-RSB Lucas v. Young, No. 7:2011cv00608 - Document 34 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Michael F. Urbanski on 08/03/2012. (kab)
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pe ii on De e be 21 2011.Pe ii rpr s nt one d pr es cli and t eei feci tton cm r , ttone e e s ue oc s a m hr ne f tve as it nce ofco elc a m s: ssa uns l i Thee de ewasi ufi i tt pr peii rus d f cet c vi nc ns fcen o ove ttone e or o omm i r pe ta , f ci e s or bl odom y, a and bduc i ton; ( 2) Tra c elwasi feci f E ompellnglpeii ri owavi hi rg t il ouns ne f tve or s c gi ttone nt i ng s iht o as dy ti 'and f f lngçt pr ec pe ii rfom t c tmaki pee ral' or aii to ot t ttone r he our ng peii ' 1 a ttoners eg mput ton c i ntupon peii rwavi hi rg t ti lby ai ontnge ttone i ng s i ht o ra () 3 j r' u y' ' Tra c u e wa i fe tv frfi n t p e e tç xc l aoy i e c me t il o ns l s nefcie o al g o r sn t u p tr mp a h n i e e denc 'f om t pr lm i r he rng t i pe c t vi tm ' t i t tm ony; vi e' r he e i na y a i o m a h he c i s ral esi and () 4 Tra c u e wa ie fciefrn to j cigt tevitm' Cn d s il il o ns l s n fe tv o o be tn o h ci s t a misbe i he r a t si a s y e tmony' a ' boutt gr nd l r e c r . he a a c ny ha ge lI. 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The e l ton ofwhe he asa ec tde ii i Ec r r t 'ori unr as bl va uai t r t t our cson s tonta y o' t an e ona e a i to of'f der llw i ba e on a i pe ntr vi w ofe ch sa r W ila sv. pplcai n e a a s sd n nde nde e e a t nda d. lim Ta or 5 U. 362,41 1 ( yl , 29 S. 2- 3 2000) A saec t ii i çc r r t 'fderl1w it . tt our decson s tontay o' e a a f he decso t ri sa ac uson o iet t tra he by (heUniedSttsSuprmeqCou t iin t rve t oncl i ppost o ha e c d t a t ae e r o aq e to o lw o i tesaec r d cd sac s difr nl t a gh Untd S ae n u si n f a r f h tt ou t e ie a e fee ty h n t e ie tts Supr me Cour hasonas tofmaei l i si s bl f t.'l a 41 A fiuet ct e j t e traly nditnguiha e acs' d. t 3. alr o ie 1Re ponde a no e s nt ck wldgest pettone pr s t t f cl mss i c t t Supr meCou ofVigi a. hat ii r e ened he our ai ub udie o he e rt r ni S e28U. C. 2 5 4)( n aige h u to ) e S. j 2 4b ma d tn x a sin . esa ihe Unie Stt Supr m eCo tpr ce ntdoe no r nde adec son ( onta y't tbls d t d a es e ur e de s te r ii û r r ' o c fde a lw.M ic lv.Es r a,5 U. 1 1 ( e rla thel oa z 40 S. 2, 6 2003) . A f de alcour m a i s t w rtunde t ç le ona e a i a i 'c a e i t e r t y s ue he i r he s r as bl pplc ton' l us f he ur fderlcour fndst tt saec tddenii st c r c g r ngl alprncpl fom ghe e a t i ha he tt our t tte he ore t oveni eg i i e r t i S p e )Co r' d cso b tu ra o a ya p ista p icpet t f cso t p io e ' u rme u ts e iins u n e s n bl p le h t rn il o he a t f he rs n rs c s . W i ims 5 U. a 41 .Thsra o a ln s sa d r i a o j cieo .l . t 0. a e' l a , 29 S. t 3 i e s n b e e s tn ad s n be tv ne d a 41 ' l A fde a cour rviwi aha aspeii E e umellt (tt c tsf t l e r l te e ng be tton i s s he sael our' acua pr fndi t bes unl s( ttonelrbut çhepr umptonofcore t sbycla a i ngs o ound es peii r e