Vandyke v. S.W.V.R.J.A., No. 7:2012cv00182 - Document 23 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/12/2012. (tvt)
Download PDF
CLERK' OFFI U. DI . S CE S. ST COURT AT ROANOKE, VA FI LED J 12 2 1 UN 22 I T H E U NI N TED STATES DI STRI T C O U RT C FO R T H E W ESTERN DI STR I T O F V I G I I C R N A R O AN O K E DI I O N V SI T O M M Y V AN D YK E, JULI C. A BY: D EY CLERK C- CA SE N O .7: 2CV 0018 1 2 Pl nt f , ai i f M EM O M N D UM O PI I N N O V :. S. . . . ,ET A L. W V R J. , By: G l n E.C onr e ad Chi U nied St es D i ri Judge ef t at st ct Deendants. f t) TommyVa ndyke a i t a t Sout tr Vigi aRe ona J lI VRJ,tld , n nmae t he hwesen r ni gi l ai SW I ie t spr K cvirg sa tonpurua t 42U. C.j1 3,algi t tSW VRJofi asae hi o i l iht ci s nt o S. 98 le ng ha fcil r vi a i hi co tt i ol tng s ns iutonalrght by de ng hi r ques t a t nd gr chtr h s r i esw ih i s nyi se t o te oup lc e v c t o he Chr s i n i a e . The c tad s d V a t r i ta nm t s our vi e ndyke t tt pr e he w oul nee t mnend t ha o oc ed, d do o pa tc a iehi al ga i a namepr ri ulrz s le tons nd operde e f ndan s Vandykehasnow s t. ubmit a ted n a ende c pl i a num e ousm otons Upo r vi w oft r co d, he c r c nc ude t t m d om a nt nd r i . n e e he e r t ou t o l s ha Va d k ' c mplita n n e mu tb sl rl d s se t e 28U. C. 1 5 b ( ) n y es o an s me d d s e l mmai imis d md r y S. j 91 A( )1 , a t thi pe ng m o i m us be de e nd ha s ndi tons t ni d. Va ndyke ofe st f l ng alegai i s f r he olowi l tons n uppor ofhi cai s W he Va t s lm . n ndyke wa s frtde ane a t SW VRJo Dec mbe 22,2011 heas d t bepl c d i pr e tvec t is t i d t he n e r , ke o a e n ot c i usody. Va ykeha wor wih t W as ngt Count She ifsOfk e on s ve a dr g and t t nd d ked t he hi on y rf t e rl u hef c e a ns ot ri vi s and pe e i ved i t s c eshad ma t easagans as s gai t he ndi dual, opl nvol n he e as de hr t i t Va ndykea hi f l J i ofk il g a e hi r ques a as i nd s mniy. a l t a s r nt d s e t nd sgnedhi t ç oc 9- ' a m o l k A,' n bl ae oft j i rs r edf pr e i c t i ts Va ket a ke t bealowe t ra he al e e v or otctve usody nmae . ndy hen s d o l do a t nd Chr s i n w or hi s r i esw ih ot ri a es Ofk e s a s d hi t ti a eson te i ta s p e vc t he nm t . t r dvi e m ha nm t bo k 9A a en t l we t mo eaomdtej i t a tn ca sso oh rfmcins i ldng lc - r o al d o v r t h alo te d lse r te t to ,ncu i o gr up c lc s r c . I J ua y 201 V a o htr h e vi es n an r 2, ndyke f l d a l nm a e r ques/ m pl ntf m ,' ie n û i t e tco ai or ' c pl i ng t tasa pr t c i c t i a e i s gr t o he c d notatend c zch om a ni ha o e tve us ody nm t n e ega i n, oul t hlr s r i e . Her ceved awrte r pons sa i t t9 i aesar nota l d t m ovea ound e vc s e i itn es e, ttng ha A nm t e lowe o r tej ia s g e tn t t ewo l h v mo efe d m i h s u h ta f r oa o h rae o h al nd u g sig ha h u d a e r re o f e o g t rnse t n t e ra f t j i. he al Va d k ct sHe rws1 2 (Don tfra et a s mbyofozs le t g t r'a n y e ie b e 0:5 1 o o s k he se l t ev s o ehe' s t r ) e de et tt Bi