Brown v. Virginia Employment Commission et al, No. 7:2012cv00214 - Document 21 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 8/7/12. (sas)
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CLERK' OFFI U. DI JOURT S CE S. SX AT ROANOKE, VA FIED L I TH E UN I N TED STATES D I STR I T C O UR T C FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A R OAN O KE D I ISI V ON LUTH ER R .BR O W N ,JR . , Pl i t f , a n if VI I I EM PLO YM EN T RG N A C O M M I O N ,etal, SSI . ) ) ) ) ) Ak6 2 7 2 1 92 JULA C. I DU BY; , CLERK DEPU t C as N o.7: c 00214 e 12- v- M EM OM NDUM OPI ON NI By:Jam es C.Turk Seni U nied St esD i ri Judge or t at st ct D e e nt . f nda s Th smatri b f r t Co r o Dee d n s M oint Dimis( No 1 ) Ha i i te s eo e he u t n fn a t' to o s s ECF . 2 . vng ai d t b n s r d w ih a Ros o notc Pl i i fha r ponde 1 A he rng washel on Augus 3, ee e ve t ebor i e, a ntf s es d. 201 a t m a t ri now rpe f r diposton. Fort r a o s a e bel ,De e n s 2, nd he te s i o s ii he e s ns t t d ow f nda t ' M oton i G R ANT ED . i s 1. Fact and ProeeduralBackaround ual The f l i f ct a e de i d f om t Com pl i a a tonale de e Pl ntf has olow ng a s r rve r he a nt nd ddii vi nc ai i f 2 s b te t t eCo r, swel sa j iaiefcsof ihteCo r h stk nj iil oie u mitd o h u ta la dudc tv a t whc h u t a a e udca n t . c 1Aferbei s ed w ih t Ros o notce, Pl ntf fl ar pons i opposton,aswel ast t ng erv t he ebor i ai if ied es e n ii l wo m otons( orl vet fl addii evi nce.'SeeECF Nos.15,17-18. The Cour c tuest e i ç ea o ie f tonal de ' t onsr hes l trmotonsassuppl ate i ement r pons a t y wer c der when deci ng t f e of al es es, nd he e onsi ed di he at Def ndant moton. W her i r i upon e de outi t pladi ,t Cour i or narl e s' i e t eles vi nce sde he e ngs he t s di iy o i t dt c nv r amo i t ds s t o f rs mma yj g nt Fe R. v. 1 d) Bu h r, bl e o o e t ton o imis o ne o u r ud me . d. Ci P. 2( . t e e ga Pl ntf ' c ai ifs ompl nt lber l consr m akesr er nc t m uch oft evi ai , i aly tued, ef e e o he dence he hass ubmit i ted n opposii M or ton. eover t m a eral a e i egr t t Compl nt a t e appear t be no diput , he t i s r nt al o he ai , nd her so s e r di t aut ntciy ora ac oft docum e s SeeHary v.Lui Four I ,747 F. egar ng he he i t ccur y he nt. t hn . ncsupp. zd - 5 7, l( D. C. 01 )( ii Fa l rv. e , 63F.d 1 0 l ( Ci. 006 Und rt e e 4 55 E. N. 2 0 ctng uke Be r 4 3 3 , 34 2d r 2 :. e h s crumsa e ,heCo t cie t te tt emo i a o ef rs mmayj g n . ic tnc s t ur de ln s o r a h ton s n o u r ud me t 2Se Telbs I . v. a o Is s& Rihs Lt ,5 U. 30 , 3( 007 ( e r igonamo int e la . nc M k r sue g ts d. 51 S. 8 32 2 ) wh n uln to o dimi ,çcoursm us consdert compl nti isentr y,aswel asot s cescoursor na iy s ss ç t t i he ai n t