Shomo v. Junior Corporation, No. 7:2011cv00508 - Document 39 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 6/1/12. (med)
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CLERTS OFFS U. tt (tti' ' CE S.7e) 23 zo AT RDANOF , A T k' F1 CD L- I TH E U N I N TED STA TES D I STRI T C O UR T C FO R T H E W ESTERN D I STR I T O F V I G I I C R N A RO AN OK E D I ISI V ON AB I A I G .SH O M O , G L J 21 1 UN 2 l1 1 . BY* . '' ? - . . P CL X Cas N o. 7: c 508 e : 11- v- Pl i if a ntf , M E M O M N D UM O PI I N N O By:Jam e C.Tur s k Seni U nied St es D itri Judge or t at s ct JUN I R C O R PO M TI N , O O De e nt f nda . Thi matri befr t Cou tonDefnda tJ orCopo ain (d Co porto '' s te s o e he r e n uni r to the r ain' s t l MotonfraPr e tveOr r( No.25)a isM oi t Dimist Sec Ame d i o otci de ECF nd t ton o s s he ond nde Co ant( No.3 .Pli ifAbi i Shomoha fl abrefi oppostont t moi t mpli ECF 3) antf gal s ied i n ii o he ton o dim is t Cour hea d a gtm e ti c mbe son bo h moto on Aprl26,201 a t s s ,he t r r l n n hn r t i ns i 2, nd he m a t r a e now r pe f diposton. Fort r a ons s tf t be ow ,t M oton t Di m i si te s r i or s ii he e s e or h l he i o s s s GI NTED i pa ta D EN I i pa t a t M oton f a Pr ec i O r ri G R AN TED . G n r nd ED n r , nd he i or ot tve de s 1. Fad ualand ProceduralB ackzround The f t a e s tf t i t lghtm os f vo a et t pl ntf.Gi ra a v. ohns ac s r e orh n he i t a r bl o he ai if a r t no J on, 5 F. 298,3 ( h Ci. ) 21 3d 02 4t r 2008 .TheCopoai ownsa opeaest t iPue t ' r rton nd rt he ç M ro' r sa r nsi Ra f r a dF ilwn, r i a Le p loLo e Ag re(Ag re' i te e tu a t n d o d n ara Vigni. o od p z uir E uir' s h t ) Prsde oft Defndan.Hi s n,Le doAguir J .d uni ' wast c owne a e i nt he e t s o opol re, r ts or' l l he o- r nd m anageroft M iPuert l i i Fail n. he o ocaton n raw Shom o c m e e em pl e a t M iPue t r s a an s i M a 201 Shom o om nc d oym nt t he ro e t ur t n y 0. be n a s xualr l tons p w ih J m i i J 201 W hie s i taly w or d a bo h t ga e e a i hi t l or n une 0. l he nii l ke t t he 1 - Lf8 . ): ' ';; ê lr Failwn a Ra or l a i ,i ora utJ y201 Sho obe n t wor f ltmea t ra nd df d oc tons n bo ul 0, m ga o k ul i t he Ra or l a i . l J y 201 A guir ga i t u tonst tShom o be fr d. I Se t m be df d oc ton n ul 0, r e ve ns r c i ha ie 1 n p e r 201 Shom obec m epr na wih J orsc l l Ocobe 201 oneofSho o' c 0, n eg nt t uni ' hid. n t r 0, m s ow o ke ss ti he f ce a t d he t tA guir ha e he a w oul be gl d t be f e ofhe r r pa n r a nd ol r ha r e t d r nd d a o re r t rg a tg hn l' Ats mep itatrh lane t a S o wa prg a t J nirtl h r t e n n be id . p ' o on fe e e r d h t h mo s e n n , u o od e t ts s d ha a a r i n a ofer d t pa f i.J oral o t d he t ts w oul be ha he houl ve n bo to nd f e o y or t uni s ol r ha he d tr d i s di nott nni t he pr i e f he d e na e r egna y. Som e i e be w e Dec be 201 and J nuar nc tm t en em r 0 a y 2011 Shom o w a a ke t wor f w e hour a die t d t w or i a pa toft r s a a tt t , s s d o k e r s nd r c e o kn r he e t ur n ha woul e r he l smone d a n r es y. O n J numy 30,2011 