ea God' û m ma m e 'r quieChrsi nst a t c c s r ce . vi nc ha he bl nd st co nd nt' e r ita o tend hur h e vi s Va d k alg st a t eia iiyt atn c u c s r ie S a ad n tcefc o ( s n y e le e h t h n b l o te d h r h e vc s t s r mai fe t n hi) t h s rt lwak,lavi ( s s rtwe kergndputi hi i die tdiobe e et 'he piiua l e ng hi) pii a a tng m) n r c s dinc o't r quiem e s ofhi r lgi V a e r nt s e i on. ndyke al o c a m st tde ng hi t r ghtt a t nd g oup s l i ha nyi m he i o te r s r ce , l alowi o he i t st do s vi a eshi Fis Amendme rg sa e vi s whie l ng t r nma e o o, olt s r t nt i ht nd di c i i t aga ns hi . s r m na es i t m I hi ame n s nded c ompli , ndykena esasde enda st SW VRJa t ofi r a nt Va m f nt he nd he fce s wh d nidh sg iv n e a o tatn i g o ps r ie ( p anLo k a tLt P tik a dLt o e e i re a c s b u te dng r u e vc s Ca ti c h r, . arc , n . Kig r) Va d k h sas mo e t a n t b iga a dto a cam t a j i o fc r Ca tr lo e . n y e a lo v d o me d o rn n d iin l li h t al fies re a H a l dtrng a s ar h ofhi ce l t r lgi ie soutofhi Bi e a t e t m a a nd l, li e c s l, ook e i ous t m s bl nd hr w he w y ( No. ) Va d kei s e i g$ 0 ,0 i d ma e a ata frt aVign aDe a t n ECF 8 . n y s e k n 5 00 0 n a g s nd rnse o r ii p rme t ofCore tons( rci VDOC)prs fciiywheehec natendc lc sr c .Vandykehasalo ion a lt r a t htrh e vies s fldmoi n s e igi daeta se t aVDOC p io fcl y( No .1 & 1 ) ie to s e kn mme it r n fr o rs n a ii ECF s 0 8 , t mo in fr u g n s( No . & 1 ) amo inf ra p it n o c t e ( No. 9 , to s o j d me t ECF s 9 7 , to o p o nme t f oms l ECF 1 ) a am o i f cour as it nc r r ng a c st fe wrtng ma e i l a phot py nd ton or t ssa e ega di c es o r e ii t ra s nd oco s r ie a t j i ( No. 6 . evc s the al ECF 1 ) 2 1 1 The c ti r uiedt dimi sa aci n o cai fld by a prs ragai ta our s eq r o s s ny to r l m ie ione ns go m men ale iy orofk e i t c tde e mi st ac i orc am i fi ous ma ii , ve t ntt t r f he our t r ne he ton l i s rvol , lc ous o f i t saeacam o wh c rle ma b g a td.28U. C. 1 5 b)1.l o d rt r al o tt li n ih eif y e rn e s S. j 91 A( ( ) n r e o saeacam i a yf d rlcvia to t ep an ifst ta t a alg to smus b e o g t tt li n n e ea i l cin,h litf û l cu l le ain l te nuh o r iearg t r le a as i ht o ei f bovet s ultve lve ,'o o t ti t a i e on isf c 'r t he pec a i e l't ne ha s d usbl pl t a e, aher ' t nmeeyû oncevabl ' BelAt.Cop. Twombl 550U. 544,570( ha rl t i e.' l l r v. c y, S. 2007) . Tosaeac us ofa tonunde j1 3, pli ifmus e tbls t heha be n tt a e ci r 98 a antf t sa ih hat s e de i d ofr g s g a e d by t Cons iuton orl w soft U nie St t a t tt s prve i ht uar nt e he tt i a he t d a es nd ha hi de i ton r s t d f om co prva i e ule r nduc com m i t d by a pe s a tng t rc orofs a e l w . W es t te r on c i mde ol tt a t v. ki , U. 42( 988 .Prs r rti c tt i lrght be ndprs wal,butt At ns 487 S. 1 ) iones ean onsiutona i s hi ion ls he e r i e oft e r g s i ne es a iy lm ie i a m a r whi h i c i t ntw ih t r sa us a xe c s hos i ht s c s r l i t d n nne c s ons s e t hei