-RSB Rambo v. Director, Department of Corrections, No. 7:2012cv00034 - Document 24 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 5/4/12. (tvt)
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cLERK' oFFp u s nt ccour s cE s' A o s lt ,l T A v(- v .i . FL D- G AJ IE & I TH E UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FO R TH E W ESTE RN DI STRI T O F V I G I I C R N A R OA N O K E D IV I N SIO R O BERT E AR LE M M B O , Pet toner, ii DI ECTO R,D EPA R TM EN T O F R CO R R EC TIO N S, R es pondent. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) MAt 24 2 1 22 J C. UL DUDLEK C BY: EP> CL C i lA cton N o.7: cv-00034 vi i 12- M EM O M N D U M O PINIO N By: H on.Jacks L.K i e on sr Seni Uni ed Stat Di t ctJudge or t es s ri R o r Ea l Ra bo,a V i gi a i a e pr e ng pr K ,fl d a pe ii n f r a wrtof be t re m r ni nm t oce di o ie tt o o i ha sc pus purua t 28U. C.j225 Peii raguest ti feci asitnc of bea or , s nt o S. 4. ttone r ha nef tve ssa e co ela e r r by t Cour ofAppe l ofV igi a c us hi unl f c uns nd r o he t as r ni a ed s aw ul onvi ton. ci Res ponde fl d am oton t di mis a pe ii rr s nt ie i o s s , nd ttone e ponded, a ng t ma t rpef m ki he ter i or di pos ton. A fe r vi w i t r co d,1g a r ponde ' m oton t dim i s a di m i st s ii t r e e ng he e r r nt es nts i o s s nd s s he petton. ii A j r i teCic tCo t ft eCiyo Ly c b r (cic tCo l lfu peiin r u y n h rui ur o h t f n h u g û rui uf' o nd t o e t t guit ofs cond- r e mur r us ofafr nu i t co m ison ofam ur r a dic r ng ly e deg e de , e iea n he m s i de , nd s ha gi afr a m i a occ e buidi .1 The Cic tCour s nt nc pe ii ne on Aprl1 , 2006, t , ie r n n upi d l ng r ui t e e ed tto r i 4 o i e a i f t t ee yea s i prs e . The Co tofAppe l o V i gi a a fr e t nt r la, or y-hr r ' m i onm nt ur a s f r ni f i m d he c c i ns a t Supr m e Cour ofV i g ni r f ed pe ii ne ' pe ii f a onvi t o , nd he e t r i a e us tt o r s tton or ppea on l Se e be 24,2008. pt m r Pe ii ne f l d a s a e habe pe ii wih t Cic tCour on Se e ber23, 2009. tto r ie tt as tton t he r ui t pt m Pettonerar ii gued fi grounds f r i ve or elef: l j r aq te p tin rof u gaywh l a dwi ad a l we p na du i afram whi c mmit g The uy c uitd eio e b r lr ie nne t e dy a o n sng ier t h l o ti e n bur ar gl y. K ( Couns f l t r s bl a a quaeyc os-xami a i c ke 1) el aied o ea ona y nd de tl r se ne nd mpea h y Com m onwea t w ine sJ e J lh t s os ph ohns J . pa tc a l by pr on, r , ri ul r y operutlza i o ii ton f Johnson' m at alcont adi i bet een hi ti t i ony and hi prort i ony s eri r ct ons w s r al estm s i estm t as e il rndj r o p ca g a u y; ( )Coms l n u tfa l p eudc dp t in rb ito u igit e i e c te 2 t e u j siiby rj ie ei o e y n r d cn n o v d n e h t o h r s-n d s il a dhihl p eudca o to -o r sae nso M eis t e wie ia misbe n g y rj iil u - fc u t ttme t f lsa Bur sby f ii t ha a i e hi s foft c r lng l w r ga di r da ton ges a lng o ve pprs d m el he ont oli a e r ng e c i of s a e e s a by f lng t ha t r u t t m nt nd aii o ve he e pon m ove t t i co tt r c t d he ral ur o eda t he p eu iil t ewie ia misbep rin o tesae n s rj d ca o h r s -n d si l o t s f h ttme t; o ( )Couns f l t movet wihdrw uponbengexpos dasha ngknowi ya 3 el aied o o t a i e vi ngl nd i e i l mirpr s ntdt t j ya t co tt c e oft hi y ntntonaly se e e e o he ur nd he ur he ontnt he ghl p eu iil u - fc m'sae nso M eis Bu g s, a i gte e yp t ms l i rj d ca o to -o t ttme t f l a r e s h v n h r b u hi ef n s j o ad o b i gh l i c n e to c u t ndt ee fe r fane fo a g i gt e e p r y f en ed n o tmp f o r a h ra tr er i d r m r u n h w e le t bls l i V igi a t ts h s a e ent m a be a opra el r da t d l- s a i hed aw n r ni ha uc t t m s y ppr i t y e c e upon r eque tand f ie t i or a di c s wih pe ii s a l d o nf m nd s us t ttonert confi t ofi e e t he lc s nt r s ; ( )OnJ n ay 1 , 0 5 c u s l aldt o j c t t eCic i Co r' fiu et f l 4 a u r 9 2 0 , o n e fie o be t o h r ut u ts alr o ul y, f il, nda c rtl isr c tej r a t t 1w r g r i maiea dh a of ary a c u aey n tu t h u y s o he a e adng l n e t c p sin a c t e f i dt rq e t or c j r i t zto so t smatr a d a so , nd oms l al o e u s c re t u y nsn cin n hi te ; n e ( )Afe t j r sJ n ay 1 , 0 5 v r it o g ito in c n e c u e fie t 5 tr he u y' a u r 9 2 0 , edcs n u l r n o e c , o nsl ald o mo et s ta ietej r sg i yv r it o t ego dt a t s v r it wee v o e sd h u y' ul edcs n h r un h tho e edcs r t i pe m i sbl i ons s en a t tt c bi ton ofal t ve ver c s ne es ia e m r s i y nc i t t nd ha he om na i li di t c s t t d t uns t i bl c us on t tt pe ii he us a na e oncl i ha he ttonerha m a i e butt r had be n no d lc he e e t nt ntt co m i m ur rori unt y m a l ught r'a no û pe fc i e t û e o m t de i nvol ar ns a e ' nd d cii nt nt o s lil' tl.' On Aprl22,2011, he Cic tCour de e m i d pe ii rdi notr c vei feci i t r ui t t r ne ttone d e ei ne f tve as itnc ofc ssa e ouns la dim is d t pe ii e nd s s e he tton.Pe ii ra a e t t Supr me Co tof ttone ppe l d o he e ur V igi a, hi h r f e t a r ni w c e us d he ppea on O c obe 27,2011 a di m i s d a petton t r he ron l t r , nd s s e ii o e a J nuar 1 201 a untm e y. a y 9, 2, s i l Peii ne fl d t i t ntpeii n on J nua y 1 201 a mne d t pe ii n o tto r ie he nsa tto a r 9, 2, nd nde he tto n Febr r 6,201 t i ude a af i vi a l te st s ppor pe ii r ss cond f de a ha s ua y 2, o nd n fda t nd e t r o u t ttone ' e e r l bea cai Peii rsfder cams()t ough( aet smecli ( )t o h ()pr s td l m. ttone ' e al li 1 hr 4) r he a ams 1 hr ug 4 eene t t Supr e CourtofV igi a dur ng habeasr ew . Pei one ' fderlcai () whih o he em r ni i evi tt rs e a l m 5 , c i pe ii rpr e e t t Supr m eCour ofVig ni d i diec r vi w,a gues ttone es nt d o he e t r i a urng r t e e r : ()TheCour ofAppeaser di afimi t tilcour' decso t de i t dimis 5 t l re n fr ng he ra ts iin o clne o s s t ei dcme t e ap r o eo tes e il rndj r h db e t c mp l e t n h n it n wh n u p s f h p ca g a u y a e n o o e tsi y mo w hi h co d notbe co peled be aus i e e ded t s c ul m l c e t xc e he cope oft s ci gr nd he pe al a j r spo r a i r si ys u h t c mpa t n aiet etsi n wi o t u y' wes nd mpemisbl o g t o p rme tlz h e t y t u mo h c os - m i ton. r s exa na i B. The Ci c tCour r vi w e t ti r co d and r cied t f l i f c st s r ui t e e d he ral e r e t he olow ng a t o uppor t t he dimis ofpeii rssaeha aspeii See28U. C.j225 d ( ndai deee il s sal ttone ' tt be tton. S. 4() ma tng frnta rviw ofsaec tsdeemi tonoffct) Y1tv. e e tt our' tr nai a s; s Nunne ke ,501U. 797,803( 9 ) ma r S. 1 91 ( o dn t a af d rlc u t a rl o ar ao e saec u tu g n r sigp i rl o h l ig h t e ea o r c n ey n e s n d tt o rj d me t e tn rmaiy n fd r