Shelton v. The Prudential Insurance Company of America, No. 7:2011cv00612 - Document 24 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 10/24/2012. (ssm)
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P JARK' OFFI U. DI COURT S CE S. ST. ATROANOKE, VA FI kED I THE U N I N TED STA TES D I STRI COU RT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A ROA N OK E DI I ON V SI 0CT 25 2 1 22 F' J ULI BK . . E ,( ! ') -- . t L': N 1' 't... ' .-; . ; ,' . - R OSI LEE SHELTON A Pl ntf, ai if Ci lAci No. 11cv- 2 vi ton 7: - 0061 M EM O R AN DU M O PI O N NI TH E PRU DEN TI L I SUR AN CE A N CO M PAN Y OF A M ER I CA By: Ho Gl n E. n. e Conr ad Chi fUnie St t sDititJ e t d a e src udge De e nt f nda . I t sca e br n hi s , ough pur lnn t t Em pl ye Re iem e I m e Se urt A c of 1 t s l t o he o e tr nt nco c iy t 974 (ç tS ' 2 U. C. j1 01 1 61 tepanifcamst a t d fn a twr ng ul ç l A', 9 S. j 0 - 4 ,h litf li h the ee d n o fly El ) tr na e he l t r dia lt be ft is d unde agr lf i ur nc pln.Bot e mi t d r ong-e m s biiy ne is s ue r oup ie ns a e a h pa t sfldmoi n f rs mmayj d me t Fo t era o sstf rhb lw, o hpat s ri ie to s o u r u g n . r h e s n e o t eo b t ri ' e e m otonswilbede e a t c ewilber ma ed f f rherr viw oft pli tf i l nid nd he as l e nd or u t e e he a n ifs e i biiy f co i lgi lt or ntnuedbe ft . ne is 1. Fac ualand Pr dura Bac ound t oce l kzr Th p an if Ro ileSh lo (th 1o ', sab n fcay o al eisza c p lc (h e litf, sae etn t et n' i e eiir f i n t n e oiy te S ) f r t a 'pr vi ngf l tr dia lt be ft is dtlo hhe e o , rc n $ n') o di or ong-em sbiiy neis sue l ug r mplyerAme ia Pl r ElcrcPo rS r ieCo p rto (AEP'.Th Plni sb e tt ERI Th Pln i f n e e ti we e vc r o ain ç ' e a s u jc o SA. e a s u d d ç ) byAEP, ndt Pr de ilLiel u mzeCompa ofAmeia(t tde il' sr sa t a he u nta f ns r c ny rc l z nta' e ve s he pr ) nn ed c a m s a i s r t wih f ldi c e i r a hort ove be i de e m i to . m l i dm nit a or t ul s r tona y ut iy r neft t r na i ns ( nitai Rec dCC 'a 1050. l acama esa ihe t theors i dia e Admi srtve or AR' t ) ) f li nt tbls s ha he s s bld unde t Pl n,Pr e i pr vi a m ont y be t e ua t 60% ofa pa tc pa ' bas r he a ud ntal o des hl ne k q l o ri i nt s e mont y pa ThePln r quie t tcli a sa y f rf de a So a Se urt be f , nd hl y. a e r s ha am nt ppl o e r l cil c iy nehs a t of s t a s h be t r c ve a i tt e i s d unde t Pl n. hen f e s ny uc ne ks e ei d ga ns hos s ue r he a The e a e t o di f r ntdefnii ofdi a lt unde t P1 n: r r w fe e i tons s biiy r he a ( rn lte iiil2 mo t peid fo te d t o ds b ly,ç ia ii ' i Du ig h nta 4- n h ro r m h ae f ia ii d s blt ' s t d y d fne a a ile s o ij r t t rq rs te rgua te t n o a d l ei d s n ln s r nu y ha e uie h e lr rame t f uy qua ii physca a t t ma r as bl be expe t t pr ve you fom lfed i in nd ha y e ona y ced o e nt r pe f mi t m aera du i ofyo own oc upa i wih AEP. ror ng he t il tes ur c ton t Afe t fr t24 m ont f l ng t dae ofdia lt l s biiy'i defne as tr he is hs olowi he t s biiy, i a lt ' s i d di a ile so ij r t t e u rst erg lrte t n o ad yq ai dp y iin n ln s r nu y ha r q ie h e ua rame t f ul u lfe h sca a t tm a r as bl bee nd ha y e ona y xpece t pr ntyou fom pe f r ng t d i of td o eve r r o mi he utes a occ pa i f whi h you a e r a ona y qua ii by you e a i tai ng ny u ton or c r e s bl lfed r duc ton, r ni a e re . So l ng a you c i t mee t r uie e s oft s S wond xpe ince o s ontnue o t he eq r m nt hi s t ye rt s,' wilc i t bedia e a e t'you l ontnue o s bl d. (d a 9 6) l. t 9 . ThePl npr vi st tcai nt mus s t y ha be n dia e f ape i of1040 a o de ha l ma s t how he ve e s bld or rod , ho sofr ulry shed e wo kbeor t yca be nc lci be is (4) Thi me ns ur eg al c uld r f e he n gi ole tng neft. L. s a t tbe t unde t So n oc upa i ' i to ofdia lt c n be pai f a m axi um ha ne ks r he l w c ton' defnii n s biiy a d or m pei ofeght nmont .(d.a 996. 1oft a g nsa nce byt pa tesi t s rod i ee hs l t )A1 he r ume t dva d he ri n hi ca ei veonl t t s nvol y he d oc upa i ' ûnii n ofdia lt own c ton'de to s biiy. S etnwa e ly db AEP a açf a sDip th rl ' (d a 7 0) He j b hl o s mp o e y s çr n s ac e V. L= t 3 . r o ' r rdhe t wor t e orf t l hoz s fspe we k.