Walters v. Holiday Motor Corporation et al, No. 7:2012cv00011 - Document 29 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 5/21/12. (med)
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CLERK' OFFI U, . ST COURT S CE S DI . AT ROANOKE, VA FI LED MAï 2 12 1 22 I T H E U NI N TED STATES DI STR I CO U R T CT FO R TH E W ESTE RN D I STR I T O F V I I I C RG N A R oanoke D i si vi on JUkI C. ' A / ,CL E 'u SH AN N O N B .W ALTER S, C i lA ct on N o.7: cvvi i 12- 00011 Pli t anY V. M em orandum O pi on ni H O LI AY M O TO R C O R P. e J/, D ,t . De ndant. fe s By:Jam es C.Turk Seni U ni ed StatesD i ri Judge or t st ct Th smatri p e e tyb fr t eCo r o P an ifS n n nB. atr ' G atr' i te s r sn l eo e h u t n litf h n o W l s (ç l s' e W e ) moi t r nd ( . 8 .Dee ntMaz Mot ofAmei ,I d// M a daNorh ton o ema DktNo. ) fnda da or rca nc. ba z t AmeiaOpeatons$ MNAO')oppos dt moto ( tNo.11,a W ale srple ( . rc ri ; ( ' e he in,Dk. ) nd tr e id, Dkt No.1 .TheCour he r orla g ntonAprl29,201 W atr t n fl apos- ai 4) t a d a r ume i 2. les he ied the rng me rnd i s ppor ofhermoto t rma ( . 24) a M NAO r ponde ( . moa um n u t in o e nd, DktNo. , nd es d, Dkt No. 1.Acc di y,t matri now rpef de ii Fort f l ngr s ,t 26- ) or ngl he te s i or cson. he olowi eaons he Co tGRANTS W at r m o i a r m a t c s t t Cic tCour f rt Ciy o ur le s' ton nd e nds he a e o he r ui t o he t f Roa noke V igi a , r ni . 1 . Background and ProceduralH i t s ory On N o be 1 2011 i t Cic tCo tf Roa vem r 4, , n he r ui ur or noke Ciy,W a t r r - ie a t le s e fl d c anta i tHolda M oorCop.Maz M oorCo .andM NAO alegi ( )ne ie ompli gans i y t , da t p , l ng 1 glg nce a ( b e c ofexprs a i i war ycai aii unde Vigni sat lw. ( t nd 2) r a h e s nd mpled rant l ms rsng r r i a t e a 1 Dk . No.12) W aleshasalege da ge i t amountof$25milon.(d..Dee n Holda - . tr l d ma s n he li l ) fnda t i y Mot Cor (çl i y' i aVigi ac porto M a daMot Cop.saJ pa e or p.t-olda ' s r ni or ain, z l ) or r i a nes c o a i n, M N A O i a Ca ior a co por ton. M N A O r m ove t c e t t U nied om r t o and s lf ni r a i e d he ms o he t 'Theca ewasprvi l br s e ousy oughti Roa n nokeCiy Cicui Cour. Afe pe e t h rc s t tej l Plitf t r t t tr rsni e ae o h uy, anif ng mo e f ran n utp ru n t Va Co ej801 3 0 v d o o s i u sa t o . d . - 8 . Stt sDiti tCour f t W e t r DititofVigi aon J nua y 1 201 pu s ntt 28 a e src t or he se n src r ni a r 2, 2 r ua o U. C. j1 41a d 1 4 a dsae j rs ito wa p o e u d r28U. C. 1 3 . ( tNo S. j 4 n 4 6 n ttd u idcin s r p r n e S. j 3 2 2 Dk . . 