l a wh nltru x ane saec u t r esu hodt t ud me t; o e v. u rv e e a lw e ae ne pli d tt o r o d r p l ha j g n ) J n s M ra , 947F. 11 111 ( h Ci.1 )(ttngwrte fndi ofhit i lf tbyt saeco t 2d 06, 0 4t r 991 sai itn i ngs sorca ac he tt ur aepr s dt becore ta e ildt defrnceunl ss wnt beerone ) r eume o rc nd ntte o ee es ho o r ous. On t eve ng ofJ y 1, he ni ul 2005,Robe tRa bo a hi l tm e gilr e a r m nd s ong-i rf i nd nd m ot rofhi t e c l e M e i s Bur s , a a g e ove t f tt t he s hr e hidr n, ls a ge s had n r um nt r he ac ha Ra bo w o d ha t w or on J y 3 d. A fe wa d Btr s l tf he m ot r s m ul ve o k ul r tr r zges ef or r he ' hous t ca m dow n. eo l W hie Bur sw asa he m ot ' hous he br he , os ph J l ges t r her s e, r ot r J e ohns al o on, s kno astBuddy, c m eby wih hi find Ant y Keih Nanc Bur s wn i ' a ' t s re hon t e. ge s agr e t go outwih J ms a Na t ha af w drnks M e nwhie, ed o t ol on nd nce o ve e i . a l Ra bo s a a hom e w ih t i c l r n. m t yed t t he r hid e Bur s J ges , ohns a Na el f i Na e' wo k va wih M ei s i t font on nd nc e4 n nc s r n, t ls a n he r pas e r s t N anc drvi a J s nge ea , e i ng nd ohns n sti on a c e i t ba k. The o itng ool r n he c y fr tw e t R ub' , he e J i s nt o s w r ohns a N a e dr nk bee a M e i s ha C ue on nd nc a r nd ls a d t Bl M o or ycl y'adrrk c itng off dif r ntki oflquor The sa t c es' il ons si our fe e nds i . y tyed t r a he e bouta hour a ac or ngt J ms sti lt si n , nd, c di o ol on' ra e tmony,Na a hi nce nd s sse we et ki a havi a g tme. it r r al ng nd ng ood i Att s cond ba ,M a iyn' , he a1 dr nk be rbec us no lquor w a s we he e r rl s t y l a e a e i s el d t e.... A tM ar l s,N ance t d M elss s had pr t hai and began t her iyn' ol i a he ety r o sr herhai M els t toke r; i sa hanked hi and di notappearups . m d et The ne we t O ' re sr sa a twhe et y dr rk mor mi d drnks y xt nt o Cha ly' e t ur n r he a l e xe i ; J ohns t tf e t the a N a dr nk t quia a hi s s e M e i s C a on es ii d ha nd nce a e l nd s i t r ls a t s w drnki Bl M ot c l s' The s ti ab0 h a O' rey' untla i ng ue or yc e .' y a n 0t t Cha l s i bout2: 00 a. . N a a Bur s s tt t on o s de oft 100t a a a e t be m ; nce nd ges a oge her ne i he 7 h nd ppe r d o ge tng a o t ea goo 'a w e e S ti l ng t l d' nd r k r huggi a t ki ' A c or ng t ... ng nd al ng. ' c di o Ra lf ,t ba t r a O ' r e s Bur s a N anc w er t l cl e ti f he rende t Cha l y' , ge s nd e e ç ' os ve y t t r ' a w er l ughi a t ki and drnki Bl M ot c l . oge he ,' nd ea ng nd al ng i ng ue or yc es J ohns s i t Ra lf ,i Bur s a N a e' pr s nc t tt y w e e goi t on a d o ti f n ges ' nd nc s e e e, ha he r ng o ge ar ,a Bur s ha no ne tve r a to t t tc ment t oom nd ge s d ga i e c i n o ha om . At2: a. .whe t ba cl e Na e,Bur s , nd J hns n wentoutt 00 m n he r os d, nc ge s a o o o Na c ' v n.Th yj k d a o t ongt teb a hb f r J h s nc a e i t n es a e o e b u g i o h e c e o e o n o r wld no t ba k oft va and f l as e p. he c he n el le J f Tr y, he ni m a ge a t Be tW es e n M o e i Ly hbtr t s ii d ef o t ght na r t he s tr t l n nc lg, e t fe t tK e t N a c ked i o t m o e a ha ih nce hec nt he t l bout3: a. . J y 2,2005,l vi 00 m on ul ea ng a phot opy ofhi drver s lce e a hi na e a a e s w ih Tr W he oc s i ' i ns nd s m nd ddr s t oy. n N a e c ke i o t m o el he w a a a f om hi va f fve m i es W he nc hec d nt he t , s w y r s n or i nut . n a ke w he he he w a e a s o ng ornon- m oki r , a e t s d t r nt d m ki s ng oom N nc houghtf r a o m i e a s i ts m ay w a t s oke a s oki r . Tr t n r nt d nut nd a d she nt o m , m ng oom ' oy he e e ' N anc Roo 301, he r m c os tt t ofi e. e m t oo l es o he tc So e i lt ron,J hns wasa ke d i t ba k oft va by Bur s a m tme a e o on wa ne n he c he n ge s nd N a e w ho pl yed a t i k on J nc , a rc ohns by t li hi t y w e e a t bea h. on e lng m he r t he c Ho v r J h s nq ikl r aie t ywe ej kigwhe h lo e ao n a d we e , o n o uc y e lz d he r o n n e o k d ru d n notce t s gn f a f m ii rLy hbur r s a an , yr ' . J i d he i or a la nc g e t ur t M t s ohns t s ii on e tfed t thi s s e M els a and ... a e bot a ar d t be i a good m ood,a t t ha s it r is N nc h ppe e o n nd ha s di nota he d ppea ups to ne v . The a lw e i i t r ,w he e r e r r ous y 1 nt ns de he oom r Jo on s w t tç he c r w e e a1 m e s up on t t r tbed t t r g .' hns a ha û ove s r l s ed t he i s o he i ht' The s tdow n,dr nk s e be a s oke s e c gar tes N a s a y a a om er nd m d om i e t . nce' nd Bur es ' D NA w er l t i ntt e o s e oft be r c ns a c g r te buts g ss e a er de ii d n om he e a nd i a e t t l it r . eft n he oom A s ttm e l t r Bur es 'c l phone r ng,a s be am e ve y f i e d a hor i a e , g s e l a nd he c r r ght ne nd s i t tRa ad ha mbo kne whe e s w a . Shes i s w a t t g ...a s lf w r he s a d he n ed o o nd he e l t m ot room . Johns deci t go t sl he el on ded o o eep. Acc di t J f Tr a f w m i e l t r Ra bo pule up a pa ke i t or ng o ef oy, e nut s a e , m ld nd r d n he mi eoft m ot pa ki l t Tr hea d hi yelng a M els a Bur s , ddl he el r ng o . oy r m li t i s ge s s ng l hi h r ayi d c oom i he i ' Tr s a e i d ee e lke s w a t yi t c l w s n'; oy t t d t ç m d i he s r ng o a m s hi dow n. U li a e y, mnbo a Bu ge sw e t Room 301 w he e N anc a m ' tm t l R ' nd r s nt o r e nd J ohns w e e. Ra bo puthi t b ove t pe phol a bega t ba on t on r m s hum r he e e nd n o ng he 4 door W he no o a we ed,hehadBur es come o rt t doort c lf . n ne ns r g s ve o he o al or he br t rt ope t door ... r o he o n he . J ohns t tf e t taboutf fe n m i e a t r M els a l f t r ,s e on es ii d ha ite nut s fe i s e t he oom om one wasi s bangi on t door' Ket N a e sare t go t t doo , J ng he .' ih nc t td o o he r but ohns on t d hi C o 1 ti go' bec us he kne i waspr ol m l e t ' a e t w t obabl Ra bo. J y m ohns l on ooked outt pe phol ,butRam bo had hi t b ove t hol . W he Bur st n he e e s hum r he e n ges he c ldt ale t Buddy,Buddy, Buddy' t ough t door J ' hr he , ohns t on houghtt thi s s e ha s i t r w asi t oubl f om R a bo,a he ope d t doo f he . She c m e i wih a n r er m nd ne he r or r a n t ( rghtull o he f e'a Ra bo c m ei be ndhe . l i f ook n r ac ' nd m f a n hi r Ra bo w a a m e w ih a . c lbe s m i ut a i pi t a w e sr i o r m s r d t 380 a i r e a om tc s ol nd nt t a ght ve t t bed a t r d t e s t a N a a he l on t be J o he nd i e hr e ho s t nce s ay he d. ohns s a e t t on t t d ha N a l dn' kno w ha w asgoi on. H e l ned up outofhi s e p w hen he nce i di t w t ng ea s le m a afe t f r ts a ybe t r he i s hot boutsx t t e ve i hes A nd t l tw or t c e i o w l nc . he as d o om outofhi mo h... wha(i a t tsi. J ontsiidt tRn