s t es i rcnes e r nd convi i e de e.' ilrElv. eke 545U. 231 240( ncng vi nc ''M le - Drt , S. , 2005)( i 28U. C. quotng S. j2 4() 1) Se m ..Le zv. a hnRo 4 4 F.d2 5 3 0 01(t Ci. 0 6 .i 25 e ( ). e ec, n W s i tn, 4 3 9 , 0 - 4 h r 2 0 ) û A s a e- ur f c ualde e na i i no unr as bl m e e y be a e t f de a habe c t t t co t a t t nni ton s t e ona e r l c us he e r l as our w oul ha r c a di f r ntco l i i t f r ti t nce ' ood v. le 558 U . d ve ea hed fe e nc uson n he i s ns a .'W A l n, S. , 1 0S. . 41 8 9( 1 ) t ll viw u d rj2 4 d ( )i lmie t t rc r t a wa 3 Ct 8 , 4 20 0 . l le e n e 25 ( )1 s i td o he e o d h t s l b f r t saec u th t du iae tecam o t eme i . Culnv Pih ltr 5 3U.. eo e he tt o r ta a j d c td h li n h rt ' l . n o se, 6 S s' e 1 S.Ct 1 1 ( 1 . 31 . 388, 398 201 ) A. PETI ONER' CHALLENGE TO THE SUFFI ENCY OFTHE EVI TI S CI DENCE M UST BE D I I SM SSED. Pe ii rfr ta guest tt e de w a i uf i i ntt pr t the us d f c t ttone i s r ha he vi nce s ns f c e o ove ha e or e o co mi r pe, f cbl s m t a or i e odom y,a a e t r ni lne o nd bduci 2 The Supr m eCour ofVigi adeci d t ton. c i rt scl i on di e a ons de hi a m r ct ppea be aus t Cour ofA ppea s ofV i gi a he d t tt l c e he t l r ni l ha he evi ncewa s fc e t co c pe ii ne oft ec i e . SeçY1tv. m e a ,501U . de s ufi i nt o nvit tto r hes rm s s Nul m ker S. 2Theduepr es ca eoft Fouree h Am e e pr e sasat c tde e tfom convitonçe ept oc s lus he t nt ndm nt otct t e our f ndan r ci çxc uponpr be oof yond ar s bl dou ofe y f tnec s r t c tt et c i wihwhi hei cha ge ' Lk ea ona e bt ver ac esa y o onsiut he rme t ch s r da' l r W i h p 3 7 U. . 58 3 4 ( 9 0 . e ns i , 9 S 3 , 6 1 7 ) 7 7 8 3( 9 )( o dn t tafd r l o t a r l o ar a o e saec u tu me tr si 9 , 0 1 91 h l ig ha e e a c ur c n ey n e s n d tt o r j dg n e t ng p i rl o fd rllw wh n ltru e pli dsaec u t r esu h l t a j d me t; o e rmaiy n e e a a e ae n x ane tt o r o d r p od h t u g nl J n s v. u rv, 47F.d 1 0 ,1 1 ( t Ci. 9 )(ttn wr tnfndn so h so ia fc b t e M ra 9 2 1 6 1 0 4 h r 1 91 saig i e i ig f it rc l a t y h t saec tar pr ume t becore ta e ildt deee eunls s tt our e es d o rc nd ntte o frnc e s hownt beer us. o roneo ) A sa ec tc c i wilnotbedit be i t f r ha a c tde e ne t t t t our onviton l sur d f he ede al be s our t nni s ha Ca r tona ti roff c ul ha f tnv a i l re ad o d ve ound t e s n i le e e soft c i be he s e ta l m nt he rme yond a r s na e do ' a trvi ng t e de ei t lghtm os f vor bl t t pr e uton. ea o bl ubt' fe ewi he vi nc n he i t a a e o he os c i J ks nv. r ni 443U. 307,31 1 ( 979)( i na e ac o Vigi a, S. 8- 9 1 orgi l mpha i) Thec trviwe t ss. our e e d he t i r c d,w hi t Cour ofAppea sofV igi a a l s m a i d asf l s ral e or ch he t l r ni pty um rze olow : ( L. mared g ttonejo Aug t5,2005,a ( t y spaae onDe mbe P. ) ri peii r n us nd 1 he e rtd ce r 1 2005. ( L. t tfe t on Fe uay 5,2006,s dic r d t t t 0, P. J esiid hat br r he s ove e ha he bal nce i he s vi a n r a ngs a count w as l w . She l a ne t m one had be n c o e r d he y e ta fred t he c