Carter v. Farmer et al, No. 7:2012cv00008 - Document 50 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 9/7/2012. (tvt)
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ctEv s OFFI U, DI X U CE B. ST. AT ROANOKE, VA FI QD t - I TH E U NI N TED STA TES DI STR I T C O U R T C FO R TH E W ESTE RN DI STR I T O F V I G I A C R NI R O AN O K E DI I O N V SI JAcom ANDR/ CARTER, SZF 2? 2 1 22 J A 1- 7= ' C ULI Y BY; D C E CASE NO.7:2CV00008 1 Pl ntf ai if, M EM O M N D UM O PI I N N O V S. D. FARM ER, & , c By:Gln E. nr d e Co a C hi fU nie St e Di t i tJudge e t d at s s r c D ef endant s. J or Andr Ca tr pr e ng pr K ,fld t sci lrght a i n ptrua t 42 U. C. ac i é re , oc edi o ie hi vi i s cto ls nt o S. j 1 i t UniedStt DititCo tf t Easer DititofVigi a r sngs ve a 983,n he t aes src ur or he t n src r ni, aii e r l cai .Unde 28U. C.j 1 5A( ( )t Cour s l ms r S. 91 b)1,he t umma iydimis dCa trscamsalegi rl s s e re ' li l ng de i r t i f e e e t m edi alne , ni ofd pr es r a e t t gr e nce pr dm e lbe a e ndif r nc o c eds de al ue oc s el t d o he i va oce a co ic tonofpr t a ver labus .( 1 ) TheCo tt diece t ee nd nfs ai opery, nd ba e DE 6. ur hen r td hr de e nt,Ofi r Fa me , l a Gibe qt a we Ca trscai ofe s i f ce f nda s fce s r r Hal, nd l r o ns r re ' l m xce sve or . Ther a tr t Cour ta f redt ca e ast c us ofaci a os i t sditit Ca trt e fe , he t r ns e r he s , he a e ton r e n hi src . re hen e ngage i dic r andrs d n s ovey e ponde t dee ns motonf s d o fnda t' i or ummar j y udgme .Uponr viw nt ee oft r co d,t c tg ant de e nt 'moton. he e r he our r s f nda s i A . c art ' Evi er s dencel St t d i t lghtm os f vor bl t Ca t rast nom novi pa t pl ntf of e st a e n he i t a a e o re he ng r y, ai if f r he f l wi e de er e ntt hi c am s Ca trwa c i a Re Oni St t Prs a t olo ng vi nc elva o s l i . re s onfned t d on ae ion t he tm eoft e n sa i s i J y 201 Thede e n s D. r r J Ha l a Se ge nt i he ve t t s ue n ul 0. f nda t , Fa me , . l, nd r a G iber,w e e c r c i of i r a Re O ni O n J y 22,201 Fa m era H al w e e t ki l t r or e tons fce s t d on. ul 0, r nd l r a ng ' Ca trs t ou hi e de ei hi ve iidc an ( 1 1 2 )a atc me t, s re es t s vi nc n s rfe omplit DE , - 0. nd ta h n s hi a fd vi a s plme a afda ta e hi t ( 43 ,a t s r eiln ec me af tgefom te fia t nd up e ntl fi vi nd x bis DE ) nd he u v la c a r ooa r h ves i eand t pod. tbul he Ca trof t r r a i ya dt es r hi ba k t Housng Uni 4. Ca trsha we e re f he ec e ton r o co t m c o i t re ' nds r ha ufed be nd hi ba k, heha s ckl a o hi a es Att doort Ca trsc l ndc f hi s c and d ha es r und s nkl . he o re ' el, Hal or e Ca trt gi hi t sa psCa trhad i hi ha l der d re o ve m he tm re n s nd.Ca t s i û ' Ha l rer ad,$ ' l No. t ln 'Catrit t ec l,élmme g s h a it tewalg a g e lah n f lo g re ' t u g' re no h el S a d hil e d n o h l, r b b d a d u f ca trs s s s ul rlngt har ... sa t kne ng ( mli t rghtsdeoft fc ...a 3or4 ho de e h) i, and tred ei hi n he i i he a e bout tmes' ( 43, 2. Ofie Fa rdi nohi t prve Halsaci .Sg.Giber arve i . DE p. ) tc r nne d t ng o e nt l' tons t l t ri d ' w ih a c m c dera t d Ca t rt s o r itng,a t t n or nd ol r e o t p es s i lhough t ofi r ha Care pi d i t he tce s d t r mw n he co ne ofhi c lwih hi he am os bewee hi l a hi an pule up be ndhi , r r s el t s ad l t t n s egs nd s lns ld hi m m a ng i i pos i e f r hi t r s s . ki t m s bl o m o e i t Ca trt d Gibe ts ve altmest tHalha as a t d hi .Gibe tt d Ca trt C l re ol l r e r i ha l d s ule m l r ol re o û m ca dom x' gi up t s a ps and w al ove t t doors t o fc s c d r ove t r t a nt . ' ve he t m , k r o he o he f i er oul em he es r i s ( 43,p.3, Ca trr us t bemove andas t s eahi rrnki ofiera anure DE ) re ef ed o d ked o e ghe a ng fc nd s. Gibe tr di d Nur eTat a s c m et e m i Ca trshe Ta esa ed o c m e at t l r a oe s e, nd he a o xa ne re ' ad. t tt n n r ha s esw n ij re , u a s s i t a iwa toe ryt k w i t eewo l b a ys lig h a o nu is b t lo ad h t t s o a l o no f h r u d e n weln . Care t d Tat t the w a ha ng t oubl br a hi a nee d hi i l r t r ol e ha s vi r e e t ng nd de s nha e . Care con i d t r f et co pl wih or r t tun ove t sa tr tnue o e us o m y t de s o t' r he t mpsa wak t t nd l o he n e ng r i d re ol m e r l i c l door Gibe tr di d Lt Flm i 2 W he Fl m i a r ve , Ca trt d hi s ve a tmes el . l r a oe . e ng. t tHal had a s t hi . Fl m i or r Ca trt gi t s a ps t t of i e sa s d ha l s auled m e ng de ed re o ve he t m o he f c r nd ai t ti he f l t do s t of i r w o d pl ce hi i a bul t y r t a nt . Ca t r f e t ha f aied o o, he fce s ul a m n m a or esr i s rer e us d o t n ove t s a ps Fl m i or r d t ofi e st e c t t rt t vesi e. Ca tr s d ur r he t m . e ng de e he tc r o s or Care o he tbul re ai he f r d f hi lf a r f ed t w a k dow n t s e f om t t te t t l e te oft ea e or s ie nd e us o l he t ps r he op i r o he ow r i r he pod. Fl m i t d t ofi r t t ke Ca t rdow n t s a r ,whi h t y di e ng ol he tce s o a re he t is c he d. 2 C arerr er t t sof ieras:Lt Fl i ' Thecourq however w ilus t name t t t ef s o hi fc : . emm ngs.' , l e he ha t i ofie us donhi a fda ta s plme t l fia t LtFlmi ( 3 4,DE 40- ) h s fc r e s fi vi nd up e n a a fd vi: . e ng. DE 0- . 