s ut was sc) nd ha ' t' ohns e tfe ha mbo ' t e rghtbe w e n ... y s s e a m e,a wen ove t t tbed a s c nt i w t e m i t r nd nd t r o ha nd hot K e t l yi r ghtt r i c d bl ' ih a ng i he e n ol ood. ' Ones we i o Na ' lf t gh a o a i t up t s f ofhi pe s hot nt nt nce s e t hi nd ut ga n, hen he ha t s ni, tuough hi bl dde , i ly s oppi i hi ba k. A not rs e e e t out i l s a r fna l t ng n s c he hot nt r d he s de ba k pori n ofN a e' l tt g a e t d t oug t f o . The t r bule , c to nc s ef hi h nd xie hr h he r nt hi d l t whi h w asr pi y l t ,s r k N a i t he r . c a dl e hal t uc nce n he a t J ohns t on houg Ra bo w a goi t kilhi asw e l s he r n o oft r ht m s ng o l m l, o a ut he oom a hi Ra bo t k Bur st t Lync nd d. m oo ges o he hbur Ge r lHos t le e ge y g ne a pia m r nc r oom a d r po td t t nur eon dut t tBur es ha be n r pe Hos t l n e re o he s y ha g s d e a d. pia s c iy ca l d t polc a Ram bo w a l t ra r t d by Lync e ur t le he i e nd s a e r es e hbur polce a g i t t hos t . Bur sw ase m i d by a ... or ns c nur e e m i r a t he pial ges xn ne f e i s xa ne t he hos t whohadr cevedSANE tani (ndq...f t tBur s ha no pial e i r i ng a ound ha ge s d ij re a s cae wi r p . n u is so itd t a e h The g wa ne rf un s ve ouhd; mbo l t t sii d a hi ti lt thet s d t gt Ra aer e tfe t s ra ha os e he m i o a r ir c c on hi w a t t hos t lw ih Bur s nt a load oal ar s y o he pia t ges . R a bo v. i . t D e tofC o r , o. ,0900 m D r of he p' r . N C1 4085,si op. t2- ( Ci.CtApr 22, lp a 5 Va. r . . - 201 (ec dciainsomit . 2) r or tto ted) 1 1. A fde a cour ma g a ha asr i fom asaecourj e r l t y r nt be elef r tt tudgmen to yont g o t çnl he r und t tghepeii li i c t i vi ain o t Consiutonorlwsorte tesoft Unie ha t ttoner s n usody n olto f he tt i a rai he td 5 Stts' 28U. . j2 44 A fd r l o r ma g a t ha e speii nf ra ycam ta t e ae . ' SC. 25 $. e e a c u t y r n a b a t o o n li h t h t saec ur a j dc tdo t emeiso l i t saec u t cso wa c n rr t o a tt o t du iae n h rt ny f he tt o r de ii n s o tay o, r n unr s bl a i a i of cl ary es a i he f r ll w orbas on a unr as bl ea ona e pplc ton , e l t bls d ede a a ed n e ona e d tr n to o t ef cs 28U.. j2 4 * . eemiain f h a t. SC. 25 4 The e ua i ofwhe he a s a e co tde s on i ç t a y t 'o t n unr a ona e val ton t r t t ur cii s û r r o' r s con a e s bl a i ton of' e allw i ba e on a i pe ntr e ofe h sanda d. W iln sv. pplcai f der a s s d n nde nde eviw ac t r lim Ta or 529U. 362,41 13( vl , S. 2- 2000) saec tdecsoni Sc r r t 'e rl1w i t .A tt our ii s 'ontay o'fdea a f he de sont ri a ac usonoppost t t tr a he by(heUniedSttsSupr me)Co t cii t rves t oncl i a ie o ha e c d t t ae e ur onaquesi oflw ori t saec t i ac edifrntyt n gheUnie Stts ton a f he tt our decdes as fee l ha t td ae Suprme Cour ha onastofmaeilyi si s bl fcs' l a 413.A fiur t ct e ) t s e tral nditnguiha e a t. d. t ' al e o ie e t bls d U nie St t Supr m e Cour pr ce ntdoe no r nde a dec s on i nt a y' t s a i he t d a es e t e de s te r ii t r r ' o co fde a lw.M ic l v.Es z 5 U. l 1 ( e rla thel para, 40 S. 2, 6 2003) . A f de alc tm a is t wrtund t tt e ona eapplc ton' c a ei t e r our y s ue he i er he smr as bl i a i ' l us f he fd r l o r fn st t h saec u tt e tfe t c re tg ve ngl g l rn i efo ( e e a c u t id ha t e tt o r Ed n iis he o r c o mi e a p i cpl r m t i he Supr me Cour' de sonsbutunr as bl a ist tprncpl t t f t oft prs ' e j ts cii e ona y pple ha i i e o he acs he ioners c s . W il ms 5 9U. a 41 .Th sr a o a ln s sa adi a o j cieo e 1 . t 0. a e' li , 2 S. t 3 i e s n be e s tnd r s n be tv n . d a 41 ' a A f rlc trviwi aha speiinE eumeg)t gttle tsf t l edea our e e ng bea tto s s s he sae our' acua pr tndi st bes i ng o ound unl sg ttone lrbut thepr s i ofc r t s by dea a es peii r e s t eumpton orecne s r nd c n icn e i e c .' ilrEl Drt e 5 U. 2 , 4 ( 0 5 ( u tng28U. C. o vn ig v d n e' l - v. ek , 45 S. 31 2 0 2 0 ) q o i 'M e S. j225 e)1) Se e. ,Lenzv.W as ncon,444F.d295,300- ( hCi. ) t 4( ( ). e, 2. hi t 3 01 4t r 2006 . ; A s a e c tf c ua de er i ton i no unr as bl m e e y be a e t f de a ha asc t t t - our a t l t m na i s t e ona e r l c us he e r l be our 6 w oul ha r c a di f r tco l i i t fr ti t nc ' W ood v. le 558 U . d ve ea hed f e en nc us on n he i s ns a e. ' A l n, S. , 1 S. .841 849( 0) 30 Ct , 201 . Tos uppor cli ( , ttoners e ntdt peii wihlter anda afda t t am 2) peii upplme e he tton t et s n fi vi f om B.Le gh Dr w r J . a a t ne who r pr e e Bur s durng t polce i tga i r i e y, r, n tor y e es nt d ges i he i nves i ton. D r w r a st the s e y ver ha poke wih t pr e ut r a rpe ii ' c cton a t tt t he os c o he ttoner s onvi i nd ha he pr e ut t d Dr w r t couns l os c or ol e y hat e: g i no t r g yr a o d dn t e d ( r e sqs e il rn j r tsi n Dld t hoou hl e d r i o ra Bu g s ' p ca g a d u y e tmo y. l ( uns jhad,gouns lwoul ha known a ( ges jtsi f co el c el d ve bout Bur s' e tmony c r ng( ttonelsprorc ci ofaci i vi vi enc ( onceni peii r' i onviton rme nvol ng ol e. The pr e ut jwe ont tl mel)ha g uns qc t hi prort ti a os c or nt o el , d co el ome o m i o ral nd r uese ardaci of( ges )tsi nyr r ngt prorofe ellhe eq td e ton Bur s' etmo egadi he i fns p w oul ha ag e d. He t t spos to be a e i w a hi unde s a ng,a l d ve r e ook hi ii n c us t s s r t ndi nd a ee t pr e i c d no i r gr , he os cuton oul t nt oduc pr orc i e e de e i t t i loft e i rm s vi nc n he r a he p n i gc a g .Ho ve,( ep o e uo )b l ve i t d fn ed dn ttk e d n h r e we r t r s c tr ei d f he e e s i o a e h e se t pr ve s h e denc fom c ngi a t pr e uto di not tps o e nt uc vi e r omi n nd he os c i n d ir nt oduc i, he i w a ad i s bl . e tt n t s m si e Ba e uponmyed ai a e re ,la o t opi on ( sd uc ton nd xpeince m f he ni couns l di not el d com pl w ih t m i m um s andardsofa crm i def y t he ni t i nal ense a t ney pr ti ng t or ac ci be or t ba oft Lync f e he r he hbur Ci c tCou ti t the f ie t pr r y a g r ui r n ha a l d o ope l nd c mpltl r ve t es e il rn j r tsi n o ( r e s.Hef rh rf i d o eey e iw h p ca g a d u y e tmo y f Bu g sl u te al e t s c r ac u t l r d ci t es e il r n j r tsi n c n en n o e u e o r nli e a tny h p ca g a d u y e tmo y o c r i g ng ( ttonejse le c ci prort til peii r' arir onvitonx i o ra. ( e yAf.no.5- )2.3 Drwr f ( 1 ) Pe ii rdi notpr s ntt l te s w hi h a e dat Dec m be 6, ttone d e e he e t r , c r ed e r 2005,a Se em be nd pt r 1 2011, t a fda t w hi i da e J nua y 31,2012, o t Cic tCo tort Supr m e 9, or he f i vi, ch s t d a r t he r ui ur he e Cour ofV i g ni d i s a e ha aspr edi t to ur ed be w ee Se e be 23, 2009, t r i a ur ng t t be oce ngs ha cc r t n pt m r 2Bu g s 'pe il rn j r tsi n d e n t e cieac n cin. She t tfed t pe ii r s f t r< a r es s ca g a d uy e t y o s o d srb o vito mo es ii hat ttone ' a he E d h si s mehiga o tamid meno . (a l , 01 , . a . 