t t s prs r a t l gii ae sa ei er ssi ope ai s c e, t i ntprs .Tt- rv. ione s nd he e tm t t t nt e t n r tng e m efk e i ons une S fe , 2U. 7 , 9 91( 9 7 .Fe ea c u t mu td frt t ee p rieo saep io aly 48 S. 8 8 - 1 8 ) d r l o rs s ee o h x e t f tt rs n s ofk i l i de e mi ng a opra epolc e t de wih t dit ul is st ta i ei prs t as n t r ni ppr it ii s o al t he fk t s ue ha rs n ion a miitain, n e ss c poiisaen tra o a yrltdt f rheigj siibe d nsrto u ls u h lce r o e s n bl eae o ' t rn u tfa l u pe ogi a goa s l a 85. nol c l l . d. t A . Fr Exe c s ofRe i on ee r ie lgi TheFis Ame e pr desi r lva pa t ha t gove nme s l notpr bi t rt ndm nt ovi n ee nt r t t he r nt hal ohi t he f e e r i e ofr i i U . Cons . e 1 prs polc t tm a s t nta l btr n an r e xe c s elg on. S. t am nd. .A i on i y ha y ubs a i ly lde i a e' a lt t pr c i hi r i ousbelef ne rhe e swihsa aFis Am e e nm t s biiy o a tce s elgi i s ve t l s t t nds r t ndm nt cha l nge w he t tpolc i r tona l r l t d t f t r e ofa l tm a e gove nm e a or le n ha i y s a i ly e a e o urhe anc egii t r nt l pe li ees.O' v.EsaeofSha z 482U. 3 349( ) na ntr t Lone tt baz , S. 42, 1987 . The Supr me Cour hasi n ii d f l f c or t beconsde e i de e m i ngt e t de tfe otr a t s o i r d n t r ni he r as blnes ofaprs r gulto t ti e ona e s ion e ai n ha mpac sa i t se r s ofconsiuto lrg s t n nma e' xe cie tt i na i ht : ( )wheheraû ld,rtona c ci 'e ssbewee t rgulto a algii t a 1 t i i ai l onne ton' xit t n he e ain nd e tmae nd va n u rlg v r me tln ee t ( )wheh ratmaieme n o e ec sngt ea sre e ta o e n na itr s; b te le tv a s f x r ii h se td c n tt t n l ih rmano e t p an if ()wh t e a c mmo ai gt a s re rg t l o siui a rg t e i p n o litf; c eh r c o d tn he s etd ih wil o ha a a rei c on saf,i es a prs r otr s a ( whehe t r e s a ve n dves mpa t t f nmat , nd ion es lce ; nd d) t r hee xit ny G ous ea y a t m a i s ' o t c le d r a i ora t o w hi h m a s û obvi , s le tve ' t he ha l nge egul ton c i n, c y ugges t ti i t ha t s t r s bl,buti (nse a e ggeae r pons t prs conc m s' Tur r 482U. ç ea ona e not s i tad) n xa rtd es e o ion e . ne , ' S. a 89- The pr s t 92. i onerhast btr n t dipr vet valdiy ofa pr s r gul ton plr ua t he zde o s o he i t i on e a i zs nt o t Tur ra l i.Ove tn v.Ba zet,539U. 1 1 2 ( ) he ne nayss ro z ta S. 26, 3 2003 . Va ndyke' alega i ar i ufi i ntt s s l tons e ns t c e o uppor t ne s a y e e e s ofr lgi t he ce s r l m nt e i ous rg t cam u d rTl n r ej i' p lc o r srcigVa d k , sap o e tv c so y ih s li n e l e .Th als o iy f e titn n y e a r tcie u t d r imae fo p riiaigi g o pa tvte wi o h rimae i r a o a yrltdt t ej i' n t, r m a t p tn n r u ciiis t t e n ts s e s n bl eae o h als c h lgii t i e e ti m ant i ng t pr t c i Va e tma e ntr s n i a ni he o e ton ndykehi s fr quese Va m el e t d. ndyke' s s i s ons a s i c t t the c n pr c i hi Chr s i n belef i o he wa ,s h a r a ng ubm s i l o ndi a e ha a a tce s i ta i s n t r ys uc s e di hi Bi e a t l ngt a c pl i M a ng s i a r nge nt f rVandyket