Howard v. Statzer et al, No. 7:2012cv00079 - Document 79 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 12/13/2012. (kab)
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- FRK: OFFIE U, . sm r. lr C S Dl n l l AT ROANOKE, VA HI LMD I TH E UN I N TED STA TES DI STR I T CO U R T C FO R TH E W EST ER N DI STRI T O F V I G I I C R N A R O A N O K E DI SI N VI O R O BER T PH A R O A H H O W AR D , DEC 1# 2 1 22 4 J A C. UL: BY; DEP , ERK CL / , ' L ERK C ASE N O .7: 2CV 0007 1 9 Pl ntf , ai if M EM O M N DU M O PI O N NI VS. J STATZER, & , . c By: GlnE. nr d e Co a C hi fU ni e St e D i t i tJudge e t d at s s r c Dee fndants. t) Beo et ec u t r t ep ris moinsf rsl r u g n , litf smoins f r h o r ae h a t ' to o l e mma yj d me t panif to r ga di dic r de a t a ot rma tr ,a moto by s e r ng s ove y, f ul, nd he te s nd i ns omedef ndan swho a e e t r s e ng apr eci or ragans pl ntf sr que t f dic r t i t co ta es est r e ki ot tve de i t ai if e s s or s ove y mtl he ur ddr s hei he e or he our qua ii d i m uniy def e a a t es d i s 1 A fe c ef r e oft r c d, t c t lfe m t ens s hr hol s ue. t r ar ul evi w d n e Ho r smo inf rd fulj g n a ans Dee a t . tte s r n sHo r ' e is wad' to o ea t ud me t g i t fnd n J S az r g a t wa d s moton f volmt r dimi s lofCli 1;tndst tdef nt a e e il d t qualfe i or t a y s s a am s ha enda s r ntte o ii d i nt a t Cli 2, u n ta t Cli 3' imis sCli 4 wih u p eu ie d ne mmu iy s o am b t o s o am , s se am d t o t rj dc ' e is , de e n s'motonsf rpr t c i or r a s t as he e f dic r a t Cl m 3. f nda t i o o e tve de ' nd e s c dul or s ove y s o ai 2 , A . H ow ar s Cl m s d' ai Robe tPha oa Ho d,aVigi ai t pr e ng p oK ,fl t sci lrght a ton r z h war r ni nma e oce di r ied hi vi i s c i ptrua t 42U. C.j1 3,na ngt f l ngdefnda si istte:J. az r J me ls nt o S. 98 mi he olowi e nt n t il Stte , n s Ln be q D. c m r M Gowa VikiPhi ,S. n, c pps Loone E. uli , B. pps S. e ds y, M lns L. Phi , Fil , 1 Def endantV . Phipsh sfld amo i f rs p a ie ton o ummayj me to tegrun o q lfe r udg n n h o d f uaiid i niy a ont me isofHo r scl ms Theo h rde e a sCt s c iydee a t' , mmu t nd he rt wad' ai . t e fnd nt t e urt fnd n s' who he ) a er p e e t db spa aec ns lha eas fldamoto f s r e r s n e y e rt ou e, v lo ie in or ummayj dg n aguigt a t e ae r u me t r n h t h y r enttedt qualfed i uniy a t tHow a d' cl m gar wihoutm ert The s iy def il o ii mm t nd ha r s ai e t i. ecurt endant have s alo moved f pr e i or . s or ot ctve der Ot rpe i moto wilbea r s db s paaeor e t) he ndng ins l ddese y e r t d rs. , W hie s nhunt He C. Pa , ad, S. yne,a D.L.Ta e J . Li r ly c tue Howa d' c pli a nd t , r be al onsr d, r s om a nt nd a t hme salget f l ngcamsf rle unde j1983agans prs n ofkil a Re tac nt le he olowi li or eif r i t io t as t d O nl . * on. 1. On Ocobe 20, t r 2011ofi e sS.Loone a E.M uli s r hed fc r y nd lns ea c Howa d' c l a r po td fndi a 8-nc hom e a s nk, c Loone r s e l nd e re i ng n i h, m de hn whih y a M uli ha pr vi l plce t r ; nd lns d e ousy a d he e 2.On Oct r21 2011 Howa d fl d a e e ge y gre nc a obe , , r ie n m r nc iva e bout ha ng s r c s pa nsand Def nda sV.Phi ,St t r Ln be qand vi eve e he t i e nt pps aze , m r Mc Gowa deaye hi a es t m e c a s s m e orke t e ; n l d s cc s o dial s e s nt am nt 3.On Novembe 7,2011, l pas ofke sS. e ds W hie mt a r pil s t r Fil , s nht , nd He d a t ke Howa d wih t pilpas bo c usng pt t r