2. l t ve tbul t ofi e sha Care knee i fontoft wal Flm i t d Ca tr n he si e, he fc r d tr ln r he l. e ng ol re t the was goi t us pr s ur poi son Ca t r she d i or rt f c hi t gi up t ha ng o e e s e nt r e ' a n de o or e m o ve he sa .Flmi gotbe nd Care a prs e thi t tmps e ng hi tr nd e s d û s humbsi oboh sde ofg re ')eas nt t i s ca trs r whies s ng( s fcei ot wala s ezng( s nec 'whieHala Fa me tidt l mahi hi) a nt he l nd que i hil k, l l nd r r re o ' é ra ( re ') n o e 'ortiv tesa .( 4 , 7. Ev na trCa trr la e t e k Ca trs ha d p n't ere e h tmps DE 3 p. ) e fe re ee s d b t s n ps Fl m i co i d s e ng Ca t r sne k untlhe û a a he t m , e ng ntnue que zi re ' c i t s boutr ady t pas out' w e o s . ' ( 43,p. ) Flmi t nor r dt tCa trbeplc i n aor r tant frbeng DE 7. e ng he de e ha re a ed n mbult y esr i s o i di r i and f ii t t n ove t s a psasor r d. Ca t rt d G ibe tt tt 1 g s uptve a lng o ur r he t m de e r e ol l r ha he e r tant we ec tng i o hi l gsa wrss Gibe tha anur eche k t r tant whie esr i s r uti nt s e nd it. l r d s c he esr i s l Ca t wason hi kne .Ca trtid t e ai t t nur et tt r sr i swoul be t tght rer s es re re o xpl n o he s ha he e ta nt d oo i onc hesood up t wa k,butt nur es i t r tai swe eOK. Ofi i l r e ed Ca tr e t o l he s a d he esr nt r tc a s elas re fo n uao yr sr it j s a trn o o J l 2 , 01 . r m mb lt r e tan s u t fe o n n uy 4 2 0 O f i i l c ge Ca t rw ih t o di c plna y i r c i r l t d t t e s ofJ y 22, fc a s har d r e t w s i i r nf a tons e a e o he vent ul 201 pos es i ofc r ba a diobe ng adiec or . I s pa a epr e ngs t 0: s son onta nd nd s yi r t der n e r t oc edi , he hea i of i e f und Ca t g ly ofbo h of e esa pe lz hi w ih 30 da l sof rng f c r o rer uit t f ns nd na i ed m t ys os t l phone prvieg f e ch of e e. ee i l es or a f ns Ase i e c o hsij re , re atc st hsafd vtap g fo hi me c l v d n e f i nu is Ca tr ta he o i fi a i a e r m s dia rc dsf J y201 ( 43- ) Afe e mi ngCare i hi c lNureTaenot t t e or or ul 0. DE 7. tr xn ni tr n s el, s t ed ha Ca trc ane ofEs li i gi )tmpl aea Nos li orbr sngnotdt f eo re ompli d ûwelng n rght e e r . welng uii e o ac r h a noo e ae so a tv be dn n td n oh rij re n tdt fc o h a .I tu d e d, p n r a r cie le ig o e , o te n u is o e o a e r e d nsr de gnmaeloffndi andt f l up( t mediali nee d. ( 43- ) Thenurewho i t i ngs o olow wihl c f de ' DE 7. ' s e m i d Ca t ra t rt ofk e s a i d n bul t y r s r nt r por e t ts coul pl c t o xa ne r e f e he t r pple m a or e tai s e t d ha he d ae w fnge s unde ea h r t a nta t ta pul e w a pr s nt no i t tCa t r c pl i d a i r r c esr i nd ha s s e e ; tng ha r e om a ne bouthi s rghta ea t rghtsdeofhi hea t nuresae t tt r wastnl aci ble ng i nkl nd he i i s d,he s ttd ha hee t o tve e di l (r d s oo ain. ( 43 7) Afe o tc r r mo da ultr r sr it o J l 2 201 , o ) ic lrto ' DE - . tr fi es e ve mb ao y e tan s n uy 4, 0 ' ato g Ca trc mp ane o ij re t b t wrssa dn ke ,h n rer p re t u r ca l u h re o li d f n u is o oh it n n ls t e u s e o td: ç pet il h s i srpen tdo b t m i t.Noij re n tdt a kls Bohwrssaesih l s l n c a oe n oh ss n u is o e o n e . t it r lg ty wol . e I sr ce (n t)t ce nb t wrss( t ls a & g tr.Nof rh r(rame t n tu td imae o la o h it wih o p wael u te te t n) ne esay. ( 43- ) c sr ' DE 7. ' B . D ef dence3 endant 'E vi s Thede e nt as e t ha Re Oni i a a nita i s r ton f ciiy t tho es f nda s s r t t d on s n dmi sr tve eg egai a lt ha us il a e who a ec a sted a t hi s s c liy rs ,i udi s eoft mos vi e rm t s r l s ii s he ghe t e trt iks ncl ng om he t olnt ofe r i are aedi t Vigi aDe rme ofCore tons(t fndes nc c r t n he r ni pa t nt rci : VDOC'.Ofiil a y ' fcas ppl ) m a m um s trt s vi i a a 1tm esove t s i a est m a nt n c r , e nt xi ec ziy uper s on t 1 i r he e nm t o i ai ont ol pr ve ec p , n miers o sa fa di t ij r , n e slet es f a do d ryo eain o te s a e mii z ik f tf n nmae nu y a d n t h ae n r e l p r to f h r Pr1 SOn. W hie Care w asi t r c e ton c ge on J y 22, 0,Of i e H al s w hi r ce ve l tr n he e r a i a ul 201 fc r l a m e i a enveopet ought rcrai ca fom a heri t ( 30- !4; 30- !6. n l hr he e e ton ge r not nmae. DE 2, DE 4, ) Be us Ca trr eve t ie fom a he i ae a wasnota horz t pos e st ie ca e re ec i d he t m r not r nm t nd ut ied o s s he tm i t rcrai ya d,t e lpewa c i r dc r nd.( 30- p.21) Ata 2: n he e e ton r he nveo s onsde e ontaba DE 4, . bout 55 p. . whe Hala Fa m e e c td Ca trfom t r c e ton a e bac t hi c l,t ofi r m , n l nd r r s ore re ' he e r a i r a k o s e l he fce s r di notkno wha wasi t e l pei Care ' ha andha t bec utous bec us i coul d w t n he nve o n tr s nd do a i , a et d h v e nan dawe p no s meo h rp o i td o jd.( 3 - ! . Onl ltr atr a e o ti e a o r o t e r hbi be DE 0 2, 4) y ae , fe e c ic tngt e l ,di t ofi r dic rt tt e l c ane posa sa . onfs a i he nveope d he fce s s ove ha he nveope ont i d t ge t mps 3 l s or oft i mo inf s n upp t her to or ummayj dg nt d f n n spr s n a fd visb Fame , r u me , e e da t e e t fia t y r r Hal SgtGibet a d Lt Flmi wih atc nt.( 3 ) l, . l r, n . e ng, t ta hme s DE 0. 