Ciliv v. UXB International, Inc., No. 7:2012cv00290 - Document 19 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 10/22/12. (sas)
Download PDF
r >*r8 OF C: t : fi 'tluql d FI l l 3l. l I TH E UN I N TED STATES D I STRICT C O U RT FO R TH E W ESTERN DI STRI O F VI G I A CT R NI R O AN O K E D I ISIO N V A q A 6K ,A T o N iv FI LED 0CT2 2 2 1 92 JUL C D DLCX CLERK ' ' BY; SI LEYM A N cl l , d/ a 77 J t,v b/ coNsrRucr oN CONTM CTI r rl NG A N D TM D I CO M PA N Y, NG EP CL I UW ERJ C i lA ct on N o. 7: cvvi i : 12- 290 M em orandum O pi on ni Pl ntf , ai if H on. Jam e C .Tur s k Seni U ni ed St esD i ri Judge or t at st ct V. UXB IN TERN A TIO NA L,lNC . , D ef endant . Thi m at ri be or t Cour on De e ntsM oton t Dim isCount 2 a 3 a t s te s f e he t f nda ' i o s s s nd nd o St i Co 3 of t Com pl i .ECF N o.4.D e e nt m ove t dim i s t qua um m e ui rke unt he a nt f nda s o s s he nt r t c a m i Count 2 bec us i i ir c ia e w ih t br c of c r c c a m i Co li n a e t s r e onc l bl t he ea h ont a t l i n unt 1 . D e e nt m ove t di m i s Count 3 be a e t r i no prva e rght of ac i n t e o ce a f nda s o s s c us he e s i t i to o nf r vi ai of t Fe r Ac ston Re ultons olton he de al quiii g ai .For t r as s t f t be o t Cou t he e ons e orh l w, he r G R AN TS t M oton t D i m i sast Co s2 a 3,a D I I he i o s s o unt nd nd SM SSES A S M O O T t M o i he ton t Sti Count3. o rke 1. FA C TS The f t, a t s sa a e sr i f z a d.Ac ptng t we lpl f t a tue acs t hi t ge, r taghtow r ce i he l- ed acs s r , Defnda UXB l er tona,I (S 'orç en n )i a p i c rcort te ee e nt nt nai l nc. S UXB' s Def da f' s rme onta t ha ntrd i o a prm e con r c w ih t U . Gove n e tt b l a 1orpa toft Ba a A i For Ba e nt i t a t t he S. r m n o uid l r he gr m r ce s i A f ha s a Pur ua t t s prm e c r t UX B e er d i o a s ont a t w ih Pl i if n g nit n. s nt o hi i ontac , nt e nt ubc r c t a ntf (; Co tu ton'orç ai if' f c tuci sr c s Purua t t prme c rc,t d 77 nsr ci ' i ntf ) or onsr ton e vie . s nt o he i onta t he pl s ubcontac , or bot U XB woul s i ptr e or s t 77 Constucton det lng t r t h, d ubm t lchas der o r i aii he pa a e er of t wor t t i s d co pl t .W he 77 Cons r ton co pl t d t w o k, i r m t s he k ha t houl m e e n t uc i m e e he r t w oul s i an i ce t U X B,who w oul i t m s i t tand ot i c st t f de a d ubm t nvoi o d n ul ubm t ha her nvoi e o he e r l gove nm e f pa e . W hen pa d by t g r m e t U X B w oul f w a d t r ui ie r nt or ym nt i he ove n n , d or r he eq st pa e due t 77 Consr to ym nt o t uc i n. Ove tm e a di pu e a os a r i , s t r e boutt wor pe f m ed b 77 Co t uc i l di UX B t he k r or y ns r ton, ea ng o w ihhol m one fom 77 Co tuc i o of f a t t t f de al go r e w o d no t d y r ns r ton ut e r ha he e r ve nm nt ul t uli a e y pa f t co pl