iet l her our t di rl Pl ntf wa t r se ed a ntf rVigi aPantng a W al ove i Contacor ,l . a ai if s he egit r ge o r ni i i nd lc rng r t s nc, Vigi ac porton(t r ni Pani ',a a rnl iss es rhol r OnJ nuay25, r ni or ai t gi a itng') nd ppae ty t ol hae de. vi a r 2011 i col e ton wih deb s i ur e by V igi a Pa ntng,t V i g ni Em pl m e ,n m ci t t nc r d r ni i i he r i a oy nt Commison(1 'fldale agans Pl ntf i t Clr sOfi f t Count of si C VEC' ie in i t ai if n he ek' fce or he ) y Roa ke,i t a no n he mountof$1 988. On Aprl1 201 t VEC fl aW rtofFir Fa i s 0, 30. i 8, 1,he ied i ei ca a i tPl i ifi t Roa ke Count Cic tCou t On O c obe 1 2011 t V EC fl d ga ns a ntf n he no y r ui r. t r 2, , he ie a t rle a ns Pl i ifi t Roa no he i n gai t antf n he nokeCount Clr sofi ,t sone f $1 96 06.The y e k' fce hi or 2, 4. i r as d a oun sr t e ta c u ng i er s on t de . On Oct r 13, nc e e m t e l c c r i nt e t he bt obe 2011 Pl i i ftl d a , a ntf i e vol t r pe ii n f Cha e 1 ba upt y i t U nie St t Ba upt y Cour f rt un a y tto or pt r 3 nkr c n he t d a es nkr c t o he W etr DititofVigi a Se l r Lut rR. ownsJ.No.1172083t kr W . Va.. sen src r ni. e n e he Br r, Bm1 . D. ) Pl i i faleg t tD e enda sha fl d s ve alle ag i thi ,s e ng t g r s hi sa e a ntf l es ha f nt ve ie e r i ns a ns m e ki o a nih s t t and f de a i om e t x r undsand o he f e r l nc a ef t r unds Pl ntf f t raleg t tt i vi l . ai if urhe l es ha he ndi dua D e e an sha c i f nd t ve ontnued t ha as hi , e n a trt y we enotfed ofhi ba ru cytlng. o r s m ve fe he r ii s nk pt ii 3 O n M a 1 201 Pl i if pr e ngrr s ,fl t i t n a ton a i tt VEC y 4, 2, a ntf , oc edi o e ied he ns a t c i ga ns he a dfu o ise ly e .Hes e s$10 00 0i d ma e , swel sij n tv r l frq ii g n o r f t mpo e s e k ,0 ,0 n a g s a l a n u cie ei e urn e e mie.. i patc a . . teso whc ac u t ytk jdiiln tc '.S as Fe R. d. xa n .n riulr . matr f ih o r ma a e u ca oie.) ee lo d. Evi ' 201. 3Ator a gument Pl ntf sprm e c al r ai if i ompl ntappea ed t be t t VEC as es Vigi a Pai i s ai r o hat he s sed r ni ntng' , unempl oymentt x debtagai thi pe s l wihoutf l i t pr a ns m r onaly t olow ng he ocedur pr crbed i Va.Code e es i n An 6 2- ( 2) l r e n patt c es cinpr i st tci la to t e f c t ep y n n. 0. 521 201 . n elva t r,he od e to ovde ha vi cins o n ore h a me t ofunempl entt m a bedbr oym axes y f oughtagai ta of ier empl ns ny fc , oyee,oragentofacor a i or por ton pa nerhi i hi i vi sper onalca t when t per on w iluly f l t caus t e pl t rt s p n s ndi dual s paciy hat s lf l ais o e he m oyer o pa t a r praetxe a heh dtea t o i t d s Nope s n s alb s j c t t ss cin y he pp o it a s nd a h u h rt o o o. y r o h l e ube t o hi e to u e si i p o d ()ta s hpes nha k wld eo t ef lr o atmp t ma s c pa n a nls t s r ve i h t uc ro d no e g f h ai e r te t o ke u h yme t nd u (i t ts hp ro h d a t ort t prv nts c f iu eoratmp . 