31) ad o t n b u se a r' Jn. 8 2 2 TrTrn 2 . ' 3Dr wr conc1 dest afi twih co l c i s a em e t . He beleve c elsta tonsc tt t i f ctv he fdavi t nti tng t t n s e y u i s ouns ' tc i onsiu e nefe i e assa c o c u s l ssto ti Src ln v Wa hnco , b th h sn o no t st tep eu ieee n o sitn e f o n e a e u n tika d . s i tn' u e a o piin t o h rj dc lme t f ' a Stiklnd. rc a ' ' a J nua y 1 201 tgoe e unde j225 d)1 i lmie t t rcor t twa beor t nd a r 9, 2. sl viw r 4( () s i td o he e d ha s f e he saec tha a j caedt cam o t meis' Cule v.Pi se,5 U. tt our t t dudi t he li n he rt. ln nholtr 63 S. ' ,1 S. 31 Ct 1 1 ( 1.ûgrvi ncei r uc di f rlc t snobe i on j225 d)1 . 388, 398 201 ) ûEq de ntod e n edea our ha arng 4( ( ) rviw.l acam h sb e a j d c tdo t meisb asaec ur, fd r l a a p t in r e e f li a e n du iae n he rt y tt o ta e e a h be s eio e t mus o romet lmiai ofj225 d ()ont rco dt twa beor t tsaec t' 1 t vec he i tton 4( )1 he e r ha s f e ha tt our. d. ' a1 t 400.Pe ii r sf llet pr s ntt e de t t Cic tCo ta t Supr m eCour ttone ' aitr o e e he vi nce o he r ui ur nd he e t ofV igi a pr cl r ni e udesm y c i r ton oft s m e evi nce A c di y,1w ilnotco i e onsde a i he a de . cor ngl l ns d r t eltesa da fd vit a j dc t cam ( ) h etr n fia t o d u iae li 2 . B. Peii rscli ( )t ough( alget tcouns lpr de i feci asit e i ttone ' ams 1 hr 4) le ha e ovi d nef tve ssanc ,n vi a i oft Si h Am e ol ton he xt ndm e . Fort r as nst tf l , ttone f l t e t bls t t nt he e o ha olow pe ii r ais o s a ih ha t Cic tCour' de a ofcams( ,( ,() a ( i c r r t o a unr s bl he r ui ts nil li 1) 2) 3 , nd 4) s ontay o, r n ea ona e a i ton of c e ry e t bls d f der l1w o ba e on a unr ona e deer nai oft pplcai , l a l s a ihe e a a r s d n eas bl t mi ton he f t. ac s Cli ( ) am 1 Peii ra g si cl m ()t tc elf l t ras bl anda ttone r ue n ai 1 ha ouns aied o e ona y dequaeyc ostl r s e m i a i pea h Com m onwea t w ines J e J xa ne nd m c 1h t s os ph ohns J on. ohns st tm ony be or t on' es i f e he g a da dp tt u isv re bewe nwheh rt ev di wa a le o g ti gr a yt se pj t r n n eij re a id t e te h i m s se p r etn e d o le us be or t kilng a whe he t vi m r eup t vei he fom t bed be or o a trt f e he li nd t r he di os wel nc s r he f e r fe he frtguns t Peii rar d t tc ms ls d ha e oie t i is ho . ttone gue ha ot e houl ve xpl t d he nconsse esbe us it nci ca e tll difrncebewe n s i ase pi pes a a a kepes whoha sa tdt tthe fee t e hootng le ng ron nd n wa ron s tre o e t r yo 'sa i tntfcorf t j yt dee mi maie.Peii ra g t t ome owad u'i n mpora a t or he ur o tr ne lc ttone r ued ha 8 c u s lser rp eudc dhm b p e ni t ej r fo et e a q itn p tto e o fn i o n e' ro rj ie i y rve tng h u y r m ih r c utig ei n r r idng i pe ii ttonerg ly ofvol ar m ans a eri t d ofs c uit unt y l ught ns ea e ond- e m tr r degr e lde . Th Cic i Co r c n ld dta p eudc d dn te s b c us t ed s rp n isi e ru t u t o cu e h t rj ie i o xit e a e h ic e a ce n t tm ony w e e i m a e i l The Ci c tCour e a ned t tt e de e,i udi pe ii r s esi r m t ra . r ui t xpl i ha he vi nc ncl ng ttone ' t tmony,t e l esa ih t tt pe ii rr peae y s t a c os r ng am a whowas esi t ary t bls ha he ttone e tdl ho , t l e a e, cl n l ng i be whot pe ii rknew wasuna m e a who obvi usypr e e no t e t yi n d, he ttone r d, nd o l es nt d hr a whae rt t amedpeii ra hesoodove (hevitmj' Rambov. r Dep' ofCor. tve o he r ttone s t r t ci . ' Di. t r, s i op.a 7. The Ci c tCour a s dicus e o he f ct e t bls ng m a i ,i l ng lp t r ui t l o s s d t r a s s a i hi lce nc udi pe ii ryeli a Bur s t di c os t l ton ofN anc sr ;cove i t pee hol t ttone lng t ges o s l e he oca i e' oom rng he p e o ga n e r i o t r ;a s i t vi i i t pe sa he r f om a f w f eta a i nt y nt he oom nd hootng he ctm n he ni nd a t r e e w y. 2. Cli ( am 2) Peiine alege i cam ( t tcouns lwa i f tveby i r ucngBur es tto r l s n li 2) ha e s nefeci ntod i g s' i t e wieia misbl a dh g l p eu iil u - fc u t ttme t. .' At eiin rstil û h r s -n d si e n ih y rj dca o to -o r sae n s . . p t o e ' ra, o ' t Bur s i ge s nvoke t Fi t A m endm entprvie a i tt s i yi a c d he fh i l ge ga ns e tf ng, nd ouns r ad Bur s ' el e ge s tsi n fo tes e il r n j r it t til e o d4 Peii n ra g sta Bu g s ' e tmo y r m h p ca g a d u y no he ra r c r . tto e r ue h t r e s t tmony a utaprors i i de wer i esi bo i hootng nci nt e nadmi sbl ,s d no ha be n dic os d'a s i e' houl t ve e s l e , nd vi a ed t r e aga ns t adm i s o ofi he c i e ' e de e. ol t he ul i t he s i n i r r m s' vi nc ot The t a c i r ve e t tBur s t s ii d how s ,pe ii r and t rt e c l e r ns rpt e al d ha ge s e tf e he ttone , hei hr e hidr n had a s ts yi l ng hom e lf afe s a pe ii ne lve t e herf tf e n yea s a i f ng, ovi ie t r he nd tt o r i d og t or i t e r. Bur s de c i d pe ii r a t s e t s , nde t a g l s m a s had e rm e a how ges s rbe ttone s he w e e t ki s , nd ente t n he ve t nd pe ii ronc s ve a c l f om c ki a a r t ur n . Bur sal o de c i d how N anc ttone e a d hid r ho ng t esa a t ges s s r be e 4To readtetsi n d rn p tto e' tilc u s l ce a tepr e uo a tes ca g a dj r , a h e t y u ig ei n rs ra, o n e atd s h osc tr t h pe il rn uy nd mo i c ouns ' s cr t r ac ed asBur s . els e e a y t ge s 9 gr bbe Bur s by t ba k oft he d; hr w Bur s do on t bed;puleddo Btr s a d ge s he c he a t e ge s wn he l wn lges ' t a pa i s co i d t a t c Bur s des t pr e t t ts w a m a red;t op nd nte ; ntnue o ta k ge s pie ot s s ha he s r i houghtt t ha N a e r pe he bu w asnota ol e y s e;a t tBur s t d pe ii ron t phone be or nc a d r t bs ut l ur nd ha ges ol ttone he f e pe ii nera rved a t hot t tN a ha r pe he . Bur es t s i i d t ts he r t tt o ri t he el ha nce d a d r g s e tf e ha he a d wo w ee be or t m ur rt tN anc a t c d a gilr e by s ot rng he w ih a pil , ks f e he de ha e ta ke rf i nd m he i r t low br a ng he rbs blc ni he eye ,a puti he i t hos t l e ki r i , a ke ng r s nd tng r n he pia . W h l ra igt eta s rp , o n e o te ap rin o tes ca g a dj r ie e dn h rn ci tc u s l mitd o to f h pe il r n u y t si e tmony dic sng aprors i i i nti vi pe ii r s us i i hootng ncde nvol ng ttone .Outi t pr e e oft sde he es nc he j r ,h Cic i Co r r ldta c u e c udn ts lcieyo t o t nsof h s ca g a d u y te r ut u t ue h t o nsl o l o ee tv l mi p ri o t e pe il rn j r ta s rp .TheCic i Co r g v t ej r ac u in r i tu to a c u e ' r q et u y rn ci t r ut u t a e h u y a to ay nsr cin t o ns ls e u s, sa i . t tng' Ladi and ge lm e i yotra e weha a e ende dic son a es nte n, n