A guir a Shom o ha a co r a i a , r e nd d nve s ton.A guir t d Shom o t t r e ol ha hewass tsi d wih he pe f ma e, t tc t r di notwan t s e û bely' o t i aite t r ror nc but ha usome s d t o e t l ' n her a w a t e s , nd i t ad pr f r ed t be s r e by a si y ir s es a ns e eer o evd lm oung w a t es . Aguir t n t d ir s r e he ol Shom ot ts c d notwor i hi r tur n be a es wa pr gna ,a t ts wa ha he oul k n s esa a t c us he s e nt nd ha he s bei fr d orl i of bec us ofhe pr na y. ng ie ad f a e r eg nc Sho o fl d s ta i tt Cop or to i t sCo ton Oc obe 27,2011 W ih la m ie ui gans he ai n n hi ur t r . t e ve ofCour,s tld a Am e d Compli onJ nua y 18 201 a a Sec Ame d t he ie n nde ant a r , 2 nd ond nde Compli Ct ant compli )onM ac 1 201 algi ( )vi ai ofTil Vl oft Ci l anf' rh 9, 2, le ng 1 olton te I he vi Riht Ac of1 4;( vi ai oft FarLabo Stnda dsAc;a ( wr ultr nai g s t 96 2) olton he i r a r t nd 3) ongf emi ton i vi a i ofVi gi a c m on l . The Cor a i ha now m oved t di m i st n ol ton r ni om aw por ton s o s s he Com pl i , r ui t tnone oft c a nt a g ng ha he ount i t Compl i s a e c ai s f w hi h r i m a be s n he a nt t t l m or c elef y 1Alhough t Com pl ntalegest Aguir , De enda ' Pr i nt or e he fr i J y 201 i i t he ai l hat re f nt s esde , der d r ied n ul 0 ts sientast why s wasnotact l fr att tme.I i alo uncl rast whom he gavet e l o he ualy ied hat i ts s ea o hes i tuc i nsr tons. gr nt d. TheCor ai ha a s move f apr t tve or rlmii dic r t t i s of a e por ton s lo d or oeci de i tng s ove y o he s ue w he heri hasf w e t n 15 e pl es t t e r ha m oye . I. I St andard ofR e e vi w A moto t dimisunde Rul 1 b)6)oft Fe a Rul ofCi lPr dur t t t in o s s r e 2( ( he derl es vi oce e ess he lg ls f in yo t ec mpan .Ra al Untd Sae , 0F.d 5 8 5 (t Ci. 9 4 .A e a u sce c f h o lit nd lv. i tts 3 3 1 , 22 4 h r 1 9 ) e co an mus i udeas r a pl nsae ntoft cai s unde whi t pla ri mplit tncl ho t nd ai ttme he l mt) r ch he e de s enildt rle .Fe R.Ci P.8()2) Unde t noiepla ngsa r e oye byt tte o eif d. v. a( . r he tc e di tnda d mpl d he f de a co t , he c pl ntnee onl d ve t de e ntno i ofw ha t cl i i ... e r l ur s t om ai d yt gi he f nda tce t he a m s and t grundsuponwhih ir t. iks v.Padus 551U. 89,93( he o c t ess' c on 'Er r , S. 2007)(ii BelAt. ctng l l Cor v.Twombl 550U. 544,555( ). l or rt s vi amotont dimis p. v, S. 2007) n de o ur ve i o s s, h we e, c mpan ' E ta t l l g to smu tb e o g t riearg tt r l fa o et e o v r a o lits sl cua al ain s e n u h o as ih o ei b v h l e e s c ai lvel' Twom bl 550 U. a 555. l pa tc ar çega co l i , e nt o a pe ul tve e .' v, S. t n riul ,i l ncusons elme s f l ca e ofac i a ba e a s ri de d off t rf t le nc e f i t c tt e welus ton, nd r s e tons voi urhe ac ua nha em nt a l o ons iut l pl fcsf Rul 1 b)6 pur es' Ne tChe olt Lt v. umeafiscomsl .59l ed a t or e 2( () pos . me vr e. d. Cons rfar . ' nc, F.d25 , 5 ( t Ci. 0 9 .W hi t eCo r i o iae t a c p a tu a1o t e 3 0 2 5 4h r 2 0 ) l h u t s bl td o c e t s r e 1 f h e g c pl i ' w e lpl d f c ua alega i nsa t ket f c s i t lghtm os f vor e t t om a nt s l- e a t l l to nd a he a t n he i t a abl o he pli if Adoc v.Frihti r LLC,55 F. 369,37 ( hCi.2008) iwilnotgi t sme antf, k ec lne. 0 3d 4 4t r ,t l ve he a r ve enc t 4 ar a ed i e enc ,unr as bl c l i ,ora gum ent . N e e e r eot unw r nt nf r es e ona e onc us ons r s' m t ' Che olt 591F.da 255( i W a v.Cha lsonAraMed.Ct.l ,56 F. 599,61 vr e, 3 t quotng hi ret e r. nc. 2 3d 5 n. ( hCi. 26 4t r 2009:. 