1 .M NAO camsta W atr fa d e tyj ie Hoia teo l n n-i es d fn a ti ) li h t l s r u uln l on d l y,h ny o d v re ee d n n e d t i a to ,h rb i r pel d fai fd rls be tmatr u idito hs cin t ee y mp o ry ee t e ea u jc te j rs cin. ng The f t oft c e c e n a a om obie a ci ntt toc ur e on J 3,2006,i ac s he as onc r n ut l c de ha c r d une n Be fr Co n y Vign a W atr, rvnga 1 9 M a d M it a tmpe t a o da o j c i d od u t , r ii. l s d ii e 9 5 z a aa te td o v i n be t n t er a b s r iga d a ars lh r a lht er a a o e tr e Th ijlisW atr h o d y we vn n s e ut e c r e h o d nd v rt n d. e n t e les l r s t i i t a c de l f he pa al e l he Com pl i ,W a t r 'a l ge t t M i t di us a ned n he c i nt e t r r yz d. n r a nt le s le s hat he a a d no prvi tea o bl oc upa pr eci i t e ntofar l ra ci nt' ( t o de t s na e c nt ot ton n he ve r olove c de .' Comp1, . ! 1 a) 3(). II. St andard ofR evi w e S be tmatr u idcini c s sno p e e tn af d rlq e to i p o e wh nn u j c te j rs it n a e t r s nig e ea u sin s r p r e o o pli ifr sde i t s me sae a a de e nta t n o i co r r y e ee antf e i s n he a t t s ny f nda nd he m unt n ntove s xc ds $75, 28U. C.j 1 a.Thus i a dee a rsde i t s mesaeasa pli if 000. S. 332() ,f ny fnd nt e i s n he n tt ny antf c mpeedv riyi lc i ga dfd r l o rslc t erq ie s b e t te j rs ito l o lt ie st s a k n n e ea c u t a k h e ur d u j c matr u idcin.d. M or ove , fa defnda r sde i t s m esae i whi ht aci n i fl f de a c t e r i ny e nt e i s n he n t t n c he to s ied, e r l ours aewi o t u idcin.2 U. C. 1 3 ()4 ( ()I)c ) Ho v r ad src c u t y r t u j rs ito 8 S. j 3 2d ( )A)i(l(c . we e , itit o r ma h rti j rs ito o e amatrwh nt r i n tc mpeedvest wh nap an if ean u idcin v r te e hee s o o lt i riy e litf fa d lnl j isad fn a t od f a fd r lu idcin.M a e v Ra o o t 1 8F.d4 7 ru u e t on e e d n t ee t e e a j rs ito y v s . p p r, 9 3 5 , 461( hCi.1 ) 4t r 999 . Al o g tetr fa d ln j i d rc n oe mafa a c ,h wo dûrud e t i a t u h h em ru u e t o n e o n ts le s n e t e r t a uln ' s h f ' t r ofa t a doe no r qui e a s i offaud. Se A I S Couns lnz & Te tnc Ct s v. em r, nd s t e r how ng r e D ei si r. 2M NAO aserst ti neve r ei dpr rs r c ofpr e soft c m pl ntpurua t Va. Co eAn j 801 s t ha t r ec ve ope e vie oc s he o ai s nt o d n. . 286. # s q, ndta i rmo a i t l u d r28U.. j 1 4 *)() Watr' e no c neth 1 .1 e .a h tt e v ls i y n e s me SC. j 4 6 ,c . l s do s t o ts te e tm elne sofM NAO ' r m oval i i s Se . Gr u W Tee iin, n .9 3F.d 1 0 ,1 0 ( t Ci. 9 0 .l d e ,op o efa uln op lv so I c, 0 2 0 0 0 3 4h r 1 9 ) n e d t r v rud e t j id rt rmo i p rymu tet e s w io tih fa i tepanifsp e dn o on e he e vng a t s ih r ho t urg t rud n h litf la ig f i j rs ito a fcs'o t a tte ei n po sblt t ttep an ifwo l b a et e tbiha u idcin l a t' r h t ih r s o s iii ha h litf ud e bl o sa l ' i y s c us ofa ton a i tt i saedefnda i sa ec t''Ha te v.CSX Tr ns ,l ,1 a e c i gans he n-tt e nt n tt our.' rly a p. nc. 87 F.d422, ( hCi.1 ( i M as lv. a leSae Cor ,6F. 229,232( h 3 424 4t r 999) quotng rhal M nvil ls p. 3d 4t Ci. 9 3 )(mp a i i o ii a) A d fn a t l gn fa uln j id rb a sah a yb r e r 1 9 ) e h ss n rg n l. e