t s s r s en i l f t s y he ot .The de e m i ton ofw he he t t a f ve e orno t c esdow n t t Pl ntf s her t r na i t r o r ns er nu t hus om o he ai if choi ofvenue agai tt i ce ns he nconveni ence oft D ef he endant sw iness and couns havi t ' t es el ng o drveup fom M a yvil ,Te i r r le nnes eea Brsol Vigi a, e peci l Thedif e e i s nd it , r ni r s tvey. fer nc n di t nc f D e e ntw ines e i no doub s t nta . lho h D ef nda ha com e f w a d sa e or f nda t ss s t ubsa i l A t ug e nt s or r w ih s gnii a evi nc a ar e t ti woul be i onve e ed i t s tw e e t t i f c nt de e nd gum nt ha t d nc ni nc f he ui r o r m a n i t Roa e i n he noke D i s on,e de e ofi nve e e a one i i ufi i t w a r nta vi i vi nc nco ni nc l s ns fc ent o r a t f ofvenue. rans er The Cour f ndst tt c ti ha he onveni nc f c or do no ove de t cons de a e wei e e at s t ni he i r bl ght nor lyg a e t t Pli ifsc c offnl lg nl st baa ei sr yi fvorof mal r ntd o he antf' hoie o m.ûul es he lnc s tongl n a t deenda ,t pl ntf sc ceoff r s dr r l bedit bed.' fOi Co . he f nt he ai if hoi o um houl a e y sur 'Gul 1 p v. Gibe t330U. 501 508( 947) s ealoRobi onv.Gir r & BilP. ,74F.d25 l r, S. , 1 'e s , ns amaco ls C. 3 3, 260( 1hCi.1 (ç'epl ntf sc c off lm s ul no bedit be unls i i ce ry 1 t r 996) Af ai if hoie orz ho d t sur d e s t s la l -h ouweghe byot rc i rtons' t i d he onsde ai . ). The Cour i s pa he i t De e nt splgh a t t a i dit nc t tw ilbe t s ym t tc o f nda ' i t nd he r velng s a es ha l r quie i t c e s d go t t i l Butt rs ofg ng t t i i R o e r d f he as houl o ra . he i k oi o ral n anoke s d ha bee houl ve n a r ntt De e ntwhe i sgne ac tu ton c ta twih aRoa ppa e o f nda n t i d onsr c i on r c t nokege a co r c o ner l nta t r wih wor t bepe f med wihi t Roa t k o ror t n he nokeDi son. f nda ' M oton t Tr nse Ve vii De e nts i o a f r nue i DEN I . s ED EXTER: i /f d yo s pe e, 2012. Ths a f e tmb r Qy z .a t.x . . Hon. a esC. r J% Tu k Se orUnie Stt DititJ e ni t d a es src udg 8