Plastic Fabricating, Inc. v. Electrex Company, Inc., No. 7:2012cv00119 - Document 17 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 5/30/12. (med)
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CLERKS OFFI U S.Di '. I CE f1 COURI 3 AT ROANOV , VA FI ED L MA 32 2 1 t 22 IN T H E U N I ED STA T ES D I T STR IC T C O U R T FOR TH E W ESTERN DISTRICT O F VI INI RG A J I C. A DO EY, CLERK . Roanoke D i s on vi i PLA STI FA BRI ATI G ,l C. C C N N , Ci lA c i N o.7: 2- Vvi t on 1 C 00119 Pl ntf , ai i f M EM O M ND U M O PI I N N O ELE CTREX C O M PA N Y ,I C . N , Dee f ndant . By:H on.Jam es C.Turk Seni U ni e St e D i t i tJudge or t d at s s r c Thi m a t r i be or t Cou ton D e e nt sM oton t D i m i s f I pr pe V e or s te s f e he r f nda ' i o s s or m o r nue i t Alenai t Trnse Ve n he tr tve,o a fr nue. ( . 7 .Pli iffldamemornd i o ii DktNo. ) antf ie a um n pposton a De e n r ple The Cour hea d o a a gz e ton M a 1 201 a ac or ngl t nd f nda t e id. t r r l r lm n y 0, 2, nd c di y, he m a tri no rpe f diposton. l a or nc wih t f l ng M e o a te s w i or s ii n cc da e t he olowi m r ndum Opi on,t ni he D e e nt sM o i n i DEN I . f nda ' to s ED 1. Background Thi a ton c s ci once s al ge br a s of t ee s e c r c s Pli if Plsi m le d e che hr als onta t . a ntf a tc Fa iai l .(TFI' i aVigi ac r atonwih isprmaypl eofbusne si Roa brc tng, nc t ' s r ni opor i t t i r ac ) i s n noke, V igi a. PF1 m a ac ur s a s ls s ai es s e lt nks ca bon s e t nks a pol opa r ni nuf t e nd e l t nl s t e a , r t el a , nd ypr ne trks De e nt El tex Compa I (d e te ' i a M ihi n c porto wih is al . f nda ecr ny, nc. ç crx' s El ) c ga or ain t t prnc pa pl e ofbusne si Ha s n To hi M i hi n. PF1orgi l fld t saci i i i l ac i s n ni o wns p, c ga i naly ie hi ton n t Cic t Cou t f t C iy of Roa he r ui r or he t noke,but El te r m ove i t t W eser D it i t of ec r x e d t o he t n s rc Vigna o te b sso dv riyj rs ito pu s a tt 28U. C.j 1 3 1 41 a d 1 4 r ii n h a i f ie st u id cin ru n o S. j 3 2, 4 , n 4 6. El c r x now m o s t s Cour t e t r di m i s t co pl nt o t a f r t ac i n t t e te ve hi t o ihe s s he m ai r r ns e he to o he Ea tr DititofM ihi n,purua t 28U. C.jj 1 ( ( )( . Thefcsalge by PFI sen src c ga s nt o S. 391b)1-2) a t le d ar asf l vs: e olos K Si e20 El tex a PFIha e ag d i a oxi t l 50 s pa aeta a tonsf r nc 06, ecr nd ve ng e n ppr ma ey e r t r ns c i o t ep rh s o v ro tn sf rattlp o u tv leo a p o i tl $ 8 ,0 . Th mao iy h u c a e f aius a k o o a r d c au f p r xmaey 9 00 0 e j rt oft pr t s d t El te by PFlwer m a t o de a PFlsf c lt i Roa ke PF1 he oduc s ol o ecr x e de o r r t ' a iiy n no . ale t tElcte has r f s d t pa f t ee r e or r oft nks I t a ,PFl ca ms lges ha e r x e u e o y or hr ec nt de s a . n ot l li da a si t a ountof$1 577. e l i ofi er ta c t. m ge n he m 03, 61 xcusve nt es nd oss The fr tdiput d or r was f r 1 s a nl s s e t nks l Fe ua y 2011,El c r x s nt is s e de o 2 t i es t el a . n br r e te e a em a lt PFlr quesi 1 sai es se lt nksa pr di t nec s a y s ciia i f n - i o e tng 2 t nl s t e a nd ovi ng he e s r pe fc tons or t i f brc ton. PFl r ponde pr