s ey a tnd s bl nd aki o ha an. ki pecal ra me s o o af l te gr m ee i of a ki w oul a r e y i pa tpr s r otr sby di r i saf f om oup tngs ny nd d dve s l m c i on es lce ve tng t f r ot rd i t e c t pr ec Va he utes o s or and ot t ndykewhieout i t pr t tvec t y a e Gi n l sde he o eci usod r a. ve Va d k ' d srpi no hse e staini t ej i,h r srcina ans h sp riiain n y e s e ci to f i n my iu to n h alt e e tito g i t i a t p to c i gr s ti i nota e gge a e r pons The e or t co tmus sl ma iy dim is n oup e tngs s n xa r t d es e. r f e, he ur t lm rl s s wihoutprj c Va t eudie ndyke' Fis Ame s rt ndme tcam rgadi c zchs vi s ptrua t n li e r ng hlr er ce , ls nt o j1 5A( ( ) f fiur t saeacli 91 B)1, or al e o tt am. 4 The cour w ilgr ntV a t l a ndyke' n e e r ga di t r lgi m a e i l alege y s m ndm nt e r ng he e i ous t r a s l dl t nfom hi Bi e,a s ake r s bl nd ummaiydimist cli t rj1 A( ( ) Va rl s s he am mde 915 b)1 . ndykefist al o sa ea f c ss t t ny a t ugge tngt tt l soft s s alie spl e a bur n wha s ve on hi si ha he os he e m l t m ac d ny de t oe r s ove alpr c ie ofhi be if M o e r hi alegai do no s r l a tc s le s. r ove , s l tons t ugge tt tofi e st t s s ha fc r ook he e ace m ae il wih a i e i ofpr ve i hi e r s ofhi r lgi be if . SeeLovel v. tra s t ny nt nton e ntng s xe cie s e i ous le s1 Le 47 F. 17 1 4 ( hCi. e, 2 3d 4, 9 4t r 2006)(i ngt i dve tntorneglge i efr nc wihan fndi hatna re i ntntre e e t i t srlgi prctcedoesnotrs t consiutona prpo to ) nmae' ei ous a i ie o tt i l o rins. B. Equa Pr e ton l ot c i To pr acli t rt Foure t Am e e t theha be n de ed e ove am mde he ten h ndm nt ha s e ni qual tea m e ,a i a e m us fr ts r t nt n nm t t i s how t tt hasbee tea e dif r l f om ot r w ih w hom ha d he n r t d f e enty r he s t hei smial st t ... Ve vv.W vc 293F.d726, ( hCi. 2) Prs ne s i lry iuaed. ' ne ' he, 3 730 4t r 200 . io r ltga t mus alo de ii n s t s monsr t t ta s h une tae ha ny uc qualte m e i notr tonaly r a e t a r at nt s ai l elt d o lgii t g nme a pupos M os v.Clr 886F. 68 690( hCi.1989 . e tmae over ntl r e. s ak, 2d 6, 4t r ) Va ndyke sc ' ompli f ist a rs fce f c st sa ea eq lpr t c i cai . The ant a l o ve ufi int a t o t t n ua o e ton l m r eque tf pr ec i cus ody pr cl s V a s or ot tve t e ude ndyke f om c ai i t the i sm ia l st t d t r l m ng ha s i l r y iua e o oh ri mae i t j i' g n r l o u ai nwh a ealwe t atn g o pwo s p sr ie . t e n ts n he als e e a p p lto o r lo d o te d r u rhi e vc s Ve v 2 3F.da 7 0 M oe v r tej i' û og o pa tvi e 'p lc f rp o e tv c so y ne , 9 3 t 3 . r o e,h als ç r u ci t s' oiy o r tcie u t d n i i a esf rhe st goalofpr e tng s h i a es M os ,88 F. a 690. The c u' m us nm t ' t r he u ot c i uc nm t . s 6 2d t ot t t 1 Tot ext ntt Vandyke i compl ni oft l soft e iem sasper onalpr t , s he e hat s ai ng he os hes t s opery uch camsa en ta to beu e j 1 3.Se Hu onv. l r 4 U. 51 ,5 ( 98 CEn li r o cina l nd r 98 e ds Pame, 68 S. 7 33 1 4) a unaut i i entonaldeprva i ofpr rt by a sat empl horzed nt i i ton ope