Vandyke v. Branch Coal Co. et al, No. 7:2012cv00178 - Document 13 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 05/17/2012. (kab)
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cLEnK' OFFI U..Dl cour s CE s sm I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I STR I T C O UR T C FO R TH E W ESTER N D I STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A RO AN O K E D I ISIO N V AT ROANOKE, VA FIED L MAt 18 2 1 22 J I . ULA TO M M Y V AN DY K E, CA SE N O .7: V 00178 12C BY' . Pl nt f , ai i f M E M O R AN D U M O PINIO N ' VS. By: Gln E.Conr e ad Chi U nied St esD i t ctJudge ef t at s ri BI BRANCH COAL CO.I , AL , LL , NC.c D ef endant s. Tom m y V a ndyke,a V igi a i a e pr e ng pr K ,hasf l d t c es ofa c vi r ni nm t oc edi o ie wo opi i l co pl i ,a l gi t the i e il d t m one a y da a f om t coa m i wher he w or d m a nt le ng ha s ntte o t r m ges r he l ne e ke asa chid a f om ot ri vi l , be us ofm e c lco tonst tnow toubl hi . l nd r he ndi dua s ca e di a ndii ha r e m 1 Va ndyke a i st pr e i f m apa r s m o s f a nt e ofco el a m o f pple o oce d n or upe i . ve or ppoi m nt uns , nd ves or j udgme .Afe rviw ofVa nt tr e e ndyke' algai ,hec tc tuest co anta acvi s le tons t our onsr he mpli s i l rgh sa tonpurua t 42U. C.j1 grnt Va i t ci s nt o S. 983, a s ndyke' a i tont pr e i fr s pplcai o oce d n oma pa r s and s m a iy di m i s t a ton f f iur t sa e a c a m . upe i , um r l s s es he c i or a l e o t t l i l Va ndyke ale t f l i e nt r l t d t hi cl i s i t sac i n. A s a c l l ges he olow ng ve s e a e o s a m n hi t o hid, unde t a of1 a sili elm e a y s hool Va ykewa i t wor 'a acoa m i r he ge 8 nd tl n e nt r c , nd sû o put k' t l ne ope a e by BilBr nc Coa Co. l r td l a h l , nc.V a ndyke as e t t ton Sa ur ysa d i s m e s r s ha t da nd ur ng um r s hoolbr a ,hewaskf c d' t wor a t m i wiho fr tunder ng s ey tani c e ks çor e ' o k t he ne t ut is goi af t r i ng rquiedunde saea f deallws Oneofhi ta he sû ou adigl ae diki e r r tt nd e r a . s e c r t nd sloc td s n f ( n y 'llwe b c 'a dtl t ebo smohe a o t h ij r Va d kes o r a k' n o d h y' t r b u t e n u y.Va d kewa tk nt ny sae o 1 Va d k ha as fld as p rt stofs misonsr ii j 1 camsa is ofiil a n y e s lo ie e a ae e ub s i asng 983 li gan t fcas t t S t senVigni Re i l al onc r i alc dii s Va dy i a vie t t h c u ts he ouhwet r r i a gona J ic e nngj i on ton . n ke s d s d ha t e o r i r ewi t e m a t s whi wilbe a ess s ael and a copy ofany opi on oror w ilbe evi ng hes ter , ch l ddr ed epar t y, ni der l m aied t hi . l o m ,O1 -VRK BrsolM e o ilHos t ,whe ehewa tte wih abac br cet the wo ef sx mont ; it m ra pial r s it d t k a ha r or i hs he had t c pl t t ts o om e e ha choolye rf om hom e. a r l 2011 Va n , ndyke a i f SocilSec iy Dia lt be tt be us oft physc l ppled or a urt s biiy nei s ca e he ia handia c us d by t di l a e dic i hi ba k.Va cp a e he soc t d s n s c ndyke dic e t tt m i ha not s over d ha he ne d w ihhe d Soc a Se iy t xe on t w age pa d t V a t l i l curt a s he s i o ndyke a a c l V a s hid. ndyke a s rst ta s e t ha s a r s toft s e e ul he e vent f om hi c l sr s hidhood,he s f r f o pos t a a i s r s di or ra uf e s r m t r um tc t es s de nd mao d p e sv d s r e , swel ss v r p i fo t eb li gd s i h sb c , c as j r e r si e io d r a l a e ee an r m h u gn ic n i a k whih lo c e s a i ner e pai i hi r g l aus s ci tc v n n s i ht eg. V andy s s t m i ng com pa Tho a K . a ke ue he ni ny, m s V ndyke,J m es R.Vandyke and a , Ke t Pote .Va nneh t r