1 Plitf h spr i daW rt i) ha uc e s n a u h iy o e e u h alr te t' d. an if a ovde ' i ofFir Faci fom t Roa e i as r he noke Count Cicui Cour,whi i ca est t VEC may have fl a y r t t ch ndi t hat he ied ci lac i agai tPl ntf a s vi ton ns ai if t omepoi - t ci umsanc underw hi t sW rtwasobt ned ar nt he rc t es ch hi i ai e u la.l a e nt i t VEC i r pe l obane aj g nta dwrtfom t Roa k Cou t nce r n ny ve , f he mp o ry ti d ud me n i r he no e ny Cicui Cour,Pl ntf ' r edy lesw ih t cour and nott sone. r t t ai ifs em i t hat t hi 2 D e e nt t r e e a llensaga ns hi a r f a n f om c a tng hi . D e e nt f nda s o el as 1 i i t m nd e r i r ont c i m f nda s rs edwihaM otont Dimis ag ng( )t yha s ri i epond t i o s s, rui 1 he ve oveegn mmuniyunde t t r he Elv nhAme d n ' 2 t sCo r lc s b e tmatr u idcino e Plitf scams4 eet n me t ( ) hi u ta ks u j c- te j rs ito v r an if li . , l. l St ndar ofR e e a d vi w A moint ds s u d rRue 1 b ( )o t eFe ea Rue o Cii Pr c d r tsst to o imis n e l 2()6 f h d rl ls f v l o e u e et he lga s tce yoft c an .Ra l v. tdStts 30F. 51 522( hCi.1 94) A e l ufi inc he omplit ndal Unie ae , 3d 8, 4t r 9 . c mpli mus i udeas ta pl nsae ntoft cli s t whiht plade i o ant t ncl hor nd ai ttme he amt) mder c he e r s e ildt rle .Fe R. v. 8a)2) Unde t notc pl di sa r e oye byt ntte o eif d. Ci P. ( ( . r he ie ea ng tndad mpl d he f de a c t,t c pl i ne onl û ve t de e n notc ofw ha t c ai i . .a e r l our s he om a nt ed y s gi he f nda t i e t he l m s . nd t g o uponwhihi r t. Erc o v. r ,551U. 89,93( )( tngBelAt. he r unds c t ess' iks n Padus ' S. 2007 cii l l Coo . Two v,550U. 5 555( v. mbl S. 44, 2007). l ode t s vveamoi t dimis ) n r r o ur i ton o s s, h we r ac mplitsSta ta alg to smus b e o g t r iearg tt r le a o et e o ve, o an ' d l cu l le ai n g t e n u h o as ih o eif b v h s c a i l ve . Tw om bl 550 U . a 555. l pa tc a , te c us ons e em e sofa pe ul tve e l' ' v, S. t n ri ul r ùl gal oncl i , l nt c us o a ton, nd ba e as e tons de d off t rf c ua e a e f ci a r s ri voi urhe a t l nhanc m e f i t c tt e w e l e nt a l o ons iut l- pl fcsf Rul 1 b)6 pur e .'Ne tChe oltLt v.Cons rfar.om.l , ed a t or e 2( ( ) poss' me vr es d. umea fisc nc.591 F. 250, ( hCi.2009) W hiet Co ti o i tdt a c ptastuealoft 3d 255 4t r . l he ur s blgae o c e r l he c pl i ' w e lpl d f ct a l ga i a t ke t f c si t lg m os f vo a e t t om a nt s l- e a ual le tons nd a he a t n he i ht t a r bl o he pli if Adoc v.Fr i lne .LLC,550F.d 3 374(t Ci. antf, k eahti r 3 69, 4h r 2008) i wilno gi t sme ,t l t ve he a r ve e t ç a r t i e e s un e s bl c usons