1 11. Di scuss on i A . C ount1:Til V I te I The s cii pa t t Compli de lngwih Til Vl' num e ost r uie e r a pe fc r of he ant a i t te ls r iy eq r m nt e ds asf l olows: Ata 1tm e m a e i lhe et de e n i a w a a t r on' w ihi t m e ng ofTil l i s t r a r o f nda t s nd s s s ' t n he ani pe te VI,Se ton 7 , U. C.j l ci 01 42 S. 2000ea . i or tona bele , taltmesmaeil () On nf mai nd if a l i tra he e o de e an w a a te pl r'wihi t m e ni ofTil V I ,Se ton 701 42 r t f nd t s n s m oye ' t n he a ng te 1 c i , U. C.j S. 2000e( ,ha i,a altmesmaeilheeodefnda wasapes e ge i b) t t s t l i tra rt e nt ron nga d n a i usr a f c i com m er e who ha ffe n o m o e e pl es f ea h w or ng da n nd t y f e tng c d i t e r r m oye or c ki y i ea h oft nt ormor cae rwe ksd i t ye r ofpl i ifse oy e or n c we y e lnda e urng he a s antf ' mpl m nt t pr e ng c l nda ye r he ec di a e r a . Co an a !5 Th Co p r t na g e t a ti sae n , ihi d e asmp ep roig mplit t . e r o ai r u s h th s ttme t wh c t e ms i l artn o oft saut ,i i ufii ntt ale a Til VI vi a i unde t he g e d sanda ds he t t e s ns fc e o lge te I olton r he i ht ne t r a nnounc i BelAt.Co p. Twombl 550U. 5 ( ed n l l r v. y, S. 44 2007)a As r t l l 5 U. nd hcof v.qba, 56 S. 662( 2009) Spectc ly,t Coi ain ague t tSho ha fie t alges fce fcs . ii al he porto r s ha mo s ald o le ufiint a t t s t ti me t Til Vl sa dof1 ormor e pl es n Two bl a I l t o how ha t t he te 1 tndar 5 e m oye .l m y nd qba, he Sup e Cour a ed asrc e it r e ai o t no i pladi sa r t tha l r me t dopt tit r n e pr t ton f he tce e ng tnda d ha s onggove ne ci la tons i t f de alc t. Thi s rc e c ie i i com m o y t r e t r d vi c i n he e r ours s ti t r rt ron s nl e m d he t a i lt s a r ' U nde t pl us biiy s a r i or t s vi a m oton t di m is t us biiy t nda d. pl ' r he a i lt t nda d, n der o ur ve i o s s, ç he c pl i m us c a n f t pl usbl s i 't tt def nda svi a e t l w . l l d om a nt t ont i ac s a i y how ng' ha he e nt ol t d he a t gba , a e ci l 556 U . a 68 2 A m e e tf m ul c r ia i oft el m e s ofa c us ofa ton w ilnotdo.' S. t 2. r tor ai ec t ton he e nt ' Tw om bl 550 U . a 555. v, S. t 2Shom o hasatache a afi vi t heropposii bref a t tng t tJuni empl t d n fda t o ton i , tesi ha or oyed atl t 1 eas 7 empl oyees.See Ex.A t Pl' M em .i Opp.t Def.sM ot t Dim is ECF N o.35. l or t pr rl o .s n o ' .o s s, n der o ope y c nsd rt sa fda i,h Cou two db r q r dt c nv r t mo in it on f rs mma yj g n o ie hi fi vt te r ul e e uie o o e the to no e o u r ud me t a gi t pari an adequat opporuniy t adduce e dencei suppor ori opposton t t nd ve he tes e t t o vi n t n ii o hat mo in.Fe R. v. 1 ( ;C Ge r v. v,6 F. 11 3,1 06( t Ci.1 )(çfi i n c sa y to d. Ci P. 2 d) f o ge Ka 32 2d 0 1 4h r 980 i t s e e s r l f t c r t Iokb yo t pla i s te 1 b ( moto mus bec ve tdit amo i f r or he ou t o o e nd he e dng ,h 2( )6) in t on re n o ton o smmayj d me t n al at smu t egv nteo g ru i t p ee t trasp rie tos c a u r u g n a d 1p ri s b ie h p o tnt o rsn maeil et n t u h e y n mo i ' .Bu s eNe Be klvM i Cor v.ntl o Uni d M i W o kesofAm. 