(#. Exc ptf oneort da equie r o k hre our weve tr hit r e J ) e or wo ys amo t S et nwoke id o spefr n tpc l fiefmcin .He f u manj b nh, h l o r d n o r romig y ia o tc t to s r o r i o caego i swe else a çde kt 'û wic or rc c ng, ç ii e c,' nd ç il t re r it d s:s s op,'ç t h de he ki ' 4 lng t .'a l e d s 'f f o e v to . (Z a 7 3) Th fedo s r ainsto pa eo et t d y amo t a d bsr ains' J t 3 . e il b e v to o k lc n o wo a s nh n ' ca l d f drvi t fe d st s t ki not s and obs r i ot r . The fe d obs r a i le or i ng o i l ie , a ng e , e v ng he s il e v tons i ve sgnii a pe i dsofs a ng,s ti a w a ki A l ofhe i ofi e f nc i nvol d i fc nt r o t ndi itng, nd l ng. l r n- fc u tons r uie f e n t i tng a s de be ng oft nec a t s ic o derc c ng f nc i eq r d r que t w si nd i - ndi he k, nd he w t h r he ki u ton rq rdo c so a k eig (d a 7 4) Th j b d srp inis e b AEP lb l t p sto e uie c a in l ne ln . l . t 3 . e o e cito su d y a es he o i n i a ad e e tl wokp iin. (d) Th j b d srp inas n tst a AEP i wi igt wok s i d n a. r osto ' I . e o e c ito lo oe h t s y ' s ln o r l wih e o e t ma r as bl a c moda insf t ewih difc t pe f mi t i t mpl ye s o ke e ona e c om to or hos t fi uly ror ng her es e ilf to ,a t te pl esma t kebr a ors f posto asne d a a l d s nta unc i ns nd ha m oye y a e ks hit ii ns ede nd lowe frb wo kd ma d .(1) o y r e n s Ll Shet sls da ofwor wasAprl1 2009. Shefl d ac am f l tr dia lt lon' a t y k i 4, ie l i or ong-e m s biiy bene sbas on s ve ene k,s de ,uppe and l rbac l a a m pa n. l he cai , ût ed e r c houl r r owe k, eg, nd r i n r l m s not d t tsnc aca ac i nti 1 he e ha i e r cde n 988,s had u e g muli e s ge i ,i l i t he nd r one tpl ur res ncudng: wo nec f sons t bac f i ,alm i c o y,a s ul e s g r Bas on a i ta r viw k u i , wo k usons a ne t m nd ho d r ur e y. ed n niil e e c omplt by aphyscin hie byPr de il Shet wasde edbe ft on Oc o r6,2009. e ed i a rd u nta , lon ni ne is t be Pr de ilsae t tShet ha nots u nta t td ha lon d ubmitd a r c dss ii a l ou lni r src i or te ny e or pecfc ly ti ng e titons lmia i o hera lt t wor a t tba e o herm e ca r c dsa hera lt t i t tons n biiy o k, nd ha s d n di l e or nd biiy o c mplt d iyl nga tvte s ewo l b a et wok f l t i as d na yj b o ee al i vi ciiis h ud e bl o r ul i n e e tr o . - me Shet n a a e t de alonDe mbe 9,2009. Th oug c ms l s s lo ppe l d he ni ce r z h ot e, he ubmitd a te lte f o Dr Cynz Ba tsai t tShet n s f r fom sgnii a c z ni pai asar s t e tr r m . s khi t tng ha lo ufe ed r i fc nt h o c n e ul ofne k a ba k co to .Dr Bn tsa e t the pan d a i e m itnty be ome c nd c ndii ns . khi tt d ha r i ç y ntr te l c m e e ba e Shei onl a et g oom he s l a be ndt t pr ong sti sa ng, xac r t d. s y bl o r r e f nd yo ha , ol ed itng, t ndi lfi a be ng, e e ssgnik a pr e sf he .Duet t esg fca i i nt, itng, nd ndi pr s nt i t nt oblm or r o hes inii nt mpanne s t pain i c i r dt tlydia e ' td a 58 ) Aspa tofisa laerviw, he te t s onsde e oal sbld.' L= t 5. r t ppelt e e Pr e i ls ud nta ubmitd Shet sfl t Dr J hn Ayr s a o t pe c s ge Dr Ayr f und te lon' ie o . o e , n rho di ur on. . es o f to li im e soft l unci na mpar nt he umba a ce vials nea wel ast lf u re r t He r nd r c pi s l he e t ppe xtemiy. no ed ea h ofhe pa ts g r e ,a s a e t ts w o d be lm ie t s a ng f no m or t c r s ur e i s nd t t d ha he ul i t d o t ndi or e t n t hotr a atm e a f hour t t li a e ghthotrda and s d w al f rno m or ha wo ls t i nd our s oa n n i l y, houl k o e t n onehoura atm ea t hour i a e gh hourday.Dr Ayr alo lsed lm ia i o ha t i nd wo sn n i t . es s it i ttons n tc ouc ng,s ti kne lng, r wlng,c i bi orba a ng orr ac ng a be ow ora l r hi qua t ng, e i c a i lm ng l nci e hi t l bove l t houl rl ve ,on fe ng o e t ndi t ne k. ..The ea tvii s ul bedone ef s de e l l xi r x e ng he c . s c i tes ho d o c so al ( ny 5 3 % o t wo ks fl' (d a 5 6) Hef t n l tto o stig c a in ly o l %- 3 f he r hit. I . t 7 . ' omd o i ain n it mi n a c l nd oncudedt tShelon wa c pa eofwor ngf l-i a as n a y wor l l ha t s a bl ki ultme t ede t r k eve . Pr nta de e Shet sa a , i ngt tt r s t fo ism e c r vi ude i l nid lon' ppe