Hill v. Dillow et al, No. 7:2012cv00289 - Document 10 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 08/21/2012. (kab)
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CLER/ OFFI' U.S. ST COURT CS CE DI . AT ROANOKE,V A FI LED I TH E U N I N TED STA TES D ISTRIC T CO UR T FO R TH E W ESTERN D I STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A RO AN OK E D I I ON V SI K EITH LA M O N TE H ILL, Pl i if a ntf , DAVI DI D LLOW , al et . Defnda s e nt. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) AU6 2 1 2 1 22 JUUAC. L c Du EY; BY: DP e IR JK E CaseN o.7: cv12- 00289JCT- SB R M EM O R AN DU M O PIN IO N By:Jam es C .T urk Se or U nie St e D it i tJudg ni t d at s s r c e ) Keih L.Hil a i a e pr ee ngpr s fl t sc vi r g sac i pur ua tt 42 t l, n nm t oc di o e, ied hi i l i ht ton s n o U. C.j1 algi t tvai Vigi aofi asvi atdhi rg sby( )atc ngaGPS S. 983, le ng ha rous r ni fcil ol e s iht 1 ta hi de cet hi ve cewihouthi consnta ( fii t brngc r agans t e vi o s hil t s e nd 2) alng o i hages i t hos rs nsbl Uponr vi oft rcod,hec tfndst tt j1 a i mus bes e po i e. e ew he e r t our i ha he 983 cton t ummaiy rl di m i s d be a e a 1oft D e e an s a e i m une f o Pl i if scl i s f da a s s s e c us 1 he f nd t r m r m a ntf a m or m ge . l H ila l gest f l w i s que e ofe nt r l n t hi cl m s On Se e be 1 l le he olo ng e nc ve s e eva t o s ai . pt m r 3, 201 De e 0, f ndan Br ns om ,Bot t tCoun y Co m onwea t A tor y,a s Def nda t a c e our t m 1h t ne dvi ed e nt polce ofi e s Dil w ,M a vil ,a Pa ke t ti w a C r e ty tne ' o i t la G PS i fc r lo nde le nd r r ha t s d f c l i ' t ns al pe t a ki de c o t Pl ntf sve c e w hie i w a pa ke on a publc s r ti a ne g r c ng vi e n he ai i f hi l l t s r d i t ee n i hborng i j iditon,heCiyofBe or Purua t t ta c Dee nt Dil a Andes urs ci t t df d. s nt o ha dvie, fnda s low nd ron t a l t Be or butw e e una e t l a e Pl i ifsve c e.On Se e be 1 201 t r ve ed o df d, r bl o oc t a ntf hi l pt m r 6, 0, hey r t ne t Be or w e e a e t l t t ve c e a i t le a GPS t a ng de ce on t e ur d o df d, r bl o oca e he hi l , nd ns a l d r cki vi he Pl nt f s vehi e w ihouthi know l ai if cl t s edge. . Afe c i i c r swe ebr ug a i tPl n ifutlzi t i or to obt i d tr rm nal ha ge r o ht gans aitf ii ng he nf ma i n ane fom t GPSde c ,Dee ant Yeat a Cook,bohVigi acic tcourj s e hnle r he vie fnd s ts nd t r ni rui tudge , ac ld t tt i t la i a us oft GPS de c i t s c r um s a e c tt t d an unr a o bl ha he ns a l ton nd e he vi e n hi ic t nc ons iu e e s na e s a ch i vi a i oft Fourh A m e e .Def nda t M cAndr w s a Pti ge ,bot e r n ol ton he t ndm nt e ns e nd l e r h pr e ut r ,t n de i t brng c r esaga ns t e i ve i t i t la i a us of os c o s he clned o i ha g i t hos nvol d n he ns a l ton nd e t GPS de c Pl i ifa l gest tt a tonsoft e f de e nt i l he rom i s on t he vi e. a ntf le ha he c i hes our f nda s n ' i t si o c i i l c r ' t e r s ns bl f t i t laton oft GPS d c vi a ed hi