orar um e s ' N e e e r nce o i unw r an ed nf r nce , r a ona e oncl i , g nt . ' m t 4W ih s er uct ,t Cour not her t gener i ufi ency ofDef nt bref : 1 t om el ance he t es e he al ns fci enda s' i . t l A motons unl sot wie diect by t Cour ...mus be a i , es her s r ed he t t ccom pani by awrten brefs ti f t a ed it i e tng orh conciesat s t ementoft f sand s he act uppori r ons al wih a cia i oft a hortesupon whih tng eas , ong t t ton he ut ii c t emo n r le . W . Ci R.1 () 1.Dee da s b ifma e pa sngr fr n et afw fdea h va t eis' D. v. 1c ( ) f n nt' re k s s i ee e c o e e r l ' sa ut and ciesonl a si ecase- and t ,asat c e ofonl t ntalr e tt es t y ngl hat t e as y ange i elvance her e. Addii l whieDef nt m ade acl m ofqualfed i muniy ator ar ent t m ake no tonaly, l enda s ai ii m t al gum , hey m enton ofi i t rbref and t Cour w ilt r or deem i wai i t n hei i , he t l he ef e t ved. 3 Che olt 591F. a 255( tng W a v. ret AraM e Ct.l .562F. 5 61 vr e, 3d t quoi hi Chalson e d. r.nc, 3d 99, 5 1. ( hCi. 126 4t r 2009).W hee,a hee, pat i pr e di os ,t tpa t spla ng wilbe ) r s r a ry s oc e ngpr e ha ry' e di s l c tue lbeal Se ge r l Hai sv.Kene , U. 51 ( 972) onsr d i rly. e ne al y ne r r 404 S. 9 1 . 11 1. Di scuss on i A. Vi aton ofBankrupt y St y ol i c a Th fd r l o rsaeo e o lmie j rs ito A fd r l o r ma no h a ac s o e e e a c u t r n s f i td u idcin. e e a c u t y t e r a e r c r r y unl s i i bo h c tt i na l a s a ut iy a ho i ed t do s Kokke v. ontove s es t s t onsiuto ly nd t t orl ut r z o o. n Guada Liel s Co of , 2 U.. 7 , 7 (9 4 .S be tmatr u idito c n o b r in f n . . Am.5 2 S 3 5 3 7 1 9 ) u j c- te j rs ci n a n y e f fie orwai d.l r Kiklnd,600F. 31 31 ( hCi. 0) Thi Co t sC n oretd ve n e r a 3d 0, 4 4t r 201 . s ur ha t a id p n e to lg to t a s s i s b e tmatr u idito ' n tn iev. co s& n e e d n bi ai n o se s t u j c- t j rs cin. s e 'Co sa tn Re t r Viior o Ge ceM as Uni , 1F. 47 48 ( hCi. st s f or on v.41 3d 4, 0 4t r 2005) Thepe s s e ngt . ron e ki o i nvoket j iditonoft c t r t i ta bur nofde tai t tt c ur ha he urs ci he our beas he niil de monsrtng ha he o t s s b e tmatr u idcin o e t ec s .Mc t v Ge M oo sAc e tn eCo p o I da a u j c- t j rs ito v r h a e Nu t . n. t r c p a c r . f n in , e 298U. 1 1 9( 936) Hee,ha pat i Pli if Th , at e hol mater t Cour S. 78, 8 1 . r t t ry s antf, us as hrs d t ,he t m us a s s whe he i m a he rPl ntf ' c a m sa al. t s es t r t y a ai i f s l i t l H e e, a ntf a r pl i if ppea s t be as e tng t o cl i s a c ai f vi a i ofhi c vi rght ' r o s ri w a m ' l m or ol ton . s i li s , a a c ai t tD e e nt vi a ed t a om a i s a i pos d w he Pl i t f t l d f nd l m ha f nda s ol t he ut tc t y m e n a n if i e or ba r pt y. The Co tt ke up t s c