di El cr x wih a pr a t t i l d deaied her a ia i es d, ovi ng e te t opos l ha ncude tl dr w i a a prce pe t nk. El c r x t n s it d a pur has or rt PFI whi h s a e t a ngs nd i rn e t e he ubm te c e de o , c t t d he t nksw e e t be s ppe t M i hi a The t a r o hi d o c g n. anksw e e f brca e i Roa r a i td n noke a t n s ppe t nd he hi d o M i hi an. O nc i M i hi n,El c r x notfed PFlt tisc t m e w oul nota c ptt t nks c g e n c ga e te ii ha t us o r d c e he a . The t nks a e be i ve t be i M i hi n. n r le d o n c ga The s co dipu ed or r w a f t e r nd t nks Pe El c r x' r que t PF1 e nd s t de s or hr e ou a . r e te s e s, s it d a pr ubm te opos lf r t t e r nd t nks El c r x t n s it a pur has or r w hi h a o he hr e ou a . e t e he ubm ted c e de , c r que t d t t nksbe s pped t Ohi The tlkswe e f brcaed i Roa e se he a hi o o. al r a i t n noke a t n s ppe nd he hi d t Ohi Howe ,El tex rj t t tnksa t y wer rt ne t Vigi a,whih i o o. ver ecr eeced he a nd he e eur d o r ni c s whe e t y a e pr s nty. r he r e e l Thet r diputd or rwa f 24 tnksofva i m aera sf Br s c a t a c t m e hid s e de s or a rous t il or a s r f, uso r ofEl c r x. A ga n a El c r x' r e te i t e t e s eque t PFl s it d pr a s f t 24 t nks a El c r x s ubm te opos l or he a nd e t e t n s m it d a pur e or r The pur s or r r que t d t t nks be s pped t Te . he ub te chas de . cha e de e s e he a hi o xas Twe y-hr e of t 24 t lks w e e f brc e i Roa nt t e he az r a i at d n noke w hie one t nk w a f brca e i , l a s a i td n A r ns s by a s ka a ubcon r c or The t nks w e e a c pt d by El c r x a a e be ng us by ta t . a r ce e e t e nd r i ed Br asscr ,butEl r has notpai t i ce i f l aft ectex d he nvoi n ul. l I. A nal i ys s A . V i ni H as Pers rgi a onalJuri di on s cti Elcrxaguest tt sCour doe no ha pes lurs ci ove i unde e te r ha hi t s t ve rona j iditon r t r Vigi a' l am saut be us El texha notStrns cldla busnes i t e r ni s ong-r tt e ca e ecr s s la a te ny i s n hl) l Co n at ' Va Co ej8013 .( () A c u t y e ecs p ro a j rs ito o e mmo we l ' . d . -281A)1. o r ma x r ie es n lu idcin v r h. ac portonno ceaedunde t lwsofVigi ai s hj iditoni a horze byt or ai t r t r he a r ni f uc urs ci s ut i d he Vigni ln -r sau e Va Co ej 8012 9e sq.a dt e ecs o j rs ito c mpis r i a o g am ttt , . d j . - 9 t e , n he x r ie f u idcin o le w ih t D ue Pr e s Cl us oft Fo t e h A m e e . Ca efr tofM a yl nd, nc. t he oc s a e he ur e nt ndm nt r i s r a I v. Caeis Prcna y Cts I ,334F.d 3 396( hCi. rfrt e nc r.nc. 3 90, 4t r 2003) Vigi asl a saut . r ni' ong-nn tt e e tnd p ro l u idcint t ee tn p nn te u d rteDu P o e sClu ea dtus th xe s es na j rs ito o h x e t e itd n e h e r c s a s n h ,i e t s a ut r i r m e gesw ih t co tt i li r ' Cons tng Enc's Cor .v.Geo e rc t t o y nqui y r t he ns iutona nquiy.' uli r p m ti Lt ,561F. 273,277 ( hCi. d. 3d 4t r 2009) . The c tt i ons iutonali r l nquiy ookst s e w he h t de enda has s tci ntE i m lm o e t er he f nt ufi e d ni z m c nt c s' ih t f m s a e t uc t tt m a nt an oft s tdoe notof e t a tona o a t 'w t he onl t t t h ha he i en ce he ui s s f nd r dii l n to sof ar a