ndyke a s rst tt s de e n sa ela et hi f $1000, f r s e t ha he e f nda t r ibl o m or , 000 o vi a i oft Thit nt Am e ol tons he ree h ndm e t t U nie St t C o tt i w hi outa nt o he t d a es ns iuton, ch l wed s a r a f vi a i of( SHA , de a M i ng La sa Re a i . l ve y, nd or ol tons I M Fe r l ni w nd gul tons ' ' 11 The c tw ilgr ntV a our l a ndyke' a i a i t pr e i f m a pa s pplc ton o oce d n or upers butonl t t i, y o he e e t t asa i t ltga ,hem a puruet aci w ihoutpr pa e oft $35 00 xt nt ha , n nma e ii nt y s he ton t e ym nt he 0. f e.2 The c t s a m a t y dut t s r e i ta tlngsf om ltga s gr nt d i f e our ha nda or y o c e n nii l i i r ii nt a e n onua pa rssaus ErlneCo. J ms 440F.d 6 656- ( h Ci. ) a mus upe i tt , ii v. ol on, 3 48, 57 4t r 2006 , nd t s m a iy Sdi m i s a ac i t tt c tfndst be f i o o m a i i ort tf ist s a e um rl l s s n ton ha he our i o rvol us r lc ous ha a l o t t acam.'M i uv. l t Count 43 F. 725,728( hCi.2006)(ii 28U. C. li ' cha Chareson v, 4 3d 4t r ctng S. j1915()2)B). e( ( ) A f de a co ti c r wih lbe aly c t ui a c pl i f l d by a pr âq ltga e r l ur s ha ged t i r l ons r ng om a nt ie o ii nt t a l t de opm e ofa pot nta l m e iorous c e. Ercks v.Par ,551U . 89,9 o low he vel nt e i ly rt i as i on dus S. 4, 2 see 28 U .s. j 1 5 a ( a ( )( ovdigt ti t plitf q lf i f ri f r C. 91 ( )2) nd b pr i n ha nmae an if uaiyng o n o ma p up rssausma pa flngf et r ug isal n sfo i t tus a c nt. a e i tt y y ii e h o h n t l t r m nmae r t c ou ) me ( 2007) Undere ptona cr t es i whih a i g t ci lpl ntf prs nt a . xce i l icumsanc ,n c n ndien , vi ai if e e s col a e l galc a m ,butl c t c pa iy t pr en i, he cour s d s ek a a t ne or bl e li a ks he a c t o es t t t t houl e n tor y wilngt rpr s ntpli ifi t c e.Gor v. ke,5 F. 11 11 ( hCi.1 ) li o e e e antf n he as don Lee 74 2d 47, 73 4t r 978 (p yn Co kv. u s 51 F. 7 9(t Ci. 9 5 ) Ont eoh rha d (u g sae a plig o Bo nd , 8 2d 7 4 h r 1 7 ). h t e n ,j d e r not...rquie t c tuc ag os )pa t slga agume sfrhi ' Smalv. c t 998 e rd o onsr t pr e ry' e l r nt o m. ' l Endiot, F. 411 41 1 ( hCi.1 ) I or rt saeacli i a fde a cvi a ton,he 2d , 7- 8 7t r 993 . n de o tt am n ny e r l i l ci t pli ifsSgjcualal tonsmus bee ht riearghtt r i a t s c ai antf kfa t legai t noug o as i o elef bove he pe ultve lvel't o t ti S a i eon isf ce'r t rt n m e e y G onc i bl .'Bel At.Co p. e ,'o ne ha s t usbl pl t a , ahe ha ' r l d e va e' c l l r v. Twombl 55 U. 544,570( v, 0 S. 2007) . A pl i ifalegi t the hasbe de i d ofr g s gua a e by t Cons iuton or a ntf l ng ha en prve i ht r nt ed he tt i l oft U nie St t t ough t c aws he t d a es hr he onduc ofa pe s a tng underc orofs a e l w m ay t r on c i ol tt a brngaci la tonunderj1 3.W e tv. ki ,487U. 42( 988 .Tosaeacai i vi ci 98 s At ns S. 1 ) tt l m a i eunderj 1 apli ifmus de ctonabl 983, antf t monsr t t tt co uc c usngt aleg tae ha he nd t a i he l ed cons iutona vi a i i t ail a t i a e t t St t ,' o ast q lf a û tng unde c or tt i l ol ton s t ry trbut bl o he a e ' s f o ua i y s û i ac r ol ofsaelw'(loknown a itt aci '. Luga v. mons Oi Co.457U. 922, tt a ' as s d ae ton' s ) r Ed on 1 , S. 937 ( 982) Luca s t outat pa t oa ht dee ni saea ton, r byapli ifmus 1 . r es wo- r appr c o tnni ng tt ci whe e antf t saefcss ng:a)tlhede i ton g s c us dbyt e cs ofs merg orprvie tt a t howi ( û- prvai wa ) a e he xerie o iht i lge c e t d by t St t orby a r e ofc rae he a e ul onduc i pos d by t St t orby a pe s f w hom t tm e he a e r on or he Stt i rs i e,' nd ( ûl pa t