r m naly ha ge ' hos e po i e or he ns a l i he evi e ol t s co tt i nalrght . e enda Pa a m a sr t ,i a s a l ge y la e f rf l e t i oc ed nsiuto i sD f nt ge, gi ta e s l o le dl i bl o aiur o t e pr w ih c i i pr es ' ag ns t e i ve i t i t la i n a us oft GPS de c t rm nal oc s ' ai t hos nvol d n he ns a l to nd e he vi e. Pl i ifs e m one a y da a a ns t D e e nt f t e alege c tt i l a ntf e ks t r m ges gai t he f nda s or hes l d ons iutona vi atons. ol i 11 The Cour i r uie t di m i s a a to orcl i fl d by a pr s ri t c t t s eq r d o s s ny c i n a m ie i one f he our dee m i t tt ac i orc am i fi ous m aii , a l t sa eacli on whih r le tr nes ha he ton l i s rvol , lc ous f is o t t am c e if ma begrntd,ort dee nsaei y a e he fnda t r mmune. U. C.j 1 5( ( ( .Be us t Cour 28 S. 91 e)2)B) ca e he t ha de e m i d t ta ol e orqua ii d i m uniy unque to y pr de e c D e e n s t r ne ha bs ut lte m t s i nabl ovi s a h f nda t wih a a f r a i de e e t t s c vi a ton,t c t ils m a iy di m i st c pl i t n f i m tve f ns o hi i l c i he our w l um r l s s he om a nt unde j1 5()2 ( (i) $ dititc t dimisa acin unde 28U. C. r 91 e()B)ii.$ src our may s s n to A r S. j1 5( ( ( i t cour fndst tdee nti enildt qualfe i 91 e)2)B) f he t i ha fnda s tte o iid mmuniy. AlHa v t ' - ydar . ' Bont, 4:1 952AGF,201 W L 21 301 *1( D. o.J 1 201 (ii Manes z No. 1 CV1 2 91 , E. M une 4, 2) ctng s v Dit Cou t495F. 943,944(t Ci. . s. r, 3d 8h r 2007);s ealoMc e v Unie St e ,566F. ) d s L an . td ats 3d 391 394( hCi. )( di s s edimisla pr it wher l sai i , 4t r 2009 hol ng ua pont s sa p oprae e egiltve mmuniy t wa pli ye de ) Toddv Ba k rvle 71 F. 70,74(t Ci.1 3)(i ngunde fr r s anl vi nt; . s e il, 2 2d 4h r 98 fndi r ome 2 vesonofj1915t tcour mays ri ha t ummaiyds s asfi ousacli ce rybare bya rl imis rvol am lal r d n atr tvedefns ) fimai e e. The Cour,lbe a l c tui t c pl i oft pr s Pl ntf ,i er e s i as t i r ly onsr ng he om a nt he o e ai i f nt pr t t riigtr est o j 1 8 cams ()camsa an t u iil fiesf rfiigt ii aeo asn h e es f 9 3 li : 1 li g isj dca o fc r o al o nt t r n i pr e dwih ci na chage ,( camsa i tpr e utr f fii t i taec r es oc e t rmi l r s 2) li gans os c o s or alng o niit ha g a i tot rDefnda s and( cai t tce t nDee nsvi ae hi FourhAme nt gans he e nt, 3) l ms ha rai fnda t oltd s t ndme rgh s by i t li a usng a GPS devi e o hi ve cl Li r ly c tued, he c pl i i t ns a lng nd i c n s hi e. be a l ons r t om a nt as rie t e st ofsae1w cams ()tes s f atc ngt GPS de cet hi ve ce lo as s hre es tt a li : 1 r pa s or ta hi he vi o s hil, () u id ci n l i ai n b De e d nsa tn o tietertrio ilu id ci n , n ( )a 2 j rs ito a volto s y fn a t cig usd h i ert ra j rs ito s a d 3 sael w rg ,al ge y r c ni e by t Vig ni Gene a As e y, o befe fo GPS tt a i ht le dl e og z d he r i a r l s mbl t re r m t acki r ng. Thi Cour dim i s st f de alc a m son g o s t s s e he e r l i r undsofa ol e a qua ii i m uniy bs ut nd lted m t a d cie t e ecs j rs ito o r h s p e n a saelw cams 2 U.. j 1 6 ( ) nd e l s o x rie u id ci n ve t e u plme tl tt a li . 