wot i hi l f a tac d r t he l s x, a i mc u e mds n s e t f e r a c tnghi wrs, Sgt L. Phi s a d pe rs a on or n m nd uti s it and . B. pps pr ye ppe pr y Ho r wihoutm e ca a horzai whieTa e s r ied. wa d t di l ut i ton, l t upe v s 4. A fe pr s of i i s m ongf ly r m oved H o a d f o t Com m o t r i on f c al ul e w r r m he n Far Dit Quim Re dspr mie t cor c t mitke, fie t dos e e, z ynol o s d o re t he sa but ald o o. Asr i i t saci n, Howa d s e co pe aor a punii da a s. elef n hi to r e ks m ns t y nd tve m ge 3 B. H ow ard' M oton f D ef t s i or aul Ho r mo e f re tyofd fut u g n a an tDee d n J S az r( No 7 ) wa d v s o nr ea lj d me t g is fn a t . tte ECF . 4 . Howa d as e t t t ba ed ont r or t sdef nda hasf l t a a i t aci n wihi r s rs ha , s he ec d, hi e nt aied o ppe r n he to t n t tm ea l d f hi a he i lowe or s ppea a e. St t rwaved s r c o M ay25,201 a t n ha 60 r nc aze i e vie n 2, nd he d da fom M a 2,201 untlJ y 2,201 t fl atm ey r pons t Howa d' co pl nt ys ' r y 2 i ul 2 o ie i l es e o r s m ai . 3 I hi compl nt Ho r as s ug ti un t r l fdi ci t a hebeta fre n s ai , wa d lo o h n ci ei r t h t j ve e e ng rnserd. Becaus Howa d wastanser e fom Red Oni t W alensRi St t Pr s aferflng t s e r r f rd r on o l dge a e ion t ii hi c mpai , sde n f ij ncier ifa anst Re Oninotc r n me i t sa to i moo. o l nthi ma d ornu tv el g i the d o fies a d n hi cin s t e Se M ag ev. aes 8l F.d 45l( t Ci.1 ) Hi camsf rmon tr dn g s ho ve,s r ie e e W tr , 0 2 4h r 987 . s li o ea y ma e , we r u vv hi r l ain.Se M a i v v. nd ron 5 2 F.d 1( Ci.1 ) s eoc to e whnne He e s , 4 2 2d r 976 . 2 On J y 2,hec tg a ed ade e em oto f r30 a tona da t r s ul t our r nt f ns in o ddii l ys o e pond,a on Augus nd t 1 201 wihi t ttm em me,St t ra ot de e , 2, t n ha i f aze nd her f ndant fl ala we .Be us t r co d s ied r ns r ca e he e r t doe noti c t t Stt e i i de a t t c twilde Howar smoton f de a t hus s ndi a e hat a z r s n f ul, he our l ny d' i or f ul j d me ta meils . u g n s rte s C. Howar sM oton t Dim isCl m 1 d' i o s s ai Ho r move , ls n t Rul 41a( oft Fe rlRul ofCi lPr edme t wad s ptrua t o e ()2) he dea es vi oc ,o dimisli c am a i tDefnda sS.Loone a E. uli .Ast ei vi sa et s s ls l i gans e nt y nd M lns hes ndi dual r he o y de e nt i ntfed i Cli 1oft co pl nt t c t tue Ho r ss nl f nda s de ii n am he m ai ,he our consr s wa d' ubmison si a amo inf rv ln ayd s sa o Cli 1 fn a t ha en to j ce a t ec ur s to o ou tr imis l f am .Dee d n s v o b e td, nd h o t c n o fn ta te wil et u yprj d c db t rq e tdds o i o .Ac o dngy te n n t i d h t h y lb md l eu ie y he e u se ip st n c r i l,h i c t ilgr ntHow a d' m o i f vol ar di m i s lofCl i 1 Be us H o ar a l ges our w l a r s ton or unt y s s a a m . ca e w d le no o he c am sa i tLoone a M uli , he wilbet r i t a pa te t t a ton,a t r l i gans y nd lns t y l e m naed s ris o he c i nd Ho r smo inf rd f utud me t e adn t i cam ( No. 8 wil ed s s e a wad' to o ea lj g n r g r ig h s li ECF 5 ) l b imis d s m oot . D . Cl m 2: M e c N e ai di al eds 1. H ow ar sA le i ns d' l gat o Li r l c tue Howa d' f c u alegai c be aly onsr d, r s a t al l tons once i Cli 2 ofe t f l wi m ng am f r he olo ng s nc ofe nt .On Ocobe 21 2011 a 7: am .Howa d c eque e ve s t r , , t 00 . , r omplt a e e ge y eed n m r nc g iv n eC1 ', a kn No 0 21 ,oif r me ia saf h th wa s fei sv r re a c ERG' Trc ig . 