e d n al i g rud e t on e e r e v u d n e ofpe s i a û us s w t tt pl i ifc nnotes a i h a cl i e n a t r s vi a 1 r uas on nd é t ho ha he a ntf n m t bls a m ve fer e ol ng l is e o lw a d fc i teplitf sfv r' l .Th iq iyi t fa d ln j id ri mo e su s f a n a t n h an if a o . d e n ur no ru u e t on e s r ' s r hi a m or f vor bl t t pli ift n t sa r us d t evaua em o i t ea c ng nd e a a e o he antf ha he t nda d e o l t tons o dimisunde Fed.R.Ci P.1 b)6) 1 ( tngBao fv.Stt Fam I .Co.97 F. 8 , s s r v. 2( ( . d. cii tf ae r ns , 7 2d 48 8 2(dCi.1 9 :.l t ed fn a td e n t e aeal s i ly o e o ey rma di 5 3 r 9 2 f h ee d n o s o n g t lpo sbit fr c v r , e n s i a o it . I a 425.Und t ssa r t pli ifne d onl as e t$ pos i lt ofa ppr pra e d. t er hi t nda d, he antf e y s r ç sbiiy a rg t or l f t d fa afa d ln j n e cam.M as al6F.da 23 .I ac u ti d e e ih t ei 'o ee t ru u e t oid r li e rh l, 3 t 3 f o r tn s v n at lg pos i lt ofarg t r if' a 4 i rofho 'f t pl ntf, hema trs d t i ht sbiiy s i ht o ele or ç mme gl pe' or he ai if t te houl ber ma d be aus t que ton ofwhehe a c us ofa ton e ssa i tano di s pa t e nde c e he si t r a e ci xit gans n- vere ry i a s a e 1 w i s t be de i d by a s a e c t Se H a tev,1 F. a 425 s t t a s ue o c de t t our . e rl 87 3d t -26. Thus i ,f teei a yd u ta o t te ad fn a t a b e fa uln l j i e , c u t s rma h r s n o b b u wheh r ee d n h s e n rud e ty o n d a o r mu t e nd t c e.J. a 425. he as .. t 1 J M NAO ag e t t e d tr nn wh t e ad fn a t a b e fa d lnl j i e r u s ha wh n eemiig eh r ee d n h s e n ru u e ty o n d t t pos i lt 'sanda d ari ul t d i H a tev hasbe n i t r et d t m e ç ha t r i no he l no s biiy' t r tc a e n rl e n e pr e o an t t he e s t r a ona e ba i f t di t i tc tt pr di tt tt pl i i fm i be a e t r ove a i t e s bl s s or he s rc our o e c ha he a ntf ght bl o ec r ga ns a i saedee nt' r nv.Mihile ,372F.Sup 2d81 81 ( D. 20 )(ii n n-tt fnda .'Limi c esns p. 1, 8 E. Va. 05 ctng S lwo dv. 1. n. R. , 8 F.d 5 8 5 3(t Ci. 0 4 ) i Co r rj cst a mal o 11Ce R. Co.3 5 3 6 , 7 5h r 2 0 ).Th s u tee t h t a gum e bec us t r i no e de e t tt Fou t Cic tha r tea ed f om t s rc i r nt a e he e s vi nc ha he r h r ui s e r t r he t i t ' no pos i lt ' t nda d i f voroft Fi t Cic t sm o e pe s i C e ona e ba i ' s a r sbiiy' s a r n a he fh r ui ' r nni s ve ù as bl s s' t nda d. r Two r ce Fourh Cic tc es de de a t r Li n, fr t Fo t Cic ts e nt t r ui as , ci d fe nni afi m he urh r ui' a r nc t t t pos i lt ' tnd r Fis,ast sCour ha pr vi l no e t Fourh dhe e e o he s no sbiiy'sa a d. rt hi t s e ousy t d, he t Cic tt mphai a l r fim e t Ha te t pos i lt sa r ..a r pe t y r ui t e tc ly ea fr d he rly no sbiiy' tnda d . nd e aedl rfrnc dt sa d r i isa ay i o ..r u ue t on e cams' S se zCo 's eee e he tn ad n t n lss f . fa d ln j id r li . v tms mmcn ' I v.Comc tCoo.No.7:0-vnc. as , 1 c 00501 2011W L 335 4,* ( . Va.Jn. 2011 , 25 2 W D. a 27, ) (ii Bos v. sa NorhAmeia I , Fe Appx. ,335- ( hCi.2007)( r ctng s Nis n t rc . nc.228 d. 331 36 4t r pe ctiml.Se ond,t Fo t Cic ta esi t quesinofwhe r tra l c he urh rui, ddr sng he to n emova wastmey, l i l e pha i d t ne d t s rc l c t ue r m ovalsa ut be aus é he r m o lofc e f om m sze he e o t i ty onsr e t t es c e E e va t as s r saet f de a c t a s s g fc ntf de a im c e ns' Ba bourv.I ' Uni 640 F.d t t o e r l our r ies i niia e r ls onc r .' r ntl on, 3 5 9 6 5(t Ci. 01 )(nba c .Th fd rls c n en n tdi Bab u aenols 9 , 0 4h r 2 1 e n ) e e eaim o c r s oe n r o r r e s i o tn whe teq sin i o eo s b e t te j rs ito , ah rt a o o tmeie s mp ra t n h ueto s n f u j c matr u id ci n rte h n ne f i l s. n The e o e Ha tev' E pos i lt ' t nda d f r m o r m anst c r lngsa r i t r f r , rl s ç no sbiiy'sa r or e val e i he ontoli tnda d n he F u t Cic i, n t sCo t la ay eMNAO' fa d ln j id rcam t d tnn n o rh rut a d hi ur wil n lz S ru u e t on e li o ee i e whe he W ale s cl i ag ns H olday ha e n t s i ht s pos i lt ofs c s The bur n t r t r ' a m ai t i s ve he lg e t sbiiy uc es . de i o M N AO t û ga e a1 pos i lt ofr c r ' H a te 1 F. a 425. s n o t t 1 s biiy e ove y.' rl v, 87 3d t ne 1 11. A nal s ysi Theo l is b fr teCo tswh t e W atr fa d ln l j ie Hoi a t d fa ny sue eo e h ur i eh r les r u ue ty on d ld y o e e t c mp eed v riya de to fd rlu id cin.M NAO a srst thi i p e ieywh t o lt i est nd sr y e e a j rs it o se t ha t s s rcsl a W a t r hasdone. Thus û t rr ol ng a 1i s s ofl w a f c i t pl ntf sf vort le s , ç e es vi l s ue af a nd a t n he ai i f a he C o tc ns de s ' whe herM NA O ha s ts i d isbur n t i ga e a lpos i lt ofr c r ' ur o i r ,' t s a if e t de o û t l ne sbiiy e ove y,' ast W aler cl m sagai H olday. Hartey,187 F. at424,425. The Cour fndst o t s ai nst i l 3d t i hat 4 MNAO ha fie t d s I s p o t fisp st nt tHo ia i fa d ln l j i e , s ald o o o. n u p r o t o io ha ld y s r u ue ty o n d MNAO i ague t t()W atr ca prvalonhe bra ofwarnt cai a ( W atr ha r s ha 1 les nnot e i r e ch ra y l ms nd 2) les s f ie t s fc e l pl ad a c l otpr t ne i nc c ai aga ns H olda Be a e a l d o ufi i nty e nd a m ove he glge e l m i t i y. c us t r i a l as a t e e pos i lt ' ha W ale sc d be e il d t r i f o H olda on he e s t e t l r m s biiy' t t t r oul ntte o elef r m i y et risb e c o warn yo isn g ie c cam, ld yi n tfa d e tyj i d a dt e i t ra h f ra t r t e lg n e li Ho ia s o ru uln l one , n h he Cour mus rma t cas t saec ur.-.a 424. t t e nd he e o tt o tJJ t 1Z A . Bre h ofW arr y Cl m ac ant ai MNAO ag e i isb if t a Hoi a s l t Mit t si. ( tNo. , !6 21 . r u d n t res h t ld y od he aa û -s' Dk . 