a ds bsa ta j tc . n ' S o Co. W a h n t n 3 6U. 3 0 31 o in f iply n u tnilusie' tl h e v. s i go , 2 S. 1 , 6 'I (9 5 (n en l u tto a dctto o te ) Th t nmu c n a t'a ay i Ssp e s d 1 4 ) itr a q o ai n n i in mitd . e s i m o tcs' n l ss s rmie a mi i o tec n e t h tac r o aint a e j y t p ii g o c n u tn bu ie swi i asae n h o c p t a o p rto h t n o s he rvl e f o d ci g sn s t n tt e h be r t r c pr a o i ton ofa w e i t l ga pr ee ngst r ' CFA l t v. ns .of a s he e i oc l blga i ns rng o e l oc di he e.' ns . I t Cha trdFi Anavssofl a,551F. 285,293( h Ci. 09 ( tngl ' Shoe, U. ree n. l t ndi 3d 4t r20 ) cii ntl 326 S. a 31 ) Th , obes b e tt ac u tse ecs o p ro a j rs ito , d fn a t th v t 9 . us t u j c o o r' x rie f es n lu idcin a e e d n mus a e (f i wan n t a ap riulra t iyma s be t(i t t j rs ito of fr in i ar r i g h t a t a ci t y u jc hmj o he u id ci n a o eg t c v s egn.' Bur erKi Com.v. ze c 471U. 462,472( 985)( i Shafrv. overi '' a n: Rud wiz, S. 1 quotng fe Hete , 3 U. 1 6 21 ( 9 7 ( tv n , .c n u rn i j d me t) i r 4 3 S. 8 , 8 1 7 ) S e e s J, o c rig n u g n l. n TheFourh Cic tha s hesz d t d pr es r quie e i o at e pa t e t t r ui s ynt i e he ue oc s e r m nt nt hr e r t s, unde whiht c r c i r t( )t e e t whiht dee tpur e ul a ie isl r c he ou t onsdes t1 he xtnt o c he fndan posf ly vald tef oft prvieg ofcond tnga tvii i t Stt,( whehe t pli if camsaieoutof he i l e uci ci tes n he ae' 2) t r he antfs' li rs to ea tvte dr ce a t eStt ; nd( )wh te tee ecs o p ro a j rs ito wo l h s ciiis ie td t h ae a 3 eh r h x r ie f es n l u idcin u d bec tt i l ras bl ' Cons tngEng's 561F. a 278( i ALS Sca l .v. onsiutonaly e ona e. ' uli r, 3d t quotng n.nc Di tlSe v. ula s l , F. 707,71 ( hCi. 2)( ainsandctto cia r Cons tnts nc.293 3d 2 4t r 200 quotto iains o te ) mitdl. U nde t fr tpr oft t s , our sm a c ns de a va i t off t s whi h i ude r he i s ong he e t c t y o i r r e y ac or , c ncl , butaenotlmie t ( )S t rt dee ntmai ansofi so a nt i t fr saei r i td o: 1 d he he fnda whe nti fce r ge s n he oum tt ' ' ( i t rt dee townspr ryi t f m sae'()t t rt def nt 2) t he he fndan whe ope t n he onz tti' 3 d he he enda whe r a h dit tef r m saet s l io i taeb sn s i ( )S te ted fn a t e c e n o h o u tt o oi t r ni t u ie s' 4 t h r h ee d n c i ' whe delbeaeye ge i sgnii a orlngtr busne saci tesi t f u sae'( i rtl nga d n i tc nt o -em i s tvii n he or m tti'5) S t rt pari contacua l ag ee t tt lw oft f u sat woul go r dip e i' i he he tes whe r t ly r d ha he a he or m t e d ve n s ut s' ()i eh rted fn a tma ei- e s nc na t t ter sd n o t f r m i t ef r m 6 û t e h e e d n d n p ro o tc wi h ei e t f he o u n h o u wh h saergar ngt busne sr ai hi '( thenaur,quaiya e e oft pates tt e di he i s eltons pi'7) t t e lt nd xtnt he ri ' t co mmuni to a utt busnes bengta a t 'a ( whehert pero ma eof cains bo he i s i rns cedi nd 8) t he fr nc ' co rcua dute wast oc urwihi t f u ' Co uli Enc's 561F. a 278(ntr nta t l is o c t n he or m. ns tn: ' r, 3d t i enal cttonso te .Thescondpr oft t tde rst tt defnda ' c tcswiht iai mitd) e ong he es ' quie ha he e nts ona t t he r f um sa ef m t ba i oft s t' 1 