Beaman v. Deputy Director et al, No. 7:2012cv00163 - Document 2 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 5/29/12. (tvt)
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M RK' OFFI s >c eŠr s CIU A v kp rx du D FNT HEWEEER ATS RCTOFVI NI I T UNTT S DETDS RI COURT ORHE ISD T IS IT CT RGI A N ROANOKE DI I ON V SI f 2 J U BK . rp a >e RK JO H N H .BE AM AN , Pl ntf , ai if C i lA ct on N o.7: vvi i 12-c 00163 M EM O R AND U M O PIN IO N D EPUTY D IRE CT O R ,etal, . D ef endant . s By: H on.Jackson L.K i ser Se or U ni e St e Di t d Judge ni t d at s s ri J hn H . e m a a V i gi a i a epr e ng m o K ,t e a c vi r gh s c pl i , o B a n, r ni nm t oc edi sl d i l i t om a nt pu s n t 42U. C. 1 8 wi j rs ito v se i 28U. C. l 4 Plitf n me a rua to S. j 9 5 t u idcin e td n h S. j 3 3. an if a s s de e nt :D e y D ie t ,Com m t iy Cor e tons H a ol W . a ke, i e t r oft f nda s put r c or mt r c i ' r d Cl r D r c o , he Vigi aDe rme ofCore to (t r ni pa t nt rcins tVDOC';LouCe, Speca Pr amsM a ge ;La o ' ) ia il ogr na r ytn Le t r W a de oft Lune r Cor e tona Ce e 'Elza t E.Ca r a Couns or Bob s e , r n he nbu g r c i l nt r i be h , r, el ; M c ol e l G ove noroft Com m o D m l, r he nwea t ofV i gi a;W ila M . us Cha r an oft lh r ni li m M e, im he Vigi aPaol Boa d(k r ';KarnD.Br VieCharoft Boad;RiaJ Angel , r ni r e r û d' Boa ) e own, c i he r t . one M e be oft B oa d;a M i r F.St m r he r nd no one,M e be oft Boa d. Pl i ifalege t tt m r he r a ntf l s ha he de e nt c piel ke p pt i ifi a c r t d de piehi pa o e ei biiy a good c f nda s ons x o e antf nc r e a e s t s r l lgi lt nd onduc , t i vi a i oft Unied St t s Cons iuton. Thi m a t ri bef e m e f s r ni pur ua t n ol ton he t ae tt i s te s or or c ee ng, s nt o 28U. C.j1 5A.Aferrviwi pli ifss si , dimist compli wihou S. 91 t e e ng antf ubmisons 1 s s he ant t t prj c f fii t saeadam u whihr ifma beg a ed. eudie or alng o tt i pon c ele y r nt Pli tf al gest f l ng f ds TheCic tCour ofNorha on Count , V i g ni , a n if le he olowi a . r ui t t mpt y ri a s ntnce pl i ift i era i ei y ye r 'i ionme f l ng hi guit pl ast gr nd e e d antf o, nt la, ght a s mprs nt olowi s ly e o a l r e s a ut y bur a y,a s a ut y r pe. Pl i ife e e t V D O C on Se e be 23, a c ny, t t or gl r nd t t or a a ntf nt r d he pt m r 1 976, o s r t s nt nc a i pr e l s r i hi t r y- i h ye rofi a c r ton. W hie t e ve he e e e nd s es nty e v ng s hi t s xt a nc r e a i l i V D OC f iii s pl ntf ea ne a GED a s udi d s a lbus nes m a ge e a n ac lte , ai if r d nd t e m l i s na m nt nd a ountng,a o m ec ni ,ge r lbuidi a m ai ena ,hea e pm e ope a i , cc i ut ha cs ne a l ng nd nt nce vy qui nt r tons c ki a ba ng,lf s ls and c e tvewrtng.Pl i ifha bee e r td wih va i oo ng nd ki ie kil , rai ii antf s n ntuse t rous i tt i lj a difr ntVDOC fciii ,i vi f s r c s s , lrplns nsiutona obs t fe e a ltes nvol ng ood evie, hoe hops boie a t, vi ii r s t m ot pool w a e us a f e e s or e,a t t g s stng oom , he or , r ho e nd r ez r t ag nd he a hop, Pl ntf hasnot ai i f be c r ed w ih an i tt i en ha g t ns iutonalvi a i s nc 1 7, he pl i if f ughtanot ri a e a ol ton i e 99 w n a ntf o he nm t t Ke n M ount n Corec i Ce e .Pl i ifr gitr d wih t Vigi a St t Polc ss x e ai r tonal nt r antf e se e t he r ni a e i e' e of e rr gi ty, ovi a DN A s m pl a c pl t d phas s one, w o,a t e o t s x f nde e sr pr ded a e, nd om e e e t nd hr e f he e of e f nderpr r m . The V D O C cl s ii pl i ifasa Le lOne of e og a a s fes a ntf ve f nder t l e t , he ow s c t gorze s curt rs f a V D O C i at bec us ofhi ac e m e sand c a e i d e iy i k or nm e, a e s hi ve nt onduc . t The Boa d hasdeni pl ntf pa ol r l s f t pa tt en y- i tm e t Boa d r ed ai if r e e ea e or he s w t sx i s he r r vi e ewed pl i t f .1 Pl i i fa knowl dgest tt Boa d hasgi n pl i ift r as f t a n if a ntf c e ha he r ve a ntf he e on or he de albutcom pl i t t onl r as e rgi n i be a e ofd he s r ous s oft ni a ns hat he y e on ve ve s c us t e i ne s he t ofe eg.' Pli ifar t tt Boa d' ( arpr tc 'ofc i rngonl t fns sj' antf gues ha he r s i i acie' onsde i unf y he s r o ne soft of e es whi h he c ls t o alX ,' ol t t Ei h a Four e nt e i us s he f ns , c a l i pos pr ' vi a es he ght nd te h A m e m e s a t Ex Pos Fac o a Se r ton ofPo e s Cl us oft U nie St t s nd nt nd he t t nd pa a i w r a es he t d a e Cons iuto Pl i i fbe i vest tdef nda s (pr tt i n. a nt f le ha e nt ' t opos lX' m ake i m ocke y outof a ' s$ a r g ai ifs i tttona pr r s i e ton, tons ... ogrm pa tcpai a e nhi pl ntf l nsiui l og e s n ducai vocai , pr a rii ton, nd ve s pa ol p oc s ,a di tea hi a ia i dif e l fom sm ia l st t d a ar dy r e r e s nd d r t s pplc ton fer nty r i l ry iua e nd lea rl s dot sf l nghi i eviw ong t r22,2011)a de nghi a i to 1 eea e her olowi s ntr e ocobe , nd nyi s pplcain 2 dayslt on l ove r3, 1.5( aer mbe 201 1' Compl6. Pli ifc . ) antf ondudest tiheha be omea ha ç s c vi i ofa Ss ctm ûynchr zed' conspi . oni ' racy 'Pl ntf quot apori oft D e fel Core tonalCentrsPa ol /Pr -Rel a M anual hats ys iYou ar ai if es ton he eri d r ci e ' r e e e se t a ,t e ga tdpaol wihs ca c n iinsy ugijaer la e t ap o rm. ( mp. . l i ce rfo ters o rne r e t qe il o dto o sc r ee sd o rg a ' Co l8) ts la rm h et f ' t c he ompli t tpll ifhasnotbe n a ovedf par er l s a i me eyquotng fom t manualo ant ha antf e ppr or ol eea e nd s r l i r he t e ai why pl ntf cont ct d a Vi gi a r e r pr r m . xpl n ai i f a e r ni e- nt y og a Pl ntf f t r a l gest t ai i f urhe le ha : ( hec piaorala tonsoft Dee nt t lpr onghi i a c rto unde Tl ons r t i ci he fnda s og ol s nc r e ain r co r ofof i aldi cr ton, olowi t r y- i - us ye r ofi pr s e f ve