l bs nce d n xt d s us i bout a r e e e ort o i t t a c i t tyou' e now ls e ng t ofpr or ef r nc w n he r ns rpt ha r i t ni o i t s i ony by ... ge sund r oa h. The e ar - t ques i m ake e tm Bur s e t r e - he tons r er nce t a pr o s tng t tt a us d w a i ve i o - a l m ef e o i r hoo i ha he cc e s nvol d n r - nd ' gi ng you a c utona y i tuc i t tyou'e no t c i r t tque ton vi a i r nsr ton ha r t o ons de ha si ort a we orlc ofa we t t tquesi ofgi e de eofguitof he ns r a k ns r o ha ton scq vi nc l ( ttoner oft ofe esf whihhe' ontilt y.l ot rwor , peii l he fns or c s ra oda n he ds he' bei t i d t s ng r e oday f s a ut y bu gl r w ih i entt c m i m ur , or t t or r a y t nt o om t der a t fr r sc r a dic r nga fr r .Thi i s nd wo iea m ha ges nd s ha gi iea m s s ome r f r nc eee e t a prorocc r nc A nd lm t lng you, nsnz tng you t tt si not o i ur e e. ' eli i t ci ha hi s e de e ofguitofa hi f whi h he i on t i a t pr s nttm e. vi nc l nyt ng or c s ral t he e e i Y ou unde s a r t nd? A1 r g . 1 i ht (a 18, Jn. 2006,Tr Tr n. 0- 1. . a 21 1 ) Co ns l n t esc eayc n iu dt ra Bu g s ' p ca g a dj r u e a d h e r tr o tn e o e d r e s s e il rn u y t si onyi isentr t e tm n t iey.Thet si ony a e tm boutt pro s i i he i r hootng ndde , f w b if nt a e re r erencesi aboutei y pages oft tm ony, r ve l d t tBur s di notknow ef n ght es i e a e ha ges d pettoneratt tm e oft aleged prorshootng i dent'he r peii ' f t rs ii he i he l i i nci , a d ttoners ahe ay l0 s t ng abouta midemea 'kne no hi a ome hi s nor , w t ng boutt ts i orisr s t a di ha hootng t e ul; nd d notknow w het pett oneract l had s anyone. her ii ualy hot Th Cic i Co r rj ce cam ( )b c u ec u s l re t a i r a i it e ie c e rut u t ee td li 2 e a s o n e tid o vod e dng no vd n e t f ta he ac s boutt pr ors he i hootng i i nt The Cic tCour had ove r e c i nc de . r ui t r ul d ouns l sr ques t e' e to s i o r e tmo y a o ttep irs o tn o tietep e e c o t ej r , u c u e kp ve t si n b u h ro h oi g u sd h rs n e f h u y b t o ns l s e sulyr ue td ac i r i tuci t t peij y.Furhemor t Cic tCour ucc sf l eq se autonay nsr ton o he tt ur t r e,he r ui t not d t tt e de i l r e ofk herc i e ' e de e pr ve st Com m onwea t f om e ha he vi nta' ul y ç ot rm s ' vi nc e nt he 1h r pr e i t te denc a conc ude t t r e di nota y t de e e c es ntng ha vi e nd l d hat he ul d ppl o f ns ouns l The e. Cic tCour c l d t tco e wa notdefc e a t ca i r i tuc i cur d a r ui t oncude ha uns l s i i nt nd he utona y nsr ton e ny prj ce e pe alygi nt ove hemi e de eofpeii rsguit eudi , s ci l ve he m l ng vi nc ttone ' l. 3. Cli ( am 3) Peiine alege i cam ()t tcouns lfie t wihd a a t mir pr e i t tto r l s n li 3 ha e ald o t r w fer se esntng he s e il r n j r tsi n d s rb di cam ( ) Peiine b le e t a c u e wa ar i p ca g a d u y e tmo y e cie n li 2 . t o r eiv s h t o nsl s fad t ofbe ng he d i c e ptof c tf rnotr a ng t t a c i ve ba i a C e r i fom i l n ont m our o e di he r ns rpt r tm nd t f a ned r r a g ng t w e les a i he l w i V i g ni ' t tc r ui he l t bls d a n r i a ' ha ouns lc d r e oul eque tt t s i ony a s he e tm boutt he prors i i i ntbe r i hootng nc de edac e Pe ii rf r he a l ed t tc t d. ttone u t r leg ha ouns le t t Cic t el i d o he r ui Co twhe he s i t om ison ofpori o t ta c i wasi dve tntbe us c ur n a d he s i tons f he r ns rpt na re ca e ouns l e t d pe ii rbe or t i t tcouns li e d t s p pori oft t a c i . ol ttone f e r al ha e nt nde o ki tons he r ns rpt TheCic i Co r rj ce cam ( )frlc n a yf cua ba i.Th Cic t u t r ut u tee td li 3 o a kig n a t l ss e ruiCo r r c g ie t t o ns l d te o ti tep ee c o t ej r ta h ha o e lo e te e o nz d ha c u e a mitd u sde h r s n e f h u y h t e d v ro k d h r f r nc t t pr ors e e e es o he i hootng i i ntwhe he e m i d t ta crptbe or t i l The i nc de n xn ne he r ns i f e ra . Cic tCour no e t tc r ui t t d ha ouns ne r c a m e t the i dve t nty s pped ove t s i ony. el ve l i d ha na r e l ki r e tm 11 The Cic tCoul de e m i t tno f c s i ca e t tc r ui ' t r ned ha t a t ndi t d ha ouns m ade a pr ti lde i i n t el era c so o m i epr sr esentt t ans ptand not t atno tm e di t C i tCourti eror s he r cri ed hat i d he rcui nf pecul e at c ouns c m it a e hi a orl lbr a h. Pe ii rco d notpr t tc el om ted n t c l ega e c ttone ul ove ha ouns lt m pe ed e e r a dvoc cy i f arofr t i i n,a t Cic tCour hel t tno detci ntpe f m a e or a n e e rbut o nd he r ui t d ha i e r or nc p eu iee itd. rj dc x se 4. Cli ( am 4) Peiin ra g si cam ()t a c t e f i dt o j c t t Cic i Co r' i r p r tto e r ue n li 4 h t oms l al o b e t o he r ut u ts mp o e e j r isr cin .Peiine alg st a teisr cin : a fi dt i f r t ej r ta t e u y n tu to s tt r le e h t h n tu to s () al o n o m h u y h t h o e Com m onwea t m us pr t abs nc ofhe tofpa s o t co c pe ii rofm u de ,a 1h t ove he e e a s i n o nvi t ttone r r nd ( )p r te t j r t i frmaiefo p o fo a u lwf l iln .TheCic i Co r n td b emi d he u y o n e lc rm r o f n n a u k l g t i r ut u t oe t tpe ii rf l d t pr f ra i t c i t tco els ul ha pr ent a e a ne ha ttone aie o of e n ns nl ton ha uns ho d ve es ed nd xpl i d t tt Com m o e lh i r r t pr a prm a f ç ç c e f t pr e e ofm a i e nott ha he nw a t s equied o ove i a i as or he es nc lc , he - a s n eo h a o p si n Th Cic i Co r isr ce t j r t tt fndp tto e g iy o b e c f e t f a so . e r ut u tn tu td he u y ha,o i ei n r ul f i t frtd ge mu de ,hej r mus fn ta teCo n at p o db y n ar a o be is- e r e r r t u y t i d h t h mmo we l r ve e o d e s na l h doub t tpe ii rkil d Na eeihe durng a bu g a y orm ai i usy,wiluly,dei r t y, t ha ttone le nc t r i r lr lc o l lf l lbe ael a dwi p e di to (a 1 , 0 , . a 1 . Th Cic i Co r frh ri sr ce ta n t rme t in. J n. 9 20 6 Tr Trn. 0) e r ut u tu te n tu td h t h a t ej r c udfn p tto e g i yo s c n - e r emu d ri t eCo n at ddn t r v h u y o l i d ei n r ul f e o d d g e r e f h mmo we l i o p o e i t h be nd a r as bl doubte t rt tpe ii r c m it d a bm gl r ort tt kilng w a yo e ona e ihe ha ttone om t e a y ha he li s w il u , i r t orpr m edia e The Ci c tCo tga t f l i i t u i a t lf l delbe a e, e t t d. r ui ur ve he olow ng nsr d on bou vol ar m ansl unt y aught er: l you fnd t tt Com m onw e t hasf ie t pr beyond a r s bl doubtt t f i ha he alh a l d o ove ea ona e ha t kilng w asi t c m i s on ofbur a' a you f t rfnd t tt he li n he om s i gl l nd y urhe i ha he Com m onwea t hasf l t pr ve be lh aied o o yond a r s bl doubtt tt kilng w a ea ona e ha he li s m a i o , you do fnd t tt def nda kil d ... a e a f t rt tt lci us but i ha he e nt le N nc nd ur he ha he kilng w asa r s tofa i e i la ta t tt kilng w ascom m it d w hie i li e ul