1 F. 11 , ton.) t e w c e n. p. l 'Unln. t ' e ne r r , 8 3d 61 l1 4( t Ci.1 9 ( o t y r l o mae i sou sdepla ng wh r t ya erf rnc di 6 4h r 9 4) c ur ma ey n t ral ti e di s e e he r e ee e n c an) Th p rish ver p e e e ta nods o r ha t k nplc i t ema tra d iwo dt s omplit. e a te a e r s ntd h t ic vey s a e a e n h te n t ul hu Ot coursha f undt tlnguag oft t Sho o us she ei s tce t ma her t ve o ha a e he ype m e r s ufi int o ke i pa tt pl a ng s age. I Bur te v. us i M e .l , o.1: 1 v52,2011 W L 1 69 t s he e di t n ne t A tn d. nc. N 1c 7 445 ( . N. Apr 1 2011,hepli iffl s ta i the e oyer algi Til Vl cli W D. C. . 4, )t antf ied ui gans r mpl , le ng te l ams ofs di c i i ton a r t la i The onl a l ga i i t pl i if sco pl n ast t ex s rm na i nd e a i ton. y le ton n he a ntf m ai t o he n be ofe pl esr d asf l um r m oye ea olows: De e nt wer t e oye ofPli if a t tr t m pl 'i de i d i Se ton f nda s e he mpl r antf, s he e m t oyer's fne n c i e 7 ( a ( ofTil VI oft Ci lRi sAc of1 a NorhCar i Equa 01b) nd h) te I he vi ght t 964 nd t olna l Em pl e tPr c i s Ac ,a a ende f o tm e t tm e, nd ha ha m o e t n 1 oym n a tce t s m d rm i o i a s d r ha 5 empl sdurng t tm epe i d co pli ofhe en. oyee i he i ro m aned ri Co ai a !1 Burwle, u a.Tha algain, mpl nt t 3, z t spr t le to unqueto bl ofl ss tncet nt sina y es ubsa ha he o be or t Cou t w a e ne f e he r , s nough t s v ve a m oto t d s i s Bur te,2011 W L 17 o ur i i n o i m s . ne t 69445, a * Se al o Shom o v.M uc r Ent r . l ,Ci N o. t 3. e s a e s. nc. v. 2007- 54,2009 W L 31 936,a * 1 81 t5 ( V.. e t 2 , 0 9 ( o tTwo l b t r -q l a ec n ldngt talg to ta D. I S p . 8 2 0 ) p s- mby u p e lba c s o cu i ha le ain h t d e ntti aTil VI empl wiha latffe n( 5)e o e 'wase efnda ts te l oyer t t e s ite 1 mplye s' nought s vi o ur ve moto t dimis. in o s s) The Cour fndst Shom o hass a e a c a m f r le t de Til V I . Pa a a Fi t i hat t t d l i or e i f m r te l r gr ph ve camotber d i iol ton;r t r whe c i rng amoton t dim is t r l va i r i r ea n s ai ahe , n onsde i i o s s ,he e e nt nquiy s w he he ,l ng a t f ur c ne soft co pl i , he pl ntf ha s a ed a c ai upon w hi h t r ooki t he o or r he m a nt t ai i f s t t lm c r i ma begrntd.SeeAd v.Rie, F. 72,75( h Ci.1 .I i tuet t elef y a e ams c 40 3d 4t r 994) t s r ha Paaga Fi ma bera a ameeû rotng'of42U. C.j2000 b) l t sweet onl r rph ve y e d s r t r i ' pa S. e( . f hi r he y alega i i Shom o' Com pl i t t Co pl i w oul ha t be di m i s d. Buti i not l ton n s a n , he m a nt d ve o s se ts . Among o he t ngs Shom o a s aleg t ts wor d i ar sa a wih t l a i , nd t r hi , lo l es ha he ke n e t ur nt t wo oc tons a t s wasevent l tred on accountofherpr