t d w or onc i pe f r ed t fnala t of t prm e c r t tm t l y or he m e e k e t ro m he i udi he i ontac . The fna a t r r doctm e a i n- s h as tm e he t , w or l , a r e pt f i l udi equies l nt to uc i s es k ogs nd ec i s or pur has s f a 1w or done.77 Cons r c i ha nots il d,a a r nty i s iluna e c e - or l k t u ton d ubm te nd ppa e l s tl bl t p od e t s doc e a i o r uc , hi um nt ton. How e r 77 Cons r ton i no r quie t pr vi ve , tuc i s t e r d o o de doc nt ton upon t s ume ai he ubmison oft i c s i mus m e e y s i t doc ntton si he nvoie ' t t r l ubm t he ume a i , be or t tna audi. f e he i l t Pl i ifcai st ti ha s antf l m ha t s ubmit i c t ai $4, 4, 1 81 a ha be n pa d ted nvoies ot lng 49 4 3. nd s e i onl $3, 2, 2. wih t t ala y 51 59 68, t he ot mountowe bei $ 1821 1 W ih t fnala tpe ng, d ng 98 , . 3. t he i udi ndi UX B i hol ng t s a o tt pr e tis f a ai tt pos i lt t ti w ilha t r t n t s di hi m un o ot c t el g ns he s biiy ha t l ve o e ur he m one a r ady pai f r t 77 Cons r c i ex ns .l f c ,U X B cl m st t77 Consr c i y le d o he t u ton pe es n a t ai ha t u ton ma uli t l o UXB money i t f de a g r mentpa UXB l st n $3, 2, 68 y tma ey we f he e r l ove n ys es ha 51 592. f rt wor pe f r e by 77 Cons r c i o he k r o m d t u ton. Pl n if i tt e t ss tt r co r t $981, . 3 t tUXB hasr eved fom t aitf nsiut d hi ui o e ve he 821 1 ha ec i r he f de a go r e o 77 Cons r to s be l b has no pa d t 77 Co t uc i Pl i if e r l ve nm nt n t uc i n' ha f ut t i o nsr ton. a ntf i s e h ta l i as t t ee cl m s i t s di siy1acton:Count 1 i a br ac ofcon r ctc a m , Count2 i a ser s hr ai n hi ver t s 1 eCo r i d u tu ta fd rl u sinj rsito l s a came i tec mpan,frb ec o teF d rl Th u ts o bf lh t e ea q eto u idcin i , s li d n h o lit o ra h f h e ea e Acquiii Regultons es ci l gi t tt Cour beow dim is s Count3,a cl m f brac oft s ston ai , pe aly ven ha he t l s se ai or e h he e r a i . See C& H Con r c i of M S. LLC v. La hor Ena' Se vi es l , No. l: egultons t a tna kes e a r c . nc. 07CV 700,2007 W L 2 61 7 a * ( . Mis Au 2 2 0 )(e n n ac s t saec u t o lc o fd rlq et nj rs it n 4 01 , t 2 SD. s. g. 4, 0 7 rma dig ae o tt o r fr a k f e ea u si u idci o o qu um me ui cli pl de i t atr tve 'll t e e t tt Contac i a t ant r t am ea d n he lenai tto he xtnt ha he r t s nd he Purhas Or r a e f c e de s r ound t be voi voi bl,orot r s modiid,a t a d unus o d, da e hewie fe nd o voi j t e ihme ,' Count3 i acai f bra h oft Fe rlAc stonRe ai (TAR'. nrc nt'and s l m or e c he dea quiii gultons ' ' ) Dee f ndan fl a M o i n t D im i s Count 2 an 3 a t St i Co t 3. ECF N o. 4. t ied to o s s s d nd o rke un Dee f ndan a guest t a t Co 2, quant m e ui and b e c ofc r c c a m c o bot tr ha , s o unt a um r t rah ont a t l i mm t h be purued,a a t Count3,t t