n nt ntona c nd ha he li te l n t s d nh a of s inu o r a o bl p o c to , t ny us l fndt he ud e e t pa so p n e s na e r vo aing he o hal i he l def endantguit ofvol ar m ans aught ... ly unt y l er. (d.l1 1 ) l - 2. The Cic tC our e ai d i isha a opi on t tt ti tuc i n m ad i ab a l r ui t xpl ne n t be s ni ha he ûns r t o e t und nty c e rt thea ofpa s on e l s m alce whe t hea ofpas i a i esf o r s bl l a ha t s i xc ude i n he t son r s r m ea ona e pr ovoc t o 'a t tli t Co m onw ea t pr a i n' nd ha ûf he m lh ovesm a i e, tnec s r l haspr n t lc i es a iy ove he a e ofhe tofpas i asam at rofl w. Ra bo v.Di.Dep' ofCo r,si op. t1 bs nce a son te a ' m ' r t r . lp a 7 ( rgna e h ss.Th Cic i Co r c n l e ta cam ( )a f i db c u etej l o ii l mp a i) e rut u t o cud d h t li 4 () al e a s h u' e y i tu ton co r c l sa edt lw a bec us couns wa no detc e f notr que tng a nsr c i r e ty tt he a nd a e el s t i i nt or e si dif r nti tuc i n. f e e ns r t o Th ohe j r i tuci np tto e c alng si,t et eCommo we lhh sp o e e t r u y nsr to ei n r h l e s G i e onc h n at a r v d t r w a a unl w f lkilng, he yo ar e il d t i e t ti w a m alc a t tt ac w a he e s n a u li t n u e ntte o nf r ha t s i e nd ha he t s m ur ri t s co de ee, e s f om al t e de e you ha ar as bl do a t de n he e nd gr unl s r l he vi nc ve e ona e ubt s o wh t rmaiee se . (a 1 , 0 6 Tr Trn.1 . P tto e ag e t t h sln u g ehe lc xitd' J n. 9 2 0 , . a 3) eiin r r u s ha t i a g a e ' p r te t ej r t i e maiesmpyu o p o fo a u a u klig o vitn te emi d h u y o nfr lc i l p n r o f n nlwf l il , b aig h t n Comm onwe t sbur n t pr vem ai alh' de o o lce.The Cic tCotr hel howe r t tt r ui lt d, ve ,ha he i sr ci n ' r si ln u g ddno voaed pr c s b c u eaj r c ul c n ld ta n tu to s pemisve a g a e i t ilt ue o e s e a s u y o d o cu e h t t Com m onw e lh f ied t pr m alce Cons que l t Cic tCour de e m i d c he a t a l o ove i . e nty, he r ui t t r ne ouns l e wa no i fci f noto e tngt t i tuci ort tprj cer ule s t nefe tve or bjci o he nsr ton ha eudi es td. 5. Pe ii rf l t esabls t tt Cic tCour de e hi habe pe ii ba e ttone ais o t ih ha he r ui t ni d s as tton s d upon ac r r ora unr s onta y n ea onabl a i ton ofcla l esa ihe f de all e pplcai e ry t bls d e r aw oran unr onabl det m i i off s. eas e er naton act A pe ii rcl m i i f c i a s s a e ofc ttone ai ng nef e tve s i t nc ouns lm us s ts y t t o- ong t t e t a i f he w pr ed es s tf rhi Stiklndv. a hi t 466U. 668( 98 .Thefrtpr ofStiklnd e o t n rc a W s ncon, S. 1 4) is ong rc a r qui e a pe ii rt s e rs ttone o how C ha co e m ade e r r s s roust tco e w asnot ' t uns l t r o s o e i ha uns l f n to iga t eço n e'g rn e dt ed fn a tb t eSx hAme me t,'me n n t a u cinn s h c u s l uaa te h e e d n y h it nd n l ' a i g h t l c u e' r p e e tto f lbeo a o j ciesa d r o ra o be e s S rc ln 46 U. o ns ls e rs n ain el lw n b e tv tn ad f e s na ln s . tika d, 6 S. a 687- The s ond pr ofSti a r r ape ii rt s t 88. ec ong rcklnd equies ttone o how t tc ha ouns ' defc e els ii nt pef r n eprj d c dhm b d mo srtn aS e s n b ep o a iiyt tbu f rc u s l ro ma c eu ie i y e n taig i a o a l r b b l ha, t o o n e' r t s e r s t r ul of$ pr e ng woul havebe dif r . 1 a 694. t r s na e ror , he es t he oc edi d en fe ent' d. t ' ( ea o bl A pr biiy i a pr biiy s f c e t unde m i t contde e oft out om e. l oba lt s oba lt uf i i nt o r ne he i nc he c ' d. ' l ape ii rha nots ts i o pr oft Stiklnd t s , c tdoe no ne d t f ttone s a ifed ne ong he rc a e t a our s t e o iq iewh t e h h ss tsidt eo h rp o g.Stika d 4 6U. a 69 .$A1 at r y s n ur eh r e a aife h t e r n rc ln , 6 S. t 7 C n tone ' ( ac sorom i s o t ta e notunco tt i t s i ns ha r ns iutonali vi ly c nno be a ndi dua l n t dded t t rt c e t a oge he o r a e consiutona vi ai ' Fihe v. l ,1 F. 835,852- ( h Ci.1998 .Stiklnd tt i l olton.' s r Anceone 63 3d 53 4t r ) rc a e t ihe aC tongpr s sabls d i r s e umpton t tc i ha ouns lsc e ' onduc f lsw ihi t wi r nge of t a l t n he de a r as e onabl pr e sonalas it e. Stiklnd,466 U. a 689. ç udi a s r i ofcot els e of s i s sanc ' rc a ' S. t û cil c utny l ms ' pef ma emus behi yde ee il'a Se r ef r g t bema t ei naet ror nc t ghl f rnta' nd dvey fo t musl de o lmi t he dit tngef t ofhi i ...a t e l t t ghalnge c sori fecs ndsght nd o vauae he c le d) ondud fom c e' r ouns ls pes ci a t tme.'I fglfeci rpr e ai i nots rpe tve the i ' d. sE f tve e esntton s ynonymouswihew res t t ls rpr e ai ' Sprnc rv.Coli ,58 F. 329,332( hCi.1 . e es ntton. i e ' lns 6 2d 4t r 978) Pe ii ne i note il d t r le be us he f ist e t bls t tt Ci c tCou ts tt o r s ntte o e i f ca e a l o s a i h ha he r ui r' de a o cams( ) ( ,() a ( i c r yt ora unr s bl a i tonof ce ry nil f li 1, 2) 3 , nd 4) s ontar o, n ea ona e pplcai , lal esa ihe f r l orba e o a unr as t bls d ede al aw s d n n e onabl de e mi ton off c s Pettone f ist e t r na i a t . ii r al o e t ih how a alege de i e pe f m a e c e t sa pr biiy t tt r s toft ti sabls ny l d fcint ror nc r a e ny oba lt ha he e ul he ral w o d ha be n dif r nt The e denc des i how pe ii ra rve a t hot ,ye l d a ul ve e f e e . vi e crbes ttone r i d t he el le t Bur s t di c os N a s l ton,c ed t pe p hol t gai e r i o t hot r , ge s o s l e nce' oca i over he e e o n nt y nt he el oom e er d t hot lr nt e he e oom whie a m e a m a i i l s N a i t t gh,pe s a hea t l r d, nd lc ousy hot nce n he hi ni , nd r w hie N a w a una m e and l ng on a bed. l nce s z d yi An c o se miaino J l o a u ic nsse ce wihJ h s n' g a dj r y r s xa n to f o ms n bo t n o itn is t o n o s rn u y t tm ony woul notha r f e t e de eofm a ie o s esi d ve e ut d he vi nc lc r uppore petto rss fde e e td ii ne ' el- f ns cl m.A cos e mi tonrquie C ouns (ol... ci wha quesi t ak a ho ai r s xa nai e rs l el t c de de t tons o s nd w m uc tm e t s nd on a pa tc a w ine s The e a e pr c s y t t pe oft tc lde i i a h i o pe r i ul r t s . s r e i el he y s ac i a c sons c ti nots our s upposdt s co gues.'Higsv. td Stt ,711F.Supp. 479,51 ( e o e nd s' c Unie aes 2d 5 D. M d.201 (ii By a v.Oz nt339F. 203,209( h Ci.2003).Se Bmnesv. t 0) ctng r m mi , 3d 4t r ) e Unied Stts 859F. 607,608( t Ci.1 (i ngdie ta cos-xami tont hni ae ae , 2d 8h r 998) fndi r c nd r se nai ec ques r matr oftilsrt ylf t t dicei ofco e) te s ra taeg e to he srton uns l. Pei o e h sno d mo srtdt a h s fe e a yp eu ieb ha i Bur e s g a d tt n r a t e n tae h t e u fr d n rj dc y vng g s ' rn i jzytsi lr etmonyradi ise iey,i udi t epori a tpeii ' i ve nti a e n t ntrt ncl ng hos tons bou ttoners nvol me n prors tng. Evi nc ofadef nda tsprorbad a i i dm isbl f t pu pos of i hoo i de e e n' i d s na s i e or he r e pr vi t