c r e ... tbeapero whoma f il bes dt ae s e ponsbl 'a b) t- ry ha g d mus -he sn y ary ai o be a s a e ac or' s a e em pl e or s e who k a t d t t rw ih orha o a ne tt t ' tt -a oye om one l has c e oge he t s bt i d s gnii a ai f om s a e of i i s ' ors e w hos ç i f c nt d r t t f c al , ' om one es conduc i o he w ie c r ea e t t t s t r s ha g bl o he St t ' l a e. d. ' 3 Va ndyke' s s ubm i s ons s m pl f i t s a e f c ss fci ntt pr en a pl us bl c ai si i y a l o t t a t ufi e o es t a i e l m t ta oft def nda s a t d underofc orof sa e 1 w i t ra l d i e ac i nsw ih ha ny he e nt c e ol t t a n hei lege nt r t o t Va ndyke.3 V andyke' s r e alega i of e no i ca i n wha s ve t tt m i ng s pa s l tons f r ndi t o t oe r ha he ni c pany ort i vi lde e om he ndi dua f ndan s e r i e a s a e c ea e prviege by w hi h t y t xe c s d ny t t - r t d i l c he de i V a prved ndyke ofr ght ,nordo hi f t a l ga i s es t tdef nda s cond tc d i s s ac ual le tons ugg t ha e nt ' uc oul be i any r s c ,c ge bl t t s a e a r quie t de t Luaa t s . Bec us V a ,n e pe t har a e o he t t s e r d m r he r et a e ndyke fist pr t thi defndant weesaeacor,hec nno pr e underj1 3.Thec t al o ove ha s e s r tt t s a t oce d 98 our, t rf e s heeor, ummaiydimis Va rl s ses ndyke' camsu rj1 s li nde 983. Pe ha V a r ps ndyke be i ve t the hass m e prva e r g t br ng a ci la ton f le s ha o i t i ht o i vi c i or dn a unde I SH A ' ort ot rf de a sa ut a r ul tons t w hi h he va l r f r . m ges rt M ' he he e r l t t es nd eg a i o c gue y e e s H i c us r r i nc on t s s a ut , ihoutc t ton t a pa tcul r s a ut y pr vii o s oncl o y ela e he e t t es w t ia i o ny r i a t t or o s on r prncpl,i nots fce t sa eaG a i e'c am a i tt def ndan sunde t s f de al i i e s ufi int o t t t usbl ' l i gans he e pl t r he e e r l w s The co tsdut oflbe alconsr ton doe no e e t t s ng t o h t U nie a . ur ' y i r t uc i s t xt nd o i hi hr ug he t d St t s Code f s e l galc e o whi h t ha V a ae or om e onc pt n c o ng ndyke' g i va es a s r e nc bouthi c l s hidhood wo ke p re c .t d rl u id ci nma n t ep e s do t emeectto o fd r l r x ein e t e a j rs ito y o b r mie n h r iain f e ea Fe saues' W elrv. pa t ntofSocilSe vs,901F. 387,391( h Ci.1 .Theco t ttt . ' le De rme a r . 2d 4t r 990) ur s m arl di m i s Vandyke' cl i s u rM SH A and o he f r s a ut orr l tons um iy s s es s a m nde t r ede al t t es egu a i . Fo ter a o ssae t c u'ds se Va yk ' c mp an wi u p eu ie r h e s n ttd,he o l imis s nd es o lit t t rj d c , t ho purua t j1 5()2)b) f f l et saeacam.AsVa s nt o 91 e ( ( , or aiur o tt li ndykefist saea vi e al o tt ny abl c ai i t s a ton, he c tc l o fnd t the i e il t a l m n hi c i t our a m t i ha s ntted o ppoi m e ofc nt nt ouns lor e j udgme a hehasr ue t nt s eq sed.Ac or ngl t cou tde e Vandyke' moi f c di y,he r nis s tons or a nt ntofc e a motonfrj ppoi me ouns l nd i o udgme .Ana o it or rwilis t sda nt ppr prae de l sue hi y. 3 M Orov r Va d ' j 1 3 cam as f isb c us hed sn talg a y fcsc c r n e e y n yke s 98 li lo al e a e oe o le e n a t on enig how each def endantw asper onaly i ved i any oft gene alcom pl nt Vandykem akesabouthi s l nvol n he r ai s s wor i t mi ori t m i ng com pany' aleged f l et pay al appr it t k n he ne n he ni s l aiur o 1 opra e axes. W es s a. t upr 4 TheClr i diecedt s nd c esoft sm e a um opi on a a c pa ng e k s r t o e opi hi mor nd ni nd c om nyi or rt pl i i f de o a ntf . t W y y 2. EN TER : Thi 4- da ofM a , 201 s 1 Chi fUnied St t s D it i tJ e t a e s rc udge