a 278 79.Thet r pr ng oft t s pe m is or t t or he ss he ui.' d. t hid o he e t r t c i rtonofa tonalf t sûoe ur t a o it s oft f um.. g he e onsdeai ddii acor û ns e he pprpraene s he or .. ' s l t r fco si ude:()t bur n ont dee n ofltgai i t f u ( t i e etoft a tr ncl 1 he de he fnda t ii tng n he or m; 2) he ntr s he f u saei a j c tngt dipue;( t plitf' i ees i obt ni co ni ta orm tt n dudiai he s t 3) he anifs ntr t n ai ng nve en nd efe tverle '( t s r i ees oft sae i o ani efkintr ol in o diput ' fci eif 4) he haed ntr t he tts n bti ng t e es uto f s es , , a ()t i e e t oft saesi f t rngs tni s ilpolce . I a 279 nd 5 he ntr ss he tt n urhei ubsa tve oca iis' d. t ' ( tngW ordW i Vol wage Cor v.W oods 444U. 286,292( 98 ) cii l de ks n p. on, S. 1 0). The pr e c e f lsve y cl e t t lne ast w he herEl tex ha s fc e es nt as a l r os o he i o t ec r s uf i i nt mii m c na t wi Vigni s a t h v s be tdis lt s ihee Thi Co r tn st a nmu o tcs t r i a o s o a e u j ce tef o ut r . s u ti d h t h Elcr xi s b e t op ro a J rs it ni Vig na ti u ipue t a Elcrx d e n t e te s u j c t e s n lu idci n r i i.I s nds td h t e te o s o ' o m a nt i a of i r ora nt i Vi gi a, rdoesi ow n a pr ry i V igi a a nordi i a n ny fce s ge s n r ni no t ny ope t n r ni , nd d El c r x m a a i pe s c a ti V igi a How e r i d s a a t tEl te i ta e e te ke ny n- r on ont c n r ni . ve , t oe ppe r ha ec r x nii t d t s e c r csby s ndi em aist PFIr quesi PFlm a a t et va iust nks he als onta t e ng - l o e tng nuf c ur he ro a . Se nd,Elc r x a PFlha bee doi busne ssnc 20 andhavedone am os $1m ilon co e te nd ve n ng i s i e 06 l t li i busnes i t ttm e. Thid,El c r x ha e ge i s gnii ntcom m uni a i w ih PFT. n i s n ha i r e t e s nga d n i fca c ton t Contar t El c r x' s r y o e te s ugges i a or a gum e , he f c soft sca e a e nott s m e a a ton t al r nt t a t hi s r he a sn i vi lor r ng s e hi vi m a lo i e ne fom a r t l i a he s a e. Thos ndi dua de i om t ng a i r nt r t r e aier n not r t t e c r um s a esw oul c i tofa sngl bre c m uni a i Her ,El c r x r ues e c t i c t nc d ons s i e i f om c ton. e e t e eq t d us om pr oduc sbe m a a t e and pr vi d s c fc tonsf t e pr t nuf c ur d o de pe i i a i or hos oduc s l r s ns PF1d e t . n e po e rw up apr a t ti l opos l ha ncuded s he tcdr wi a i vi lz d prc s.Onl a trr c i ng c ma i a ngs nd ndi duai e i e y fe e e vi tec so prpo a ddElcrx s b t p rh s o d r Fo rh temao i o t tn s h u t m o s l i e te u mi a u c a e r e. u t,h j rt f he a k y w e e m a a t ed i V igi a a PFlha as e t d t tEl c r x kne t t nks w e e t be r nuf c ur n r ni nd s s r e ha e t e w he a r o ma ufcu e i Vign a Of h s v nfco sc n i ee ,h e tl twa dfn igj rs ito n a trd n r ii. t e e e a t r o sd rd t re i o r i dn u id cin t e i ppr it,butf wei i fvo offndi t j iditona ne s tsid. Furt na oprae our gh n a r i ng he urs ci l xus aife 1 henuor , t Fourh Cic tha s i t tc t d r e ild t a or s calwe g t t f c t ti wa he t r ui s a d ha ours s e ntte o cc d pe i a i ht o he a t ha t s gh Dee d nqt a iiitdc n a t t t eg an it i Vigna' CFA l t, 5 F.da t e fn a t h t ntae o tc wih h plitf n r ii. l ' ns.5 