l fndi ha he e uls r m t dial e ew a nowl dge ce t n lm ia i a r src i , t tt er src i we e i lnewih t ck e d rai i ttons nd e titons but ha hos e titons r n i t he p y ia d ma d o as d n aywo kj bs ha aTrn Dip th r1 td. t5 . h sc l e n s f e e tr r o uc s a s s ac e V. Lza 78) . Shet t n fld a s c a a on M a c 9,201 She s it a he l te fom lon he ie e ond ppe l rh 0. ubm ted not r e tr r Dr Ba t i whih he satd t tShet s f r d fom muli epan i s sr lt d t he ne k . khi, n c t e ha lon ufe e r tpl i s ue ea e o r c a ba k a had ç fiuly wih a tvii ,s h aspr o d sti sa ng,a waki nd c nd ç fc t t ci tes uc di olnge itng, t ndi nd l ng, b n i , to i g a dlfig whihp e e t rt p riiae(i)i a ye o me t'(d a e dng so p n , n it , c rv n he o a t p t sc n n mply n . I . t n c ' 5 . P u e ta a ans b te tefl t a id p n e t e rrve p y iin ti tmeaDr 61) r d n il g i u mi d h ie o n n e e d n p e e iw h sca ,h s i t . Grve ,who f i r ound t tShet s f r d fo f nci i r nt and s dbe lm iedt ha lon ufe e r m u tonal mpaime s houl i t o sti f rnom or t n sx hour outofa ei thourpe i wih br a a ia eeve y t itng o e ha i s n gh rod, t e ks valbl r wo ho sf c ngeofposton. Dr Grve a s r co me d almia i on sa ng a wa ki m or ha ii . i r lo e m nde i t ton t ndi nd l ng of30m i e a atmewih no mor t nt a ahafhour t t ldu i a e g nut s t i t e ha wo nd l s o a rng n i hthourda y. (d a 1 2 7 ) Dr Grv rn tdt ttth s r srcin wo l b p r n n a t c r ia I . t 7 - 9. . ie oe ha d je e e tito s ud e ema e t s he e vc l l a l nd umba f i nsa t c r c la l r uso nd he e via nd umba dege r tvec ng a epe m a ntco tons. r ne ai ha es r r ne ndii The e opi o a e s s ni ns r uppore b t me c ls td y he di a umm a y a not d a r s e bove, pe fc l t lsed s ciialy he it M lla CT s nrs t aswela t poso r tvenoe fo Dr.Fame a Tore (il' t nd ca e uls l s he tpe ai ts r m s r r nd rs sc . ' (d.a 1 77. I t 76- ) 4 Pr de i a s a r d f a i pe n me c le mi ton wih Dr Sa u ntal lo range or n nde nde t di a xn nai t . muel Thn f J y 22,201 Hedi gnos Shet wih d tlm i c omy s o eoft mpi or ul 0. a ed lon t E pos n ne t yndr m he c r c ls nea pos lmi t s r meoft ll rs ne. (d. t538. Hi e via pi nd t a necomy ynd o he tmba pi ' l a ' ) s e m i ton not Shelon' c xn na i ed t s ompl n sofnec a l rba k pan,a welastde r s ait k nd owe c i s l d c ea ed sr ngt 4/ i t hi fe mus e o t rgh a de r a e s ns r f ton ofrg 13 .. te h 5 n he p l xor cls n he i t nd c e s d e o y unc i i ht . . . S rih lgr iets wa p st et 9 d g e so t erg tsd . (d a 5 5) Hec n ld d tag t e as e t s o iv o 0 e re n h ih ie' I . t 3 . i ' o cu e t tShelon woul belm ie t sti f 1 c e utvemi e a at a sti tme o f ha t d i td o itng or 0 ons c i nut s nd ot l itng i f our hour i a e g s n n i hthourda Helm ie he sandi t fveco i y. i t d r t ng o i ntnuousmi e wih aone hour nut s t t alf t da He a s sa e t the a lt t grp,gr s hol a pi h wih he l ta ot or he y. lo tt d ha r biiy o i a p, d, nd nc t r ef nn wa lmie t n G c a in l b ss (d a 5 7 3 . . n i oet a dh d rto o s i td o n t c so a' a i. I . t 3 - 8)Dr Th mp wr t h tç e u ain f o ' t s h r titonswilbe f rt ne sx m o hsa whih tme s wilne d ar - val ton a r uc esrci l o he xt i nt t c i he l e e e ua i he o g i gpanma a e n . (d. t5 8 3 . n o n i n g me t' 1 a 3 - 9) ' On J l 29,201 ba e o Dr Grve ' a Dr Tha pisr viws Pr den ilgr nt uy 0, s d n . i rs nd . m ' e e , u ta a ed She t ss cond a a a a ove l ng-e m dia lt be ft e f c i Oc obe 1 2009. lon' e ppe l nd ppr d o t r s biiy ne is fe tve t r 0, (d. t91 - 7) Th a r lte n tdta h rcam wo l b rv e da an i sxmo t st l a 6 1 . e wa d etr oe h t e li ud e e iwe g i n i n h o de e m i whehe s r mai d dia ed. t r ne t r he e ne s bl l Nove r201 Shet s itd a updae Aci te o Da l Li ng n mbe 0, lon ubm te n td tviis f iy vi Que to iei whihs saed,: c nnotsto sa f re e da unt oftme Ias sinnar n c he tt ûI a i r tnd o xtnde mo s i . lo ne t a lt t 1 y down ata tmeorf e e d n ed he biiy o a ny i or xt nde mount oftm eduet m y ba k.Iha s i o c ve to bl u igmyn c t lo u ' td a 45 - 2. S rp re t t h wa a l t d ie r u e sn e k o o k p. L= t 8 6 ) he e o td ha s e s be o rv , ' prpar meas wahdihes tkeoutt ta h,a ot rt c lhous hol chors (d.a 462. e e l, s s , a he rs nd he ypia e d e. l t ) l D e e be of201 Pr de i lbe n a ne r vi w ofShe t n' fl s no i t ts n cm r 0, u nta ga w e e lo s ie , tng ha he ha r ce l t de gone s ge i on he l te bow a s de . Pnz ntalr quese u t d d e nty m r ur res r ef l nd houl r de i e t d pda e me c lr c dsfom Shet sphysca ,i l ng t doc or who pe f m e t es g i , di a e or r lon' iins ncudi he t s ror d hos ur eres D r Tor e a Dr Fn m e ,r s c i l D r Tor e s it d a M e ca Cons t ntRe e . r nd . r r e pe tve y. . r ubm te di l ula vi w (M CR' o F b u r 4 2 1tr u h ap y iin' a ssa tnh so fc .Th fr lse n ç : ' n e r ay , 01 h o g h sca s s itn i i fie e o m itd o ) r src i o he t n almi on lfi mor t n 20 pounds Spe fc l i not Shelon wa e titons t r ha i t itng e ha . ciialy, t ed t s notm e c ly r src e fom sti sa ng, waki a hadno uppe e r m iy di a l e tit d r itng, tndi or l ng, nd r xte t m ' i l l t ed ha t r srcin wh to ve.(d a 3 - 0) Dr.Far ersM CR sm iary sat t tShelon wasnot e tito s as e r l . t 697 . r tit d fom sti sa ng, waki Dr Fn me di not s er src i on t us of esrc e r itng, t ndi or l ng. . r r d e om e titons he e She t suppe e t e ii s a on c ouc ng a soopi lon' r x r m te nd r hi nd t ng. Dr Ba ta s s itd aM CR i whi h hesaedt tShet c d notst sa or . khi lo ubm te n c t t ha lon oul i, t nd, wak f l rt n a hour e nwhe gi ns tbra f c ngeofposton.t#-a 251 l or onge ha n , ve n ve hor e ks or ha ii J s t - 5 . S lo smano to e it Dr J n ta Camo c e ddn t o lt aM CR b t 2) hetn' i rh p ds, . o ah n r u h , i o c mpee u s ubmitd not fom hi e m i tonsofShet n.Hi not sfom a Aug t24, 0 vii te es r s xn na i lo s e r n us 201 st i c t t theha r viwe he i a ng sudi a f ndi a e ha d e e d r m gi t es nd oundt t$ 3- ha poorm o hol c ha 1 4 d p ogi a ppea a e, a t r w a c or ntpa n a L3- I hi r co m e ton, not d t the r nc ' nd he e s onc da ' i t 4. n s e m nda i he e ha wa nots et ttsa lzai a de ompr s i a L3- ' s ur ha tt bii ton nd c e son t 4'woul be e d nough,a t ti nd ha f Shet ss lon' ympt spe sse hewo d rvii whehe t r c om r it d, ul e st t r o e omm e amuli elve f i nd tpl e l uson. (d. t264. Themos rce vii wihDr Cn mo hea a st havebe nonNove r2, L= a ) t e nt st t . r uc ppe r o e mbe 201 a t no e fo t te m saet tShet co i d t c pli ofl rba k pa n 0, nd he t s r m ha xn t t ha lon ntnue o om a n owe c i a e re edE ni lmodeaerle wihrco ndedte t nt. (d. t260- . nd xpe inc s ma, mi rt eif t e mme r ame s' I a ' 61) Ba e on t e m , . r o hei r s d Shelon' pan me c ton lvelbutr commende s d he xa Dr Ca m uc nc ea e t s i di ai e e d alow i herm or tm e t r c r fom herr c ntdi c c o y be or tyi a t r s gi al l ng e i o e ove r ee s e tm f e r ng no he ur c pr ce e.(d. o dur I ) OnM ac 11 2 1 Pr d nile miae S etn' l n -em dsbi t b n t .(d a rh , 01 , u e ta tr n td h l s o gtr ia l y e eks I . t o i 9 0) P u e ta ' lte n tdt a i h drve dalh a dto lnfr to s b t dsn e 0 . r d n ils etr o e h tt a e iwe lte d iina i o mai n u mit i c e t g antofbe isi J y 201 a ha de e mi d t tShet n wa no l rdia e fom he r neft n ul 0, nd d t r ne ha lo s onge s bld r pef r nghe s d n yj b.(d) W i r s e t oDr Ba hi' o iint tS et nwa ro mi r e e Or o L= t e p c t . k ts pno ha h lo s h una et stf mo et nanho durngt c s ofasngl da Pr nta wr et tGgl i bl o i or r ha ur i he oure i e y, ude il ot ha çit s n tce rwh y uh v (u hlmie )c p ct . . Th r aen u d tdo fc noe icu d o la y o a e s c i td a a i . . ee r o p ae fie ts n lde y wi ( . k i')c p ct q e t n ar . (d) t Dr Bn hts a a i u si n ie' l . h y o ' Shelon a aed Pr nta ' de i i onM a c 17, 1.AtPm de i ' r q s,Dr t ppe l ude ils c son r h 201 ntals e ue t . Andr Zot va c ea o s onduced ar vi ofShet n' fl a par oft a a pr s .Ahe t e ew lo s ie s t he ppe l oce s r r e ng Shelon' s it d me c lr or ,ncudi M RIa CT s n r s t fom 2009 eviwi t s ubm te di a ec ds i l ng nd ca e uls r a 201 Dr Zo ovasf md t tShelon ha s m ef nci na i i nt ,i udi i biiy nd 0, . t ot ha t d o u to l mpanne s ncl ng na lt t t s,be orsoop, t o y oc a i lc ouc ng,s ti kneei a c a i Dr o wit nd, t wih nl c sona r hi qua tng, lng, nd r wlng. . Zo ova a s i c t d t ti he opi on,She t ha no r s c i o sti Dr Zot