3 21 t n o m d c l tf t a e s u frng e e e ) c tpai a br a hi to e, c het hes ns nd e t ng r ubl whih houghtmi be s ght ympt sofam id he r a tc om l a t ta k. he ec pt or ' r d o ( No.1 p. 12, 12 J.Stt ersgnedt r ei f an ERG fom Howar on Oct ber ECF , 2; - pp. -) a z i ocedtres equie t f o ie es o nm e' 21 2011 ( No.1 1, 2) Pr z r r s af t w rt a r ponse t an i at sERG , . ECF - p. and r tm li t hi wihi 8 hotr . W he De e et t o m t n ls n f ndan M c wa c m et Howa d' c l a 7: t Go n a o r s e l t 45 am.Ho r a k dM c wa t tk h m t me ia i u lt h smi h at ta k'a d . , wad s e Go n o a e i o dc lû e o i l e r atc ' n dl d M c o a s d t tH owa d m us be ali be a e he wasyeli . ( G w n ai ha r t rght c us lng ECFNo. . 4 31) N o o fom t me c uni c m et c k Ho d' pule, ood pr s e or ne r he di al t a o hec war s s bl es ur , t mpe atr a no onepe f m e a ec a di a . W he Ho d ha notr c ve a e r tle, nd ror d n hoc r ogr m n war d e ei d r pons t t ERG oram e c las esm e byt te ri he fl as condERG a 7: es e o he di a s s nt ha velng, ied e t 45 p. . Two ntr ese m i Howa d lt rt tni , ot hi a m ls xn ned r ae ha ght f md m mbultng i hi cel t hi a i n s l, ook s via sg ,a r e r d hi t s Dr M c i .The docore t l i ns nd ef re m o ee . Brde t xami Howa d o Oc obe 23, ned r n t r 2011a pr c i d ba a pii t t ot t' nd es rbe by s rn o û ec'Howa d' he r. pr r s a ts On Oc obe 26,2011 VikiPhi r c i d Ho d' Oc o r21 2011i o m a t r , c pps e e ve war s t be , nf r l c ompli ta a n boutt l c ofr pons t hi 7: mm .ERG.Phi r ponde t tt m e ca he a k es e o s 00 pps es d ha he di l d p rme th dn rc r o rc ii ERG 0 21 o Oco r21 2 1 ( No 1 1 p.1) e a t n a o e o d f e evng 3 21 n tbe , 01 . ECF . - , . St t e t d Ho dt the r me be edt ki Howa d' 7: a. .ERG t t medialt ta a z r ol wm' ha e m r a ng r s 00 m o he c mi nd gi ng i t amediala i sr t ,butdi no r m e rwho t tpe s wa . W hen Howa d vi t o c dm nita or d t e mbe ha r on s r tld ar ulrg i va a ie eg a re nce boutt l c ofr pons t ERG 03 21, hewa de nle t he a k es e o 21 t r n l d he gre nc E OUNDED'be a et ERG wa no r tm l d t Howa d wihi t pr s rbe iva e T ' c us he s t el e o r t n he e c i d tme fa i r me. Howar al gest tt de e nt kne he ha ahit y ofhe r toubl be or Oc obe d le ha he f nda s w d sor a tr e f e t r 2011 i udi t pro he r a t ks i 1 a 2005.Howm. c pli t tbe a eno , ncl ng wo i r a t tac , n 997 nd d om a ns ha c us 4 Thec r n e ta Ho r smoi frsmmayj gme tbe r smersmblnc t te ou t ots h t wad' ton o u r ud n as o ee a e o h f r c antdei d i Rul 1 ( )oft Fe r l e o Ci lPr e u e, t n o m ompli fne n e 0 a he de a Ruls f vi oc d r wih umbe e paa p r d r pa hs sa i s ct f csa ans s cfcd fnd n s Thi d ume ti n tsg du rp nat ofpej r ttng pe i a t g i t pe ii e e a t . s oc n s o ine nde e ly k ru y, buti t s rtoflber l consr ng a pr K ltga ' pl ngs Ercks v.Par ,551U . 89,94 n he pii i aly tui o ii nts eadi , i on dus S. . ( 00 ,tec ur ha rle on ia Ho r sce r tsae n ofhi alg dcai . 2 7) h o t s e id t s wad' laes ttme t s le e l ms Som e ofHowa ss rd' ubmi sonsalege t t doct pr rbed baby ms rn f Howa d t si l hat he or esc i pii or r wo daysbef e,r he t n t daysafer t Oct 2l,2011i de . or at r ha wo t , he ober nci nt 4 one r s nde wihi 8hotr t t 7: am . e po d t n ts o he 00 . ERG t t kehi vialsgnsorr n t s s no onewil oa s t i u e t, l e rû ve i know i ( ha amidhea t tac a 7: a. on'Ocobe 21, 1 f hel d l r at k t 00 m. ' t r 201 . 