r i no p i t rgh ofaci n f a br a oft Fede a s nd s o hat he e s rvae i t to or e ch he rl A c s ton Re a i .D e e nt al o m o t tCount3 be sr c n f om t Co pl i . qui ii gul tons f nda s s ve ha t i ke r he m a nt II. LEG A L STA N DA R DS The s a r on a m oto t di m i s i f m ii 't s vi a m oton t di m i s t t nda d i n o s s s n lar o ur ve . i o s s , he pl i ifsa l a i mus û tt a cai t r le t ti plusbl o isf e. As r v.l ba, antf ' leg tons t i a e l m o ei f ha s a i e n t ac ' hc oh q l s ' 556U. 662,678( S. 2009) $1 r uie t pli ift atcult fcs whe a c ptd a tue t t .$t eq rs he antf o ri ae a t, n c e e s r ,ha tho ' t t t pl i if has sa e a cli e ilng hi t r le ,ie. t t a i lt of s w ha he antf tt d am ntti m o e if . , he plusbiiy e ilme t r i .' Frnci v.Gic li 588 F. 18 l93 (t Ci.2009) ( tng ntte nt o elef'' a s a omel, 3d 6, 4h r quoi As r q556U. a 678) hc of S. t . On a moi n t srk ,Rue 1 4 alwsa dsrc c u tt srk fo a p e dn û n to o tie l 2 9 lo itit o r o tie r m la ig l a i ufi i n de e e or a r dunda ,i m a e i l i peri nt o s a ous m a t r' Fed.R . ns tc e t f ns ny e nt m t r a , m tne , r c ndal te . ' Ci P.1 ( A Rue 1 4 mo in i mo to tn u e f rt be t g t a i ufce td fn e' v. 2 9. l 2 9 to s s fe s d o û j ci o n ns fiin e e s . o n ' Chal Aln W rgh & ArhurR.Milr Fe rlPrctce a Pr ed e j 1 0 ( e res a i t t le , dea a i nd oc ur 38 3d d. 200 .d moto t srkei adr tcrme whihi difvordbyt c t a i rque l 4) d A in o ti s asi e dy c s sa e he ours nd nfe nty g a td. Clr v.M ia 1 F. D.66,70 ( D.W .Va.1 .il ven whe tc c ly r ne ' ak ' lm, 52 R. S. 993) 'Fl n e hnial be a e usng tf r lr gul tons a a m e s i r wih whi h t f c fnder c n gauge evi e of s a e l w c us i tede a e a i s a urng od t c he a t i a denc t t -a cams(u h a)be c o c ntat . . i isfiin t sp o tfdea q eto j rs ito '.Ne e tees li s c s ra h f o rc . s nu fce t o u p r e rl u sin uidcin' vrh ls, ) s betmatru idito a p ast b po e o teb sso dv ri S e28U. C. l 3 ()2) u jc t j rs cin p e r o e rp r n h a i f iest e e y. S. j 3 2 a( . a p o it a welf u d d,g to s t srk )o tn a e n tg a td i te a e c o a p rprae nd l-o n e mo in o tie fe r o r ne n h bsn e f s wig o p eudc t t e mo i g p ry. Untd S ae v P et Pr s.I c,7 0 F.S p . ho n f rj ie o h v n a t ' i tts . rtv od . n . 8 ' e up 1 1 ( D. o 1 ) 488, 498 S. Ohi 991. 111. A NA LY SIS A . M ot on t D i i s ast Count2 i o sm s o The pa tes ag e t t V igi a l w gove ns t s s t ri r e ha r ni a r hi ui.The e or t Cour l r f e, he t ooks t o V igi a 1 w t de e m i i a br a h of e e s c r c c ai m a e s sm ula ous y w ih a r ni a o t r ne f ec xpr s onta t l m y xi t i t ne l t quant m me ui c a m . u r t l i The r e i V igi a i s tl d'i ul n r ni s e te . t ca t obt n qu um mer tr i f one nno ai ant ui ele f om a he i he ha e es l de i a ed t e c t a t