y te oyeedoesnotcons iut a vi aton oft tt e ol i he po e ua rq i me t o teDu P o esClueo teF ute t Ame d n i ame nn fl r c d rl e ur ns fh e rc s a s f h o renh n me tf a iju e po t e rvainr me y f rt l si a ia e'.Be a s Va dy ha a ia l t t e dlsu e sd p i to e d o he os s valbl' c u e n ke s valb e or r me e nd r ) saelw,s eVigi aCod j 801 1 5., h snoc nsiu ina cli rga dngt ale e l sofhi tt a e r ni e . - 9 3 he a o ttto l am e r i he lg d os s per onalpr ry. s ope t s mmai ds s wi o tp eudc Va d k ' e u l r tcincam r g r igc trh u rl imis t u rj ie n y e s q a p o e to li e adn h lc y h sr ie ,purua t j1 5A( ( ) f fitr t saeacai e vc s s nt o 91 B)1, or alze o tt l m. C. Tr ns e t VD O C Fa lt a fr o ciiy Vandykepr en st f l ng alegai i s es t he olowi l tons n uppor ofhi de a f ta f r The t s m nd or r ns e . sae c t ss nt nce Va t t our ha e e d ndyket at r ofi prs o em m ionme i t VDOC, ndhehasno nt n he a pe ng c r or s he e c t a i . N e r he es , he r m ai c i d a SW V RJ ndi ha ges c dul d our he rngs ve t l s e ns onfne t i t d ofbei ta f r e t a VDOC f c lt To pr ec hi e fi lghtofhi pas wo k a nsea ng r nse r d o a iiy. ot t ms l n i s t r s a if r n , n y efesh mu tsa i t r tci ec td 'a t ej i, n t ssauslmis n n o ma t Va d k e l e s ty n t o e tv uso y' t h al a d hi tt i t p hi abiiy t pr ci ehi r lgi be if . Vandykea s alege t tofk e sha r t it s lt o a tc s ei ous le s lo l s ha t r ve eala ed a i thi i t pec fe wa be us oft sl ws t s d on t s f t,Va gans m n ms i d ys ca e hi a ui.Ba e he e acs ndyke a s rs se t t a hei e tte t ac u t r e dr cigj io tcast ta frhi i daeyt t h t s n i d o o r o d r ie tn al fi il o rnse m mme itl o he l V D O C. Va ndykei m it ke I t ha nopr e t d lbe t i er s i beng c i i a s sa n. nma es ve ot c e i ry nt e t n i onfned n ny pa tc a t ofprs e whe c tonsi one pr s n a e m or r t i tve o ha s t n r i ul r ype i on, ven n ondii n io r e esr c i r r h ha co tonsi ot rprs ns M e hum v. no, U. 21 224( 976) Olm v.W a ne ndii n he io . ac Fa 427 S. 5, 1 , i . ki kona, 4 U. 23 , 4748( 9 3 .Th ,h meefc t a Va y rmansc n ie i aj i 61 S. 8 2 - 1 8 ) us te r a t h t nd ke e i o fn d n al s ti des t hi VDOC s t nc ,doesnotde i hi ofa consiuto lypr ecedrght e tng, pie s en e e prve m ny tt i nal ot t i . M o e v r dfee te t n o VDOC imae h u e i lc lal a d VDOC p io sas ro e , ifrntr ame t f n ts o s d n o a j is n rs n lo f l t sae a a tona econsiutona c am . Seea s Sti klrv.W a e s 98 F. 1 ais o t t ny c i bl tt i l l i lo rc e t r , 9 2d 375 (t Ci. 99 )( n ign e u l r tcincam wh r imae i dfe e t al a ii e 4h r 1 3 t dn o q a p o e to li e e n ts n ifr n j i fclt s i i c ompl i ofdif r ntco tons be a e s h i t sa enotsmia l st e a prs r aned fe e ndii , c us uc nma e r i lry iuatd nd ione ho i a sg nt ar r s bl r ae t saeitr t i prs a nitai .Va usng sinme s e eaona y eltd o tt neess n ion dmi sr ton) ndyke f ist s a e f c si ca i t tofk i l 'f l e t ta f rhi t t V D O C i notr s bl a l o t t a t ndi t ng ha t a s aiur o r ns e m o he s ea ona y 6 r a e t