1 3 t 295, 17( tngDimondHe lhc r ofOhi I v. miiyofM ayHe t Pa t s 229 n. cii a at a e o.nc. Hu lt r alh rner, lTheCo tdoesno c i rwhehe t pa te a ee a t t 1w t goven t contac be aus t r doe not ur t onsde t r he ris gr d s o he a o r he r t c e he e s appe rt ha bee a f malco r c ofs eand none oft comm uni a i s tf t wha l w woul gove n. a o ve n or nt a t al he c tons e orh ta d r F.d4 8 451(t Ci. 0 0 ( o ldngc n a t i u fce t n e mii m c n a t a ay i 3 4 , 4 h r 2 0 ) c ncu i o tcs ns fiin u d r nmu o tcs n lss i patbe us plitf i tae c r cua r ltons pl.Th ,hebaa etlsi fvorof n r ca e anif niitd onta t l eai hi ) us t lnc it n a fndi t tElc r x C pos uly a ied is l oft prvieg ofc i ng ha e te l pur ef l val tef he i l e onduc i adi tes' nt tng vii 'i he saeofVigi a.Co uli Enc's 5 F. a 278( ttonsandcttonsomitd) tt r ni ns tnc r, 61 3d t quoai iai te . W ih r ga d t t s cond pa toft t s - whe he t pl i if s c a m sa os outoft t e r o he e r he e t t r he a ntf ' l i r e he a tvii sdie t a t sa e t f c ss t t28 oft 29 tnkswe e ma acur i ci te r ced t he tt - he a t how ha he a r nuf t ed n V igi a a i i t f brca i a r s t ntq iy oft t nks t ti a i s i t pr e r ni nd t s he a i ton nd e ula ualt he a ha s t s ue n he es nt ca e Th , ti c ea PFI scl i s a i e outofac i tesi V igi a s . us i s l r ' a m r s tvii n r ni . Fial, t r g r t wh t r ro lu idcinwo db c nsi to al n ly wih e a d o ehe pes na j rs ito ul e o tt in ly u r s bl,t sCo ttndst ti i.Asno e a ea ona e hi ur i ha t s t d bove t t r pa toft Fourh Cic tst ti , he hid r he t r ui' es s desg d doe ur t a oprae s oft f lm. d. t279(ii Bur rKi 471U. ine s ns e he ppr itne s he orz ' a t 'I ctng qe nc, S. a 477 .l caesd r adee ntwhopur eulyha die tdhi aci te a fr t ) n s s e fnda whe pos f l s rce s tviis t oum rsd n ss e st d fa j rs it n, emu tp ee tac mp lngc s t t h p e e c o e ie t e k o e e t u id ci h s rsn o el a e ha t e r sn e f o i s meoh rc nsd rto swo l r n e j rs ito u ra o a l . Bu c rKi , 71U. a o te o i eain u d e d r u id cin n e s n b e' r e nc 4 ' S. t 477. He e,El te ha notco e f w a d wih a c i r ton,ot rt n t i nve e e r ec r x s m or r t ny ons de a i he ha he nco ni nc o l iai gi Vign a t rnd r l idcinl e s n be Meeic n e in e h we e,s f i g tn n r ii,o e e jz s ito mra o a l. r n o v ne c , o v r i t r nots fce tt r raf um unra ona eunde t duepr e sa yss Seej.a 477 78. ufiin o ende or e s bl r he oc s nal i. ;, t . N o t l s d ubs a i li onve e e' m a pr de g ounds f r a c nge ofve a t ti ne he es d t nta nc s ni nc ' y ovi r o ha nue nd ha s t que tont Cou consde sne .L= he si he rt i r xt d. B . V enue i Proper i V i ni and Transf ofV enue i N otW arranted s n rgi a er s Elcrxn x ag e ta e e it i Co r h sp ro a j rs ito is o l ta frte e te e t r u s h t v n f hs u t a e s n lu idcin t h ud rnse h ca et t Ea tr DititofM ihi nbec us et r( )venuei i ope i Vigi aunde s o he sen src c ga a e ihe 1 s mpr r n r ni r 28U. C.j1 or( e ni ve i pr t c es dbeta fred, s ntt 28 S. 391 2) ve f nue s oper he as houl rnser purua o 6 U. C.j1 a ,lo t c ninc oft pate a wine ssa i t i e et o S. 404() tfr he onve e e he ris nd t se nd n he ntr ss f j tc . ( tNo 8 a 6 . usie' Dk . . , t ) ' 28U. C.j1 ( pr d ,nr e ntpatt tacvia i ma beb oug i S. 391b) ovies i elva r,ha i l cton y r ht n: ( )aj d ca d src i wh c a yd fn a t e ie ,fal 1 u iil ititn ih n ee d n r sd s i l de e nt a er i nt oft Stt i whi h t d src i l caed' f nda s r esde s he a e n c he itit s o t , ( )aj d ca d src i wh c as bsa ta p r o tee e t o 2 u iil ititn ih u tn il a t f h v n s r omisonsgi ngrs t t cli oc ure oras t ntal r of si vi ie o he am c r d, ubsa i pa t prpet t t st es b e to t ea to i st ae .. o ry ha i h u j c f h cin s iu td.. El c r x a gue t tve i pr ri M ihi nbec us as t nta pa toft e nt e te r s ha nue s ope n c ga a e ubsa il r he ve s oc r d i M i hi n. Spe i i aly,El c r x a s r st c r c w a e e e i t i M i hi an cur e n c ga c fc l e t e s e t he onta t s nt r d n o n c g a t tt a l d br c occ r d i M i hi n. Furhe m or ,El c r x not st t 1 oft 29 nd ha he lege ea h ur e n c ga t r e e te e ha 2 he t aec rntyl t i M ihia ( . 8,a 5) anks r ure l ocaed n c g n. DktNo. t . How e r t s a g e sar un r ua i b a e t Four h Cic thashel t t ve , he e r um nt e pe s s ve ec us he t r ui d ha ve unde j1 ,ma bepr i mor t nonel ai M irnov.Ha s 37 F. 40 nue, r 391 y oper n e ha oc ton. ta we , 7 3d 2, 405(t Ci. 4h r 2004)(s rt a û unde he mende saut,i i pos i ef ve t bepr i mor d tt e t s sbl or nue o oper n e ta o ej dca dsrc. h n n u iil itit' a i tec s h r .W h l asg iia tp ri no t ee e t ma ).Th t s h a e ee ie in fc n o to f h v n s y ha ha ve ppene i M i hi n, s g fca tpori n oft e n sc r a nl oc ur e i V igi a d n c ga a i nii n to he ve t e t i y c r d n r ni . Al butone oft t nksw a m a a t ed i V i gi a a t a lbutone w a l a e i l he a s nuf c ur n r ni nd hus l s oc t d n Vig ni a s m etme i t pa t Ad tonaly,pa ntwasduea t f ciiy i Vigi a. r i a t o i n he s. dii l yme t he a lt n r ni Thus t rj 1 91venuei pr ri t W esenDititofVigi aa ima as bepr r ,mde 3 s ope n he tr src r ni nd t y lo ope i t Ea t nzD i ti tofM i hi n. n he s e src c ga El c r a gues i t alem a i , ha eve i ve i pr ri Vi gi a, hi Cour e tex r , n he t tve t t n f nue s ope n r ni t s t s dta frvenuef t c houl r nse or he onveninc oft pa te .Se 28U. C.1 a (ç t e e he ris e S. 404() tFor he c ve e ofpa te a wine s ,nt i e etof usie,adititc tma ta fra on nince ris nd t ses i he ntr s j tc src our y rnse ny ci lac i n t a o herdi ti tordi s on w he e i m i ha be br ugh ort a d s rc or vi to o ny t src vii r t ght ve en o t o ny i t i t 7 di sont whi alpa te ha co e e ) A pli ifschoieoffr i, ve, vii o ch l ris ve nsntd. . antf c oum s howe r e ildt deee e es i l whe t s ti fldEi t dititanddi so i whihghe ntte o frnc , pecaly n he ui s ie tn he src viin n c t panif r sd s'a i tec s h r .Glmo c nCo l m. . t r Gm , litfj e ie , s s h a e ee a r a a Co v Ranes ' PLC, 5 F.u p 84 sp. 436,437( . Va.1 93)(ii Kose v.Lumbeme Mut Ca .Co.330U. 51 524 W D. 9 ctng tr r ns . s , S. 8, ( 947).l e t defa t pli ifschoieadee ntmus s t tihebaa eof 1 ) nde d,o e t he antf c fnda t how ha d lnc t e ute i i gi o h r fv rgn )t tu iil c n mya dc n e e c t alpa te fv r q iis s n h s r e) a o a d ha j d ca e o o n o v nin e o l ris a o