loblga i ns t t o w ilha on t r not r f s xpr s y lne t h on r c ua i t o he w l ve he s be ti q e to . Ra mo d Cols r Gls y & Hu s P. v. le Ca ia Co p.9 1F.d u j c n u sin' y n . e a. a p ' s . C. Al d ptl r , 6 2 i 4 9 49 (t Ci.1 9 ) E-l r c n b n r c v r i qu n u me utwh r av ld e pe s 8 , 1 4h r 9 2 .slhee a e o e o ey n a tm r i ee ai x r s lco r tbe w e n t pa tes e s s Pa test a e r s con r c ar e il t ha t i rght ntac t e he r i xi t . r i o n xp e s t a t e ntted o ve he r i s a d d t sa j d c td e cu iey b i tnn . Vol rv.CS Tr n p. I c,7 5 F.S p n ui du iae x lsv l y t e s' l e s ' ma X a s .n . 0 u p. 11 11 ( D.Va.1 ( i I r Stve o Asocs,l ,777 F. 41 42122 ( h 54, 76 E. 989) quotng n e e ns n s . nc. 2d 5, - 8t Ci.1 ),afd,8 F. 41 ( h Ci.1 ) Howe r i i onl ahe avai a bi ng r 985) f 98 2d 3 4t r 990 . ve, t s y r ld nd ndi e e s c r c i a kno l dge by t pa te or t Co tt t t s r e a t he .Se e c. xpr s ont a t s c w e d he ri s he ur ha hi ul tac s e. . , Ra vmond,961F. a 491(i ngVolma tna ie'be aus t parisdi no e e it 2d t fndi l r t ppost' c e he te d t ntr no i a e e sc rc) M e zav.Ced quit No.109 vl 2009W L 1 4669, t* ( D.Va. n xprs onta t; ndo er s, : c 63, 25 a 3 E. Ma 6,2009)( tng t tpla ng bot a e e sbra h ofc r tcli a a quant y noi ha e di h n xprs e c ontac am nd um m e ui c ai i çe i nty r a o bl 'w he i r i s m a di ag ee a t bot t e s e e a r t l m s l m ne l e s na e' n t te pa y s r s o h he xi t nc nd t s opeofa c rc' Ce e Consr v. sa l .Co.448F.Supp. 697,707- ( D. he c ny onta t); ntx t. Actr ns , 2d 08 E. Va.20 )( nyi amoto t fl aqu um me uic ecai noi t twheet pa te 06 de ng in o ie ant r t ountrl m, tng ha r he ris te i di ac r t lrltons p... ta1rlva tme ,' û mane n ontacua eai hi a l ee nt i s'quant me uii una lbl . r um r t s vaia e) The ke q s i he e, t r f r i whe he t pa tes r m ai d i a c r t l y ue ton, r he e o e, s t r he r i e ne n ontac ua r l tons p a a l r e nt tm e ' o ,i o he wor ,whe he t c r c be w e n t pa te e a i hi t 1 el va i s r n t r , ds t r he ont a t t e he ri s e om pa s s a 1pot ntals r es of r o r f t Pl ntf .The Com pl nt c rai y m ak nc s e l e i ou c ec ve y or he ai i f ai e t nl es cla t Pli ifsbei t ti c n obt n alr uesed r i o t br c ofc r c cli . e r he antf lef ha t a ai 1 eq t elef n he ea h onta t am Se ECF No.1a !!7- 9.I f t Pli ifhasonl pla dCount2 i t e ntt c rc i e t l n ac, antf y e de n he ve he onta t s to n t b v i v ia e o oh r s mo iid a dt a o du j te rc me t'1 a ! 2 . t u d o e od, od bl, r tewie dfe , n o v i nus n ih n . d. t 3 f ' Li wie Def nda doe no c es t vai t of t c r c bewe n t pa tes ke s , e nt s t ont t he ldiy he onta t t e he ri , a no edg ng i t Ans rand r tr tng a or la gum e tt tdhe e i a e e sc r t ck wl i n he we eie a i t a r n ha t r s n xpr s ontac t e m pa sng t e i e r l t o hi be w e n t pa te a a l of Pl i tf c ai e nco s i he ntr e a i ns p t e he r i s nd l a n ifs l m d ' da age . 