1 ! , ) a ' How e r a or lar e M NA O a it d t tHolda s d t M i t wih a e e swrte ve , t a gum nt dm te ha i y ol he a a t n xpr s itn wa r n y a t t e ne t a m i s on,d i a e,a a 1i e naly l i a e pa t ,a deno e r a t s o he ngi , r ns s i r ve xl nd 1 nt r l ubr c t d r s s td unde t hea ng çs t s c r ' t i r he di ûys em ove ed' on he d Buye sG ui ' t ta a ed i t wi w oft r de ' ha ppe r n he ndo he Mit a t tmeofs l ( enatrr fre t ast çwi w sike' .Addii ly,t e aa t he i ae heri fe eerd o he t ndo tc r' ) tonal md r t he di û a i 't wi he a ng E ton,' he ndow sike sa e Elleemont fom t e f tvedae orwhe dur tc r tt d d-r -i hs r he fec i t n t odome e ha r git r d 3, m iesfom t ts wn ont efe tveda e, c ve c he t r s e se e 000 l r ha ho he f c i t whihe r omes fr t' On t bas soft s e e sw a r nt M N A O now a guest tt i ple w a r nt of is .' he i hi xpr s r a y, r ha he m i d r a y m e c nt biiy i lm ie t t e s t m son t w i r ha a lt s i t d o hos ys e he ndow si ke a /ori lm ie i dur to tc r nd s i t d n a in by t t e m ont lm ia i on t wi w sike .And t r or ,be us noneoft s t m s he hr e h i t ton he ndo tc r he ef e ca e he yse lse on t wi itd he ndow si ke f l a be a et a ci ntocc r d m o et n t e m o hs tc r aied nd c us he c de ure r ha hr e nt afe t s l oft M i t M NA O a gue W a t r 'ca m o r c t r he a e he a a, r s le s r t e overunde t br a ofw a r nt r he e ch ra y cl m . ai Contar t M NA O ' poston,be a e H olda pr vi d a e e sm i t n w a r nt t r y o S ii c us i y o de n xpr s te ra y o W ale s unde t M a tr , r he gnus n M os Ac ,Holda w a pr bie f om di c a m i o lm ii t o s t i y s ohi t d r s l i ng r i tng he dur ton oft i ple w a r nt ofm e c nt biiy t ta i esby ope a i n ofV i gi a l w ai he m i d r a y r ha a lt ha r s r to r ni a 5 p ru n t Va Co ej8.- 4 1. 1 U.. j23 8a ( os ppirma ds li o mo iy u s a to . d . 2 31 4 ) 5 SC. 0 () < u le y icam r df W (xce aspr de i s e ton( oft ss ton)a i i wanunt t ac ume wih e pt ovi d n ubs ci b) hi eci ny mpled y o ons r t r pe tt s hc umerp oduc i ()s h s irma sa wrte warnt t t es c o uc ons r t f 1 uc upple ke ny itn ra y o he co ume wihrs c t s hco ume pr t..',1 U. C.j23 1 (e rnglmiai ns r t epe t o uc ns r oduc ..' ' 5 S. ) 08(9 rquii i ttons t t dur ton ofa i ple w a r nt d be wrte $..n c ea a unm it ka e l o he a i ny m i d r a e it n ' .i l r nd s a bl angua a ge nd p o n nl ds a e o tefc o t ewar ny ) r mie ty iply d n h a e f h ra t . M NAO' a g e t tt i i d waran y o y a iesa t t s t m swar ntd S r um nt ha he mple r t nl rs s o he yse ra e tndsnos i uppor i eihe fdealorVigi asael I fc,Va.Codej8. 31 1 prvi s tn t r e r r ni tt aw. n a t 2- 44 ) o de tul e sexcudedormodiid( 8. 