4 Durngt es t Care bec m eve baly a i a ups t Att doort Ca t ' ce l i he cor, tr a r l busve nd e . he o rers l, Hal o der d Ca t rt tu' ove t e l lr e r e o t n r he nve ope,a Ca t rr f e H a lt d Care he woul nd r e e us d. l ol tr d pef afiks ac a Care vi e l j r da yandpuledFar a Hali ot ronn rs e rh, nd tr olnty eke wa l mer nd l nt he c l4 ( 30- , DE 30- , ) Be us ofCa trsbe vi ,t ofier pl e Ca trfrt el. DE 2 !5; 3 :5. ca e re ' ha or he fc s ac d re is agans t l twali i hi c l a t n,be us heco i i t he ef l nsde s e l nd he ca e ntnuedt r it a i tt rg wal o ess, ga ns he i ht l t r ga n c r ove hi . Ca t rco pl ne t the w asdi y and w a goi t pa sout To o e i ontol r m r e m ai d ha zz s ng o s . p e e tCatrfo ij rn hms l, nue a dHal lc dCa tro hi so c o t fo r r v n re r m n u ig i ef Fa r n l pa e re n s t ma h n he lo . W he het n compl i t thec d no br t t y move hi t hi knee a m ant i n he aned ha oul t eahe, he d m o s s nd i aned c r ove hi t r ont ol r m he e. Ha lde est thepule Ca trsharorknee Ca tri t f ea a tm e a l ni ha ld re ' i d re n he ac t ny i , nd Fa mera Giber sat t tt y di no s eHa ldo s Bo h ofi r a s deny t t y r nd l t t e ha he d t e l o. t fce s lo hat he sa me Ca tr shea i o t wal, Far rsa e t ti t vesi e,Ca trsa me hi lm d re ' d nt he l and me tt s ha n he tbul re lm d s own he d i o t wal a nt he l. W he Sgt Gibe tari a t c l he s w Ha la Fa m e usng a o it co r n . l r rved t he el, a l nd r r i ppr pra e ntol t c q st hol Ca t r a i tt w al ofhi c l A f e Ca tr f ie t c pl w ih or r e hni ue o d re ga ns he l s el. t r re a l d o om y t de s fom G iber a Lt Fl m i t r l s t e ope Fl m i or e a bul or r t a nt . r l t nd . e ng o e ea e he nvel , e ng der d m at y esr i s Ca tr a s r us d t c pl w ih or r die tng hi t w a k do n t s ais l t re l o ef e o om y t de s r c i m o l w he t r . n he ve tbul,wih Ca t on hi kne t m i mi hi l r ge a a l t ofi er t c r hi si e t rer s es o ni ze s eve a nd low he tc s o ontol s m ove e sm or e iy,Fl i a i or r d Ca t rs ve a tm est gi u t e l pe. m nt e as l em ng ga n de e re e r l i o ve p he nve o Ca t rf ie t c pl Be us t ofi r di notknow wha w asi t enve o a Ca t r e a l d o om y. ca e he tce s d t n he l pe nd rer rf s dt c e u e o oope a e a gi t e l pe t t ofi er , he t d t t ke a1 pr c i nsf r t nd ve he nve o o he tc s t y t o a ha l e auto or t ofkes s eyandt i e' s ft whiesc i t c r ba ...g c coul ha he t r' aft he nmat s aey l e urng he onta nd, whih) d ve 4 Ca trd nist a Hal re t fikhi a dde e t th e rt ld( r tzn dt r st re e e h t ltid o rs m n nis ha e ve t e o ) t e owa d he pul r ofie i a a r s i ma e . ( 43 p.5) fc r n n gg e sve nn r' DE. , . ' 5 co ane awea ' DE 30- !6. Flmi d iiedaprsur poi stc quebe nd nti d pon.'( 4, ) e ng l lz ut e s e nt e hni hi g re ')e r a du d rhij w a ap i a dc mpin etc iu , ac nr lVDOC o fc r catrs as n n e s a s an n o la c e hnq e' o to ' fies us toca ea i t t c ywihwha ha bee or e ' ( 30- !7- ) Att spoi , e t us n nmae o ompl t t t s n derd.' DE 4, 8. hi nt Fa rr ti d t e opefom Ca trsha . Theofk e st r m ove Ca tr scl hi nue e reve he nvel r re ' nds t r hen e d re ' ot ng, c onduc e a vi ua srp s a c f c r ba pr de hi a s f t s oc and pl e hi i td s l t i e r h or ont a nd, ovi d m a e y m k, ac d m n n mbult yr sr nt. a or e tai s 11 A . St andard ofR evi w e S mma yj g n i p o e wh r t eei nog n i is a t a ymaeil a ta d u r ud me t s r p r e e h r s e une sue s o n tra fc n t emo n p ryi e tte t j d me ta amatro lw.Fe R. v P. 6 Rue5 () h vig a t s nild o u g n s te f a d. Ci . 5 . l 6 c ma d tse tyo s mmayj d me t g i tapa t wh t fe a e u t tmef rd s o eya n ae n r f u r u g n a ans ry o é tr d q ae i o ic v r nd a u moton ... aist m a a s pon i f l o ke howi s fce t esabls t e se e ofa elm e ng ufi int o t ih he xit nc n e nt e s i t t tpa t sca e,a on whi t tpa t wilbe t bur n ofpr a til.' s ental o ha ry' s nd ch ha ry l ar he de oof t ra ' Ceoe v.Cart, U. 31 322( 986) A ge neis ofmaeilf te ssi ltx te t477 S. 7, 1 . nui sue tra ac xit f ra o a l j r r c udfn b ap e o dea c o tee ie et t h n n vngp ryi e s n be u o s o l i d y rp n rn e f h vd nc ha t e o mo i a t s e ildt avediti hi fvor ntte o r c n s a .Ande s v. be t Lobby.I ,477U. 242,25 ( 986) ron Li ry nc. S. 2 1 . Alhough t c t us vi ge ne y diputd f c si t lghtm os f vo a e t t t he our m t ew nui l s e a t n he i t a r bl o he no ova , hecour û d nota ce t l lco l i dr wn fom t f t' a t e not nm nt t ts nee c pt he ega ncusons a r he ac s' nd t d ne a ce astueunwa r nt d i e e e ,unr as bl co l i ,ora g e s' K1 h v. c pt r ra e nf r nc s e ona e ncusons r um nt . 0t ' Mir of Cor , F. 31 31 ( hCi. cos t p.444 3d 2, 9 4t r 2006)( ti quotto .