c ng ac ounta t t ( ttone )ha wrte hi el a rnser o r he ki c nd ha peii r d itn ms f c e k fo t j itc c i g a c u t ( L. c n r n e ( tto elr g r ig h c r m he on he k n c o n . P. ) o fo td pei n r e adn i t e ta se a d g tto e ) a re t r tr t mo e ,b t dd no. ( L. h r n fr n peiin r g e d o eu n he n y u i t P. ) o ane apr e tveor ragans ( ttoner af da ltr Lae t tmont bti d otci de i t peii ) ew ys ae . tr ha h, ( L. awokeoneni t dic rg tto lsa ngi herbedr door P. I ght o s ove peiiner tndi n oom way. ( L. obti d akniet pr ec hes l,but( ttone)grbbe i fom hera P. I ane f o ot t ref peii r a d t r nd pus d ( L. it a cost g ttoneqpostone hi efi fontoft doo he P. I no l e. peii r ii d ms l n r he r a t e tne t kilhe . ( L. pla d wih ( tto r nott ham he a nd hrae d o l r P. ) e de t peiinel o r r nd dic s d rconclng as a wa t cam hi ( ttoner e nt l al d s us e e ii y o l m. Peii ) ve ualy lowe ( L. o oft costa outoffa ,s c i d tl ng wih hi The P. I ut he l e nd, e r he ontnue aki t m. y s n tme i ah tt a d ( L. ddno so ( t in r fo k sig h r S pe t i n o ub n P. ) i t tp pei o e l r m isn e . he t t tfed s s es ii he ubm it d t or ls x a s xua i e c s bec us s f ar d i s te o a e nd e l nt r our e a e he e e f he di no,( ttonelwoul hur he .Thef lwi momi ( L. fedt hous d t peii r d t r olo ng ng, P. I l he e a co a t t polc nd nt c ed he i e. ( L. ltrdico rd t ta ce tcadwasmisngfom he walt Purhass P. ) ae s vee ha rdi r si r r le. c e ha be n m ade wih t ca d afe i w asm i s ng a r e pt f t e pur has s d e t he r t r t s i nd ec i s or hos c e weelc td i (eiin rs ve il .( L. a mi e s eh d p e i u l alwe r o ae n p tto e ') hce P. ) d t d h a rv o sy l d t o (eiin r t u eh rc r b tt si e s edd no gv hi pe miso t tk p tto e) o s e ad, u e tt d h i t ie m r si n o a e i hercar orm ake t pur esi ques i d he chas n ton. 4 Luc sv. a Commonwe t No. alh, 2602- 4,si op. t5- ( Ci. .J 27, ) Se Tr 07- lp a 6 Va. r Ct une 2008 . e . Tr n.15 158,1 169,1 1 183 208, 7 26. a 2, 65, 70, 74, 21 - Pl i ifc pl nst tt tilco tmico tue t e de e be us t vitm antf om ai ha he ra ur s nsr d he vi nc ca e he c i t sii d i nsse l s yi a ti t tpe ii ne bot pule a pus d he i ot c os t e tfe nco it nty, a ng t ral ha tto r h ld nd he r nt he l e buts yi a apr i i r he rng, ç gues lwe i frt' Pe ii ra guest tt s a ng t elm na y a i $ 1 s nt n is .3 ttone r ' ha hi d sr p n yp o sn f r eo c re be a s t vci S n i g co e)frt' Peiin r ic e a c r ve o o c c u rd c u e he itm t t n t l st is. t o e we he ' t e ude t tt vitm ' a us tonsoff r ewe eEar e. oncl s ha he c i s cc ai o c r ( us ' ' Pe ii rdoesno pr entcl a and c nci e de e t tt s a e c tr ol d a ttone t es ez onvi ng vi nc ha he t t our es ve ny f c ua i s i or ec l The t i lc tga m or wei t t c e biiy oft a t l s ue nc r ty. ra our ve e ght o he r di lt he Com monwe lh' wines es i l ng t vitm ' t tmony t tpeii ne pule a pus d at s t s , ncudi he c i s esi ha tto r l d nd he heri o t c os t ve s t def ns w ines es Se M a s l v. nt he l e , r us he e e t s . e r ha l Lonbe c ,459 U . 