cl i fr t Fii a pe ii f r Cha er 1 nk u c ur a s he e ond a m i s . lng tton o pt 3 ba r c a omaialysa mos c lci a tonsa ai tadebt .Se 1lU. C. 362.A nkupty ut tc l tys t ole ton ci g ns or e S. j c us ofa ton s e ng r e s f vi a i ofa a om a i sa ha ge r l bee he d t be a e c i e ki edr s or ol ton n ut tc t y s ne aly n l o wihi t e l i j iditonoft ba r ptyc t Se Ea tr Equi & Svcs Cop.v. t n he xcusve urs ci he nk u c our. e sen p. . Fa t vPoi Na 'Bal 236F.d 11 1 ( Ci. )(ç src co t smpl lc cor nt tl rk, 3 7, 21 2d r2001 tDitit urs i y a k 4 j rs ito t h a camsa s ri gvilto so t ea tmai sa ta s u i sae1w' ;q u idcin o e r li se t oain f h uo tc ty h t o nd n tt a ' L n ) r Stre Gl lComm . ,292B. 246, 4t nkrD. d. e a tc oba Gp. R. 25 Ba . M 2003)(nf c ntof e oreme a omai sa ge r l hel t bei e usvej iditonofba r ptycou t.Ac or ngl ut tc ty nealy d o n xcl i urs ci nk u c r) c di y, t UniedStt DititCour ha noj idito ove a cli baedont Defnda s he t aes src t s urs cin r ny ams s he e nt' a l ge vi a i n oft s a a l s i t fr ti t nc The m us be br hti t U nie le d ol to he t y, t ea t n he is ns a e. y t oug n he t d st esBankr cy courts at upt . B. Ci lR i vi ghtsC l m agai tV EC ai ns Pl ntf ' ci lr g s c ai sag ns VEC m us al o f l The El nt A m e e bar ai i f s vi i ht l m ai t t s ai. eve h ndm nt s s t a i tC nsntng Stt .'Edel nv. or n,41 U. 651 662 ( 974) Se alo uis gans d unco e i aes' ma J da 5 S. , -63 1 . e s U . Cons . m . I Thi i m uniy e e t S nns oft St t ,' nc udi s a e a nc e an S. tA X . s m t xt nds o s a he a e ' i l ng t t ge i s d saeofi e sa tng i t i ofi ilc pa iis M t He lhv Ciy.Sc Dit Bd.OfEduc. t t fc r c i n her fca a cte . . at t h. s. v. Dovl 429U. 27 280( 977 ;Gr v. ws 51F.d426,430(t Ci.1 .Ac or e, S. 4, 1 ) ay La , 3 4h r 995) c d Nelonv. rik, 3: 1c 0001 201 W L 50756 a *8 ( . Va.Oc.26,2011. s Herc No. 1 -v- 4, 1 49, t -*9 W D. t ) H owe r t r c ofs a e s r gn i m uniy doe notext nd s f rast r a d ountes a ve , he ea . h t t ove ei m t s e o a o e ch s c i nd sm ia m uni i co por tons' D oyl 429 U . a 280. The de enni to ofw he he a s a e i lr c pal r a i . ' e, S. t t na i n t r tt a nc ha t c r c e ofa C r oft s a e' orofam uni i lg ge y s he ha a t r n i m a he t t ' c pa over e i a m ulia t nm nt s tf c or ts,wiht mos i ra (nds tme dipostve f t bei whehe a j et t he t mpo tnt a omei s s ii ) acor ng t r ny udgmen t w oul c e fom t s a e t e ur Se Cqs v. a vil Cnt Bd.ofEduc. 2 F. 21 d om r he t t r as y. e h Gr n le v. , 42 3d 9, . 