hat he ualy i egnancy and hers W ih t benettofis ex. t he i t bep e t et c sd ramo in f rs mma yj dg nt Ac o di l t S moAfia ti e ld d r maur o on ie to o u r u me . c r ngy,he ho fd vi s xcu e fom consder i r i aton. tu iile p re c a dc mmo s n e'l b l 5 6U. a 6 9 a dtkn teCo lit sa j d ca x ein e n o n e s , g a, 5 S.t 7 , n a ig h mp an a ' whol ,t Cour fndst tSho o ha pl us bl s a e a c a m f r i funde Til V l . e he ti ha m s a i y t t d l i or ele r te 1 B . Count I Fai Labor St ndar A c I: r a ds t N e ,t Cop o a i n c ai s t tShom o hasf ie t s a e a cl i unde t Fa rLabo xt he r to l m ha al d o tt am r he i r S a d r sAc (TLS 'b c u es eh sfie t a e u tl alg ta ete s eo t e tn ad t C A' e a s h a ald o d q aey le e h t ih r h r h ) Cor r ton w e e i ved i i e s a e c m e c TheFLSA r quiesem pl ye st pa t i po a i r nvol n nt r t t om r e. e r o r o y he r e oyee ami mtm wa ofa las $ 25a hour 29U. C.j206()1( .Howe r mpl s ni l ge t e t 7. n . S. a( )C) ve, (i t pped e oyee ,' uc aswat r a wate s s who c t a iy r e vem o et n $3 pe t mpl s's h ie s nd ir s e , usom rl ec i r ha 0 r m ont i tps ma bepad a ltl as$2.3 pe hour a l a t tpst e o r c ve hni , y i s ite 1 r , s ong s he i he mpl yee e ei s a es fcentt gi t te pl r ufi i o ve ha m oyeea e f tve mi m u wag ofa las $7. a hou .Se 29 n feci ni m e t e t 25 n r e U. C.jj203( ;203() S. m) t. Butt FLSA onl gove ns wher a e pl ee i t ngage i com m e c or i t he y r e n m oy s û e dn r e n he pr duc i ofgoodsf rc me c ori e oye i an e t p rs e ged i co me c ori o ton o om r e, s mpl d n n e ie nga n m re n t pr to ofg dsf co r e'i.j207a .An' ntr iee ge i c he oducin oo or mme c ,'d () t eprs nga d n ommec ori e re n t pr he oduc i n ofcom m e c 'i one t tha t o orm or e pl e ,i e to r e' s ha s w e m oye s s ngage i co m e ce or dn m r t pr to ofg he oduci n oodsf co me c ,a hasa or m r e nd nnualg os s e of$500, orm o e.1 r s als 000 r d. j s.Fi l Sc 203() naly,'ommec 'sdei da tr e,c re'i fne s tad ommere tans tton,ta mison, t c ,r porai rns si of com m uni t o a ong t s ve alSt t orbe we a St t and a pl c ou s de t r of' ca i n m he e r a es t en ny a e ny a e t i he e .' 1 j203( .W heeac e e oye fist pa ac r e oye t mi mum wag t d. b) r overd mpl r al o y oveed mpl e he ni e,he e oye ma brngacvia to f da ges d.j21 b) Dee n arue t tShomo' mpl e y i i l cin or ma .1 6( . fnda t g s ha s FLSA cl m m us be di m i ed becaus she hasf l t alege t s i a covered em pl ai t s ss e aied o l hat he s oyee, 6 Le t ts e gedi i e sa ec . ha he nga n nt rt t omm e c i t c s ofhe dute ,ort t Cor a i r e n he our e r is hat he porton w a a c r e e prs w ihi t m e ni oft FLSA . s ove ed nt r i e t n he a ng he Shom o r s e pondsby die tng t Co t o Pa a a Fi oft Com pl i ,i w hi h s r c i he ur t r gr ph ve he a nt n c he aleg t tt Cor a i w a a pe s k nga i a i t y a f c i c m e c ' wihi l es ha he por ton s r on û ged n n ndus r f e tng om r e, t n e ' t me ni o 4 U. C.j2 0 eb .Bu t si n te o g Thed tnto o E o re' he a ng f 2 S. 0 0 ( ) thi s o n u h. ei i n f t mmec ' i c unde Til Vl i sm iar bu noti ntc l t isme ni