a c ed c m it d orlke y c m it d a c r d c i e K ikpa r c v. o nc he c us om te i l om te ha ge r m . r t i k Co mmonwe t 211Va. 272,1 S. 2d802,805( 970) Se UniedStt v. c i alh, 269, 76 E. 1 . e t aes M Brde, No.1 51 201 U. App.LEXI 81 a *23- 201 W L 1 0- 62, 2 S. S 08, t 24, 2 38448 a *8- ( hCi. 7, t 9 4t r 201 ( i t tt a si lt ofprorba a tevi nc underFe R. d. b)i 2) notng ha he dmisbiiy i d c de e d. Evi 404( s de e m i d by bei r i bl a r e ta pr ba i t t e e e s ofc r d c i e wihou t r ne ng ela e nd el van nd o tve o he l m nt ha ge rm t t b igu d l p eu iil.Th Co n at d dno ito u et etsi n , n c u s ls en n uy rj d ca) e mmo we l i t nr d c h etmo y a d o n e ' h r ia i oft t s i ony w asnotr l t d t pr ng pe ii rkil d N a ec t ton he e tm e a e o ovi ttone le nce. Bur s ges r pea edl e a ne s kne not ng a e t y xpl i d he w hi boutt i i ntt toc ur e m or t n ff e n yea s he nc de ha c r d e ha i t e r e r i r di notknow i pe ii r a t ly s s e a le , d f ttone c ua l hot om one, nd onl he r pe ii ' f t r a y a d ttoner s a he r f e ami de nor Bur s di nots y pe ii rwasc c e ofa c i e, s di e er nce s mea . ge s d a ttone onvit d ny rm but he d e a n ho pe ii xpl i w ttoneri C he s e t s ,ki tpe s n' s hasknow n f f fee ye r . The s t w e e t ndes r o ' he t or i t n a s Cic tCo r c r da yp sb ep eu iewhe it l t ej r r t ta yd susina o tte rui u t u e n osil rj dc n t od h u o s ha n ic so b u h pror s i i de w a notEe de e of g l ofa hi f rw hi h he i on t i la t i hootng nci nt s s vi nc uit nyt ng o c s r a t he prs nttme.'(a 1 2006,Tr Trn. 0- 1) e e i ' J n. 8, . a 21 1 . Eve i pe ii rha t opporuniy t c os e m i Bur s a n f ttone d he t t o r s xa ne ge s boutt pr ors tng he i hoo i i i n ,hedoe note ai wha f vor bl t si o woul beelcied be ncde t s xpl n t a a e e tm ny d it yond ho Bur s w ge s ale e ai s kne not ng a r ady xpl ned he w hi boutt i i nta t tpe ii rw asa wonde f he nc de nd ha ttone r ul p ro Peiin rc mpli st a hi ia iiyt cos e a n Bu g s prv n e t ejlyfo e s n. tto e o an h t s n b l o r s x mie r e s e e td h t r m t r know i t tpe ii ng ha ttonerw as i f t c d e ofm i de ea as a tal w ih t vi i o , n ac , onvi d s m nor s ul ong t he ctm f t pro s i i i .( trsRep.( 22)1 ) l xplc bl peii rbeive t t he ir hootng ncdent Pe '' s no. 5. ne ia y, ttone le s ha i fr n t j r t a h wa a t l c n itdo p e o sys o tn s me n es wo l n t n omig he u y h t e s cual o vce f rviu l h oi g o o e le ud o y beasprj ca asBur s 'tsi eudiil ge s e tmonyt tma t prors i i i nts em lke ha de he i hootng ncde e i c ne tr .Co n e a dp tto rl l raie ters l n prj ieo ea rtngo o j cu e u s l n eiine i y e l d h e ut g eudc f lboai n ke z i pe ii ne ' i ve en w ih t pror s i i i ntbe us pettone a de t i s tto r s nvol m t t he i hootng nc de ca e ii r voi d he s ue w he t s iyi des t t pr e ar um e t the w a pr ve e f o e ai ng t n e tf ng, pie he es nt g nt ha s e nt d r m xpl ni he m i de e no c r Pe ii r a s f ist esa i h t tc s m a r ha ge. ttone l o a l o t bls ha ouns m ir pr e e Bur s el s e es nt d ges ' s i grndj yt tmonyt t Cic tCoul o t tac lc ofi ees e se pecal a ur esi o he rui ' r ha onfit ntr t xitd. t Peiine fist etbl hc t e' d fce t ro ma ea o t h j r i tucin . t o r al o sa i oms ls e iin pef r nc b u t e u y nsr to s t s Th j r isr cinsa u trtd g e mu d r s c n d g e mu d r a dv u a y e u y n tu to bo tis- e r e r e, e o d-e r e r e , n olntr ma l nsaught rcor ec l de c i t el m ent ofpr m e t ton a m a i e ne ded t de e m i e r ty s r be he e s e dia i nd lc e o t r ne t a opraeci Se e. , Codej18. 32, nde v.Ang one 25 Va.5 ,5 51 he ppr it rme. e, c.Va. 2- Pe r el , t 01 04, 4 S. 2d756,757( 999 ,Byr v.Co E. 1 ) d . mmonwe t 89Va.536,538,1 S. 7 728( 89 . alh, 6 E. 27, 1 3) Lie s ,h Cic t u t or cl i tu tdt ej r r a o t lc a dt esg iia c o k wie te ruiCo r c re ty nsr ce h u o s b u maie n h infc n e f tej r tn i gta t Co n at f ie t p o et a peiin ra t dmaiiu l. h u y i d n h t he mmo we l ald o r v h t t o e ce lco sy h t Co n e c ul n tma av ldo jcint te eisnzto s e eo e c u s l sn t u s l o d o ke ai be to o h s n t cin .Th rf r , o n e wa o d fce tf rn t b e tn t t i tu to .Ac od n l, eiin rfist saes fiin eiin o o o j cig o he nsr cins c r i gy p tto e al o tt u fce t f csf cli ( )t oug ( t etbls acam frfdealha asr i . a t or ams 1 hr h 4) o sa ih li o e r be elef 1 1. 1 Peii raguesi fderlha ascli ( t tt Cour ofAppeasofVigi aere ttone r n e a be am 5) ha he t l r ni r d by afi m i t Cic tCour ' dec son nott di m is t i c m e . A s a l d by t fr ng he r ui ts i i o s s he ndi t nts na yze he Cour ofAppe l ofV i gi a pe ii r s cii ly a gue t as r ni , ttone pe tca l r d: ( tto r sae teCo n at c n e das e il rndj r t Peiinej tt s h mmo we lh o v ne p ca g a u y o i tga et mur ra t n c nvesi t he de nd he ompe ld ... ge s... o t tf bef e i by le Bur s t esiy or t gr ntnghe i u t a trs i a i r mm niy fe he nvoke he Fi Amendme rg s d r hh nt i ht. ( ttonejt n saest pr e tonbr Peii r he tt he os cui oughtc r esbyadie ti cme ha g r c ndit nt fom argulrg a j y.Noprlmi r he rngwashedg)a snce r e a r nd ur ei na y ai l , nd i g t ine)c ul n tp rii t i tes e il rn u yp o e dn s heddno pei o r o d o a t pae n h p ca g a dj r r c e ig , i t t c ha a o ve n pporuniy t c os - xa i Bur es . The pr e uton di notca l t t o r s e m ne g s os c i d l Bur sa tila whe g ttonejdi s s i ges t ra nd n peii r d o, he nvokedhe Fit Ame r fh ndme nt rght.( tto r aguest spr es vi aedhi c tt i rght by i s Peiinej r hi oc s olt s onsiutonal i s enablng t pr ecuton t gai t beneftofBur i he os i o n he i gess't tm ony w hie es i l 5Peii re usedt scli by pr s ntng i t t Supr m eCou tofV igi adurng a appea fom t Cour ttone xha t hi am e e i t o he e r r ni i n l r he t ofAppea sofV igi a. l r ni de i nghi ofa i pende o runiy t e m i he . prvi m n nde nt ppo t t o xa ne r Rn v.Commo at No.111 06 3, lp o a 56 ( Ct App.Apr 1 2008) The mbo nwe lh, 7- - si p. t - Va. . ., . Cour ofAppeasdeemi t tVigi aSu e Cour Rul 3A: b)1 bardpeii rs t l tr ned ha r ni pr me t e 9( () re ttone ' cl m . ai A pe ii rpr dur l de a t a f de a ha a c a m w he ça s a e cour hasde i d ttone oce aly f uls e r l be s l i n $ tt t clne t c i rt c a m ' m e ison t bas sofa ade t a i pe nts a e pr ed a r l ' o ons de he l i s r t he i n qua e nd nde nde t t oc ur l u e.' He ikv.Tr 443F. 342, ( hCi. drc ue, 3d 359 4t r 2006) saec tsfndi ofpr e aldea t .A tt our' i ng oc dur ful i e il d t apr s s ntte o e umpton ofc r ct s pr de t f undai lr quie e sa em e .28 i ore nes , ovi d wo o tona e r m nt r t U. C. 2 4 *, a tnv. u c ,8 5F.d 1 3 ,1 41( t Ci.1 8 .Fis,h saec u' S. j 25 ( . no M n y 4 2 2 8 2 4h r 98 ) rtt e tt o l Cl t m us ex i ty r l o t pr e a gr und t de pe ii rr i . Y 1 t 501 U . a 80 03. t plcil e y n he oc dur l o o ny ttone elef s , S. t 2- , Harsv.Re d, U. 255,259- ( 98 . Se ond,hesaepr dur r eus dt d a t ri e 489 S. 61 1 9) c t tt oce al ul e o eful pe ii r scl i m us be a i pe nta ade t s a e gr ttone ' a m t n nde nde nd qua e t t ound f de ng r lef For v. or nyi e i . d Ge ca 498U. 411 423- ( 991;Hars 489U. a 260.A saepr ed alnzei or i, S. , 24 1 ) rl, S. t tt oc ur l s ti pende ' i i does notde nd upon a f de alc tt i lr i a Ca qua e 'i i i dnde nt' f t pe e r ons iùtona ulng nd t de t ' f t s tr l esa ihed a r ary orconsse l a id by t sa ecour. Ye t v. im y t bls nd egul l it nty pple he t t t ats Ance o l ne, 1 F. 255,263- ( hCi.1 . 