422, r er S. 434 ( 98 )(ttngf d r l a a rv e d e n t e ee miet ec e i lt o win s e) 1 3 sai e ea h be s e iw o s o r d tr n h rdbii f t e s s. y Peii rus st vitm' q t t ts twe ti (hecl e)trt' ofc e ,a he ttone e he ci s uoe ha he é n n t ost is'out ontxt nd r c it ntt si onsse e tmony expl nedho pe ii ri i i t d he a physca l f c he i o t ai w ttone ntm da e r nd i ly or ed r nt he c os t Pe ii r saddii la l ga i ofa Ss ic d knie' a m i sng fnge pr n s o d t l e . ttone ' tona le tons çw t he f ' nd s i i r i t n uc t pe a e bas l s c us onsnote il t a as tm pton oftut a r e es oncl i ntted o n sl i r h. A f e r vi w i t t i lt a crpta e denc i t lghtm os f vo a e t t t r e e ng he ra r ns i nd vi e n he i t a r bl o he Com m onw e t t cour t ndst ta r tona t i r off c c d ha f a1h, he ti ha ny a i l re a t oul ve ound be yond a 3Thea t altsi ony on diec exa i ton d i t pr i i r hea i was c u e tm r t m nai urng he elm na y rng : g ep s e me-p s dmed wnt myk e sa dp le meit teco e, n lwa tyiga frt HJ u h d uhe o o n e n uld no h lsta d s r n t is t ge ar o t ound t cos t Iwasbii hi ha .lwa - 1waskiki Iwastyi t ge my 1goutt he l e . tng s nds s c ng. r ng o t e o k e t d o o e a h j s p le mei a dp h dhi efb c a anst d o . . e p he o r p n nd e u t uld n n use msl a k g i the o r . . ( ei H'gTrn. 9. Thevit tsiido cos e a n to dli tepei n r h aig t' h dmel e Prl m. r a 3 ) ci etfe n r s x miain t ng h rl ay ern ,tl a m r mi le i k t s p le med wna dt e pu ldmea o n it t ecos t o a t al Jg s Jwe t q trt' (d. t7 . hi, u ld o n hn l e r u d n o h l e s cu l ue s n L i s. l a 4) y ' 5 r as b1 doubtt tpe ii rc e ona e ha ttone omm it d r pe , f cbl s te a 4 or i e odomys a a nd bduc i . Peii r ton6 ttone , a tc a t ea e d t kilt vi tm .Peii ne ' a t k sopped onl bec us t vi m ta ked nd hr t ne o l he ci tto r s tac t y a e he di s oppe fghtng,pl a d f m e c a c nc d pe ii rt tt y c d w or outt i t d i i e de or r y, nd onvi e ttone ha he oul k he r r a i hi Thevitm s it t t s lc a tt pl c t pe ii eltons p. c i ubm ted o he exua ont c o a a e ttonera t ke p hi nd o e m fom r um i hi a t k,a s ison t s xua i e c s by f a doe notc nsiut r es ng s tac nd ubm s i o e l nt r our e ez s o tt e c e .Sutonv. ons nt t Commonweat 228Va 654,663,324S. 2d665, (985 .Peii r lh, . E. 670 1 ) ttone us d t ea s i i i ton,a phys ca f ce t e age i s xua con a ta t m o t vi tm e hr t , ntm da i nd i l or o ng n e l t c nd o ve he c i i o t c os t r r e s ofwhe he he e t rpus d orpule t vi tm , w he des rbes nt he l e , ega dl s t r ihe he l d he c i ho ci whc ha d di wha, rt ee tn o t vci slpij r .Ac o dngy,hi cam mu tb ih n s d t o h xe t f he itm' i nu y c r i l t s li s e di m i s d. s se PETI ONER' CLAI S OF I TI S M NEFFECTI A SSI VE STANCE OFCOUNSEL M UST BE DI SSED. SMI A pe ii rcl i i i f c i as i t nc ofco elm us s i f t t o- onge t s ttone a m ng nef e tve s sa e uns t ats y he w pr d et stfrhi Stiklndv. a hi tn,466U. 668( 984) Thefrtpr ofStiklnd e o t n rc a W s nco S. 1 . is ong rc a r r s a pe ii rt s equie ttone o how d ha c s t ouns m ade e r s s s r oust tc t el r or o e i ha ouns w a no el s t fmctoni a t touns l gua a e t dee ntbyt Si hAme me gj' a ngt t t i ng s he c e' r nted he fnda he xt nd nt,'me ni ha c u s lsrp e e tto f lbeo a o j diesa d r o ra o be e s S rc a d, 6 U. o n e ' e r sn ain el lw n b e v tn ad f e s na ln s . tikln 4 6 S. 4 r i aCo ej l .