8 SC. 3 7c . n A . C l m sA gai Judi alO f i al ai nst ci fci s The pl i ifs kst hol D e e a ntf ee o d f ndan s Ye ts a Cook, t V igi a c r ui c r t a t nd bo h r ni i c t ou t j d e ,ibefrmo e d ma e b s do terfi r t ( rmial c r e'heDe e d n u g s l l o n y a g s a e n h i al e o û i n ly hag 't a u c fn a t polc of i r t ubs quentt t i adm i s on und r o t ofc i i ly t m pe i w ih pl i if s i e fce s i e s o he r si e ah rm na l a rng t a ntf ' v hil. Co lit Dk . .1 !2 Ho v rj g saei n fo s iu e st er e ce' mpan , t No , 0. we e ,ud e r mmu e r m ut nls h i ' a to swe eno j dca i n t r o tke i c mpeea e c o al u id ci n M iee v cin r n u iil n au e r a n n o lt bsn e f lj rs ito . r ls . Wac ,502U. 9,11( 991 ( rc im) St v S kman, U. 349( 978 . r i no o S. 1 ) pe ura ; ump . par 435 S. 1 ) Thee s i c to f om t c pl i ,norc d t Pl i ifc ai ,t tt ac s oft s Def nda s ndi a i n r he om a nt oul he a ntf l m ha he t he e e nt we enon udiili naur o tke i c et a e eof u iditon. eor t Cou t r j ca n t e r a n n ompl e bsnc j rs ci Therf e,he r dim i s cl i sag ns D e e n s Yea t a Cook. s s es a m ai t f nda t ts nd 3 Thes mei as tuefrDeenda Pa a amagitae.Pli ifale si !21oft a s lo r o f nt ge s srt antf lge n he com pl ntt Page tabus her di eton when she f l t pr ai hat d ed scr i aied o oceed w ih crm i pr s' t i nal oces ' a an tc ranDee d n s C a itae aej d ca o fc r, n aet u e tte t a s lt g is e ti fn a t.l gsrts r u iil fies a d r h s n i d o b oue M l i nt u d rt es c n iin a aej d e . Pr sl v Gr goy 8 F.d51 , 7(t mmu i n e h mne o dto s s r u g s' esy . e r, 31 2 4 51 4h y ' Ci. 98 ) tf er lva t a tr( d tr nn wh t e a a ti j d cali wh te t ea ti r 1 7 .û' ee n fco i eemiig eh r n c s u iil s eh r h c s -h n onenor lypef medbyaj e.Is ngpr es ofar tfro a us dofac i i a mal ror udg sui oc s res o ne cc e rme s j dca fn to , Kig v My r, 7 F.d 3 4, 5 (t Ci. 9 2 (ne n lp ncu to a d u iil u cin' n . e s 9 3 2 5 3 8 4h r 1 9 ) itr a u tain n ' ctto so te ) a di tusp oe tdb j dca i nt . eeo e j diilmmu i iai n mitd , n s h r tce y u iil mmu iy Th rf r ,u ca i nt y pr e t Pa s a tons a t Cour di m i s a lc a m sag ns he . ot c s ge' c i nd he t s s es l l i ai t r B. Cl m s A gai tProsecut ai ns ors Pl ntf a l st tDef nda s Pti ge a M c r w svi a e hi c tt i nal ai i f lege ha e nt l e r nd And e ol t d s ons iuto r g s û t i om i s on t c i i ly c r ' c r a n D e e nt . t e pr e t s a e i ht i he r s i o r m na l ha ge ' e t i f nda s But hes os cu or r by pr e t by pr e t i i m uniy, hi h hol pr e u or i m une f om ûc ai st tr s o ot c ed os cu oral m t w c ds os c t s m r s l m ha e t n gher de sonsr gadi whehe a whent pr e ut.' e v.S k 79F. 372,377 t iq cii e r ng t r nd o osc e'Lyls pars, 3d ( h Ci.1 6)(ntr quottonmaksa cttonsomitdl s ealoEh lc v Gi i ,91 4t r 99 i enal ai r nd iai te ; e s rih . ulani 0 F. 1 ( h Ci.1 ;I erv Pac man, U. 409,423- ( 976) Plitf' cai 