31 ,awar nt t tt goo s l bemec ntbl i d nls l l fe j 2- 6) ra y ha he ds hal rha a e s i ple i a con r c f t s e i t s le i a m er ha w ih r pec t goods oft tki ' m id n t a t or he al f he e l r s c nt t es t o ha nd. ' Thus unde t tr oft saut a1t ti r uie f ran i id wa r y ofme c ntbiiy , r he e ms he t t e 1 ha s eq r d o mple rant r ha a lt t aiei ( )ac n rc i f rtes l o ag o a d( ) h s le i amec a t ft k n o o rs s 1 o ta t s o h ae f o d n 2 t e elr s rh n o he i d f g o b i s l Bo hee nsaep e e t r : 1 t ec n rc wa frt es l o ac ra d( ) o d eng od. t lme t r r sn hee ( ) h o ta t s o h ae f a n 2 t s lrwa aus ca deae . Furher e,heû ra yt tt g dss l be he ele s ed r lr t mor t i r nt ha he oo ha l wa m e c nt bl 'a i st t good a awhol a nots pa a ey t t i vi lc m po nt of r ha a e' pple o he s e nd e r t l o he ndi dua o ne s t c r S ec n rlv Eulrv. rc nlu uM oo s l c, 0 F.u p.2 2 1 7( . Va he a . e e eal, e Ame ia s z trs n .8 7 S p 1 3 , 23 W D. . 1 2)(ppl ngVigi a1w a al ngpli ift pr e donbr c ofi idwarnyof 99 a yi r ni a nd lowi antf o oc e ea h mple ra t m e c nt biiy cl i a t t c r i t co e off on e c ls on w he e t br sf l d r ha a lt a m s o he a n he nt xt r t nd oli i r he ake aie a t r c lps d) nd he oof ola e . 3M NAO as a a st aguet tt pr sonsoft M a uson M os A c ae i pplca et t s l by lo ppe r o r ha he ovii he gn s s t r na i bl o he ae H olda t W at s M NA O ague t be us t pur eoft pr son'i t i r as t lkei i y o ler. r s hat ca e he pos he ovii is o nc e e he i lhoodt t ha co u e swilundertnd t bagai t tt y ha m a 'a be us M s U pdi W ale stsiid du i t ns m r l sa he r ns ha he ve de' nd ca e . ke tr e tfe rng he n n utda to ta seu eso ds ewa b yn teMit i si't p oeto iu nee sr ( d. . 6 1 o s i cin h t h nd rto h s u ig h aa t -s'he rtcin s n c say. Dl No 2 -, e a a 2 .ThsCo r h sn v r a dof o s me p oe to saue b i gf u d ia pl a esmpl b c u et e t ) i u t a e e he r c n u r r t ci n ttt s en o n n p i bl i y e a s h c co um e wasa a e ofwha t s a ut wa de i d t c ns r w r t he t t e s s gne o omm uni a e. ct 6 Norca t Cour a ce M NAO' a gume t tt i id wa r nt wa lm ie i n he t c pt Sr nt ha he mple ra y s i t d n dur ton t t e m ont bec us t t e m on h lm iaton on w i a i o hr e hs a e he hr e t i ti ndow s i ke doe no sa e d n tc r s t t t t i c e ra t m it ka e l nguag 't ti a i d t i ple wa r i ,s h a t i pled l a nd m s a bl a e' ha t pple o m i d r antes uc s he m i w a r nt ofm e c nt biiy. l f c ,whe e i ple w a r nte ar m e i d on t w i ra y r ha a lt n a t r m i d r a i s e ntone he ndow sike i sa esç tc r t tt E unde sa el w,çmple wa r ntes may gi you e n mor rght a Thus r tt a i id ra i ' ve ve e i s' ' , t Cour fnds t tM N A O ha no m e isbur n ofpr vi t tt r i û pos i lt ' ha he t i ha s t tt de o ng ha he e s t no sbiiy' t t W ale sm a r c tr y e overon c a m f rbr c oft i ple wa r y ofm er ha a lt l i o ea h he m i d r ant c nt biiy. M N A O al o a guest tno c us ofa ton c n a i e t de t M a s r ha a e c i a r s m r he gnus M os Ac on s t be us i i bar dbyVigi a' saut oflmiai .( . 26- ,a 2) W atr'hasnot ca e t s re r ni s tt e i ttons DktNo. 