fci s e i f l ng hi t fve pl a s m i onm nt or fr ttm e c i es bas d o t s r o nes oft of e e c tt esa i s -i r m ; e n he è i us s he f ns j ons iut r r pe tvea iain ofg r ni Code j1 232() a t vilt t e pos etos ci pplc to vigi a q 7- a V1 s o o ae he x t f t ac o ca e ., n n i gf r r( r i i)Cod j5 - 13. . a d lus . .e ha cn o me Vigna e 3 25 (1 . . n r uii g l ntf t sr mor t none-ourh ofhi s ntnc vi at t eq rng plai if o eve e ha f t s e e e, ol es he . . . Se r ton ofPower c a e a pr dur ldue pr es undert i l nc ng pa a i s l us nd oce a oc s he nfue i pow e of(pr r t opos X ,'whi h r pea s pr exitng St t s a ut s a cic ve s al ' c e l e si a e t t e nd r um nt Pl ntf spa ol e i biiy. ai if r e lgi lt (d. ) I 2. Pl ntf c l ai i f onc udest t ha : g heDee nt cons r t gi t i e so t thehada e not ng ' rl fnda s pied o ve he mprs in ha chived hi co t uc i l durng hi e i e i a ce a i n i pr par ton f s r s d r l a e nsr tve y i s ntr nc r r to n e a i or upe vi e e e s wh nh si siuina f le j tds p e rda t eDe ril f clt ( )(ij a d e i n ttto l od r us ia p a e t h e fed a ii ? sc , n y t thi t w ' f de co ai d no doc e a i hi i htng hi pr es i ha s t ' ol r nt ne ne um nt ton ghlg i s ogr s n e duca i voc i orpr a pa tcpa i t r by pr ongi hi ton, atons ogr m ri i ton, he e ol ng s i ceraton. ncar i (d.5. l ) Pli ifas m et de l r t tpl ntf s d bepa ol a t tde e nt c pie antf ks o c a e ha ai if houl r ed nd ha f nda s ons r d t unl wf l kee pl i ifi ione Pli ifa s as t lor de e nt t pa ol o a uly p antf mprs d. antf lo ks hat der f nda s o r e hi .4 m 2Vi naCo ejl - 3 (9 4 ra çl eei h rb ce tdwi nt j dca ba c a a a e yo te r i d 7 2 2 1 9 ) e d,ç- r s ee y rae t he u iil rn h s n g nc f h gi -h hi Supr meCour ofVigi a,heVigi aCrmi Se e ng Co s i heei ferr e r t i t sc ptras e t r ni t r ni i nal ntnci mmison, r na t efred o n hi ha e t Com m ison.'Thi s ton wasrpe e onOct he si ' s eci e ald oberl 1 , a d i p e e t f u d i Vigii Co ej 1 ., 998 n s r s n l o n n r n a d 7 1 y 8 00. 3VignaCo j5 - 1ino c dfe a j5 11 l whc d s rb swh naVigni imaema b eii efr rii de 325 s w o iid t 3.-5 , ih ecie e r i a n t y e l bl o g pa ol c i r ton. r e onsde ai 4To t ex e t tpl i ifsr quesed r i fwoul a el a e pl ntf ' r l as fom i ar r i n, Idecl t he t nt ha a ntf e t ele d cc er t ai if s e e e r nc ce ato i o ne consr et compli asape ii f awrtofhabe co pusbec us t pl di doe no s tntal c o m tu he ant tton or i as r a e he ea ng s t ubsa ily onf r t tef r j2 5 peiin.Se Rue2d o teRue Go enngj2 5 Cae .S eas Wi n o v Dosn 5 4 o h om 2 4 tt o e l () f h ls v r i 2 4 ss e lo l s n . to , 4 ki U. 7 8 ( 0 5 ( l ig cv l i h sa to a u p r l r la ea ep o rwh nplitf ss c s f l u c me S. 4, 2 2 0 ) ho dn ii rg t cins bo t a oe e e s r r pe e an if uc e su o to wo l bean w paol h a i ) ud e r e e rng . 