2d 220 4t r 990) mbl . ht 424 S. 24 1 . anifs l ms f lc f t bl w ihi t s pe ofpr e ut i i m uniy. r f e, he Co tdi m i s s al om or a y t n he co os c oral m t The e or t ur s s e cl i sa ns Def nda s Pf i ge and M c ndr w s 1 a m gai t e nt le r A e . C . Cl m sC oncerni the I t l i ofthe G PS D e ce ai ng ns alaton vi ( iidi l fe mmuniy s el govenme ofiil pef mi dicei r f tons oual t hi ds r nt fcas ror ng srtonay unci fo pes na-a ct la lt f ci ld ma sunde j 1 ,i of a t rc rm ro lc pa iy ibiiy or vi n ge r 983 ns ar s hei onduc doesnot t 'Pl n ifalo a s rs c a m saga ns a t rpr e ut , Def nda Br ns om f hi r e i a sng polc aitf s s e t l i i t no he os c or e nt a c or s ol n dvi i ie ofier t tiw a Kpe fcty fne'f Deenda polc ofi r t al c aGPSdeviet Pli ifsve ce. fc s ha t s t re l i ' or f nt ie fce s o ta h c o antf ' hil Pr c o i li m u t doe notc r apr e ut gi ng l ala c t polc Bur s v.Re 500 U . 478,493 ose ut r a m niy s ove os c or vi eg dvi e o i e, n ed, S. ( 9 ) t e e o e De e d n Brns o sa to sa ea d e s d i t s cin o q lte i nt 1 91 .h r f r , fn a t a c m' ci n r d r se n he e t n uai d mmu i , o l y. 4 vi a e c e r y e t bls d s a ut y orc tt i lr g sofw hi h a r as bl pe s woul ol t l a l s a i he t t or ons iutona i ht c e ona e r on d h v 1, w1'Ripahv Bd o v r o sMa s alUnm, 4 F.d2 2 3 6( t Ci. 0 ) a e :1 1' d t . fGo e n r rh l i 4 7 3 9 , 0 4h r 2 06 1 . . 0 (ntma quotto maksomitd) $ rg i ce ryesa ihedit cont soft rg ae i e l ain r te .( iht s la l tbls f he our he iht r A s fc enty cl a s t ta r a ona e o fc rw oul ha unde s ood,unde t cic s a sa ufi i l e r o ha e s bl f i e d ve rt r he r um t nce t ha t thi be virvi ae t rg . Baie v Ke d 349F. 731 741( hCi.200 nd,ha s ha o oltd he iht' ly . nne y, ' 3d , 4t r 3) (ntr lquottonmaksa aleai omitd) ( he deemi ngwhehe ar s na e i ena ai r nd trton te .l n tr ni W t r ea o bl of i e woul ha be n a e ofa cons iutona rght w e do noti pos on t of i i a dut fc r d ve e war tt i l i , m e he f c al y t s toutc lc i de s ons ort r s ve s te orope i s s 'M cve v St y, 1 7 F. o or onf i tng ci i o e ol ub l n s ue . ' y . ac 5 3d 271 277( hCi.1 .l fcasaeno la ef ba g sesi gr yaea ;t ya ela e , 4t r 998) t iil r t ibl or d ue s n a r s he r ibl of f ta g e sngbrgh lne .'d.(ntr lquottonmaksomit . or rns r si i t i s'1 i ena ai r ted) k n de e m i ng w he he a r g wasc e ry esa i he a t tm e oft cl i e ç l t r ni t r i ht l a l t bls d t he i he a m d vi ai c t i gheFo t Cic t or na iyne dnotlokbeyondt d ii oft olton, ours n t urh ruij di rl e o he ecsons he Supr m e Cour,t sco tofa e t hi ur ppea s and t hi hes co to t s a e i w hi h t ca e a os l l, he g t ur f he t t n c he s r e. f a rghti r cog z d i s e ot rc r t butnoti t s o a of i i lw ilor na iy r t i t i s e ni e n om he icui, n hi ne, n fc a l di rl e a n he i mmuniydefns .' t e e'Edwar v Ci o ds o,1 F.d231, ( h Ci.1 (ntr ds . t fGol bor 78 3 y 251 4t r 999) i enal quottonmaksa cttonso te . ai r nd iai mitd) Be or t e nt a l ge