223 ( h Ci.2001 . -26 4t r ) 5Ator ar al gument VEC r es ed t ti wasnotlsed asacr diori Pl ntf sbankr c cas and epr ent ha t it e t n ai if' upty e , onl f y ound outabouthi bankr cy flng w ih t flng oft sl ui. Afe or a gum e ,Pl ntf s upt ii t he ii hi aws t tr al r nt ai if s it evi ubm ted dencet t Cour i ca i t ta c edior meetng notcew a is t t VEC asof o he t ndi tng ha r t s' i i s s ued o he Nove ber29,2011 Se ECF No.20. W het V EC wasnotfed ofPl ntf sbankr cy flng, m . e her ii ai if' upt ii however i ofno m omentt t Cour ' diposton oft sci lac i ,s o he ts s ii hi vi ton. TheVEC wasorgi ly c eaed byt Ge r lAs e bl t pr dee oyme s r c s i na l r t he ne a s m y o ovi mpl nt e vie a a i s e t f r - t t une pl ym e i ur nc pr r i lghtoft Soc a Se urt nd dm ni t r he ede als a e m o nt ns a e og am n i he i l c iy Ac of1 t 935.SeeVa Empl . oymen Comm.Abou VEC, t /t , t htpr / . c. r ni gova (at ve vigi a. /bout ls viiedAug.6,201 .Asr e nthee pa tofismiso i t ûl ai ai as ve tus fnd st 2) elva r, r t s in s o tml nt n ol nt r t u fna e t oug e t bl e pl rt st tpr d t m por r pa tali i nc d hr h quia e m oye axe ha ovi e e a y ri ncom e r pl ce e t e a m nt o i untrl une oye c rdwor r. Va Co Ann.j60. 11 ( 2) VEC' nvol aiy mpl d ovee kes' . de ' 2- 3 201 . S c m i s o ra w e st t V igi a Se r t r ofComm e c a Tr ,who i t n a w e st om s i ne ns r o he r ni c e a y r e nd ade n ur ns r o t Govenor Se aloi j 2- 11( i a powesofVEC) lsr ponsbiiissr th he r . e s d. 60. 1 dutes nd r . t es i lte tec a r st s a e a a e notc i d t a sng e l alt c os he t t , nd r onf ne o i l oc iy.M o e r t V EC doesnotha a r ove , he ve ny sgnii n deg eeofa onom y ori pende efom t Com monwe lh is f Fi ly, ny i tca t r ut nde nc r he at tel. nal a r c r fom t V EC w oul co e f om t s a e t e s y. I sun,i c nnots rous y be e ove y r he d m r he t t r a ur n t t a ei l di pu e t tt V EC i a i t u e t lt oft Com m o e t Acc d Er i Che m e i k s t d ha he s n nsr m n a iy he nw alh. or w n r rns y, FEDERALJ S CTI j7. a 4 (t e 2007 Citi ce r...ha a ag nc ofsae URIDI ON 4 t 28 5h d. ) l s la t t n e y tt go r nt...sapa t t saef pur esoft Elve hAmendme .).Ha ngmad venme i r of he tt or pos he e nt nt' vi e t sde e m i ton,t Cour tndst tt V EC ha a ol e i m uniy a a c a m s a i ti hi t r na i he ti ha he s bs ut m t nd ny l i ga ns t m us be di m i s d. t s se 6 C. C i lRi s C l m A gai tI vi lD e e vi ght ai ns ndi dua f ndant s To t e e Pl ntf a l ge c ai s a i tt i vi he xt nt ai i f le s l m ga ns he ndi dualde e n s i t i of i a f nda t n he r fci l c pa te , he a e i m une a t cl i sf m one da a s Ede m a 415 U . a 664-65. a cii s t y r m s o a m or y m ge . l n, S. t Ho v r te ma b s e frp o p cieijmci erle.Se Ex P reYo n , 0 U. 1 we e,h y y e u d o r s e tv n t tv eif e a t u g 2 9 S. 23 6so r i n i muniy,ofcours s i no a a s uej rs c i a b r a ma y saesha wai dter t e s t n b olt u iditon l a , nd n tt ve ve h i veeg m enttementt i underva ouscicum sances. l Vigi a,t Ge alAss bl hasenaced a