66 3d 64 4t r 998) Att ttme Rul 3A: b) 1 sae i pe tne pat ha i , e 9( () ttd n ri nt r: Dee e a o j cinsb sd o d fcsi t ei ttto o tepr s c to o fns s nd be to a e n e e t n h nsiuin f h o e u in r i t wr te cha ge u n he it n r pon w hi h t a us d i t be ti d,ot rt n t ti f is c he cc e s o r e he ha ha t a l ts o howj iditoni t co 'ort c r a ofe e mus ber ie by urs ci n he ul o hage n fns , t as d t motonma wihi t tmeprs rbedbypaag a ()oft sRuj I) v) i de t n he i e ci r r ph c hi e. w 6 mo ins alncud a1 u hd f n e a do j cinst e a alb et t e to h l i l e l s c e e s s n b e to h n v ia l o h a c s d Fal r t p e e ta y s c d fn eo o j cina h r i p o ie c u e . iu e o r sn n u h ee s r be to s e en r vd d s lcons iut a w ai t hal tt e ver hereof . 6Paa rph()rq ie Rul 3A:()1 moin t b Eldb fr e trngaplaa d,exce f s ed ti lor rga c e urd e 9b () t s o e e eoe nei o e n pt or pe y r a d u l jo ad camsnols ta sv nda sbeo etil o be e p r y li , e s h n e e y fr ra. ' 18 Rul 3A: d)pemisac tt r iveapat fom t r e' wai rpr so frgoodc us , e 9( r t our o ele ry r he ul s ve oviin o a e butt w a ve pr s on i m a t y i good ca e i notes a ihe he i r ovi i s nda or f us s t bls d. The Cour ofAppe s not t tpe ii ner s s ii c a m t pr e ut i lus ofa t al ed ha tto ' pec f c l i hat os c or a e n ivetg tv s ca g a dj r ce tsd fcsi t ei si to o t ep o e ui niv le a n siaie pe il r n u y r ae e e t n h n tt in f h r s c to n ov d u c e offr ti pr son. To i e pr tV igi a' s a ut t Cour ofAppe s l d t as is m es i nt r e r ni s t t e, he t al ooke o a ogous f de a and s a e r esofc i i lpr dur and he d t tpe ii r s c a m f l nal e rl t t ul r m na oce e l ha ttone ' l i e l wihi t s ofSupr Cour ofVigi aRul 3A: b)1 .Thus peii rwa rquiedt t n he cope eme t r ni e 9( ( ) , ttone s e r o tl am oto a l as s n daysbe or ti ,butpe ii rdi notr s t m o i n untlt da ie i n t e t eve f e ral ttone d aie he to i he y ofti la di nota k t Cic tCour t c i rt good c ee pton.TheCour of ra nd d s he r ui t o onsde he aus xce i t Appe l ofVigi ahedt tRul 3A: b)1 pr ed al bardpeii rscli as r ni l ha e 9( ( ) oc ur ly re ttone ' am. Plitf fist esa iht tRul 3 9( i no i pe toff r c tt i l anif al o tbls ha e A: b) s t nde nden edeal onsiutona l w orhasnotbe n r gul ry or c i t nty a i by t V i g ni Su e e Cout . Se e g. a e e al ons s e l ppled he r i a pr m ' e, . , t P it v. mmo we lh 28 Va 1 , 21SE.d4 4( 01 )(e o nzn Vigni l n reo Co n at , 3 . 49 7 . 2 8 2 2 rc g iig r i a o g sa dn r la c o Ru e3 9 b t l t h tmea dma ne o c le g st g a dj r tn ig ein e n l A:( ) o i t e i n n r f haln e o rn u y mi pr e ngs;Baievv. mmonweat 1 Va.81 71S. 2d368( oc edi ) l Co lh, 93 4, E. 1952)(e ognii t ta rc zng ha c n t ui n l i h t af i a i ril r n j r d e n t a t a te ei n lmiaino o si to a rg t o ar nd mpat g a d u y o s o me n h t h r s o i tto f t a tme mo eo cr u tn eu o arg t oo j c t ag a djtyt a rtn e a idcme t; i , d r ic msa c p n ih t be t o r n t h t et d n n it n ) r Cu t v Co n at,8 Va 5 9 1 S. 7 ( 8 )(t j i welstldt a o jcinst ri . mmo we l 7 . 8 , 3 E. 3 1 91 tlt s l ete h t be to o s h g t emo eo s mmo n ag a dj r , rt t ed s u lfc to so pa t ulr u o s mu tb h d f u nig rn u y o o h iq aiiai n f ri a j r r, s e c m a a apr i i r sag oft c e, ha i, f eapl t t m e is ot m iet y wilbe de t elm na y t e he as t t s be or ea o he rt ; he s he l c i r d a waved unls ,i ed,t p oc edi bevoi g i to.) Theef e,heCou t onsde e s i e s nde he r e ng d h nii ' . r or t ' r of . . 19 Appe l ofVigi adimis dcam ( be us ofa i pe nta a as r ni s s e li 5) ca e n nde nde nd dequaesaepr ed al t tt oc ur r e,a peii rpr ed al defuledcai () ul nd ttone oc ur ly a t l m 5 . 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Gur, 0 U.. 2 6 - (9 ) nepeain f r na a rcu e e ea h bes ei . e tl Mc ie 5 2 S 6 , 768 1 91 e e ( mp a i igt a K t sn tt p o n eo afd r l a e sc u t or e a n sae c u t ee mia in o sae e h szn h t t i o he r vic f e e a h b a o r t e x mie tt - o r d tr n to s n tt i l quetons.l c aw si n onductng habea r vi af r lcou ti lm iedt de di whet raco cto vi atdt i s e ew, ede a r s i t o ci ng he nvi in ol e he Co siuin lwso te te o teUni dSae .)Totee tn peiin rrl so Crwfr v W ahn tn 5 1 n t to ,a , r rais f h t tts' . h xe t tt e ei n a od . s iao , 4 t e ' o e U. 3 , 0( 0 4,oag ead epr esvoain n volto o fd rla o c re .Crwfr a dispo e y S. 6 5 2 0 )t ru u ocs ilto , o i ain f e ea lw c ur d a o d n t rg n c n en4h p i ia e ia whiht Co rnainClu ewa drce y. .h .. u eo . p ree a n to o c r t e rncp l vl t c he nfo tto a s s ie tdl). te . s fç at x miains t x a e i e c a ans t ea c s d ' Cr wf r , 41U. a 5 ( mp a i a d d .Se U. Co t a n . ( l a l s vd n e a i t h c u e . a o d 5 ' S. t 0 e h ss d e ) e S. ns. me d VI ç n I t ci n l o e uinsteac sds al no terg t o. .bec nrn e wihtewin se a an t i . .) rmia prs cto ,h c u e h lej y h ih t . o fo td t h tes s c is hm. .'. ' Onl peii rs y ttone oughtBur s t tm onyt ai hi de e e,a Bur s 'prort tm on woul notha be n ges ' esi o d s f ns nd ge s i esi y d ve e e de a peii ' ti butf peiine ' r ques.Pe ii rc vi nce t ttoners ral or tto rs e t ttone annotr l o Cr o dt enil hi t c os ey n awf r o tte m o r s e a n hso win s, v nip tto e h dn t r c d rl d futdcam ( ) x mie i wn te s e e f ei n r a o p o e ual ea l li 5 . i y e 20 Fort f e ng r as ,lgr ntr ponden ' m oton t dim i s di m i st pe ii he or goi e ons a es t s i o s s , s s he tton, a de a mootpe ii rsmoton f ahe ng. Ba e upon m y fndi t tpe ii rha nd ny s ttone ' i or mi sd i ng ha ttone s notm a t r ui ie s t ntals i ofa de a ofa c tt i de he eq s t ubs a i how ng ni l ons iutonalr g a r qui e by 28 i ht s e r d U. C.j2253( ac riiaeo a albiiy i de ed. S. *, e tfc t f ppe a lt s ni The Cl k i di e t d t s nd a c er s r c e o e opy oft s M em or nd l O pi on a t ac om pa ng hi a tm ni nd he c nyi O r rt pe ii ra couns ofr c d f rr s de o ttone nd el e or o e ponde . nt E E T i Q' a o Ma,02 NT R: hs Gdy f y2 1. - & Se orU nied St t sD i ti tJ t a e sr c udge 21