ûW he opposng omitng ain) d n i pa te t lt o di f r nts ores o ofwhi h i bl t nty c r di t by t r c d,s t tno r i s el w f e e t i , ne c s a a l ont a c ed he e or o ha ra o a l j r c u db le ei ac u t h udn ta o t h t rino t fcsf r r o e o e s n be u y o l eiv t o r s o l o d p t a veso f he a t o pu p s s f , 6 r ln o amoin frs mma yj d me t' S otv. ri, 5 U. 3 2 3 0( 0 7 ( mit uig n to o u r u g n . c t Hars 5 0 S. 7 , 8 2 0 ) o ti ' ng i ena quottons atrtons a ciai ) ntr l ai , leai , nd ttons. B. The V i Evi deo dence Afe def nda sr t durng dic r t tt ca tr e nt epored i s ove y ha he mcor rf a a a sil de oot ge nd ny tl phot r phsf o J y 22, 0 we eno l ra ia e t Hon. og a r m ul 201 r onge val bl , he Robe tS. lou, t d r Ba l Unie Stt M a srt J aes gitae udge,notdt tpli ifc dt s lgjas iton cai r r ngt l s e ha antf oul t e' as t polai l m egadi he os ofa vi o a / phot r phsoft J y22, 0 i i nts d t f t a 1w s a l ' ny de nd or og a he ul 201 nc de houl he ac s nd a o lom ' ( 44, 1) l rs et def nt'moton, re arue t tt ha DE p. . n epons o enda s i Ca tr g s ha he ndhel c r d ame a f t ge,i a lbl woul s w Flm i utlzng pr s epoi son Ca trshe s e ng oo a f vaia e, d ho e ng ii i es ur nt re ' ad, que zi hi ne k, s s nghi fc i ot wal ( 43,p.7. Thec t tu t srfr nc s c and ma hi s a e nt he l. DE ) our consr es hi ee e e t t c m c derf t a Ca trsa tmptt r i eas i to cai . o he a or oo age s re ' te o a s polai n l m ç d unde t s i i n ofe denc r l ,a a r ei e e may bedr r he polato vi e u e n dve s nf r nce awn a i ta ga ns pa t who desr r lva e de e. Vodus k v. ry toys ee nt vi nc ' ' e Baylne M arneCo . 71F.d 1 1 i r i o , 3 48, 55 ( t Ci.1 9 ) S c E ana v reifrnc a u ap ry' c n co n s o t ewe k s o 4h r 9 5 . u h t l d e s n ee e bo t a t s o s ius e s f h a ne s f l hi ca e,how e r ca s s ve , nnotbe dr w n m er l fom hi ne i ntl sordes r ton ofe de e; a ey r s glge os t uc i vi nc t i er nce r qui e a s i t t pa t knew t e de w a r l va t s e i s a he nf e e r s how ng hat he ry he vi nce s e e nt o om s ue t ti a t thi wilulc ral nd ha s lf onduc r s t d i isl sordesr i ' l a 1 t e ule n t os tucton. d. t 56. ' Def nda s evi nc i t to J y 22,201 Sg .Gibe twa usng t vi o r or r e nt ' de e s ha n ul 0, t l r s i he de ec de t fl e nt i vi a t ri a e i C a t r shous ng uni whe he w asca l d t Ca tr s o im ve s nvol ng no he nm t n r e ' i t n le o re ' c lt r c d;r c dss el o e or e or how t tGibe tt t ga vi o r or ng whe hea rve a Ca tr s ha l r hen d n de ec di be n ri d t re ' c landwhieCa trwasplce i a aor r tai s' ( 40- !3. Thevi orcor r el l re a d n mbult y esr nt. DE 2, ) ' de e de us d t fl Ca t ' i i ntsor t f a on a ha d drve. Fr t ha d dr ve, he e o im rer s nc de t ed he oot ge r i om he r i t f a ofCare ' i i ntw a t nl d w ih t f a oft ot rof e oot ge tr s nc de sû dow oade t he oot ge he he f nderi o t nt he 7 s m e f de i t c put r Thi f t e w a i dve t nty e as d f o t c put rw ih no a ol r n he om e . s oo ag s na r e l r e r m he om e t me nst r c v ri. ( 4 - , 54 5) a o e o e t' DE 0 2 ! - . ' Ca t of e sno e de e t tt l soft vi o r uled fom a hi ot rt n rer f r vi nc ha he os he de es t r nyt ng he ha 5 eover t i dve tntove sght bef eCa trfld hi lws ti Sep e be 2011. M or na re r i , or re ie s a ui n t m r , he ofie s us off r ei Ca trsc l oc r d be or Gibe ta ved wih t ca fc r ' e o c n re ' e l cure f e l r ni t he mcor r and t de , he ot us off c a ede c e i t a lbl Ra d Eye f t ge o t pod a t vesi e. her es or e r pit d n he vaia e pi oo a f he nd he tbul The e or t c tfndsno vald s iton cai r r ngt l soft c m c de f age. r f e, he our i i pola i l m ega di he os he a or r oot Vodus k,71F. a 1 e 3d t 56. I r pons t de enda s m o i Ca tralo a s rst thene rr ceve a n es e o f nt ' ton, re s s e t ha ve e i d ny conta r band fom a t rofe ron t r c e ton ya d on J y 22,201 a contndst t r no he f nde he e r a i r ul 0, nd e ha s v la ec meaf tgeoft rcya dwoul pr t sf t DE 43, 5- ) I r pons ur eilnc a r ooa he e r d ove hi ac.( p. 6, n es e t t c tsor rt pr dea la lbl vi o f ager l t t t J y 22, 0i i nt o he our' de o ovi 1 vaia e de oot e aed o he ul 201 nc de , t def nda s s it d onl f t ge oft pod a t ves i e,nott r ya d. A lhough he e nt ubm te y oo a he nd he tbul he ec r t de e f ndant ha no e ane why t di notpr det r cyar f age t c tfndsno s ve t xpli d hey d ovi he e d oot , he our i ne d t r quief rherde opmentoft se de ir i s e o e r ut vel hi vi nta y s ue.W he he Ca trr ei d t t r re ec ve he s a ps fom a he i a e i nota m a e i di put off c . The r c d es a i hest t tm r not r nm t s t ral s e a t e or t bls hat he sam ps we e c r ba unde pr s polc be us i a e a' nota ho i d t pos e s t r ont a nd r i on i y, ca e nm t s l e ut r ze o ss rf e sampson t r c eai n ya d,a Ca tra t t theha sampson t r c ya d. The e or , t he e r to r nd re dmis ha d t he e r 6 5 Carerar t guest t Ra d Eyevi ofeve si t ves i eon Jul 22, 2010,s sLt hat he pi deo nt n he tbul y how . Fl i r t rt Sgt Giber,fl i t pl em e oft ambult y r tai s pr ng t em ng, a he han . l t im ng he ac nt he a or esr nt , ovi hat Flmi t id'a utwh wa ls i po s si oftevie c me a ( 4 1 : ) Thi d sr pa yi e ng te ' bo l o s a t n s e son h d o a r . DE 3- , 2. s ice nc s i at i t t s iton is however i t f e ofde endant evi mm eral o he pola i s ue, , n he ac f s' dencet i hat nadverentactons t i caus t l soft vi f age. ed he os he deo oot 6 Carera gued athi di plnar hearng t tposage sam pscannotbe contaband, snc s sci i y i ha t t r t r i e i tsc npu c a et m a t c nmae a r h s he t he ommis r ( 3 4, 1 ) Thehe rngofie f ndt tt e sa y. DE 0- p. 8. a i fc r ou ha h sampswer cont a t e r band becaus Care coul notpr t hehad pr