3 1mus dim isa ac i orcli fld by a i a ei 1de e mi t tt a ton or t s s ny ton am ie n nm t f t r ne ha he c i c a m i f i o o f ist s a e a c ai o w hi h r le m a be gr nt Se 28 U . C. l i s rvol us r a l o t t l m n c ei f y a ed. e S. jj1 5e( ,1 5A( ( ) 42U. C.j1 () Thetrtsa r i udescli baed 9l ()2) 91 b)1, ' S. 997ec . is tnda d ncl ams s upon d n i s a y m e il s l galt r ' t a m s ofi rngem e ofa l li e es whi h k ndi put bl a rt e s e heo y,' k i cl nf i nt ega nt r t c c e ry do no e s , o c am swhe et û a t lcontntonsa e c e ry ba els . Neizkev. l a l es t xit' r l i ' r he i c ua f e i r l a l s e s' ' t W ila , U. 31 327 ( 989) Thes ondsa r i t f la sa r f amoi t lims 490 S. 9, 1 . ec tnda d s he amiir tndad or ton o dimisunderFedea Rul ofCi lPr edtr 1 b)6) a e i apl ntf' fcua alegai s s rl e vi oc le 2( ( , cç ptng ai ifs a t l l tons a t u A com pl ntne $ s ta pl n s a e e oft c ai s w i t tt pl ade i s r e. ai eds 1 hor nd ai t t m nt he l m ho ng ha he e r s a e tte t r l f a d s fce ttta ta alg to s. .or iearg t orle a o ete n ild o ei ' n ufiin tl cu l le ain . t as ih t eif b v h e l s ultvelvel ...'BelAt. . Twombl 550U. 544,555( pec ai e . ' l l Cop v. y, S. 2007)(ntnzlquoain i e a tto maksomitd) A pl ntf sba i f rle S e r mo et n lbesa c usons ... I r te . ai if ss or eif s quies r ha a l nd oncl i . ' d, r ' Theef e,apli ifmus dalgef css tce t saea1t ee nt of(he cam. Ba s r or antf tsle a t ufiint o tt l he lme s t j li ' s ' v. I DupontdeNe s& Co.324F.d761, ( hCi. E.. mour , 3 765 4t r 2003) . D e e m i ng whe hera com pl i s a esa pl us bl c a m f r lefi ç c e - pec f c t r ni t a nt t t a i e l i or e i s t ont xt s ii a ts ta rq ie t er v e n c u to d a o is u iil x re ea dc mmo s n e' a k h t e ur s h e iwig o r t r w n t j dca e peinc n o n e s . ' As r tv.qbal 556U. 662, hcof I , S. ,1 S. ,1 1 ( 29 Ct 937, 950 2009) Thus ae tsr e nga . , our c e ni c mpan u de Rue 1 ( )6 c ni e tf pla ig t t r n te tte t a a s mp ino o lit n r l 2 b ( ) a d niy e dn s ha a e o n ild o n s u to f tut be a et c itofno m o e t n lbe sand c l i .1 Alhoug 1lber ly r h c us hey ons s r ha a l onc usons d. t h i al constue pro #qc r ompl nt, i sv. nzr 404U. 51 520- ( 972) Id nota ta t ai s Hane Ke e, S. 9, 21 1 , o c s he i a e' a nm t s dvoca e s s e de l ng s a ut r a co tt i t , ua pont ve opi t t o y nd nsiutonald a m st i a e f ie t i he nm t a l d o c ea l r s on t f ce oft co pl i . See Br k v. r ol,107 F.3d 241 243 ( h Ci. l ry ai e he a he m a nt oc Ca r l , 4t r 1 ( tg,J,c uri ;Be udetv.CiyofHa on, F. 1 4,1 ( hCi. 997) Luti . onc rng) a t t mpt 775 2d 27 278 4t r 1 8 ) Sç as Go d nv. e e 5 4F.d 1 4 ,1 51( t Ci.1 7 )(e o nzn ta a 9 5 . ç lo r o Le k , 7 2 1 7 1 4h r 9 8 r c g iig h t dititc ti no e ce t a s t r eofa aef apr K pli ig. src our s t xpe td o sume he ol dvoc t or o antf Ana tonabl c pia yunder42U. C.j1 3) whihi t s e tonmos ci e ons r c