- lA)ra i pet e tp r: Vigni d 826 ( e d n ri n at n l a pe s hass li e courewihacompl ni w ines ,wheherornothi orhers e ... f ny r on exua ntr s t ai ng t s t s pous a s a ti ac nd uch c s compls ...a ns t c pl ni w ines ' w il by f c t e toritm i in ihed gai t he om ai ng t ss l, or e,hr a ni dato ofora ns t compli ngw ines ... ors s l beguit ofr gai t he ani t s he he hal ly ape. 5vignaCo ejl .- 71A)ra i p rie t a t r ii d 82 6 .( e d n e t n p r: n An a us s l guit off cbl s m y i heors e esi c lngus f lai a lngus or cc ed halbe ly or i e odo f he ngag n unnii , elto, nnii , a a itro rewi ac mpli n win s wheh ro n t so h rs u e. .a d. .th ati n lnec u s t o anig tes te r o hi r e po s . n . (qe c s h ac om pls d a ns t wiloft c pli ngw ine s by f ce,hr a ori i i ton o ofagans c ihe gai t he l he om ani t s , or t e t ntm da i r it t c pl i ng wine s .... he om a ni t s 6VignaCo ej1 . 4 ( r a i p rie tp r: rii d 82-7A) e d n et n at n An pes , o b fre itmiaino d cpin a dwih u lgaj siiaino e c s, ez s y ron wh , y o c ,n i d to r e e to , n to te lu tfc to r x u e s ie, t kes t a por s de ai ors cr t t pe s n ofa he ,wih t i e t de i s h o herpe s of a , r ns t , t ns e e es he r o not r t he nt nt o prve uc t r on hi peronallbe t ...s l bede m e guit oft bd i '.... s s i ry hal e d ly ç ucton' a a 687- The s ond pr ng ofStiklnd r uiesape ii rt s w t tco e ' defc e t t 88. ec o rc a eq r ttone o ho ha uns ls i i n p ro ma c prj ie hm b d mo srtn at e s n b ep o a l yt tb tf rc u s l ef r n e eudc d i y e n taig t a o a l r b bit ha, u o o n e' r i s eror , he r s toft pr ee ng w oul ha bee dif r nt' I a 694. i r s bl r s t e ul he oc di d ve n fe e . d. t ' ç ea ona e A pr biiy i a pr biiy s fc e t unde ne t c i nc oft o c e. l oba lt s oba lt ufi i nt o nni he onfde e he ut om ' d. ' l a pe ii rhasnots ts i d one pr oft St i kl nd t t a c tdoe notne t f ttone aife ong he rc a es , our s ed o i uiewheherheha stsi dt ot rpr ng.Stiklnd,466U. a 697.ég nat ne s nq r t s aite he he o rc a S. t sAl tor y' ac sorom i sonst ta e no unco tt i li vi l cn t si ha r t ns iutona ndi dualy nnotbe adde t t t c ea e a d oge her o r t consiutonalvi ai ' Fihe v.Anc one,1 F. 835,852- ( hCi.1 .Stiklnd tt i olton. s r ' el 63 3d 53 4t r 998) rc a es a ihed a Gsr ng pr um pt o t tc t bls dt o es i n ha ouns ls c e ' onduc f lsw ihi t w i r ng of t a l t n he de a e r a ona epr e s onalas i t nc ' St i a 466 U . a 689.