2 ECF N o.6 at 7. Thus t pa te a e i a c d t t t r m a ned i a co r c ua m s' , he r i s r n c or ha hey e i n nt a t l r l t o hi a a 1 r l va tm e .See Ce e 448 F.Supp.2d a 707- The Cou ttnds t n e a i ns p t l e e nt i s nt x, t 08. r i he t t a va i expr s c r te s s bet e n t pa tes a t r f e t y ç e e il t ha ha ld, e s ontac xit w e he r i nd he e or he t ntted o ve ar terrg t a d d te a j dc td e cu i ey b i tr . Vol r 7 5F. u p. t1 7 As h i ih s n u is d u iae x lsv l y t ems' l , 0 S p a 1 6. s ' ma s h,Count2,t quant m m e ui c a m ,m us be di m i s d. uc he u r t li t s se B. M oton t D i m i s as t Count3 i o s s o Pl ntf algest tUXB vi ae Fe rlAcquiii Re ai (ç ' t oug ai if le ha oltd dea ston gultons ; FAR' hr h ) no pa e of t a ount due 77 Consr c i unde t i c s i s on pr es . The n- ym nt he m t u ton r he nvoi e ubm s i oc s Pl i ifa knowl st tt r a i do noti ude a e e sprva e rghtofa ton,but antf c edge ha he egultons ncl n xpr s i t i ci r ques st tt Cour i pl a p i t rghto a to t r m e a FA R vi a i Pl n ifpoi s e t ha he t m y r va e i f c i n o e dy ol ton. ai tf nt 2Pl ntf wa u rt i pr son, assae i t Brefi Opposto ECF N o.1 a 4>a a or agumentt t ai if s nde he m es i ttd n he i n iin, 2 t nd t al r ,ha Def nda wasc e tng t va i t oft conta t e nt ont s i he ldiy he r c . 5 t no i c aofc e sonali e t c e t aprva erghtofac i t e or ea FAR vi ai o ndii ongr s i nt nt o r a e i t i ton o nf c olton, buta gue t tot rf c or pr de gr ndst i pl a prva e r m e r s ha he a t s ovi ou om y i t e dy. The Supr m e Cour i taly a no e t nii l n unce a lbe a a oa h t i pl ng prva e rght of d i r l ppr c o m yi i t i s a ton i t a e e of e i ts c i n he bs nc xplci uppor i t s a ut r t xti J..Ca e Co.v.Bor k,377 U . t n he t t o y e n I s a S. 426 (964) Howe r spaai of powes c e - na y, t t fdeal c t wee 1 . ve , e rton r onc ms mel ha e r ours r s p e nig tero Aril II u idcin wih u e pii c n r si n la p o a 1dt u plme tn h i wn tce l j rs ito t o t x lct o g e so a p r v l e o a rtea fom t hi tde of Bo a be nni wih Cor v.As 422 U. 66,78 (975) er t r he gh i r k, gi ng t t h, S. 1 (eusng t i y aprvaerghtofacin f vi ai of1 U. C.j61 a ci na saut) rf i o mpl i t i to or olton 8 S. 0, rmi l tt e a Cn nd nnon v.Uni riv ofChi co, vest ca 441U. 67 68 ( 979)(mpl ng a prvaerg of S. 7, 8 1 i yi i t iht a ton f Til 1 butonl afe notng t taloft Cor f c or s ppore t r ognii n of c i or te X, y tr i ha 1 he tat s u t d he ec to a i le rg to a to .S e as Cn n n,4 1U. a 7 6( wel J,ds e tn )( iil n mpid ih f cin) e lo n o 4 S. t 4 Po l, . isn ig udca r c ton of an i ple r g of ac i n û uns c nt a y t t e t i he pr nc pl t t t e ognii m i d i ht to l r o r r o he s abls d i i e ha he j iditon oft fdealc t i c r ulygua d a i te nso byj cili e eai urs ci he e r ours s aef l r ed gans xpa in udi a ntprtton a c nfi t w ih t aut iy of Cong e s unde Ar . 