lm ied il ot ri r t n r ni he ner em y t i t wai ro t i s v r in i niyi t ef m oft Vigni To tCli Ac (t ve f hs o e eg mmu t n h or he r i a r ams t t VTCA'.Se Va Cod ' e . e ) Ann. 8. - 95e/ e ( 2 .Ho ve,n t i heeidiae t tPli ifha c mple wi t j 011 s q. 201 ) we r o hng r n c t s ha antf s o id t he h a i sr tve pr dm nita i ocedur outi i t VTCA,whi ar ar r entf wai . es lned n he ch e equiem or ver 6 (908 .Tot extntPlitf se t s VEC' e oye si t i i vi lc cte ,t y 1 ) he e anif e ks o ue S mpl e n her ndi dua apa iis he ha no c ai ofs a e s r g i m u t ve lm t t ove ei n m niy.ButPl i if scl i saga ns t m m us none he e s a ntf ' a m i t he t t ls bedimis l or rt s tf rhac us ofaci f avi ain of42U. C.j1 a s sed. n de o e o t a e ton or olto S. 983, put tvepl i ifm us s tf t f c s s f c e t s ai a ntf t e orh a t uf i i nt o how t ta pe s ac i unde c o ofs a e ha r on, tng r ol r t t l w ,de i d t pl i if ofa r ght prvie ori m uniy s c ed by t U nie St t s a pr ve he a ntf i , i l ge, m t e ur he t d a e Consiuto SeeLuga v. tt in. r Edmonds n Oi Co.45 U. 922,930( 982) Consr nghi o 1 , 7 S. 1 . tui s c m pl ntlbe a l Pl i if at m pt t s a e a e ai f de i ton ofpr r y w ihoutdue o ai i r ly, a ntf te s o t t l m or prva i ope t t pr e sofl w.ButwhiePl ntf hasm a ge r ied al ga insofha a s e , hasf ie oc s a l ai if de ne alz le to r s m nt he a ld t a l ge s fc entf c s t pl us bl s o le ufi i a t o a i y how t tD e e nt vi a e hi co tt i ha f nda s ol t d s ns iutonalrg s See i ht . ge r l Huds nv. l r 468U. 51 531-33( 984 ( i nta itntona neal y o Pame , S. 7, 1 ) neglge nd ne i l de i tonsofpr r y do notvi a e duepr e swhe e t sa e m a a ia e a m e ni ul prva i ope t ol t oc s r he t t kes va l bl a ngf posde i tonr dy) Sha z v.Col,69F. zd 1 ,200( M a s 1 ( r t prvai eme ; ba z e supp. 77 D. s . 999) vebal haa s ntd notvi aeplitf ss tntveduepr es rght) Pli ifha t rf e r sme oes olt anif ubsa i oc s i s. antf s heeor f l t s a e a c ai f rr i f a a ci lr g sc a m aga ns t i vi lde e nt i aied o t t l m o ele , nd ny vi i ht l i i t he ndi dua f nda s n t i i vi lc pa te m us al o be dim i s d. he r ndi dua a cii s t s s se l . V C oncl i us on To t e e the f l a i ve by t le i pos d ag ns hi pe s ly f V igi a he xt n ee s ggr e d he i n m e ai t m r ona l or r ni Pantng' bac t s Pl i ifmay fnd ar med i t sa ec t ori t ba u c c t i i s k axe , antf i e y n he t t ours n he nkr pt y our. Thi Cour ca s t nnotpr de hi wih t r m e he s ks Fort f e ng r as ns t Co t ovi m t he e dy ee . he or goi e o , he ur w ilg a tD e e nt 'm oton t di m i s An a opra e Or r s li s t s da l r n f nda s i o s s. ppr i t de hal s ue hi y. ENTER: i ' Th s X zz z d yo Au u t20 2. a f g s, 1 - / , W Seni U nied St es D it i Judge or t at s rct 7