çl ci ls r i ofcouns ' e s bl of s i s s a e. rckl nd, ' S. t û udi a c utny els pef ncemus behi ydefrntal' nd û ve yef t( t bema t ei naet ronna t ghl ee i 'a t r for musl e de o lmi t he dit tngefcsofhi iht... t e l t t (halnged)c sori fe t ndsg and o vauae he c le onduc fo c e' t r m ounsls pes ci a t tme. 1 tllfeci rprs nttoni nots rpe tve t he i ' d. tF f tve e e e ai s ynonymouswihe ls ' t nore s rprs ntton. Sprnge v. lns 586F. 329,332( hCi.1 . e e e ai ' i r Coli , ' 2d 4t r 978) Pettone a l gest tcouns lwasi f e tve f w a vi t r g t a s e t i la ii r le ha e ne f c i or i ng he i ht o pe dy r a nd f f ii ç o pr ec pe ii rf om t t i lc t aki pe ii r s1 g a put i n or a lng s ot t ttone r he ra our m ng ttone ' e m ato t c n ig n u o wavng'herg tt aj r til Th S p e Co l o Vignads se te o tn e t p n ii 't ih o u y ra. e u r me u' f r ii imis d h t s e t i lc ai be aus pe ii rdi no w a ve t r g t a pr lm i r hea i and t , pe dy ra l m c e ttone d t i he i ht o e i na y rng, hus t eCo n at c ul n tlg l se a id cme t n i aj v nl a dd me tcrlto h mmo we lh o d o e al e k n n it n u tl u e ie n o si eains y c u tu g c riidtec a g sa an t i Th S p e Co r ofVign ad s se tej r o r j d e e t e h h r e g is hm. e u rme u t r ii imisd h u y f ti cai be a epeii rknowi l i elge l a vol aiywave t rg t aj y ral l m c us ttone ngy,ntli nty, nd untrl i d he iht o ur ti . r al The Supr eme Cour ofVigi a' r olton oft s cli swer notc r r t , or an t r ni s es u i he e am e onta y o t r s bl a i a i of c ea l e t bls d f de al1 w orba e on a unr as bl m ea ona e pplc ton , l ry s a i he e r a sd n e ona e de e mi ton oft f c s The s dy ti lperod ha notbe n vi a e de pie t dea i t r na i he a t . pee ra i d e olt d s t he ly n s ki a i c m e . The s a e c tr c d r vea st tpe ii r s f e f o S efe ee ng n ndi t nt t t our e or e l ha ttone uf er d r m t l x r s pa he i dys r ym t tc t ophyp a c oni pa n co ton t tr s t i çc i ' hr c i ndii ha e uls n s ontnuous i e e pa n' f r ' i 'o , nt ns whi h t r i no l l tng t e t e t r i ve t s pt s. Pe ii r s c ton e he e s ong-as i r a m nt o ele he ym om ttone ' ondii ç onfne hi t a whe l hai'and ( nfit d hi wih c oni and pe sse pan. Co ms l d i d m o c e c r' t lc e m t hr c i r it nt i ' t e ' a ke t t i c tf a c pe e y e ua i t ens e pe ii rhad t nec s r c pa iy s d he ral our or om t nc val ton o ur ttone he es a y a c t duet i t ns pan t ttwa ofe s it ns t the wasuna et c o n e e i ha ç s tn o n e e ha bl o once r t on a pa tc a nta e ny riul r m a t r'f m or t n a br e pe i oftm e.The ti lco ta s c te ' or e ha i f r od i r a ur dvi ed ouns a pe ii rt ta el nd ttone ha c pe e e ua i w oul t ke 60 da ,w hi h r uie t ti lt be c i d. Pe ii ner om t ncy val ton da ys c eq r d he r a o ontnue tto t d t t i lc t ha he unde s ood w ha t i c ol he ra our t t rt t ral ouns lw asr que tng,a del y i t t i lf a e e si a n he r a or t l a t60 da w oul be ne s a y,t c i nc oft t i wasbe ng m a a hi r que t a es ys d ce s r he ontnua e he ral i de t s e s , nd he w as w ai ng hi speedy t i r ght vi s ral i s. Couns la s as t t i cour t ac om m oda e pe ii r s a l e s durng t i lby e l o ked he ral to c t ttone ' im nt i ra s hed i t t i loverm uli e da a s r e ng t tm e ea h da pettonerwoul ha t c ulng he r a tpl ys nd ho t ni he i c y ii d ve o s ti c t The t i c ts i t tt e a om m oda i nsw e e pos i