ur t s a psi accor e tr d ove hat oc ed he t m n dance 8 t m n ri whi h Ca trr cevedt sa he nne n e re e i he t mpsi i aera t a fndi t thepos e s s mm t il o i ng ha s s ed con r band. Ca trdoesnotpr s ntany o he r pe i whi h t r cya d f a woul ta re ee t r es ct n c he e r oot ge d s uppor hi c am st tt ofi e sus d e s i f c a i thi i hi c la i a yi t s l i ha he tc r e xce sve or e gans m n s el nd n ppl ng a bul t r r s r i s i t vesi e. m a o y e t a nt n he tbul C . Exces ve Force si TheEi ht Amendme doe notpr bi a 1a i ton off r eori l ci ofpa n g h nt s ohi t 1 pplcai oc nti ton i a ans p io r.Untd Sae v. r , 9 F.d4 9 4 4( t Ci. 01 ) ;O) 1 t e g i t rs nes ie tt s Go e 5 2 3 8 , 9 4h r 2 0 . & n y h ( unne es a y a wan on i lcton ofpan'rs t t lve ofaco tt i vi a i c s r nd t nfi i i ' ies o he e l nsiutonal olton. W hilyv. bes 475U. 31 31 ( 98 , br t o ohe goundsbyW iki v.Ga te Al r, S. 2, 9 1 6) a ogaed n t r r l ns ddy, U. S. ,1 S. .11 ( 0) he a i t cli ofi r us e s i f ce 30 Ct 75 201 .W n n nmae ams fces ed xce sve or a ns hi ,t c tas t quesi .whehe a s ik prs ofi i lta t d wih a gai t m he our ks wo tons' t r pec t ion fc a cc e t s fce tyc l besaeo mid a dg te)t ealg dwr ng on wa o j ciey ufiinl upa l tt f n n wheh r h le e o d ig s b e tv l hamf e ht e tbls ac tt i vi ain. Huds 503U. a 8( ti i ena r ul noug o sa ih onsiutonal olto ' ' on, S. t omitng ntr l quottons. ai ) I a pyngt es be tv c mp n n u e Hud o t ec u t s swheh ro t as n p li h u j ci e o o e t nd r s n,h o r a k te fkil a i d f c çn a good f ih e f t o mai ai orr sor dicplneorm a ii l a pple or e t i at for t nt n e t e s i i lc ousy nd s sial f t veypur eofca i ham' J=a 7 (uoi W hilv, U. a 320aditc ly or he r pos usng r ' . .t q tng te 475 S. t 7 21.Thecour mus koc onwhehe t e de es ) t ti us f t r he vi nc upporst i e e et tt g r t he nfr nc ha he uads w a onl punihe ' he i a e, nd no on whe he t i a tons we e t es a y' i t c ts nt y s d' t nm t a t t r he r c i r û nec s r ' n he our ' e . W hil v, U . a 31 322. I W hil y, he Su e e Cour r ogni e t tr l va yes te 475 S. t 9, n te t pr m t ec z d ha e e nt fcor t co i ri t si r ae:( )t ne df a iai off c ( t r ai hi a t s o nsde n hi nquiy r 1 he e or pplc ton or e,2) he eltons p bewe nt n e a dt a t o f r eta wa us d ()t ee tn o t ij r , 4 te t e he e d n he momt f o c h t s e , 3 h xe t f he n u y ( ) h w ih VDOC oper tng pr t ai ocedur a becaus hewasnotaut i t pos esst i t r r i es nd e horzed o s hem n he ec eaton ya d.( 3 4, 21) r DE 0- p. . 9 t e tr s bl pe c ved byt r ponsbl ofi il bas d o t f dsknown t t hr a ea ona y r ei he es i e fca s e n he a o hem,a nd ( a ef t ma t tmpe t s veiyofaf ceulr po e.I a 3 .Enr ognii 5) ny fors de o e r he e rt or f es ns d. t 21 û ec ton l t tt prs n envionm e i ada r one f core tona ofi r , ion admi sr t r ha he i o r nt s nge ous or r c i l fce s prs nita o s m us be ac or ç de r ngi def e t c ded wi - a ng er nce't des g a i pl m entpolc esa pr c i est t o i n nd m e i i nd a tc ha i ter ud me taen c sayf rt ep e e v to o o d ra ds c rt ' S a e v. irka n h ij g n r e e s r o h r sr ain f r e n e u i ' tnlv Heii , y. 1 F. 6 634( hCi.1 ( i W hilv,475U. a 32122) 34 3d 29, 4t r 998) quotng te S. t - . I a d e sngt els de n ig o j ci ec mpo e t n rHu s n,h c u t s s n d r si h e s ma dn , be tv o n n u de d o t e o r a k wh t rtefr ea pidwa ç o ti il' W ikns 1 0 S Cta 1 7 Th o j ciei q iyi ehe h o c p l e s û nrva. li , 3 . . t 7 9. e b e tv n ur s n ' d epo i t c tmporz sa r ofde nc 'a i t e e svef e e e ,tg he l s nsve o one ay tndads r ce y,' nd n he xc s i or e ontxt twl n prs of ii l malci l and s si a l us f c t c us ha m ,c e por r sa r of ion fc a s i ousy aditc ly e or e o a e r ontm a y t nda ds d c nc awa saev oae . . eh ro n t in fc n ij r i e i e t' Hud o 5 3U. e e y l y r i ltd. . wh te r o sc iia t n u y s v d n . ' s n, 0 S. a 9(mp a i a e ) Ne e tee s t e tn o t i t' ij r i n ttree n 't t e t e h ss dd d . v rh ls,he x e t f he mnae s nu y s o ir lva t o h i ' Ei hAm e e i re ,a i tma s s t t rt us off c c d plusbl ha ght ndm nt nquii s s t û y ugge t whehe he e or e oul a i y ve be n t e houghtnec s r i apa tc a st i 'orma k o de s ei c to oft a ount es a y' n riul r iuaton' y û vi om ndia i n he m pr off c a id. W iki ,1 S.Ct a 1 ( tngHuds 503U. a 7) Asar ul, ore pple ' l ns 30 ' . t 778 quoi on, S. t . es t ta nimaewh c mp anso ar rjûus o s ve ta c u e nods enil ijtyamo t i l n t o o li f mee p h r ho 'h t a s s ic r be ntr l s g cet nl f ist saeavai e e svef cecam. W iki ,1 S.Cta 11 ( i rai y al o tt ld xc s i or li ' l ns 30 ' . t 78 quotng Huds 503U. a 9) on, S. t . D . D i si scus on Ta ng t r l va f c si t lgh m os f vor bl t Ca t r Ca t r s e es i f c ki he e e nt a t n he i t t a a e o r e , r e ' xc sve or e cam fisu d rt es be tv p o go Hu s n b c us h f ist mas a e ie c li al n e h u j ci e r n f d o , e a e e al o rh l vd n e de ons r tng t tt ofi er a t wih a c pa e s a e ofm i O f i r H a la Fn m e m t a i ha he tc s c ed t ul bl t t nd. fce s l nd r r r as bl pe ceve Ca trt pr en a s ctrt rs whe t y t hi fom t r c e ton e ona y r i d re o es t e liy ik n he ook m r he e r a i 10 ya dba k t hi c l on J y 22, 