i t Pl i tf ' c pl i oc ur ed,f U . Ci c tCour s f e he ve s le d n he a n if s om a nt c r our S. r ui t o Appe lhad a e s d t i s ofw a r nte s GPS tac ng,butt Fourh Cicui had not f a ddr s e he s ue ra ls r ki he t r t . Se Unie St e v. a d,61 F.d544( C.Ci.201 ( di t ti t ltona us o e td ats M ynar 5 3 D. r 0) hol ng ha nsalai nd e f aGPSde c wihoutawarntwasaFourhAme vie t ra t ndme sa c ;Unie St e v Pi d nt e r h) td ats . ne a- Mor no,5 F. 1 2( h Ci.201 )( di t ti t ltona us ofaGPS de c e 91 3d 21 9t r 0 hol ng ha nsalai nd e vie wihou awarntwasnotaFou t Ame t t ra rh ndme s rh) Unie St e v M ar z, F.d604 nt eac ; td ats . que 605 3 ( 0 (a ;UniedSt e v.Gar i 47 F. 9 ( hCi.2007 ta l 201 ) s me) t ats ca, 4 3d 94 7t r ) s me . 5 Att tme oft ale d i t la i oft GPS de c on Pli ifsve cl on he i he l ge nsalton he vie antf hi e Se e be 1 201 no c e f o t Supr m e Co t t Fo t Cic t ort Vi gi a pt m r 6, 0, as r m he e ur , he ur h r ui, he r ni Supr m eCour ofVigi aha a r s e whehe t i t la i orus ofaGPS de c wa a e t r ni d dd e s d t r he nsa lton e vi e s Fourh A m e en s a ch.The o y c r r a ho iy i Se e be 201 w a a s ngl o ni t ndm t e r nl onta y ut rt n pt m r 0 s i e pi on f om a dif r ntc r ui t tw asr l a e onl a m o h bef r t i t la i oft GPS de ce r f e e ic t ha ee s d y nt o e he ns a l ton he vi alege y oc ur ed. e M a r s pr Thi iol t d hol ng w a nots tci ntt m a t l dl c r Se yna d, u a. s s a e di s ufi e o ke he r gh c e ry es a i he f rpur esofa oga i q ii i m uniy. cc di y,D e e nt i t l a l t bls d o pos br tng ualfed m t A or ngl f nda s D il ,M a vil ,Ander on, r ,a Br ns m c ul no ha known t tt i a i low nde le s Pa ker nd a co o d t ve ha he r ctons r a e t t pl c m e oft GPS de c on Pl i if sve c e vi a e hi c tt i l el t d o he a e nt he vi e a ntf ' hi l ol t d s ons iutona r g s Thus t a e e il d t qua ii d i m uniy a i tPl i ifscl i s f m one a y i ht . , hey r ntte o lfe m t ga ns a ntf a m or tr dama s Theefr ,t Co tdimis st j1 camsagans t ge . r o e he ur s se he 983 li i them. D . State Law C l m s ai The Pl ntf al o a ar t brng s a e l w c ai s butt Cour ha di m i s d a 1oft ai i f s ppe s o i t t a l m , he t s s s e 1 he fdealcli a t rf r de lne t e r ies eme a j iditonove t rmani e r ams nd hee oe ci s o xe cs uppl ntlurs ci r he e i ng saelw cams S e2 U. C. 1 6 () Th Co r ds se te ecamswi o t rj dc . tt a li . e 8 S. j 3 7c . e u t imis s h s li t u p eu ie h l I1 l c l i n,heCour fndst tDe e nt ha abs ut orqua ii d i uniy ag ns n oncuso t t i ha f nda s ve ol e lfe mm t ai t Pli ifsj1983cli ands antf ams umma iydimis st s camsunde j1 5()2)B) t sae rl s se hee li r 91 e ( ( ;he tt lw cli a edimis dwiho prj c .Ana opraeor rs l is t sda TheClr a ams r s se t ut eudie ppr it de hal sue hi y. ek i die t d t s nd co e oft sm e or ndum opi o and ac om pa ng or rt pl i tf . s rce o e pi s hi m a ni n c nyi de o a n if EXTER:'hi J/. yofAug t 201 r s zda us, 2. z a rz x. z o r ; Un' 6 St s Seni D i r ctJudge or sti