1 1 t s t lm is of f de a nd o lc s t he hor t rs r t 1 o et he i t e rl j rs ito ' (nen lctto sa d p n t ain o te ) Co ta n u c d a f u -a trts t u idcin' i tr a iai n n u cu to mi d . r n o n e o rfco e t o ) t d e ne i cou t s d i pl a prva e rghtofa ton,3 butt s ond f c or et nni f r s houl m y i t i ci he ec a t --cong es i l r sona i e t c e e a prvat r ght of a ton has s nc be om e t dom i nt c i r i Se nt nt o r at i e i ci i e c he na onsde aton. e St rda l Pat r.LLC v.ScintfcAta a,5 U. 1 1 ( onei e nv. rne s e ii- lnt 52 S. 48, 64 2008)(ûlti stl t t çlj s eted ha t r i a i ple c us ofa ton onl i t unde l ng s a ut c n be i e pr t d t dicl e t he e s n m i d a e ci y f he r yi t t e a nt r e e o s os he itn t c e t o e' ; e a d rv S n o a, 3 U.. 7 , 8 - 7( 01 (; ej dca ts i n e t o rae n .) Alx n e . a d v l5 2 S 2 5 2 6 8 20 ) 6 u iila k s ' Th 3Th Co4ts i ( )wh te th plitf (s o eo tecasfrwh s eg ca b n fth sauewa e a td' e l et s 1 eh r t e anif i) n f h ls o o e s e il e eite ttt s n ce , t ' ( wh te ûh r Es a y i iaino lgsaieitn,e piio i il,et e t cet s c arme yo t 2) eh r t ee iq n ndc to f e iltv ne t x l t r mpl t ih r o rae u h e d r o t c c d n o e'()wh te çtIs c nsse twi teu d ryn p ro e o te lgsaies h met i y s c a e y n y 3 eh r t i) o itn t h n elig up ss f h e iltv c e o mpl u h ' i h rme yfrtepanif'a d( wheh rih c u eo ato ( )o eta io al rlg tdt saelw'tota i e d o h litfy n 4) te ç e a s f cln i n r dt n ly ee ae o tt a 'i h tt ' t s i s woul bei ppr praet i e aca eofa tonbas ds eyonf derll '422 U. a 78. d na o it o nfr us ci e oll e a aw. ' S. t 6 t i t r e t s a ut Cong e s has pas e t de e m i whe he i di pl ys a i t ntt c e t o n e pr t he t t e rs s d o t r ne t r t s a n ne o rae n tj s a p iae rg t b t as a p iae r me y S au o y i tn o ti lte p it i o u t rv t ih u lo rv t e d . ttt r ne t n h s atr o n s de e m i tve.W ihout i,a ca e of a ton doe not e s a cours m a notcr a e o no t r na i t t us ci s xit nd t y e t ne, matrhow de ia e t tmi be a apolc matr orhow co tbl wih t saut.' te srbl ha ght s iy te, mpai e t he tt e' ) (ntr lcttonsomitd) i ena iai te . The m ode n Supr m e Cour ha be n e r m e y r uc a t e nd pr vi l r e t s e xte l el t nt o xpa e ous y- r c ze i id prva erght ofa i ort r cog z C w' i id prva erght ofa to e ogni d mple i t i s cton o e ni e t ' mple i t i s c in. ne See J nus Ca t Gp . I v.Fis Dei tve Trdes 131 S.Ct 2296,230102 ( 1 a pial , nc. rt rvai a r, . - 201 ) (o sr ig n ro y a p e iu l rc g z d p i ae rg t o a to u d r j 1 ( ) o t c n tun ar wl r vo sy e o nie rv t ih f cin n e 0 b f he Sec iis Exc ng Ac of 1 (odii d a 1 