vas t s lo ndia e ha n r ni lon d e kitons n itng. . o f rhe saed,howe r t tShelon c d sand f onl t holr a atme a f at a of u t r tt ve , ha t oul t or y wo zs t i nd or ot l f l hotr i a eghthourda and c d wak f onl o houra atm ea f at t lo t otr zs n n i y, oul l or y ne t i nd or o a f wo h u si a eg t o rda (d. t7 ) W i r s e toDr Ba htscamst tSh lo s fee o r n n ih h u y. l a 2. t e p c t . k i' li ha etn u frd h sg fc nty gr a e lm ia i , . ovaswr t t tDr Ba tha noti l i ni a l e t r i t tons Dr Zot o e ha . khi d ncudedany o j cieme ia rs lsi s p o t fh ssae r srcin . b e tv dc l e ut n u p r o i ttd etito s Shet sfrta alwasde e f l wi Dr Zot s'r por.Shet n fld as ond lon' is ppe nid olo ng . ova e t lo ie ec l ve a ala Pr nta s e l ppe nd ude i l ubmitd he r c dst Dr Sa W enga tn, te r e or o . ul i re who fl ar por on ied e t A ugus 9,2011 Dr W e nga t n f t . . i r e ound t tt m uli e s gi alpr e eson She t ss ne ha he tpl ur c oc dur lon' pi a s derw ar n e s emi f ndi llmiai ns Hef undt tShet c d lf t nd houl r a t d om nor u ona i t to . o ha lon oul it o s de l ve 1 pounds fe houl r e l 0 r quenty a 15 pounds o a i ly,a t ts s d no be l nd cc s ona l nd ha he houl t nd, t s, n e, rs u t (d. t2 . Hef u dn rsrcin wihrs c t stig s lnga s e witk e lo q a. I a 9) o n o etito s t epe t o it , o o s h n c d t ke s t ea f c nge ofpos to butt tShe t n w asr s rc ed t t o ho sof oul a hor br ks or ha ii n, ha lo e ti t o w ur c e utvesa ngwihhal hourbr a .(d. Dr W enga tndic s Dr Bn ts ons c i tndi t f e ks 1 ) . i re sused . khi' s g etdlmiain b t l eDr Zoo a , imis dte a t u sa tae b o j cie u g se i tto s u ,i . tv s d s se h m s ms b tn itd y b e tv k me ia rc r .(d a 3 . Dr W en atnwr t t th mo ersrciel tto we e dc l e o ds I . t 0) . ig re oe ha te r e titv i ains r mi pr bl t r s tofShet s l-e tng lvel ofpai t twe e i onsse wih he oba y he e ul lon efr pori e s n ha r nc it nt t r m edi alr c ds c e or . Folow i r ce ptofDr W ei re sr por , de talde ed Shelon' fna a a o l ng e i . nga t n' e t Pnl n i ni t s i l ppe l n Aug s 26 20 1 ( =a 8 9) P u e ta' lte noe ta S et nh dt e g n n meo s u t , 1 . J .t 7 . r d n ils etr td h t h lo a md r o e u r u # s ge i butt the e m i tonsdi notr a sgnii a a r aii , nd t the ur res ha r xn na i d eve l i fc nt bno m ltes a ha r s j ciec mpanso panween ts p o tdb da n tce ie c .( = Pr d nil o n ube tv o lit f i r o u p re y ig osi vd n e J ) u e ta f u d # t ta t ha lhoug a num be ofdoc or had s h r t s ugge t d s e f tona lm ia i , he e ç oul not s e om unc i l i t tons t s ç d w pr ve Ms Shelo fom pel mi (he maera a s tnta dute ofhe own e nt . tn r rbr ng t ) t il nd ubsa il is r o c p to '(d. S et nte fldt scvl cin. c u ain. I ) h lo h n ie hi iia t ' o II. D i cus on s si A. St andard ofR evi w e A co tr vi w s a pl n a i s r t ' d i i i m a ng e i biiy de e m i tonsf r ur e e a dm nit a or s ec son n ki lgi lt t r na i o bene i a i son a a eofdic e i sa r Fie t Tie& Rubbe Co. Br c 489 U. fcire n bus s r ton t nda d. r sone r r v. u h, S. 1 ,1 5( 9 9 ; il msv. to ola LieI s Co.6 9F.d6 2, 2 - 0( t Ci. 01 ) 01 1 1 8 ) W ln i Merp i n f n . , 0 3 2 6 9 3 4h r 2 0 . t 1 A)c u t l n td s btea miitao ' d cso a ln a i i o j cieyr a o a e i o r wil o it h d n sr trs e iin s o g s t s b e tv l e s n bl, ( ur eve i t c t oul have r ac d a dif r ntc l i n. W i ba ce v. be t Lie n f he our w d e he f e e onc us o ' ne r r Li r y f ' Astrnc Co. Boson,571F.Supp.2d71 722( . Va. 08 ( tngDoev. oup sla e of t 9, W D. 20 ) cii Gr Hos t i ton& M e Ser .3F. 80,85( h Ci.1 pialzai d vs, 3d 4t r 993:.t( na nitao ' de ii i $A) dmi srtrs cson s r s na e i i i t r s tofadei r t prncpl r s ni pr e sand i i i s ea o bl f t s he e ul lbe ae, i i ed ea o ng oc s f t s uppore by td s tnta e de e. Eva v. t Cop . ubsa il vi nc ' ns Eaon ' LongTem Dia lt Pln,51 F.d31 322(t r sbiiy a 4 3 5, 4h Ci.2008 .Subsa tale denc i e d nc t tç r s ngmi wo da ce ass t e t r ) tni vi e s vie e ha t eaoni nd ul c pt ufkint o a s uppor apatculrc ncuson gndjco it ofmor t namees i il ofe de ebutma t ri a o l i a nsss e ha r cntla vi nc y be s e tl s t n apr ponde a .'Le e ev.W e tnchous El c.Cor ,747 F. 1 7, om wha e s ha e r nce' br si e e p. 2d 9 208( h Ci.1 . 