0. Ca trha una ho ied ie si a e opeon t r c o s e l ul 201 re d ut rz tm n n nvel he r r a i ya d a ca red t te o w ih hi ba t hi ce l Underpr s polc eve a ec e ton r nd r i ha nvel pe t m ck o s l. i on i y, n n ie t i a e c n r g f ly pur has a t c m i s r s asa book ofpos a s a ps t m hat nm t s a i ht u l c e t he om s a y, uch t ge t m , be om e c r nd whe a i ae a quie i fom a he i t orwhe hepos es est c s ontaba n n nm t c r s t r not r nma e n s s he ie i a una ho i d a e H a la Fa rha no w a ofknow i w he he Ca t rhad t m n n ut r ze r a. l nd nne d y ng t r re s m ehi m o et e e ng t sa o t ng r hr atni han t mpsi t e l t i a trt y c i c t t ie a n he nveope mtl fe he onfs a ed he tm nd n l e a e y de e rer o elnqui h he nve ope r e e us e i i. W he H al r pe t dl or r d Ca t t r i s t e l , Ca t rr f ed, xam ned t1 hei e ng t ofi r 'r a ona ebeleft the mi htpos es at e t ni iem .AtRed ghtni he fce s e s bl i ha g s s hr a e ng t Oni n, ki da i a da outwih i aesca sfed a t VDOC' hi he ts urt rs , o wor ng y n nd y t nm t ls i s he S g s ec iy iks ofi e sm us t ke s r ous y a a tt de us a po e i lt e t e one t tc n fti a fc r t a e i l nd c o f e ny t nta hr a , ven ha a i n n e l pe a t ove come de incebef r i s e t ot ri t .Thus Ca tr sc i nve o , nd o r fa o e t pr ads o he nma es , re ' ontnued i r i nc c e eda ne f t ofi e st se pa tve balc ma a us s ntansge e r at ed or he fc r o t p s r om nds nd e ome me ur as e ofphysc f c t r m ovet t e ta r t edici i . i al or e o e he hr a nd esor s plne Thec t us c i Ca t ' ver i ofHal' a tonsi i t c lunde t f l our m t onsder rers son ls c i nsde he el r he ul c r tm s anc t H a lf ce Sl m m i Ca t r she i o t w a l gr bbi hi ha r a i c z t es hat l a d. a ng re ' ad nt he l , a ng s i , nd kne ng hi i t f ce i H al t s m e ur , e e no t m os pr es i lr pons t ei m n he a , f l ook uch as es w r t he t of sona es eo t s t to N e rhel s l k ofpr es i ls a one doe nots he iua i n. ve t es , ac of s ona im l s uppor a r as bl t e ona e i e e t tHa lsc nf r nce ha l' onduc e e t f cea l d byt Ei ht Am e e i lghtof t xce ded he or lowe he g h ndm nt n i Ca tr spr ora tons H a la i d t s f r e i r pons t Ca t r s de i r t nton of re ' i c i . l pple hi o c n es e o r e ' fant e e i po e ily da r c r ba des t num e ousve ba o de st r i s i. t nta l nge ous onta nd, pie r r l r r o elnquih t 7 Carerass t t atHal and Far kne t iem i Ca er shand wasnott eat ng. Carer l mer w he t n rt ' hr eni t ers h t pr ent no f si s es s act n uppor oft sconcl or ale ton,however Att m os,Carercl m st t t hi us y lga i . he t t ai hat he wrten dici i y cha gespr t of i r knew Care ha samps. Si t ofi swr et it s plnar r ove he fce s tr d t nce he fcer ot he cha gesaferconfs tng t e ope,however t di i i r cha doc e aton doesnotpr r t i ca i he nvel , he scplna y rge um nt i ove wha t of ier knew bef e t confs ton. Even i Carert d t of i sheonl had sampsi hi t he fc s or he ica i f t ol he fcer y t n s hand,t e opeconceal isact cont s. he nvel ed t ual ent 11 M or ove ,Ca trf ist de onsr t t tHal' us off cei t c lc us d Ca t e r re a l o m tae ha ls e or n he el a e rer a yti mo et nmi i ln u y.Th n tl o Ca trsp o e sd ij re p o e d csv l n hng r ha nma ij r e at e f re ' r f se nu is r v s e iiey r t twha e rf r eHal a i wasnotamalci ,s si ,orgr sy e ha t ve o c l ppled i ous aditc os l xagge a e r pons t r t d es e o Ca tr sbe vi .J tm i e a trHa lpur tdl sa med,gr bbe a knee Ca tri re ' ha or us nut s fe l pore y lm a d, nd d re n t he d,t nm s who e m i hi no e no vi i e s e lng orbr s ng o Ca t r sf ee a he a he e xa ned m t d s bl w li ui i n r e ' a nd he d a s w no bl orope a ea . W he t ntr e e m i hi a tr a i a i oft a nd a ood n r s n he ls xa ned m fe pplc ton he a mbult r r sr nt on J y 22, 0, trcompl ne abou hi rg a eandt rghtsde a o y e tai s ul 201 Care ai d t s i ht nkl he i i ofhi hea butt nur enot d no bl di ordicol a i Att tme ofk e sr s d, he s e ee ng s or ton. he i t r emovedt he a u ao yr sr it o J l 2 2 0 t en ren tdn c mplit r m Ca tra o tijtis mb ltr e tan s n uy 4, 01 ,h u s o e o o an fo re b u n t e r t hi he Alhough i t cedt c a tt m e ca t ti ne es a y,Ca trdoe notalege o s ad. t nsnz t o ont c he di l mi f c s r re s l se iga y f te te t n f rij re h s fee a ar s l o teo fc r'a to o J l e kn n urh r rame t o n u is e u fr d s e ut f h fies cins n uy 22,201 l f c ,Ca t rdoesnota l ge t tH a l s c 0. n a t r e le ha l' onduc c us d hi pai ora ot r ta e m n ny he pa tc arha - a t tm e oft alege as a to l t r8 Com m e ur t w ih W iki ,1 S. ri ul nn - t he i he l d s ul r a e . ns a e t l ns 30 Ct a 1 7 , n t et r fco o W hte , 5U. a 3 , re ' lc o e i e c o ij r . t 1 8 a d h hid a t r f ilv 47 S. t 21 Ca trs a k f v d n e f n u y i c t t tt amountoff r eHal a id i s ndi aes ha he oc l pple n ubdui Ca tri hi c l c ng re n s e l annotbe c r c e i d ast w a o i lc i ofha ha a t rze he nt n nfi ton nn. The c tc l our onc udest tCare pr s nt no ha tr e e s ti bl di put t tH a l s a tons i t c l vi a ed Ca t r sc tt i r a e s e ha l' c i n he e l ol t re ' ons iutonalr g s i ht . The c ts de enui t on ofno ge ne diput t tH al vi a e Ca t r sr g s our ' t