2. A pplcabl Law i e toualfe i ç iid mmuniypr tcsofke swhoc t oe t t r ommiconsiutonalvi ai butwho,i t tt i oltons n lghtofcla l e t bls d l w,c d r as na y bele t tt i a tonswe el ul' He y i e ry sa ihe a oul e o bl ive ha her ci r awf .' nr v. mll, 5 F.d 5 4, 31(t Ci. 01 )(ii S u irv. t, 3 U. 1 4, 6( 0 ) Pt el6 2 3 2 5 4h r 2 1 ctng a ce Kaz 5 3 S. 9 20 2 01, o e ze i pat yPe ro v. l ha , 5 U. 2 3( 0 9 Quaiidi ni as v m ld n r b a s n Cal n 5 5 S. 2 2 0 :. lfe mmu t lo a y pr e t ofk e swho ar s d f c ot c s t r e ue or onduc t tdoesnotvi a et pli tf sc tm tona t ha olt he a n if onsi i l rght . Sa e ,5 U. a 201 Thus t c tunde tke at se i uiy t addr s a i s ucir 33 S. t . , he our ra s wo-t p nq r o es quaiidi miydefns ()whehe t pl ntf salgai saeacam t tdee nt' lfe mmt t e e: a t r he ai if le tons tt li ha fnda s c n u t iltdac nsi i n l rsauo yrg t a i s ( wh t e t t ih wa ce ry o d c vo ae o t o a o tt tr ih ; nd f o,b) eh r ha rg t s lal mt e tbls d. Sa e ,533 U. at206. sa ihe ucir S. l t c tde e mi st tt f c sale dono s f he our t r ne ha he a t lged t how t tt ofi e ' c ha he tc rs onduc t v oae ac nsi to a rg t te t emo a t se tte t s mmayj g n o tego n o i ltd o t u in l ih ,h n h v n i nild o u r ud me t n h ' u d f t r qua ii i lfed mmuniy. I a 201 l s h c es dico r i no a opra e Si e tv.Gil y, t d. t . n uc as , s ve y s t ppr it . eg r le 5 0U. 2 , ( 9 1 . 0 S. 26 231 1 9 ) To pr t tt c ls ofm e c lte t nther ceve a ove ha he otr e di a r a me e i d mount d t a c tt to l e o onsiui na vi ai n,a i aem us s w t tpe s lt whos c r hewa c ol to n nm t t ho ha r onne o e ae s omm itd e bie te xhi t d ç i r t i fe e e't hi ts rousm e ca nee - Ese l v.Gnmbl 429 U. 97 1 l be ae ndif r nc ' o s te i del di l ds' tle ' e, S. , 04- 1 6( 9 6 . Plitf mus alg fcsd mo taigt t o j ciey, ee d n ' û cso 0 1 7 ) an if t le e a t e nsrtn ha, b e tv l d fn a ts t t r a o sin g r)s f e tyh r u, ta ted fn a tsc nd c c u e s ro ij r o miso s wee u t n l nmf l' h t h ee d n ' o u t a s d eius nu y r ki ' a a ton orde e i r to ofa e s i m ed c c ton. I a 1 A n o f c r a t w 11 ggr va i t ro ai n n xi tng i al ondii d. t 06. f i e c s 1: ç lbe a e i f e e e 'i he u w sofa di r ar a e es i rs t i a e he t or é i r t ndif r nc ' f kno de nd s eg ds n xc s ve i k o nm t alh s ft 'Fa me v.Br nna 511U. 825,837( 994 .Anofii ' i e i a toromiso aey. r r e n, ' S. 1 ) fcals ntntonal c sin t tme el de a a i ae' ac es t nec s a y me c lc r m a sa ea c tt to lc am , ha r y l ys n nm t s c s o e s r di a a e y tt onsiu i na l i butonl i pli if s y f a ntf howst tt de e ntsc ha he f nda ' onduc r s t i s t ntalhn m t t t e uled n ubsn i r o he p te t W e bv. miu lh 28 F. p' 1 9 1 6( t Ci. 0 8 (iigoh rc s s. ain . b Hn d la , 1 Ap x 5 , 6 4h r 2 0 ) ctn te a e ) 3. D i c s on s us i Ho r ha mo e f rs mmayj d me ta an tDee d nsS az r La e tV. wa d s v d o u r u g n g is fn a t tte, mb r, Php , n M c wa a t Cli 2.Th s d fnd nsh v mo e f rs mmayj d me t n ips a d Go n s o am e e ee a t a e v d o u r u g n o t g o ofq lfe i he r und uaii d mmuniy. Be us Howa d' f c ua al ga i a al r s bl t ca e r s a t l le tons nd l ea ona e i e e esfom t e a lga i do no s ppor atndi t ta oft de e nf r nc r hos le tons tu t i ng ha ny he f ndan s a ons t ' di c u e hi h r ted fn a t aee tte t sl r u g n o t g omdo q aiid a s d m a m,h ee d n s r n ild o l mmayj d me t n he r t f u l e f i t t bef eco plton ofdico r mm miy or m e i s ve y. Ho r sa l a i do nots wa d' leg tons