4t r 984) The Fourh Cic tha ide ii ei none l i f cor t tac tma co i r' t r ui s t ntfed ght i xc usve a t s ha our y nsde ' i dee m i ng whe he apl n a nitaora e isdic e i i de ng abe kscai . n tr ni t r a dmi sr t bus d t s r ton n nyi net l m Thos f t sa e: e ac or r ( )The lng 1 a uage oft pln;()The pur e a goas oft pln;( The he a 2 pos nd l he a 3) a ua y of t m a e il c i r d t ma t d ii a t d e t deq c he t ra s onsde e o ke he ec son nd he egr e o whc t e s p o tt ()W h te ted cso - k n p o e swa r a o e a d ih h y u p r i; 4 eh r h e iin ma i g r c s s e s n d n p i ild ()W h t rt d cso c mp rswih ohe p o iin i te pa rncp e ; 5 ehe he e iin o o t t t r r v so s n h ln a d wih e rir itmrtto s o te pln () W h te te d cso wa n t a l n e eain f h a ; 6 e eh r h e iin s c n itn wih t e p o e u a a d s b fnie rq ie ns o ERI A; ( ) o sse t t h r c d r l n u sa t e urme t f S 7 v An e tr a sa d r rlv n t t e e ecs o d s rto a d ( ) Th y x en l tn a d ee a t o h x rie f icein; n 8 e A d i sr t ' m otve o a c nf i t o i e e ti m a ha m ni t a ors i s r ny o lc s f nt r s t y ve. Ch mpinv Blc & De k r( S..n .5 0F.d3 3, 58( t Ci. 0 8 (u tn 80 t , 01 n o . ak c e U. ) lc, 5 3 5 3 4h r 2 0 ) q o ic 0h 2 F. a 342- .W he t pl a mi srt meel o ree t opeai oft plna 3d t 43) n he an d nitaor r y ves s he rton he a nd ma selgi lt de e mi to ,butdoe no f t pln,hec lc ofi e es f t i not ke i biiy t r nai ns s t und he a t onti t ntr t acor s i lc td.M er LieI . . . e n 1 S. . 3 3 2 4 - 0( 0 ) l ti c s ,h p a mp iae to f ns Co v Gln , 28 Ct2 4 , 3 8 5 2 08 . n h s a e te ln i fmde e iey by AEP,notPr nta,a s t r i no potnta c l c ofi e e t s t d ntr l ude i l nd o he e s e il ontit nt r s . Fi ly,i i t pl ntf sbur e t s w t theo s i diabld unde t be ft nal t s he ai if d n o ho ha r he s s e r he ne is pln.Elitv SaaLe Co p,1 0F.d6 , 0 (t Ci.1 9 )(Th b r e o p o i t a lo . r e r . 9 3 01 6 5 4h r 9 9 t e u d n f r vng he ( dia lt i ont e oye ' ;s eas Thomasv. bet LieAs.Co.ofBoson, F. s biiy s he mpl e.) e lo ' Li ry f s t 226 Supp. 7 744( Md. 2)(t r(hepln) i i t cai ntsbur nt pr s n 2d 35, D. 200 û unde t a ,t s he l ma ' de o e e t c tntpr ofhi coni dia lt ' ompee oof s tnued s biiy.). B. Anal i yss Ha ng l d outt r lva tmedia e de e a t sa r ofr viw t sco tmus vi ai he ee n c l vi nc nd he tndad e e hi ur t empl i e l tng Shelon' ca m,t co tno c i r whehe Pr nta abus d is oy n vauai t s li he ur w onsde s t r ude il e t dic e i i t r nai Shet sbe ft unde t t s r ton n e mi tng lon' ne is r he t oc upa i ' i ton ofdia lt own c ton'defnii s biiy. S l na g st a Pr d n ilfi dt p o ryc n ie tea ta j brq ie nsof h het rue h t u e ta al o r pel o sd r h cu lo e u rme t t e o e Tr nsDipac rI poston.W he c i rngt s a s t he V ii n onsde i he ç oc upa i ' t ndar f dia lt own c ton'sa d or s biiy plns c u t s o l b gnb r ve n tee ly e s o d srpt n.S eGre v. la c a , o rs h ud e i y e iwig h mpo e ' j b e ci i e e ne Rein e o StndadLieI .Co.200 W L 263441 * ( . Va.Oc. 20 C: he ma nga a r f ns , 4 6, 2 W D. t26, 04) W n ki n ei biiy de e mi to und ra ERI c r polc apln fducir mus us a lgi lt t r nai n e n SA ove ed iy, a i a y t e n Sb e tv l ra o a l'd s rp ino t ei u e so c p to wh c icu e d te o j ciey e s n b e e cito f h ns rd' c u ain ih n l d s u is c mp rb et t o ea t l pef n db teis rd. Hee AEP'j b d s rp insae o aa l o h s cual ro ne y h n u e ' r , S o e cito tts y ). t theTrnsDipac rI po iini aç e e tr p sto b s do (h )Dito ayo ha t a s the V sto s ç d n ay o iin ae n te cin r f s Oc u to l te sPh sc l ma dCh rceitc o W ok. (d a 7 2 .Th j b c paina Ti ' y ia De n aa trsis f r ' I . t 3 ) e o l ' de crpton i caest tr s i i ndi t ha oughl ei t pe c ntoft wo k pe f me i t ca ofi ewor y gh y r e he r ror d s ypi l fc k t a wo l o dnai b c mpee whl sae .