1 t . les , howe r br ve , oughtac am unde t M a li r he gnus o M os Ac .He c am i asa e1w br ac ofa sn s t r li s tt a e h n i ple wa r t ofmer ha a lt Re e e est t M ag on M os Ac ar madef rt m i d ran y c nt biiy. f r nc o he nus s t e o he pur eofe pl ni why Hold sat mptt dic am orlm i t i i d wa r nt of pos x ai ng i ay' te o sli i t he mple ra y me c ntbiiywaspr bie l e 15U. C.j2308/)s iial c e aess cha r ha a lt ohi td. nde d, S. pecfc ly ontmplt u s e ai a dp o ie t a Ea ds li r mo iiaino l tto ma ei vo ai no t s c n ro n r vd s h tt l icame , dfc to r i ain d n ilto f hi g mi s cin s lbei feci f pur e o t sc ptra St e/z ' (mpha i a d) See e to hal nef tve or pos s f hi ha e nd at tw. e ' ss dde . as Gre v.Ge rlMot sCo .261F. zd41 41 ( . N. 2003)(i ngsae lo e ne nea or m , supp. 4, 8 W D. C. tndi tt l cl i a os whe e pl i if s r f r nc d M a aw a m r e r a ntf e e e e gnus M os wa r nt s a r t de e m i i on s r a y t nda ds o t r ne f adefnda vi ae saelw) e nt oltd tt a . B. Neglgence Cl m i ai M NAO a g st tt Vigi apl a ng sa r a et s ast he g e f r l r ue ha he r ni e di t nda ds r he mne he i ht ned ede a pl di sa r e t ihedby BelAt.Cop . Twombl 550U. 5 ( ) an ea ng tndads sabls l l v. y, S. 22 2007 , d As r t I ,1 S.Ct 1 7( hcof v.qbal 29 . 93 2009) Thi agume fisbe us fderlpl di . s r nt al ca e e a ea ng s andar do notcontoli t s cas See Cor l v.Pur Pharm a. L. ,N o.1: cvt ds r n hi e. dil due , P. 02- 00121, 7 2 0 W L 31 7 4 6 a * ( . Va 20 2 (p li t elnin Vignapla i gsa d r si 02 4 4 6 , t 4 W D. . 0 ) a pyng h e e t r ii e d n tn ad n amoint rma b s do fa d e t on e) Rah r Vign ap e d n sa d r sa en ta to o e nd a e n ru uln j i d r. te , r ii la i g tn ad r o s e c i a f de als a r . Tw om bl a I lhol t tba e a l ga i ,uns ppo t d by xa tng s e r t nda ds v nd qba d ha r le tons u re s ii fcs a ei ufi e t s vi amoi t dimisunde Fe R. v. o.1 b)6) l pecfc a t, r ns fcint o ur ve ton o s s r d. Ci Pr 2( ( . d. Vigi apla ngr quie nt , r ni e di e r me s howe r donotma t t tsaeneglge e cai bepld ve , ndae ha t t i nc l ms e wih pa tc a iy oran o he wi e sgni i a f c ualba i . Se Supr m e Cour ofV i gi a Rul t r i ul r t t r s i fc nt a t ss e e t r ni e 1: d) ( compl nti s fcintûfi ceal i or t oppost pa t oft t enaur oft 4( .A ai s ufi e t t l ry nf ms he i ie ry he nl t e he cai ordefns ) lm e e. . I he Com pl nt W at r al ge t tHolda owe he adut ofc r r ga di t n r ai , le s le d ha i y d r y a e e r ng he de i ma a t e,a pl c m e i o t sr a ofcomme c t ens et tt ve cewas sgn, nuf cur nd a e nt nt he te m r e o ur ha he hi l ra ona es et ope ae.( e s bl af o r t Compl! 1 .W atr aloaleg t tt sdut ofcaewa . 6) le s s l ed ha hi y r s br a he by Holda whe i a l d ave cet i kne ofha r s n t know was ec d i y n t lowe hi l hat t w d ea o o t ea o bl da er usf isf e e a eus t beplce i ot sr m ofcomme ce a mr s na y ng o or t or s e bl e o a d nt he tea r , nd t a t i b e c wa tep o i t c u eo h rij re .Co .! 