na i nui s e ha l ol t d r e ' i ht pr cude Ca tr scli agans Fa m e ,f f ii t i e ve a pr ec hi f o t f c e l s re ' a m i t r r or a lng o nt r ne nd ot t m r m he or e Hala id.De'x av. lne 330F. 630,634( hCi.2003)(ntr lq tton l pple lont Anceo , 3d 4t r i ena uoai maksomitd)(i ngt tfiur t prtc cam rquiess ng( )t tofiilsomison r te fndi ha al e o oe t li e r howi 1 ha fca' si 8 Att m os Ca eralegest thi dar ski woul m akebnls difcul t see. ( 43 p. ) he t rt l ha s k n d ies f i t o DE 2. Yet Care doesnotalege t the a ualy de oped br s ors lng asa r ul oft aler i wih , tr l ha ct l vel uies weli es t he t caton t Hal. l 12 r s le i t e iu o sg i n p y ia o e to ln u y'a ()t a o fca t ngw)o e utd n s ro s r in t t h se l r mo ina ij r , nd 2 h t fiil d e f s ka ' k a d dse adgd a o j cieysro s. . iko h r ' ) Ca trsalg to a eta Hals n ir g r e ) n b e tv l e iu . rs f am. . re ' le ains r h t l' ' ac i nsocc r d i s c to ur e n e onds l a ng no r as bl opporuniy f Fa rt ha pr nt d or , e vi e ona e t t or nne o ve eve e soppedt m . 9 Thus Ca trca t he re nnotesa ih ati bl is agans Fnr rf dei r t t bls ra e s ue i t me or lbe a e , i fe e e. ndif r nc W hen Gibe ta rve a Ca t ' cel Hal andFar rwe ehol ng Ca tri ac r l r ri d t rers l, l me r di re n ontol poston,a Gibe tdi noti e ve ii nd l r d nt r ne. The c r poston, ontol ii howe r by Ca trsown ve , re ' a ison,di no c us a hi m or t n tm por r di c or. Theofi e sr a ona y dm s i d t a e nyt ng e ha e a y s omf t fc r e s bl bele d t tm ant i ng as c ehol on Ca trwa wa r nt whieher f edt gi hi t ive ha i ani e ur d re s r a ed l e us o ve m he uni ntfe c r ba de iid onta nd. Care doesnotdipu et ofi r a countt twhen Ca tr tr s t he fce s' c ha re c ompl i ofdizi sa toubl br ahi t y s fe hi poston t al vi t t s aned z nes nd r e e t ng, he hitd s ii o le ae he e pr blm s Thec tc ottndt tt m e eus oft c r poston c tt e t wa on o e . our mm i ha he r e he ontol ii onsiut d he nt i lci ofha m and,t r f e, nnotfnd t tGiber' f iur t o de Ha la Fa m e t nfi ton r he e or cn i ha l ts al e o r r l nd r r o sop t ra tonsco tt e de i r ei fe e et a s ro rs ofha De' a 330 t hei c i nsiut d lbe at ndif r nc o ny e i us ik nn. Lont , F.d a 634. 3 t Care c pl nst tGiber di no r por t Fl mi t tHalha as a t Ca t . l tr om ai ha l t d t e t o e ng ha l d s uled rer t i undiput d, s s e howe x t tGibe tdi notw ines Hal' a l d a s ul on Ca tr a t ve , ha l r d t s ls lege s a t re , nd he i a e' c ai ofas a tdi note us Ca t r s o n ac i nsordec ea e t t ea t y pos d. nm t s l m s ul d xc e r e ' w to r s he hr t he e Fr t r po t ofhi ofi r a hi own e re e,Flm i kne a 1hene d t kno om he e rs s tce s nd s xpe inc e ng w 1 ede o w a boutt st to - t tCa trpos es e c r ba a ha r f ed t obe m uli eor r t he iuai n - ha re s s d onta nd nd d e us o y tpl de s o gi i up.Thes f t s ve t e acs uppo td Fl ng' r as re emi s e onabl pe c pton t Ca trpr s nt d bot a e r e i hat re e e e h 9 F t s m e r as , he a e ons O r Catras c n o p o eacam o b sa d rl blya an t ame. re lo a n t rv li f y tn e i it j is F r r a i Se Ra alv. ic Ge r e' Co nt , 2 F.d l , 3( t Ci. 0 ( mitngctton (i ngt t e nd l Prn e o g s u ' 30 3 88 20 4 h r 2 02) o ti ial ) fndi ha y b tnd ro fc rwh ( )g s c nfone wi af lo ofie ' ilga a t ( p s se d t epo rt ysa e fie o 1 wa l o r td t elw fc rs l l c, 2) os e s f l h we o h e prve ti, n ( c s jno t a t' g tb d e d a a c ie (mpha i a e . e n t a d 3) hoge t o c'mih e e me n c omplc ) e ss dd d) 13 t ea a ane f a i to oft a hr t nd ed or pplcai n he mountoff eene s a yt obt i t con r ba or ce s r o an he ta nd aga ns Ca t r sw il The e or G ibe tsf iur t i m e a el r por t a l ged a s tt i t re ' l . r f e, l r ' a l e o m di t y e t he le s aul o Fl ngha no bea i on Fl ng' a lt t ac ur t l a s sa a opra e y a es t emi d rng emi s biiy o c a ey s es nd ppr it l ddr s he st ton. iua i Ca t rs a e no t i e i s t tFl m i sus ofpr s e poi s w a a i ppr i t r e t t s rabl s ue ha e ng' e es ur nt s n na opr a e us off c unde t c r um sa es Fl ng e es l wanwd Ca trt ti hedi no gi up e or e r he ic t nc . emi xpr sy re ha f d t ve t e l ,Flm i woul a y t pr s r poi st c que.By f lng t hee t s he nve ope e ng d ppl he es u e nt e hni aii o d hi wa ni Ca t c e e t ne d f addii na f c Thepr s epoi sm a uve c us r ng, rer r atd he e or to l or e. es ur nt ne r a ed C a t ronl t m por r d s m f t ha c nce hi t gi up t eo r ba afe he i ed re ye a y i co or t t onvi d m o ve he nt a nd t r gnor ve ba or r t do s Ca trse de e,ncudi t ve tbul vi doesnots r l de s o o. re ' vi nc i l ng he si e deo, uppor a t r a ona ei e e t tFlm i sus oft spr oc t al r ti loft conta nd e s bl nf r nce ha e ng' e hi ot ol o low e reva he r ba c tt ed awa on i lcto ofha 1 onsiut nt nfi i n nn.0 Flm i so de f ambult y r sr nt a s ar e fo hi r s bl pe ce i t t e ng' r r or a or e tai s lo os r m s ea ona e r pton ha Ca t r snonc pla e w ih pr s r l a ofi e s or r pr e e a ne f c i d re ' om i nc t i on u es nd fc r ' de s es nt d ed or ontnue f c t c r hi untlhebec m ec pla .Thi c thashel t t or e o ontol m i a om i nt s our d ha (j rs et a i t sa te ydinz i mic in epons o n nmae' dmitdl s ptve s onduc,atmporr