S. 985( , c s he ubs ci t r l van t pl nt f s a l ga i ,r quie a pl i ift alege: e e t o ai i f le tons e r s a ntf o l ( )( cons rcyoft ormor pe s ,( whoaemoi t byas ii 1 A1 pia wo e rons 2) r tvaed pecfc cas- e i di l dici naor a must ()de i t pl ntf oft l sbasd,nvi ousy s rmi t y ni o 3 prve he ai if he e u l no me to rg t s c rdb t elw t al( )a dwh c r s lsi ij r q a e j y n f ih s e u e y h a o l, 4 n ih e u t n n u y t t pl ntf a ( ac e nc ofano r ac commitdbyt defnda s o he ai if s 5) onsque e ve t t te he e nt ic n onne ton w ih t c pi a y. M or ove , he 1 i w el s tl d t tt pr ve ci t he ons r c e r t aw s l e te ha o o a s c i 1985 tc pi a y, a cl m a m us s e ton t ons r c ' ai nt t how a a ee e ora i ee i of ' n gr m nt s tng m t m i 'by de e nt t vi a et c am a ' c tt i rg s he nds' f nda s o olt he l i nts onsiutonal i ht . Si nsv. 47F. 1 1 77( h Ci.1 .tL l r ac pia y i alge t mmo Poe, 3d 370, 376- 4t r 995) ûMThee ons rc s le d,he pl i ifm us pl d f ct a ountng t m o e t n ç r le c a ntf t ea a s m i o r ha pa a l l onduc a a ba e a s ri of t nd r s e ton cons r cy ....W ihoutm or pa a l c pia t e, r lel onduc doe no s t s t ugge tc piac a a c l or s ons r y, nd onc us y alega i n ofa ee e ats e uni i i d poi doe no s y f t a qua e t s l to gr m nt om dentf e nt s t uppl ac s de t o how il ga iy.' A Soc' W ihoutaN n e,f Pe e w ihouta Hom e M il nni Fut e- es ntv. le lt '' v t m or opl t s le um ur pr e Vizni 655F. 342,346( h Ci. 1 ( i Two v,550U. a 556 5 . r i a, 3d 4t r 201 ) quotng mbl S. t - 7) Exc ptf t m em ber oft Boa d, a ntf doesnota l ge f c s s e or he s he r pl i if le a t ugge tng t tt s i ha he alege c cons r t sha a know l e ofone a t r w e e i ve w ih pl ntf ' pa ol l d o- pia or ve ny edg no he , r nvol d t ai i f s r e ort a l ge y m i s ng i a e fl , orr ac d a t ee i g oft m i .' Pl n ifal o f ist he le dl s i nm t ie he nds ' ai t f s a l o s e he ' tn m me tt sco ee e he e nd lmentofaj1 4 cli byfii t algeanyfct desrbi acls 9853) am alng o le a s ci ng a s ba e dic i nao ya mus.Se e. ,Role v.Gunn,1 F. 227,233( hCi.1 s d, srmi tr ni e, g. lr 07 3d 4t r 997) (t ione saenotas pe tcas .) k-l Consiutondoesnotrquiet ngswhihae ç s r r pr us c 1 s' . kfhe ' l tt i e r hi c r dif r nti f toro ni t be teaed i l ast h t y ar t s m e. Ti rv. Texas fe e n ac pi on o r t n aw houg he e he a ' gne ' , 5Pl ntf cam m a alobebare by t itac or t c piac docrne, whi h ba s c a m sbas on a ai irs li y s r d he nr om ae ons r y ti c r li ed n ale cons r c amongasi elgale iy' ofi r empl s a age su es a e epto a i . Se lged pia y ngl e ntt s fces, oyee , nd nt nl s n xc in pples e, e..Bu c i Kiv n 7 F. 1 4 1 (t Ci. 9 5. g, sh v. re , 75 2d 2 0, 251 4h r 1 8 ) 5 31 U. 1 , 47( 9 0 .S eReft v. xo 9 7F. u p. 0 , 4( D. .1 9 )(lqn 0 S. 41 1 1 4 ) e fit Ni n, 1 S p 4 9 41 E. Va 9 6 ûli i lghtoft myra off t si ved i