s ti a t rf um. l a 43748( i El i v.Bouc r 620F.Supp.678,68 ui n nohe or ' d. t - quotng drdae ' had, 4 ( . Va.1 )(mphassa W D. 985 e i ddedl.Seeas Ake sv. & W Ry.Co.378F. 78,8 ( h ) lo r N , 2d 0 4t Ci. 9 7 ( oigt panifh s'h p i r rg t.. oc o s h sf um, a dt a slcin r 1 6 ) n tn he litf a û e rmay ih . t h o e i or ' n h t ee to t ' i t e iyt beoverlr '. s t asl o not taown' ) Alhoug El tex hasc e f wa d w ih sgnii a e de a a g e t ti t h ec r om or r t i f c nt vi nce nd r um nt ha t wo dbe i onve e ed i t s twe et r man i t W esem DititofVigi a,e de e ul nc ninc f he ui r o e i n he t src r ni vi nc ofi onve e eal i i ufi intt wa r ntata frofve nc ninc one s ns fce o ra r nse nue.El cr x a s a g st e te lo r ue hat a ce st t s ce ofpr a wines e i ea is i t Ease n DititofM i hi n. c s o he our s oof nd t s s s se t n he tr src c ga Howe r t Cou ti notc nc by t sa gume .W hiei i tuet tEl te se oy s ve , he r s onvi ed hi r nt l t s r ha ecr x' mpl ee a ei M ihi n,t i vi l who f brc t d t t nksa t et tt t d t t rksf r r n c ga he ndi dua s a ia e he a nd hos ha ese he al o c ompla ewih i ty sa r ,heis i t sc s ,a el a e i Vigi a. Furhe m or , inc t ndusr tnda ds t s ue n hi a e r oc t d n r ni t r e t emao i o t tr a is eaen lng rlc tdi Mih g n t l etn sael ey h j rt f he at t s u r o o e o ae n c ia : wev a k r i l y ks k l a ed i M i hi n,t eet nksa e i Vi gi a, t r m ai ng 24 t oc t n c ga hr a r n r ni and he e ni anks a e i Te . The r n xas sm pl tut i t sc e i t tone pa t w ilbe i on ni nce r ga dl s ofw he e t i e r h n hi as s ha r y l nc ve e d e r e s r he pr ee ng t ke pl ce. l t pr e ng r m ai i t W ese n D i t i tofVi g ni El c r x i oc di a s a f he oc edi e ns n he t r sr c r i a, e te s i nconveni enced. l t proceedi i tans er ed t t Easem D i ti of M i gan,PFli f he ng s r f r o he t sr ct chi s 2The de s o t tans e le w ihi t s cii n o r f r i s t n he ound dic e i oft cou t See Be m la e Svs v.Co Comm ' .l , s r ton he r . a as r . x ns nc. - 1 7F. u p.d51 , 7( D. . 00 ) 1 S p z 5 5l E. Va 2 0 . 8 - i onve e e Fac d wih s h cr um sa e ,t Cour mus r s c PF1sc ceoff u nc ninc d. e t uc ic t nc s he t t e pe t ' hoi or m a de i t t a f rt c e t t Ea t r D i ti tofM i ga nd clne o r ns e he as o he s e n s rc chi n. 1 11. Concl on usi Thi Cour co l s t t El te s busnes r l to hi wih PFl de ons r t s t t s t nc ude ha ec r x' i s e a i ns p t m t a e ha El e pum os uly diede is a tvii s a V igi a s t t V i g ni s l a m s a ut i edr x ef l r d t c i te t r ni uch ha r i a' ong- r t t e s s ts i a t di a e of c tt i a i fed nd he ct t s ons iutonaldue pr e s a e not of e d. Furhe m or ,ve i oc s r f nde t r e nue s pr r i t W e t r D it i t of Vigi a a t f c s oft s c e do notw a r nta t a f r of ope n he s e n s rc r ni nd he a t hi as ra r ns e ve t t Ease n Ditit of M ihi n. Ac di y,Def nda ' M oton t Dim is f nue o he t r src c ga cor ngl e nts i o s s or I pr r V e m ope nue or i t Ale na i t Tr ns e Ve n he t r tve, o a f r nue i D EN I . An a opr a e or r s ED ppr i t de s l is t sda ha l s ue hi y. E r R T iA c a o Ma,02 x' : hs , y f y2 1 E S . j / Se n' Unied St t D i ti t t a es sr c 9 ge