uppor acai t ta nede e hi me c lc r . He t l m ha nyo ni d m di a a e a ist tntr e r s nde t hi Oc o r21 2011 c dm t ha ls s e po d o s t be , , ompl i sa tc s pa nwihi t ant bou he t i t n he da evaua e hi condii a r f r e hi t s eadocorwihi af w days Howa d' bei f y, l t d s ton, nd e e r d m o e t t n e . r s le t tt nm s s d havepe f m e a EKG o t ke o he t ssi no hi m or t n a ha he es houl ror d n r a n t r e t s t ng e ha dia ee ntwiht c ls ofte t ntwhih i notacina eunde j1 sgr me t he otre r ame , c s to bl r 983.Se W rM v. e iht Coln , 6 F.d 8 , 49( t Ci. 9 5 . lis 7 6 2 41 8 4h r 1 8 ) Ho r alo ha no c tt i lrg t r eve ar pons t hi ERG wili 8hom s wa d s d onsiutona iht o ec i es e o s tln . Thef tt ts e vi a e ERG pr e le by f ii t r s ac ha om one olt d oc dtr s a lng o e pond wihi t m a t d tm e t n he nda e i pe i i, m os,avi ai n ofsaer gultons wli h i nota c tt i lvi a i a i rod s at t olto tt e a i , lc s onsiutona olton nd s no a i eunde j 1 t ctonabl r 983. W elrv. p'ofSocilSe vc s 901F. 387,392( h Ci. le De t a r ie , 2d 4t r 1 9 ) Mo e v r Ho r o fr noa to iyo whihh c udb i acvl ci nf rd ma e 9 0 . r o e, wa d fes uh rt n c e o l rng i ia to o a g s 6 agans prs ofk il f vi a i ofgre nc pr edlr orf desr c i n ofa gre nc i t ion t a s or oltons iva e oc zes or tu to iva e f m. or Howar prmarl ar st tdef nda s alege c d i iy gue ha e nt ' l d onduc de a d hi ac es t m e ca t l ye s c s o di l a tnton. Thi a p l e f l t s t a co tt i lcl i be us H ow a d of e s no e de e te i s r m nt ais o t e nsim ona a m ca e r fr vi nc t tdefnda s a tonsha me hi . Ot rt n hi own belef , ha e nt ' c i r d m he ha s i s Howa d ale no f t on r lges ac s whih he c d e t bls t thes f r d ahea ta uck o a ot rs rousme c e ge y c oul sa ih ha ufe e r t r ny he e i di al mer nc on Oc o r21 2011 l i co mon knowldget tt c s pan and br a hi to eHowa d t be , . ts m e ha he he t i e t ng r ubl r a lgedl c le y ompl ne oft tmor ng a enotne es a y i cai ofahea ta tc a m a ai d ha ni r c s dl ndi tve r ta k nd y a s a a wih o he co tons s h asi ge ton. Howa d al gest twhe ntr es lo ppe r t t r ndii , uc ndi si r le ha n ls e ua e hi c to i t e ni ofOc o r21 2011 t y f t dno me c lne d f val t d s ondii n n he ve ng t be , , he om di a e or e e ge te t ta m e el r f re hi t s et doc or Howa d doe notalegeor m r ncy r a men nd r y e e r d m o e he t . r s l pr e a e de e t t a t r e m i ng hi on Oct r23, 1, he doc orm a a fndi es nt ny vi nc ha , fe xa ni m obe 201 t t de ny i ng t tHo r ha a t ly s f r d ahea ta tc ort thehad s f r a o he hn m fom t ha wa d d c ua l ufe e r ta k ha ufe ed ny t r r r he de a i pr di hi me c a tnton on Oc obe 21, 1.Howar a ist tt onl l y n ovi ng m dial te i t r 201 d dm t ha he y team e tt doc o al ge y pr de wa apr c i ton f baby a pii apr ve a i r t n he t r le dl ovi d s es rp i or s rn, e nt tve r gi n t tHowa d ha f l d ye r be or . Thus Ho r sf c uala lga i do not e me ha r d olowe a s f e , wa d' a t le tons s how t ta dea c us d by def nda s aci nsr ule i a s t ta ha m t hi a ha ny ly a e e nt ' to es t d n ny ubsnn i l r o m, s r quie t sa ea Ei h Am e e r d o t t n ght ndme cai i t sc e .W e 281F.App' a 1 67. nt l m n hi ont xt bb, x t 66A sH ow a d' a l ga i i Cl m 2 t f i t s a e a c tt t o lc a m a i ta of r s le tons n ai hus a l o t t ons iu i na l i ga ns ny t de e nt nn d, he ede e nt a ee il t qua ii i he f nda s me t s f nda s r ntted o lfed mmuniyund