e durng a be h ti l i n our . ral our a d ha hos cc to r sbl i nc r a b tn taj ytil Co ns lae if r dt etilc u tha p tto e wo l b wi igt u o ur ra . u e ltr n o me h ra o r t t eiin r ud e l n o l wav aj r til o at r ed y b n htil t b e ks a dt etil o r a k dtil o n e t i e u y ra f r h e - a e c ra wih ra , n h ra c u t s e ra c u s l o w ai t rghtt a s dy t i lt f iia e t tr ue t Couns lc e r w ih pettone a ve he i o pee r a o ac lt t ha eq s . e onf r ed t ii r nd a e t wavet rghtt s e til Afe bei a s a t rghtt aj ytil gred o i he i o pe dy ra. tr ng dvied bout he i o ur ra, pe ii r s cii a l w ai d t tr ghta r que t a be h t i . The e or ,t r c d r vea s ttone pe t c ly ve ha i nd e s ed nc ral r f e he e or e l t ttebe c tilrs le fo p tto e ' k o n a dv ln aywav ro t erg t oaj r ha h n h ra e utd r m ei n rs n wi g n ou tr i e f h ih t u y i t i a t tt ti lc tne r ç ondii d' pe ii r s l a put ton on a w a ve oft t ral nd ha he r a our ve û c tone ' ttone ' eg m a i i r ha rght A cc di y,pe ii r s fr ti f ec i a s s a e ofc i . or ngl ttone ' i s ne f tve s it nc ouns c a m m us be di m i s d. el l i t s se Pe ii ra guest tc ttone r ha ouns wa i feci f no pr e i t vitm ' t si el s ne f tve or t es ntng he c i s e tmony f om t pr lm i r hea i a t i . Pe ii r he e i na y rng t ral ttonera l gest tt st s i ony es a i he t tt le ha hi e tm t bls d ha he vitm c e edt s xua contac wih pe ii ci ons nt o e l r t t ttonerwihoutf rori tm i ton. t ea n i dai The Supr m e Cour ofV i gi a' r ol ton oft s c ai w asnotc r r t o a e t r ni s es u i hi l m ont a y o, r n urr as bl a i ton of cl ry es a i hed f de al1 w orbas on a unr a ona e le ona e pplca i , ea l t bls e r a ed n e s bl de e m i to oft f c s The Supr m e Cour ofVi gi a r c ni ed t tt vi tm t r na i n he a t . e t r ni e og z ha he c i a kno l dged dur ng c c w e i ouns ls c os e i ton a t i t ts ki s a hugg pe ii r e ' r s xam na i t ral ha he s ed nd ed ttone i t hott t he hi pe s a ne rt d hi t ts di notw an t ha s x. The n he ub, ouc d s ni , nd ve ol m ha he d t o ve e vi tm a s ad it d t ts f l as e p afe s x, d no a t m ptt l ave w he s awoke a c i l o m te ha he e l l e t r e di t te oe n he t 8: am . l trwhen s wa i be a o ,a di no ty t us t c lphone i t 00 . or ae he s n d l ne nd d t r o e he el n he bed oom . The vi tm e a ne on r di e te m i ton,how e r t the a tonsw e e r c i xpl i d e- r c xa na i ve , ha r c i r m otvat d by f rt tpe ii rw oul ca r outhi t ea st kilhe . The ef r ,c i e ea ha ttone d ry s hr t o l r r o e ouns l e ei ie t t si ony durng c os e lct d he e tm i r s xami ton, e t y a g d t t ti c tt tt na i r peaedl r ue o he ral our ha he vi tm c e e t s xua c a t Couns lobt ne f om t vi tm on c os e m i ton t c i ons nt d o e l ont c . e ai d r he c i r s xa na i he ver t tm ony t tpettone c a m s s d ha be pr s nt f om t pr lm i y he rng. y esi ha ii r l i houl ve en e e ed r he e i nar a i Thi ,c s ouns ldi notpe f m de i i nty, nd t sc a m m us be di m i s e d r or t c e l a hi l i t s s ed. Peiin rcamst a c u s l si efcief rn