(4) h t ud r i rl e o ltd i e t d La y e Shelon' qua r lwih Pr de ilsc r ce ia i oft poston i t tPr de il t s re t u nta ' ha a trz ton he ii s ha u nta i e t oneort fed obs r a i t tdipac r a e e c e t pe f r e c mon h. gnor s he wo i l e v tons ha s the s r xpe t d o r o m a h t Thefedo s r ai n i ld d ii gt j bstsa dte s e dngt erman e o t d y il b ev to s ncu e rv n o o i n h n p n i h e id r fhe a e sa ig stig a dwak n , iepef r n v ro ts aomdtest .Th j b tndn , it , n li g whl ro mig a ius a ks r l h ie e o n des rpton lsst tme s ntsa ng a wal ng durng t obs r a i a çfeq nt'whi h c i i it he i pe t ndi nd ki i he e v ton s ir ue ' c i de ci da bewe n 34- % oft t a tmepef mi t ts (d.a 733. I at ve s s rbe s t e 66 he otl i ror ng he a k. I t ) n wel hourda e a ou i f drvi tm e, hi c d po e i ly n ountt a m uc mss ve y, ven cc ntng or i ng i t s oul t nta l m o s h e n hour ofw al ng pershit s ki f. Pr de ilne rs c fc ly a e s why i bei d Shelon woul bea et pero m u nta ve pe ii a l ddr s ed t leve t d bl o f r t sp r o h r o u d rt rsrcin i o e b t d co swh e n ne he fls hi a t f e j b n e he etito s mp s d y he o tr o x mi d r iei l ngt Dr .W e nga tnand Zot s who we ehie byPr de il Shelon' ma n ncudi wo, s i re ova , r rd u nta . t s i te tngphysc a Dr Bnk t r peaedl i c t d t thedi notbele Shet n c ul pe f m r ai ii n, . hi, e t y ndia e ha d ive lo o d ror a yof e e sn ilo f n o s mu hls t esa d n a dwakn a s cae wi t fed n h r se ta j b u din , c e s h tn i g n l ig so itd t he il h obs r a i .Addii l Dr Grve ' a Dr Tha ' lmiai on sa ngwe e mor e v tons tonaly, . i rs nd . mpis i t tons t ndi r e r ti tvet t physca de a r quie byt posto W hie i i tu t tDr Fa me esrc i han he i l m nds e r d he iin. l t s r e ha . r r a Dr Tore bo h sa e t tShelon ha no r src i o sti orsa ng, he prm a iy nd . r t t t d ha t d e titons n itng t ndi t y i rl te t Shelo f he s ul ra ebow c tons a woul ha had ls f miirt wih r aed t n or r ho de nd l ondii , nd d ve e s a la iy t t ba k is t twe ea t he tofShelon' al ge dia lt he c s ues ha r t he ar t s le d s biiy. I i al o t ue t tt e i no t r tng phys c an r e ' n ERI c es a t tpl t s s r ha her s t ea i t i i ul ' i SA as , nd ha an a i sr or a enotr r d t ( c or s c a weghtt t opi o ofa ca ma ' dm nitat s r equie o G c d pe i l i o he ni ns a li nts p y iin' Blc & De k rDia l yPlnv No d 5 8U.. 2 , 3 ( 0 ) Ho v r t h sca . a k ' c e sbit a . r , 3 S 8 2 8 4 20 3 . we e,wo i oft d t sr t ne by Pr ntalt e l t Shelon' a a slse r tito on sa ng he oc or eai d ude i o vaua e t s ppe l it d esrci ns tndi a waki t ta ea oddswiht fe d o e v ton r quie e s Asadd e s d abo ,Dr nd l ng ha r t t he il bs r a i e r m nt . r se ve . Zot 'r po ti c t st tShet c d sa f ro yt ho sa atm ea f at t of ovas e r ndi a e ha lon oul t nd o nl wo ur t i nd or o al f urho si a e g hourda a c d w a k f onl one houra a tm e a f a t t oft o ur n n i ht y, nd oul l or y t i nd or o al wo holsi a eg th u da .( a 7 . Lie s, . en a tnsae t a S etnwa t n n ih o r y AR t 2) k wie Dr W ig re ttd h t h l r o s lm iedt t hotr ofsa ng a atme, t t ne d f ha fhol br ksi bewe n e c i t o wo ls tndi t i wih he e or l tr ea n t e a h pei (d. t29. Eve crdii Pr de ilsdocor ove Shelon',idoesnota a t t rod. 1 a ) n e tng u nta' t s r t s t ppe r ha Shet woul bea et pef m t r uie nt oft fedobs r ai a stfrhi t j lon d bl o ror he eq rme s he il e v tons s e o t n he ob descrpton. i i 11 Pr de ilsl ter t Shelon di nota quae y e a nwhy i bei ve Shet was u nta ' e t s o t d de t l xpli t le d lon una et pe f m t fe d o e v tons Pr de i lstna lte t Shet de ng he s ond bl o ror he il bs r a i . u nta ' i l e tr o lon nyi r ec a pe la d e s st es d n ayape t o h r o , u ma e n me to of h waknga d p a d rse h e e tr s cs f e j b b t k s o nin t e li n sa ngr uie t oft fel obsr ai .( a 881)I do not howe r a e st tndi eq rmens he i d e v tons AR t . t es , ve, ddrs he a bul t y r qui e e soft pos ton, r psbe us e n t doct s hie by Pr nta m a or e r m nt he ii pe ha ca e ve he or r d ude i l i s dlmiai n o S etn' c pa iista weemo er s ci ta wh ttej b mpo e i tto s n h lo s a cte h t r r e lit h n a h o ve de nd ma ed. Afe r viw oft a nitai r c d a t pa tes bref,t c tfndst t tr e e he dmi sr tve e or nd he ri ' i s he our i ha She t w a diabl d t de t Pl n' E lon s s e m r he a s û occ pa i 'de i ton ofdi a lt bas o he own u ton' fnii s biiy ed n r ia i t t e g g i he j ba a t al pefr d Th c u t u te d tr ne t a n bl y o n a e n r o s cu l ro me . e o r frh r ee mi s h t i y Pr de