apar e d ii &ti difc tt be ivet ta t i he i d acor nvol n ol ec son, i s fiul o le ha ny wo p io e sc u de e b c n ie e çi lryst ae f rtepu p s o j dca rve o a rs n r o l v r e o sd r d smial iu td' o h r o e f u iil e iw f n eq pr eci cam.' ( i Rowev.Cuvlr 53 F.Su 297,301( D. Y.1 , ual ot ton 1i '' quotng ) e, 4 pp. E. N. 982) a fd, F. 985(1 Ci.1 ) Pli ifsalgai t tSsmial st td'i ts f' 696 2d 3- r 982). antf' le ton ha si lry iuae 'nmae , d whih osensbl m e i t who a s co mit s rousc i i ofens , veale dy c t i y ans mna es lo m ted e i rm nal f es ha ra be n pa ol d unde cu s pl ntf ' pr s nta gum e t t' opos lX ' e s sori a i e pos e r e r t ai if s e e r nt ha ' Pr a ' xi t s ppled x t f t Fort r a onsdicus e beow,pl ntf as f ist des rbea de i ton ofe l aco. he e s s sd l ai if lo a l o c i prva i qua 6 e j y n o arg ts c r db t elw. n o me t f ih e u e y h a A . Pl n i ff ist des r be ayi a i ofd pr es gua an ee by t Fouree t ai t f a l o c i ol ton ue oc s r t d he t nh A m endm ent . Pli ifsa us tonst tt Boadunlwf l t ol s hi i aceai 'a antf cc ai ha he r a uly k onggj s nc r rton' nd pr unlwf l te res ( litf t s r mor t o -ourhofhi snt e'fi a amatr a uly t quil l pjanif o eve e han nef t r s e enc ' al s te ofl w . Pl i i fw as s nt nc d t e g y ye r i r er ton,a pl i i fdoe no ha a a a ntf e e e o i ht a s' nca c a i nd a ntf s t ve c tt i lr ghtt be pa ol d bef e pl ntf c pl t t ei y- a s e ons iutona i o r e or ai i f om e es he ght ye r ent nce. Se e Gren t v.l t ofNe Pe l& Cor. e holz nmaes b. na r Complx,442U. 1 7( 979)(û- r i no e S. , 1 Ilhee s co tt i lori r ntrghtofaco c e pe s t be c tonaly r l s d be or t nsiutona nhe e i nvit d r on o ondii l eea e f e he e rtonofavald s tnce.) Pli ifac xpiai i ene ' antf knowldg bot t tt Vigi as tm o ' e es h ha he r ni yse f di c e i y pa ol does no gr ntpl ntf a lbery i e e ti pa ol r e e a t tt Boa d s r tonar r e t a ai i f i t nt r s n r e el as nd ha he r e a nsa e h de a why t Boa d de e pa ol r l a e. Se V a m v. nae one 73 F. xpl i t ac ni l he r ni d r e e e s e l A l , 3d 51 , 2 ( t Ci.1 9 )(i igt td pr c s r q ie a ei il imaeb c n iee f r 9 5 2 4h r 9 6 fndn ha ue o e s e ur s n lgb e n t e o sd r d o pa ol i c or iy wih sa e1 a t tt Boar gi an i ae asa e e ofr a onsf r e n onf m t t t t aw nd ha he d ve nm t tt m nt e s or 6Pli ifsi antf ' nvocai oft Se r ton ofPowe sclus a t Ei h Ame ton he pa ai r a e nd he ght ndmen doesnothavea ba i i t ny ss n l o a r ai hi t a ale d fct Pl ntf as fist r lt t algedm isng i aetl t any aw r ny eltons p o n lge a . ai if lo al o eae he le s i nm t 5e o deenda ort a fde a rght f nt o ny e r l i . 6 t ed n a o p r l) Ga tnv. y o , 4 F.d 3 0 3 - 5(t Ci.1 91 ( b n )( odng h e il f a oe ; so Ta l r 9 6 2 4 , 44 4 4h r 9 ) % a c h li t tVigi a' s t m ofdic ei r pa ol doesnotg a pl i ifa lbe t i e es i pa ol ha r ni s yse s r tona y r e r nt antf i ry ntr t n r e rla e ; Codej5 1 1 1( c i ngf t st bec i r t r omme paol t t ee s ) Va. 3.