U. C.j 78( );St rdc l Pat r, urte ha e t 934 c te t 5 S. jb)) onei e nv. rnes LLC,55 U. a 1 (a ) Alxa rv.Sand ,53 U. 275,286 ( )(eusng t 2 S. t 65 sme ; e nde oval 2 S. 2001 rf i o r c zea i id prvae rghtofa i unde j 602 ofTil VIoft Ci lRi sAc of e ogni mple i t i cton r te he vi ght t 1 4, nt 96 eve hougha i i prvaerghto a to hadprvi l be n rcog z underj601 n mpled i t i f cin e ousy e e nied oft smesaut) he a tt e . Fur he m or a i ple pr va e rghtofa to f vi a i ofa r gul ton a o t r e, n m i d i t i c i n or ol ton e a i s ppos d t e o a s a ut i e n m or ditc t t e t bls s nc t r i ofe ver ltl i c ton t t t t e s ve e fi ul o s a i h, i e he e s t n y i te ndi a i ha Congr s a t ly i e e s cua l nt ndedt c eae aprva er me o r t i t e dy. La nguag i a r gul ton m a i e n e ai y nvoke a prva e r g of ac i n t t Congr s i t i ht to ha es t oug s a ut y t xtc e t d,buti m a no c e t a r g t t Cong e s ha not hr h t t or e r a e t y t r a e i ht ha rs s . Thus when a s a ut has p ovi d a ge r la horza i f pr va e e or m e , tt e r de ne a ut i ton or i t nf ce nt of r ul tons i m a per ps be c r c t t t i t nt di pl ye i e c eg a i , t y ha or e t ha he n e s a d n ah r gul ton c n de e m i w he heror no i i prva e y e or ea e But i i m os e a i a t r ne t t t s i t l nf c bl . ts t c rany ic re tt sy ta ln ua e i a rg lto c n c nu e u ap iae etil n o r c o a h t a g g n e uain a o j r p rv t ca e of a i t thas notbe n a hor z d by Cong e s A g i s m a pl y t us cton ha e ut i e r s . enc e y a he s c r rs a pr ntc butnott s c e hi s l . or e e ' p e i e he or er r m e f S n o a, 3 U. a 2 1(nen l iainso t d .ns mma y S p e Co rj rs r d nc a d v l 5 2 S. t 9 itr a ctto mie ) I u r , u rme u tu ip u e e t has t nded t r t non- e ognii n of i ple prva e r g s of a ton a t s Co tw ilbe e owa d he rc to m i d i t i ht c i nd hi ur l hest nt t i pl one a ent a sr ia o m y bs t ong i c ton t t Cong es i e ndi a i ha r s nt nded t cr a e a prva e y o et i tl enf ceabl ri . or e ght I i c e r t t a br c of t Fe r l Ac ston Reg a i , sandi al , c l ot t s l a ha ea h he de a qui ii ul tons t ng one a m gi r s t a pr va e rghtofa ton.Pl i ifha poi t d t no sa ut y l nguag t ta horze , ve i e o i t i ci a ntf s n e o t t or a e ha ut i s e i il ori plcil a prva e r g ofa ton. xplc ty m i ty, i t i ht c i The Cour ' ow n e e i r ea c ha f ie t ts xt ns ve es r h s a l d o i tf a s a ut r ba i f om whi h t i e c den iy ny t t o y s s r c o nf r ongr s i e sonali en t c e t a prva e r m e nt t o r a e i t e dy. l e Pl i if ac nde d, a ntf know l dge a o al a g e t t t r w a no i ca i of c e d t r r um nt ha he e s ndi ton ongr s i na e so l i e t c eraprvae rghtofa ton,bu a gue t tt o he Cor f c or f r i yi a nt nt o onf i t i ci t r d ha he t r t a t s avo ed mpl ng prva e rght o a ton.H