t e ay lm ia i ofan i ae' ac es t hygi nepr t , ddi e tng ut nsl,a i tton nm t s c s o e oduc s be ng, a i e is nd fe d m o mo e n , ihc us st imaenop ysc lij oh rt a r e o f v me twh c a e he n t h ia nmy t e h n t mpo a y dic f ta e r a s e , i y c e r r s om or nd mba r s m nt smpl annotqualf asa us off ce iy e or t ti t e ha s ç pugnan t t co ci nce ofm a nd.' r t o he ns e nki ' Hole v. ol on,Cas No. 08CV00629, 0W L 2640328,*1 ( . Va. 0)(i ng ly J ms e 7: 201 4 W D. 201 fndi t ta ha mbult r r sr i s a aco r m e ha s ,pr ry a i d a m ait i d eve f 48 a o y e ta nt, s ntol v nim ope l pple nd n ane n or hour ,a e t ta us off c t tof endscon e por r s a s r ç no e or e ha f t m a y t ndar ofde enc s ast s t s y t ds c y o o a i f he 1 The courtnot t tFl ng i nota def nda t Carer scompl nt Be or t cas was 0 es ha emi s e nt o t , ai . f e he e tansered,t Ease n DititCour consr a lte fom Ca erasa a endm entand gr ed i, r f r he t r src t tued e tr r rt n m ant t a i Flmig a adee a .( 6, ) TheCou t onsr e altrs miso fom Ca tra a ddng e n s fnd nt DE 9. r c tu d ae ub s in r re s mo i t r cn t ea nd nt h ve , c teCou tg a t d.( 1 ) ton o es id h me me , owe r whih h r r n e DE 8. 14 o j ciec mp n n o a e c sief recam' (i n oh rc s s .Ca trf ist b e tv o o e t f n x e sv o c li ' ct g t e a e ) re al o ) i de onsr t t tt a bul t y r t a nt ca ed hi a hi m or t n t m por y di c f t m t a e ha he m a or esr i s us m nyt ng e ha e ar s om or . W he Ca trt d Gibe t he r t a nt w e et tg ,G ibe tha a nur e c c t m and n re ol l r t es r i s r oo i ht l r d s he k he rghtuly r i o he as esm e t tt r sr i spos d no rs ofphysc ha t Ca tr i f l eled n r s s nt ha he e tant e ik i al nn o re . Se M ite v.Be n,896F. 8 85 ( hCi.1 (i ngt tprs peronnelma rl e lir or 2d 48, 4 4t r 990) fndi ha ion s y ey onme ca saf a t i t sme c lne ds. Alhough Care rporedpan i hi a esa di l t f s o nmae' dia e ) t tr e t i n s nkl nd wrs swhe ofk e sr m ove t n it n t r e d he mbul t yr tant , hentr es w onl m i s r pe a aor esr i s t ls a y nor c a s nd s li a r c we lng nd e omm e d s p a wa e ast onl ne s ar te t t Ca trdi not nde oa nd t r he y ce s y r a men . re d c mp anf rh ra o tte eij re .Th c ur c n o fndo t i rc r ta a yof h o li u te b u h s nu is e o t a n t i n hs e o d h t n t e ofk e sw a onl i lc ed ha m on C a t ri a yi t a bul t y r t a nt . t r nt y nfi t r r e n ppl ng he m a or esr i s Unde a 1f t sofW hilv,475 U. a 320- ,no r as bl f d fnde c d r l acor te S. t 21 e ona e a i r oul c udet ton J y22,201 t ofi er wa o y a i d f cewih a i e t pt s oncl ha ul 0, he fc s nt nl pple or t n nt nt o mih Ca t r asrquie t pr t s b e tvefc tofhi Eiht Ame r e , e rd o ove he u j ci a e s g h ndme cam unde Huds n.1 nt li r o 1 503 U. a 8.Rat r t e de s pporsafndi t tt eofi e s i good f ih,a id S. t he , he vi nce u t i ng ha hes fc r , n at pple t t a a ountoff ce t y be i ve w asne s ar t c r a vol tl s t ton,ga n he ype nd m or he le d ce s y o ont ol a ie iua i i pos e s on oft c r nd f om Ca tr a e f tve y r t e or r a di ci i Fi ng ssi he ontaba r re , nd f ec i l esor de nd s plne. ndi no g ne i s ofm a e i lf ti di put t c tc l st tde e nt ar e il d t enui s ue t r a ac n s e, he our onc ude ha f nda s e ntte o 1 Fort esmera o t a t dee a t aee tte t s 1 h a e s ns h t he fnd n s r nild o ummayj dg n ont me isof r u me t he rt Cart sexces ve f cecl m s t ar alo entte t qualfed i uniy agai thi cl m sf er' si or ai , hey e s ild o ii mm t ns s ai or mo tr d ma e .Se Ha l v. t M r l,45 U. 8 0,81 ( 98 )(i ngt tq lfe i niy neay a g s e row Fiz e ad 7 S. 0 8 1 2 fndi ha uaii d mmu t s el gover entofk i stf om labiiy f ci lda agesi of ast rconductdoesnotvi at hi ds nm t al Gr i lt or vi m ns ar hei ol e ce rye tbls ds ut y o c nsi ina rg sofwhih ar a on bl pe s n wo dha ek wn' . la l sa ihe Gt or r o tt o l iht m c e s a e ro ul v no ' l 15 s mma yj d me ta amatro lw a d ga t t ermoi n 1 A. a p o raeo d rwil su u r u g n s te f a n rn s h i to .2 n p r p it r e l is e t s day. hi TheCl k i die edt s nd c e oft sm e a um opi on a ac om pa ng er s r ct o e opi s hi mor nd ni nd c nyi or rt pl i ifa t c de o antf nd o ouns lofr c d f def nda s e e or or e nt . ENTER: Thi , j day ofSeptm ber 2012. 4. . , 4 s e , i t ChifUnie St t sDiti J e t d a e srct udge 1 Dee d n s ru ta Catrsa ut h udb ds se a fioo su d r 2U.. 2 fn a t ag e h t re' lwsis o l e imisd s rv lu n e 4 SC. j 1 97 ( )l,b s d o hsa mitd p s s in o c ta a rf a t c mpl wih o d r,a d mi r 9 e c( ) a e n 1 d te ose so f onr b nd,e us l o o y t r e s n no ij re .The a s r t a Ca trslc o ij ydic e ishi de c ito o Halsc nd ti t c l. n u is y se t h t re ' a k f n ur s r dt s srp in f l' o uc n he el Alh ht co r c ncud st tde e a t a ee tte t s toug he u t o l e ha fnd n s r n ild o ummayj gme t t c ur do sno fn r ud n ,he o t e t id Ca trsal gainst belgal orf cu l fi l ss a t war n ds s a und rj l e c( ) re ' l to o e ly a tal rvoou o s o ra t imis l e 997 ( )l . e y Se Netkev. ila , 0U. 31 3 ( 98 (e og zn c r' a t ort u e p irve so of e iz W lims 49 S. 9, 27 1 9) rc niig ou ts u h i nd r ro rin y 28U. C.j 1 5t s S. 91 o umm a iy camsa fioluso mai ou ) rl li s rv o r lci s . 16