ilsf iur t c i rt n u nta ' a l e o onsde he mbult yr r me so t poston, wela isf iur a or equie nt f he ii as l s t al e t i or Shet why t me c lopi onslmii he c pact t sa a wak woul not o nf m lon he di a ni i tng r a iy o t nd nd l d pr ven he fom peror i t fe d o e v tons n mtd t a a e ofisdic e i as e t rr f m ng he l l bs r a i , mot e o n bus t s r ton cl i sad i s r t . H a ng dec di t tShe t n w a di a e f om herr gul rocc ton am m nit a or vi i ng ha lo s s bl d r e a upa i bas ont tel obs r a i r quie e ,t c ttndsi ur e s r t go i o a g eaer ed he i d e v ton e r m nt he our i t mec s a y o nt ny r t a ay i o P u e ta ' d tr n to sr g ri gS etn' a i t t p ro m ter s o h r o n lss f r d n ils eemiain e a dn h l s bl y o ef r h e t f e j b o i fmc i ,orhers usunde t m or rg ousi ry oc upaton'defnii ofdia lt I t tons tt r he e i or s l c i ' a ton s biiy. t does howe r bec , ve , omene es a y t a e st pr rr medy f t c t o i plm e t c s r o ddr s he ope e or he our t m e n . Thi c e i s e tunus li t t cam a ' a gume sbef et c ta es s as s om wha ua n hat he li nts r nt or he our ddr s onl whehe s i dia edund rt ç y t r he s s bl e he t oc upa i 'snnda d,e nt own c ton' f r ve hough i i und s e t s iput d t tt c a m a ha r ei d t m a m um n ot ofbe ft elg bl t he unde t 2 ha he l i nt s ec ve he xi m mt ne is i i e o r r he 4m ont perod a i a e t t td i ton.A s p e ousy s a e w he t 1 040 hou h i pplc bl o ha efnii r vi l t t d, n he , r e i i t o perod i c i r t l s a c a m a c n r c ve be i sunde t town lm na i n i s ons de ed, he onge t l i nt a e ei neft r he t 1 2 oc upa i 'snnda d i e g e n mont .Pr entalsi ta gr ntofbe ft t Shelon on J y c ton' f r s i ht e hs ud i ' nii l a ne is o t ul 29, 0 r t oa tve y a a de be t e f c i O c obe 1 2009. Pr den i ' d i i t 201 e r c i l w r d ne ks f e tve t r 0, u tals ec son o t r i t Shelon' be is wasm a on M a c 11 2011, t t r i ton w a note f c i e m na e t s neft de rh , but he e m na i s f e tve untlAprl1 201l - xa ty e g e n mont fom t d t be iswe efr tgr nt d.Asa i i 0, --e c l i ht e hs r he a e neft r is a e r ul,Shet i no e il d t ar toaci a r ofbe ft ba e on t ç es t lon s t ntte o er tve wa d neis s d he t oc upa i ' own c ton' dei ton ofdia lt fnii s biiy. I t d,t pr perc s i f t c t or m a t ca et t pln a nitaorf nsea he o our e s or he our t e nd he s o he a dmi sr t or a dee na i ofShet selgbiiy und t t ly occ pai n'd i ton.I i cla fom tnni ton lon' i i lt er he é ' al u to ' efnii ts er r Pr de i l sdeni ll te st tPr de i lo y co i r d Shelon' c ai unde t ç n u nta ' a e t r ha u nta nl ns de e t s lm r he ' ow oc u ain' tnd r o ds b ly.( a 8 1 ( oigt a S et n%eanld tef n to a c p to 'sa ad f ia ii AR t 8 ) n tn h t h l ç ti e ) h u cin l t o r ca ciy t pe f m s de a y wor a tvii asr quiedf he r g a oc pa t o ror e nt r k c i tes e r or r e ulr cupai a aTr ns ton s a Dipac rI '.Ass h,Pr nta hasnotye c i r dwhehe Shet i eii ef s the V' ) uc ude il t onsde e t r lon s lgbl or be f t unde t ç ny oc upa i n' s a r I s h a c s t c r c c s ofa ton i t ne is r he t a c to ' t nda d. n uc a e, he or e t our e c i s o r m a t c ai a ' a i a i t t pl n a i sr t f r a de i i n a yi t e nd he l m nt s pplc ton o he a dm ni ta or o c s o ppl ng he a p o raesa d r Se Pa o ihv. o d pr S r ie sn .5 5F.d6 , 0 - 7( t Ci. p r p it tn ad. e k vc Br a s ie e vc s I c, 3 3 01 6 6 0 7h r 2 0 )( o dngt a be a eth PlnAc n sr trddn t su a yd cso o g e 0 8 h l i h t c us t e a l itao i o is e n e iin n t t mi h cama 'lelgi lt f rdia lt be ft unde t çnyoc upai sa r 'ilf t li nts i biiy o sbiiy neis r he a c ton' tndady t e the ' dititc r wihnot ngt rviw, ndrma wa a oprae ;s as Se nv.FM C src ou t t hi o e e a e nd s ppr it) ee lo ma Co p. trme t a frHo rvEmplve s 3 4F.d7 8 7 3(t Ci. 0 3 (W h n apln r Reie n Pln o u l o e , 3 3 2 , 3 8h r 2 0 ) E e ç a a i sr orf ist r nde a d ii whas ve on apa tcpantsa plc ton f rbene is i dm nitat a l o e r ny ec son toe r rii ' p i a i o ft ,t l vest c t wih not ngt r vi unde a sa r ofr vi w,s t mat rmus be s nt ea he ours t hi o e ew r ny tnda d e e o he te t e ba kt t a nitao f adecson. 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