to j ci gt t ev ci s tto e li h t o n e wa n fe tv o o be tn o h itm' ti tnadm i i e hear ay'; aboutt grand l ceny charge and f notargui t t s ol m oney ssbl s ' he ar or ng hat he t en 1Peii rdoesnots ciialy i ntf t he r a t tm ony. ttone pe fc l de iy he a s y esi b l n e t t eb n a dno t vitm.Th S p e Co r o Vign arj ce t cam eo g d o h a k n t he ci e u rme u t f r ii ee td he li be us t tt ti lco tcowe ty vi we t mone a y l sa beng tke fom t vi m ' ea e ha he ra ur c l e d he t r os s i a n r he di s s pa a epr t a no fom abank,de piec e r t opery nd t r s t ouns lsa g e s e ' r um nt . The Supr m e Cour ofV i gi a' r s uto oft s c a m w asno c r r t o a e t r ni s e ol i n hi l i t ont a y o, r n unr s ea onabl a i a i of cea l e t bls d f de allw orba td on a um e ona e e pplc ton , l ry sa ihe e r a s n as bl de e m i t o oft f d s Pe ii ne ob a ne t vi m ' onlne c e ntal ,l t r na i n he a . tt o r t i d he di s i r de i s ogged i a he , n s r a dta se rdmo yfo h rba a c u tt peiin ra dt evi m' j ita e u t ( . n r n fre ne r m e nk c o n o tto e n h di s on c o n . Tr Trn.1 8 6 . P tto e t nwi rw t emo e fo tej ita c u ta dk p temo e a 5 - 9) eiin r he t e h n y r m h on c o n n e t h n y hd f om t vi tm . The vi tm di co r d t m one w a ta f r e be w e t a co s a r he c i c i s ve e he y s r ns e r d t en he c unt , nd pe ii rt d he t the tans e r d a wihdr w t m one Bas d on t e de ,t ttone ol r ha r f r e nd t e he y. e he vi nce he t si e tmony wa nothe r a a esa ihe t tpeii nert t vitm ' mone Thus s a s y nd t bls d ha tto ook he c i s y. , c ouns wasnoti f c i f notm a nga me il sa g e aboutuns ii d hea s el nefe tve or ki rtes r um nt pec fe ray evi ncea ba pr ry,a t sc am mus bedim is de nd nk ope t nd hi l i t s s ed. 11 1. A ferrevi i t r d, t c tde e pe ii r s m otons t sri ,gr s t ew ng he ecor he our ni s ttone ' i o t keB. ant r ponde ' m oton t di m i s di m i s t pe ii n,a de es a m ootpe ii r sm oto es nt s i o s s , s s es he tto nd ni s ttone ' i ns t r m and t s a e c tf f r he pr e ngs t e nd t r cor f a c i nce a f o e o t t our or u t r oce di , o xpa he e d, or ontnua , nd or s ubpoe .Ba ed upon t c r ' fndi t tpettone hasno madet r st s tntal nas s he ou ts i ng ha ii r t he equiie ubsa i s ngofade alofac tt i rghtasr rdby28U. C.j22534) acetfc t of howi ni onsiutonal i equie S. c, riiae a al biiy i de e ppe a lt s ni d. BPe ii rfld m o i t srket s ik saec t e dst r ponde tld:ra c e ' a fda ta ttone ie tons o ti wo pecf t t our r cor hat es nt ie til ouns ls fi vi nd p tto e ' idcme t.Th s d c me t aep o ryfldwi tec utpl u n t Rul 5 b o teRue eiin rs n it ns ee o u ns r rpel ie t h o r, ts a to e ( ) fh ls h r Go e n n j2 4Ca e , n t emo inst srk a ed n e . v r i g 25 s s a d h t o ti e r e i d o 10 TheCl r i die t d t s nd aco oft sM e andum Opi on a t a c ek s rce o e py hi mor ni nd he c ompa ng nyi Or rt pe ii ra c de o ttone nd ouns ofr cor f r s el e d or e ponde . nt EN TER: Thi ' s . 7 da ofAugus , 2. y t 201 / / r$M $/.1* V ' w r 1' ' U nie St t D i t i tJ t d a es sr c udge