t frtf ce of t er he is a t t eS u irp o e me a tec u t l g a th i moin f rsl r j d me to ti h a ce r c d , nd h o r wi r n ter to s o l l mma y u g n n h s 7 S t g o 6 533 U . . a 206. Fort s mer a on,Ho r f l t d m onsr t t tar s bl r und. he n e s wa d ais o e ta e ha ea ona e j r rc u dfn i h sfvo o h sme ia cam, n a s c Ho r ' o moinf r u o o l i d n i a r n i dc l li a d s u h, wad s wn to o s mmayj g n mu tb d ne a t Cli 2 eAn es nv. b ryLo b l .4 7 u r ud me t s e e id s o am .Se d ro Lie t b v.nc, 7 U. 2 2, 2( 98 ) Fial b c u eHo r fist alg t t e e d n sPhp , tte , S. 4 25 1 6 . n l e a s wa d al o le e ha d f n a t ips Saz r y, Mc Gowa orLa r we epe s ly i l d i anyoft ot rc tt ina vi a i n, mbe t r r ona l nvo ve n he he onsiuto l oltons a lgedi t saci n, heco twildie tt ce k t tr na et m aspa tes le n hi to t ur l r c he lr o e mi t he ri . E. Cl m 3: Exc s ve For ai es i ce I i wele t bls d t tprs ofi a s %l c s r a wa on i lc i ofpan'on t s l sa ihe ha ion fcil ' hnne es a y nd nt nfiton i ' a i ae rs st t lvelofaco tt i lvi a i W hil v v.Al r ,475 U. 31 31 n nm t ie o he e nsiutona olton. te be s S. 2, 9 ( 986) a ogae onot rgrundsbyW iki v. ddy, 1 , br td he o l ns Ga U. S. ,1 S.Ct 11 ( 0) 30 . 75 201 . W h n a imaealg st a o t r usde e sv f r e t ec ur a k :()wh t e o t as e n n t l e h t f s e xc s ie o c ,h o t s s a eh r fkil, e ke s b e tv l , p le f retnag o fi ef r t man ano r so ed s il o maii u l u j ciey a pid o c û o d at fo to iti r e tr icpi r l o sy i h ne c a ds d sial f rtev r p r o eo c usnghn ' W hte , 7 U. a 3 0- , n ( n a itc ly o h ey u p s f a i nns ily 4 5 S. t 2 21 a d b) ' whe he t f ce a i d w a E rvi l' W iki ,1 S.Ct a 1 t r he or pple si nonti a . ' l ns 30 . t 779. The r e tf c or t el van a t s o c i ri t si lr ae:( )t ne df a i to off ce ( t r l ins pbewe nt onsde n hi nqtiy r 1 he e or pplcain or ,2) he eato hi t e he n e a dt ea u t ff r eta wa us d ( ) h e tn o t eij r , 4 tet ra ra o a y e d n h mo n o o c h t s e , 3 t e x e t f h n u y ( ) h h e t e s n bl pec ie b t r s o sbeofcasb s do tefcsk o t t e a ( )a ye frsma e rev d y he e p n il fiil a e n h a t n wn o h m, nd 5 n fo t d 6 Phi s a r ser nur e, s isan aY davi i s PP , egit ed s ubm t t n upportofhermoton f s mar i or um y j d me ti whc s esmmaie Ho r ' me ia rc r s ( No 2 , x. )Th rc r s u j n,n ih h u rz s wads dc le od . ECF . 5 E A. e e od i ca et N ur e Scot exam i Howa d i r pons t hi com pl ntofches pai a 7: p. .on ndl t hat s t ned r n es e o s ai t n t 00 m Oc obe 21 2011. She not t tHowa d w asnoti acut dites ,deni l sofcons ous s naus t r , ed ha r n e sr s ed os ci nes , ea, cough,vom ii s tng,and f r. Scot t Howar svialsr s a bas on t r uls di not tng, wea i eve t ook d' t i , nd ed he es t , d per or an EKG,butdi r f hi t s t physci On Oct 25,2011,t doct not t f m d e er m o ee he i an. ober he or ed hat H owar com pl ned t tf t pas week,afe a c lchange,he had e i d r r ches pai d ai ha or he t tr el xperence ecur ent t n, l tng f aboutam i e. Upon exa i ng How a d,t doct not no unus physcalsgnsor asi or nut m ni r he or ed ual i i ma i sain .Hen tdta Ho r c mpan do mi e iaki p i wi o t a o n ue .Th nf tto s e oe h t wad o lie f l yg s c an t u g s r a sa e d h doct pr crbed r tf ches pai a Ent rc coa ed as rn 81m ii am soncea da f 12 m ont . or es i es or t n nd e i t pil lgr y or hs On t sr d,t cour i s ifed t tnone oft def nda svi at How a d' consiutonalrght