1 ( ) 1 ,1 ) Th s u d r h t hs r a h s h r xmae a s f e nu is ( mpl 3 d , 7 8 . u , n e ! Vigi a lw,W at r ha a uael pld t e e nt ofane i nc c am . Bl Ri e Se v. r ni a le s s deq t y e he l me s glge e l i ue dz r Cor v.Sa Shoe el , Va. 21 ( ) p. xon s nc.271 206, 8 2006 . Dee f ndan ' a gum e st tt f t f om t prorpr ee ng conta c t s ts r nt ha he ac s r he i oc di r di t he e alg to a dt a u e Dr io so v Voks g n r 48 F.d 1 6 ( t Ci.1 7 ) le ains n h t nd r es n t k . l wa e wek, 9 2 0 6 4h r 9 4 (ppl ngVigi a1w t aneglge cam) t Pli ifsne i ncecam mus fi, e e a yi r ni a o i nce li ,he antf glge li t alpr snt a de t whos r ol i i be nd t s ope ofa m oton t r m a To cons de M N A O ' ba e e es uton s yo he c i o e nd. i r S ag me t wo drq ieti Co r t a j iaet emeiso t c s .Th si p e ieyte r u ns ul e ur h s u to dudc t h rt f he a e i s r cs l h ki ofs a c ng i r pr bie on a m oton t r m a H a te 187 F. d a 425. I e nd e r hi nquiy ohi t d i o e nd. r l v, 3 t nde d, 4Th S p e Co r nl sas n t ta ible i ie j ie a teo ttn igc aatrsi o g o pla i . e u rme u t l lo oe h tç rvt s non d s h usa dn h rceitc f o d e dng' e g y ' S p e Co r o Vigii Rue14 . u rme ut f r na l :U) 8 fd r l o rsmus e e v rt t nmietr s odl iaino e j rs ito 'b c u eç e ea c u t t nd a o o i i z h e h l i g to v r u idcin' e a s ç mi t a j rs ito a iq iyi no tea p o it sa eo l iaint r s l te ev ro st eti u id cin ln ur s t h p rprae tg f i g to o e ove h s aiu mc ran t que tonsof1 w a f t' l U li a e y,a tr s e d s ve y,t Cic tCour f Roa si a nd ac .' d. tm t l fe om i co r he r ui t or noke Ciy m a di m i sH olda f om t a ton, a t s s a oft ltga i t sCour ca m o t y s s i y r he c i but t hi t ge he ii ton hi t l t d caet t atr h sn û lmme o h p 'o o tiig a u g n a an t l y e lr ha W l s a o d i r f o e' f b ann j d me t g is Hoi . e g da I . V Concl on usi Tofn t t atr fa d ln l j i e Hoi a MNAO mus d mo taet tW atr id ha W les r u ue ty o n d ld y t e nsrt ha les ha nopos i lt ofs ce ng a ns Holda s sbiiy uc edi gai t i y.SeeHa te 1 F. a 424. Att ssa i rly, 87 3d t hi t ge n t ca e, heCour c nnotfnd t tW ale shasno é i me ofhope'ofs c edi a i t he s t tn i ha tr t m r gl ' uc e ng ga ns Holda be us i i pos i et Cic tCour f Roano Ciy co d fnd la lt und rt i y ca e t s sbl he r ui t or ke t ul i ibiiy e he i ple w a r nt orm e cha a lt orunde t neg i nc c ai . B e a e H olda wasnot m id ra y r nt biiy r he lge e l m c us i y fa d ln l one t a odfdea j rs ito , o lt dv riyi lc igi t i c s , n ru ue tyj i d o v i e rl u idci n c mpee ie st s a kn n hs a e a d ti Co r d e n t a es be t te j rs ito .Ac o d n l, atr ' to t rma d h s u t o s o h v u j c matr u idcin c r i gy W l s moin o e n e ( . 8 i GIANTED. DktNo. ) s R V'M ' f ' - ' ENTER: i ;/ o a , 01 Th s y2 2 ze f / . Se orUnie St t sDitit udge ni t d a e src