ow e r e n i t ot r Col f c or poi e r s undi y t a d i t i f ci ve , ve f he he 4 a t s nt d e o ngl ow r r c ton of a i pled prva e rght of a ton, t Cour c e ognii n m i i t i c i he t anno i pl t s r g whe t t m y hi i ht n he pr edom i ntf c or c na a t , ongr s i li e ,i c pl t l a e . e s ona nt nt s om e e y bs nt The f c t tt vi a e s a r w a a r gul t o no a s a ut f t r unde s or s t a t ha he ol t d t nda d s e a i n, t t t e, urhe r c e he com pl t l c of c ee a k ongr s onali e t c e t a prva e rghtofa ton. n i a prva e r m edy es i nt nt o r a e i t i c i Eve f i t e co d be i e r d f om a r ul ton, Pl i tf has poi e t no l ngua i t pe tne ul nf r e r eg a i a n if nt d o a ge n he r i nt r gul tonst tpur t t ex e sy c e t a prva e r g ofa ton. t s r as ,t Co t e a i ha pors o pr s l r a e i t i ht c i For he e e ons he ur hol t t t e i no pr va e r g of a to t e or e a FA R vi a i A c d M a i v. ds ha her s i t i ht c i n o nf c ol ton. cor rni Drga usA. l . No.11 11 6a dos nc, - 31 GAO, 201 W L 4023674 ( M a s Se . 11 201 ; 2 D. s . pt , 2) M oun a n St t M ec l ul ton.l v.Bel Co t u t s N o.1 11 1 201 W L 2995 3 ti ae h. ns a i nc. l ns r c or , : CV 80, 2 21 a *2( D.W .Va.J y23,201 . t N. ul 2) 8 Be us t r i no c ca e he e s ongr s ona i e t c e t a prva e rght of a i n f r FA R es i l nt nt o r a e i t i cto o vi a i , t Cour m us G R AN T D e e nt sM o i t D i m i s Coun 3 oft Co pl i t4 ol tons he ton o s s t he m a n . t t f nda ' C . M oton to St ke C ount3 i ri Gi n t t Cot t 3 has be n di m i s d, t Cour w il D I I A S M O O T t ve ha m e s s e he t l SM SS he Def nda t s M oton t Sti Count3. e n' i o r ke I . V CO N CLU SIO N Be us D e e nt do notc t s t va i iy oft c r c ,Pl i tf s r m e lesi a ca e f nda s on e t he ld t he ont a t a n if e dy i n br c of c r t c a m . A s s h, t Cou t di m i s s Count 2, t quant m m e ui c a m . ea h ontac l i uc he r s se he u r t li Furhe ,bec us no e de e of c t r a e vi nc ongr s i nal i e c n be f e so nt nt a ound t i e a pr va e r g of o nf r i t i ht ac i n bas d o a FA R vi a i n,Count 3 i alo dim i s The M oto t St i Coun 3 i to e n ol to s s s s ed. i n o rke t s dim i s a m oo . s s ed s t An a o it or rs lis t sda ppr pra e de hal s ue hi y. ENTER:Thi 71 s yofOcobe , 2. t r 201 H .J es C.Tur k Se or nie St t s D it i t udg ni t d a e s rc e 4 Eve t n hough t Cour w ilnot i y a prvat rght of a to ba e on ale he t l mpl i e i cin s d lged vi ato of t Fe r l ol ins he de a Ac ston Re ai ,couns lf rDefnda noed a or lagum e t tm a pr so oft r gultonsae quiii gultons e o e nt t t a r nt ha ny oviins he e ai r i o por td i ot prm ec r t eihe byr f e eorby f l txt Ass h,FAR vi a i coul silconsiue nc r ae nt he i ontac, t r eernc ul e . uc oltons d tl ttt a b e h ofco r c u erCou l r ac nt a t nd nt . 9