by hi ecor he t s ats i ha he e nt ol ed r s tt i i s del ng hi acces t m edi ca e f a s i medialnee on Oct ayi s so cal r or erous c d ober21,20l1.Neverhel s,t t es he c ur grn st emoto f rs mma yj me ta t Cli 2 o t g o nd o qu lfe i o t at h ins o u r udg n s o am n he r u f a iid mmuni t y. 8 t tmpe t s rt ofaf ceulr pons .L=a 321 i he prs ofiil malei l a o e r he eveiy or f es e d t . t n ion fcas i ousy nd W s ditcal us f r et c us hn m,c e a si ly e o c o a e r ont mpor r sa r ofde e y a waysar a y t nda ds c nc l e v oae . . eh ro n t irfc n ij r i e ie t' Hu o , 0 U. . t9( mp a i i ltd. . wh te r o szl ia t nu y s vd n . ds n 5 3 S a e h ss i ' a d d. d e) Li a l c t i Howa d' s iso co nlng t e t a is i Cl i 3, ber ly onsrung r s ubm s i ns nce i he ven s t s ue n am he pr s nt t f l ngf t a lga i . On Nove r7,2011 whe hewasonl tyi t g t e e s he olowi acual le tons mbe , n y r ng o e hi me c ton dm i pilpas ,Sgt L. Phi a Ofi e sFi l ,Hea a W hie mt s di a i ng l s . B. pps nd fc r eds d, nd s nht a tc hi w11 t pilpas box,a naisfom t box puncur d li l tf e r a c hi ta ked m 11 he l s nd l r he t e ls ef or a m nd ut s wrs. Howa d alo al ge t tSgt Pli ,kno ngHowa d hasashm a t n a i ser d it r s le s ha . lpps wi r t , he dm nit e pe rs a wihou mediala ho ia i Howa d al ge t tass pe v sng ofi e o t ppe pr y t t c ut rz ton. r le s ha u r ii fc r n he s e De e ntTae di notpr e tHowm' fom t us soff r eby hi s di t ofk e s c ne, f nda t d ot c d r he e oc s ubor nae t r . I a ton t s a son li wrs, n ddii o c r ls it Howa d al gedl s f e a ashm aa tc a coughe bl r le y ufer d n t ta k nd d ood a ar s toft i i nt s e ul he ncde . The c tc udest ton t f c ofhi s iso , our oncl ha he a e s ubm s i ns Howar ha a lged s t i t d s le ufk en f c st sae apos i eEi h Ame m e vi a i t s vve de e nt 'i tala s ri n of a t o tt sbl ght nd nt olton o ur i f nda s nii s e to qua iid i lfe mmuniy.Ta n i t lg mos f vo a et hi , t ke n he i ht t a r bl o m Howa d a lgest thewa no r le ha s t po iga ytr a wh nt eo tc r p r osl ijle hi am wi t ep lpa sb xa s ry d sn n i e t e h fi es u p ey nt d s r t h il s o nd p a e l r h hi wih ma ,whih agg a t hi a t m t ce c r vaed s shma.Unde s h cic l sa s t s ofk e sc d r uc r zm t nce , he e t r oul no ç ea o bl be i ve t tt i a tons w e e l u .' H e y,652 F. a 531 The ef r t t t s na y le ha he r c i r r awf l' nr 3d t . r o e, he c u t o ld st thes c rt d fn a t' to frsl r j g n mu t ede id o o r c ncu e ha t e u iy ee d ns moi n o l mma y ud me t s b ne n t gr md ofqua ii i lniy ast Cli 3. he ot lfed mm l t o am D e enda sha s it d e de e a f nt ve ubm te vi nc boutH ow a d' a to on N ove be 7, 1,a r s c i ns m r 201 nd ar t tt de s h cic s a es t i us off c a i thi r pr s nt a good f ih gue ha m r uc r um t nc , he r es or e ga ns m e e e ed at 9 e f t or sor or a di notvi a ehi co tt i lrght. Be or a e sng de e for t e t e der nd d olt s nsiutona i s f e ddr s i f ndant' s mo inf rsl r u g n o t emeiso Ho r se c siefr ecam, o v r t to o l mmayj d me t n h rt f wad' x e sv oc li h we e ,he c t l diec t m t r s ndt Ho r spr rdico r r quessr a e t Cli 3. To our wil r t he o e po o wa d' ope s ve y e t elt d o am t a e d tec u t l tk d fn n s mo inf rs mma yj d me tu d ra vie n , e y h t n ,h o r wiln e ee da t' to o u r u g n n e d s me t d n de e nt 'm oto f pr e tveor r a s tadic r s dul f nda s i ns or ot ci de , nd e s ove y che e. Def nda s afi