- 54. desrbi acor o onsdeed o ec nd r e o he Boad) Va Codej53.- 55(equii t Boadt de pa ol unls t Boaddeemi a r ; . 1 1 r rng he r o ny r e e s he r tr nes n i t me t c ranciei) antf as ac nmae es e ti rtra .Pli if lo knowl gest thehasbe elgi ef paol f ed ha en i bl or r e or m o et n ade adea t tt Boa d ha r viwe pl i iff par er l a ea l s t nt r ha c nd ha he r s e e d antf or ol e e s t ea t we ysi tm es. x i The t us ofpl i if scom pl i i t tt Boa d unf i l gi g e t rw e g t t hr t a ntf a nt s ha he r a r y ves r a e i ht o he Qs rous soft ofe es' antf c te i nes he f ns 'pl i if omm it d, a l r ny,sa ut ybur a y, saut r te gr nd a ce t t or glr and t t o y r pe, a he t n pl i tf s g a r t r ha a n i f ood be vi whie i a ce a e H ow e ,û ela e o t ha or l nc r r t d. ver s i nc n he r s i ne soft ofe ei apr rsa r f paol de sons,'a arume st t erous s he fns s ope tndad or r e cii gl' nd g nt o he c r ydaig a amateroflw. Br v.J on,1 F.App' 1 157( h Ci. ontar û l) s f t a ' own ohns 69 ' x 55, 4t r 2006) (ii Gr e t 442U. a 11 1 1 a Bl ctng e nholz, S. t , 5- 6, nd oodaoodv. ra v,783F. 470, 2, Gar cht 2d 47 475 (t Ci.1 ).SeeDa sv.J c on,No.94- 21 rporeda 1 U. App. 4h r 986) vi a ks 61 , e t t 995 S. LEXI 36663, S a * 4,1995W L 76103 a *1( hCi.Dec 27,1 (n (ii Bl t 24, t 4t r . 995) s me) ctng oodaood,78 F.d a 3 2 t 470,a Smihv.Ha ik,637F. 211( hCi.1 ) TheBoa dma lwf l e r s is nd t mbrc 2d 4t r 980). r y a uly xecie t di c e i t de pa ol r l as a t rde e m i ng t tt s r ous s ofpl ntf ' c i es s r ton o ny r e e e e f e t r ni ha he e i ne s éi i f s rm o wei pl ntf ' good be vi i prs ut ghs ai i f s ha or n i on.A cc di y, a n i ff ist es a i h a due or ngl pl i t f a l o t bls pr e svi a i oc s ol ton. B . Pl i iff l t de c i a vi a i oft Ex Pos Fac o Cl us a ntf ais o s rbe ol ton he t t a e. The f de a a s a e g r e t m a no e or a e pos f c o l w . U . Cons . r . , e r l nd t t ove nm n s y t nf ce n x t a t a S. t a t1 j9, 1 3'i at 1 j 1 c .1 An ex pos f t lw tG a m or bm de omet punihme c . , d. r. , 0, 1 . t aco a tm kes e ns he s nt f ac i a t iscommison.' Coli v.Youncbl 497U. 37, ( 990)( i or rme, fer t s i '' lns ood, S. 42 1 quotng 7 Be zelv.Ohi 269U. 1 1 - (925 A c a l o, S. 67, 69 70 1 :. hanget apaol 1w t tceaesas fcint o r e a ha r t ufi e r s ofi r s ng t m e ur ofpuni hm e a t he t t c r d crm esvi a est Ex Pos i k nc ea i he as e s nt tac d o he ove e i ol t he t FacoClus Ganerv.J ,5 U. 244,251( t a e. r ones 29 S. 2000) CalDe tofCor.v.M o aes 51 . , . p' r rl , 4 U. 499,509 (995 .TheExPos Fa t Cl eapplest paol r ultonst taesmia t S. 1 ) t co aus i o r e eg ai ha r i lr o l i l tve r esbe aus l gi l tve nzesha t f ce ofl . W a r n v. ker le 233 F. eg s a i ul c e e sa i l ve he or aw r e