l gii a e s a e c er r ga di t m os e fci ntus ofbe s ce orot rm a t r el t d o e tm t t t onc ns e r ng he t fi e e d pa he te s o r ui p io a miitain, n s ln a Va d k rmansa tej if rs c r a o s h f o tne rs n d n sr to a d o o g s n y e e i t h al o u h e s n , e i no sm ia l st t d t i eshous d i VDOC i tt i . Forlck ofc e s s t i lry iua e o nmat e n nsiutons a aus hown, Va ndyke' cli t theha arghtt beta f re i medit l t aVDOC f iiy m us be s am ha s i o r ns e r d m a ey o ac lt t s mmmiy ds se u d rj 1 5 b () a dhi moi n f ritro u o yij nci er l f n u l imis d n e 91 A( )1 , n s to s o ne lc t r nu tv ei o e t sis ( Nos 1 & 1 )mus bede e hi sue ECF . 0 8 t nid. D . Ot r Pe ng M oto he ndi i ns Va ndyke a s rs t the i e il t c ta nt d c m s lt as i thi i brngi s e t ha s ntted o our - ppoi e ot e o s s m n i ng t scviaci ( No.1 .l s r oft smoi Va hi i l ton ECF 9) n uppo t hi ton, ndykesaest thehasno tt ha kno e ofl wsorcode ,i i ge , ha m e a heat a e o i lpr blm s Onl wl dge a s s ndi nt and s nt l lh nd m tona o e . y unde e e i lc r l s a e doe t c ltr ue ta a t ne t r pr e an i g t ci l r xc ptona iclm t nc s s he otr eq s n tor y o e es nt ndi en , vi pli ifwho hasacol abl cl m , lc t c pact t pr e i. Gor v.Le ,574 a ntf or e ai but a ks he a iy o es nt t don eke F.d 1 4 ,1 7 (t Ci.1 7 ) Co kv. t , 8F.d7 9(t Ci. 9 5 .Th 2 1 7 1 3 4h r 9 8 ; o Bomds 51 2 7 4 h r 1 7 ) e cic l s a espl i ifpr e s a e co m on t m a i a e ltgan s M or ove , ca e t r tm t nc a ntf es nt r m o ny nm t ii t . e r be us he cou the ei fnds t V a r r n i hat ndyke' cl i s a e w ihoutm ert t cou ta s f nds t ta s am r t i, he r l o i ha ppoi m e nt nt ofcot s i notw a r nt he e. m el s r a ed r Va d k as d ma dsta tec u t r e j i o t ast c a et i p lce rg r n n y e lo e n h t h o r o d r al fkil o h ng her o iis e adig pho oc ngpr e zesa t t a a t opyi oc dlr nd he ype nd mountoffeewrtng ma e i l pr de t i g t r ii t ra s ovi d o ndi en imae .AsVa d k fist saea yf csidc tn t a tej i' c re tp lce vilt hi n ts n y e al o tt n a t n iaig h t h als u rn o iis o ae s c tt i ons iutonalr g s i a w a t c tfndsno g ot d upon whi h he i e il d t c t i ht n ny y, he our i r m c s ntte o our itr e to i t s ma tr .Themo inrg r iga ssa c wi t e ej i p lce ( No. ne v nin n hee te s to e a dn s itn e t h s al oiis ECF h 1 wilbede e Fi ly,be us t c ti t tVa 6) l nid. nal ca e he our fnds ha ndykesc an sae no ' omplit tts a tona ecams hi motonsf udg nt( Nos 9& 1 )mus bede e ci bl li , s i orj me ECF . 7 t nid. 7 I1 I l c uson,t c tsl a iy dimis sVa n oncl i he our lmm rl s s e ndyke' c s ompli asa e d,plrua ant m nde zs nt t j1 5 b ( ) f rfil et saeacam, n d nisal e dngmo in frt er a o s o 91 A( )1, o alr o tt li a d e e 1 p n i z to s o h e s n s a ed. A n a oprat or r w ili s t sda tt ppr i e de l s ue hi y. The Cl r i die t d t s c e oft s m e or ndtm o ni a a om pa ng e k s r c e o end opi s hi m a l pi on nd ce nyi or rt pli tf. de o a n if ENTER:Thi I s ' A da ofJ 201 y une, 2. Chi Unie Stt Diti tJ ef t d a es src udge 8