visdipu i Howar sal gai ofe es i f cepr cl e nt ' fda t s tng d' le tons xc sve or e ude Ho r smo inf rs mma yj g n o Cli 3.Th c u t l d n h smoi n wad' to o u r ud me t n am e o r wil e y i to . F.C l m 4: Re i ousD i tI s s ai lgi e s ue Th c ur fn sta Cli 4mu tb ds se fo t sa to wi o t eu c . e o t id h t am s e imis d r m hi cin t u prj die h AlhoughHowadme i Qui Re dsi t G fi vi'whihs t outCli 4, t r ntons nn ynol n he t fda t' c es a am c eni Howad' rlgi di ,Howa ddi noti ntf Quim Reynol asadefnda i onc r ng r s ei ous et r d de iy l ds e nt n t et l o hsc mp an , srq ie u e Rue 1 () Ac o dngy, nt ed c e,h c u t i h ie f i o lit a e ur d nd r l 0a . c r i l o h o k tt e o r dd t notde i t Re dsasade e nta di no a tmpts r ie ofpr es on hi .Thus sgna e ynol f nda nd d t te e vc oc s m , Re dsi no apa t t t sc e.M or ove , ynol s t ry o hi as e r Howa d doesnotal a cl m t tt r lege ny ai ha he de e nt who a ec r nty pa tesi t c eha a pe s f nda s r ure l ri n he as d ny r onali ve nti Howa d' nvol me n r s r lgo d e p o lms Se 28U. C. 1 5 b ( )(uho iigs mma yd s sa wh r eiius it r b e . e S. j 91 A( )1 a t rzn u r imis l ee alegainsf lt saecai o whihr lefc nbegrnt . l to ai o tt l m n c ei a a ed) Thec u ta s u iil oieo t ef c ta Ho r hm r ie ane ryie tc l o r tke j dca n tc f h a t h t wad s as d al d n ia r l iusd e cam i aspaaej 1 8 c mp an , i di J l 2 2 Ho r v. e sn . t a. ei o it li n e rt 9 3 o lit fl n uy 01 , wad Pla a t e. 1, g e Cas No. 1 e 7:2CV00321.l t ne c e, n he w as Howads sQui Re ds Ofke C.Tilr a r ue nn ynol , t r le , nd Red Oni n Food Se v ce D ie orJ m e W a ove t i a l ge i ve e i t s pe i o ri r ct n s de r he r le d nvol m nt n he us ns on ofHowa d' Co mon Fa e Di ta ori f lngt c r c m it kest tl dt iss pe i r s m r e nd/ n aii o ore t sa ha e o t us nson. 10 Unde t s c r lm sa es t c t i i a opraet s r he e icl t nc ,he our fnds t ppr i t o umm a iy dim isCli 4 rl s s a m fo ti lws i wi o t rj dc .Th sd s o iinla e Ho r fe t pzs ehi rlgo s r m h s a ut t u p eu ie i ip sto e v s wad r e o l u s ei iu h r ditcai i li o he c vi a ton. e l m n ls t r i l c i G.Co l in nc us o Fort sae r a ons t co tgr nt Howar sm o i n f rvol ar dim is lofCli he t td e s , he ur a s d' to o unt y s s a am 1 g a t d fn a t' to f rsz r u g n o teg omdo q aiid i mi a t , r ns ee d ns moins o l mmayj d me t n h rt f u lfe mmt t s o y Cli 2 d nistes c rt d fn a t' to f rsl r j d me to t eg omdo am ; e e h e u i e e d n s moin o l y mmay u g n n h r t f q aiidi nt a t Cli 3; n d s se Cli 4wi o tp eudc t Ho z spls i u l e mmu iy s o am a d imiss am f t u rj ie o wad' t ut h r ofhi sm ia cai i hi o he pe ng cvi a ton.Ast t me isofCl m 3,hec t a s i lr l m n s t r ndi i l c i o he rt ai t our t kes t es c rt d fnd n s mo inf rsz r u g n t e a v s me ta dd nister h e u iy ee a t' to o lmma yj d me t md r d ie n n e e h i moinsf rp oe t eo d ra wela Ho r smo in frs mmayj dg n a dd ful to o r tci r e s l s wad' to s o u r u me t n ea t v j d me t Ana p o raeo d ra t t e ema tr wil su t sd y i whc t ec u t l u g n. p r p it r e s o h s te s l is e hi a ,n ih h o r wil alo a e sHowa d' motonsr ga di d s ve y a s ta dic r s he e. s ddr s r s i e r ng ico r nd e s ove y c dul TheClr i die t d t s nd c esoft sm e a lm opi on a a ompa ng e k s r c e o e opi hi mor nd l ni nd cc nyi or rt pl ntf . de o ai i f ENTER:Ths 1 d yo Dee e, 2012. i % a f cmb r Chi Unie Stt Diti tJ ef t d aes src udge 11