Bas vil , 3d 2 4 2 7(t Ci. 0 0 . er' Cea cArs I c. . n ume Pr d. aevCo n 8 4F.d 0 , 0 4h r 2 0 ) J ris r mi t,n v Co s r o S ft mm', 7 2 , 205,207(t Ci.1 .TheEx Pos Fa t ca edoe nota yt paol ad nitai 4h r 989) t co lus s ppl o r e mi srtve polc esbec us t polci s a e E de ,a no l w s gui s m ay be di c r d w he e ii a e he i e r ' gui s nd t a : de s a de r crumsa sr quie'lwsma not' Prtrv. S.Paol Co n,802F. 948,951(t ic tnce e r ,a y . ae U. r e mm' ' 2d 7h Ci.1 6) Se ' re 233F. a 208( s rbi t ditnci bewee par elwsandt r 98 . e Wyr n, 3d t de ci ng he si ton t n ol a he Boad' polcyma wihi t pa a tr oft lws. rs i de t n he r mees he a ) Pl i if s e pos f c o c a m f isbe a e he doe notes a ih a r t oa tve cha i a a ntf ' x t a t l i a l c us s t bls e r c i nge n l ga r et ti r s d hi punihme . Pli ifc e l ul ha nc ea e s s nt antf ompli t tBoa d' t arpr tc ' a ns ha r s t i aci e' unf ove t w e ghs hi c i e t c ude pl i ifm ay no be pa ol How e v pl i iff ist ry i s rm s o ond a ntf t r ed. ve , a ntf a l o a l ge f t t t s le ac s ha ugges t Boa d' de s on i bas d on a e pos f t 1 w orl gi l tve r e t he r s ci i s e n x t ac o a e s a i ul i t d oft Boa d' or na y e r ie ofdic e i puruantt t isad i sr tvepolces nsea he r s di r xe c s s r ton, s o he t m nita i ii . Se VI NI PAROL BOARD POLI M ANUAL( t 1, 6, )(vaia ea e RGI A E CY Oc. 200 ed. a lbl t ht / tp:/ .a o .tt . .sv b ma uasp p lo ma u ll 6pd (ata c s e Ap . 9, v d csaevau /p / n l/b-oiy n a-oo . g ls c e s d r 1 201 ( tngt tt Boadmayc i ,i e ai t lnghofi e s ntnc ,he 2) noi ha he r onsder ntr la,he e t mpos d e e es t exi t e ofm uli e c senc tpl onvi tons a pr e a prorof e es purua tt Vigi a Code c i , nd es nt nd i f ns , s n o r ni j53.- ) Pl ntf doesnots fcintye ai t r ltons p bewee Vigi aCodej1 1 155 . ai if ufi e l xpl n he eai hi t n r ni 7232,w hi creat t V igi a Crm i Sent ng Com m i on, and t B oar r ewi ch ed he r ni i nal enci ssi he d evi ng pl ntf, s ntt Vigi aCodej53.- 55,a how t trviw vi ae t ExPos Fa t ai ifpurua o r ni 1 1 nd ha e e olts he t co 8 Clus TheBoa dha notlngt ned pli tf si r e ai be a e. r s e he a n if nca c r ton yond t i he mpos d ei t ye r e gh y- a s t nc a pl i ifha be n e i bl f pa ol c i r t o f m any ye s Ac r ngl en e e, nd a nt f s e lgi e or r e ons de a i n or ar . co di y, pl n iff ist de c i a vi aton oft Ex Pos Fa t Cl us ai t f a l o s rbe ol i he t c o a e. 11 1. F rt f r g igr a o s lds s tec mp an wih u prj iefrfiigt saea o he o e on e s n , imis h o lit t o t eudc o al o tt n cam u o wh c r l fma b g a td p ru n t 28U. C. 1 5 b ( ) li p n ih ei y e r ne , u s a t o e S. j 9l A( )1. The Cl r i die t d t s nd co e oft sM e or ndum Opi on a t ac om pa ng ek s rce o e pi s hi m a ni nd he c nyi Or t pl ntf . der o ai i f a f , Ma ExTE R :' s=e< dyo' y 2012. rhi ) e or nie St t D i ti tJ ni t d a es s r c udge 9