i t FLSA. Compar 42 U . C. r te l s i l , t de i a , o t a ng n he e S. j 2000eg)wih29U. C.j203b) Shomo' Compli f l t aleg a f t gi ngrs t ( t S. ( . s ant ais o l e ny acs vi ie o t i e e t ts e he nf r nce ha he ngage i i e s a e c m e c w ihi t c s ofhe dute 'i e as d n nt r t t om r e t n he our e r i s nde d, , a w a t e s t sw oul be dit c tt s .M o eove ,s hasf l t s a e a cl i unde t ir s , hi d fi ul o how r r he aied o t t am r he FLSA ' S nt r i e c S l e prs over ge' pr s ons be a e s ha f ied t s a e f t t tgi r s t t e a ' ovi i c us he s a l o t t ac s ha ve ie o he r as bl i e e et tt Cor a i wasaco ed e t r ie unde t FLSA .l i e ona e nf r nc ha he por ton ver n e prs r he ts c ranl uy:/ t tM iPuero ge r t d $500, orm or i gr sa ls es a i i as e ti ypt ï c ha t ne ae 000 e n os nnua al , nd t s lo pos i et ti doesnot tapos i lt i i ufii t t s vi a moton t dim is Sho o sbl ha t .Bu sbiiy s ns fcen o ur ve i o s s, m m us c os t hur e of aus bii She ha notdone s he e.t he e a e pl i pl dsf d s t r s he dl pl i lt y. s o r k r om a nt ea a W t ta eme ey c it ntwih ade e ha r r l onsse t f ndantsla lt i sopss t t lnebe wee ' ibiiy,t t hor of he i t n posi lt andplusbiiy ofe il ntt rlef' I l556U. a 678(ntr q ttons sbiiy a i lt ntteme o ei .' qba, S. t i enal uoai o te .Ac or ngy,Count1 mus beds se mitd) c di l 1 t imisd. C . C ount1 1 Bow m an Cl i U nde Vi gi a Law 1: am r r ni I CountTlr e,Shomo cai t ts wa wr uly t nni t be us s r f e t n le l ms ha he s ongf l e naed ca e he e us d o ha a a ton. Si et sc am i bas on Vigi a c ve n bori nc hi l i s ed r ni ommon l w,i i gove ne by t a ts r d he s tntvelw ofVigi a.Se ge r l EreR.Co. Tompki ,30 U. 64,78( 938) ubsa i a r ni e ne al i y v. ns 4 S. 1 . The Vi gi a Supr m e Cour ha ne rr c r ni e t s ve e ogni e a w r ng ult nni ton cl i oft st but zd o f e na i am hi ype, 7 i h sno rjce s c acam et r nt ea s n eo c n r ligp e e e tfo Vigna s t a t ee td u h li i ,I h b e c f o toln rc d n r m r ii' he hi hes c ur ,i i t sCour ' r e t pr di thow t Supr m e Cour ofV i gi a w oul r l o g t o t t s hi ts ol o e c he e t r ni d ue n t m a t r a i s is de s on i ac or nc w ih t tpr di ton. Se H or e M a m I .Co. he te , nd s ue t ci i n c da e t ha e c i e ac r ns v. n.StrNa' I . ,51 F. 327,329(t Ci.2008 .Se aloW el v.Li 1 F. Ge a tl ns Co. 4 3d 4h r ) e s ls ddy, 86 3d 505,528(t Ci.1999 (itngva i s c whihmayai af erlc ti prditnghow 4h r ) lsi rous oures c d ed a our n e ci asaes pr mec twoul decdeapa tc a is ) tt u e our d i riulr sue . N oto y i V igi a a atw ile pl ym e s a e,s : Co a v.Eli on-da ve Co. 91 nl s r ni n - l m o nt t t e nz d ls l r v , S. 763,766( 1 7 )St aCoa & CokeCo. Louivil & Nas leR.Co.55S. E. Va. 91 ) onec l v. s le hvil , E. 551 552( 1 ) buti l tongl a e t t e oy nta- l docrne. Loc r v. , Va. 906 , tt r y dhers o he mpl me -twil ti ' kha t s ' Commo a1hEd Sys Com .439S. 2d328,33 ( 1 .Undert e oy ntanwe t uc. . , E. 0 Va. 994) he mpl me -t wildocrne,t l ti S whent i e d dur to ofa c r c f rt r ndii n ofs r c c no be he ntnde ai n onta t o he e to e vies nn t i e r d by f ri e e e fom t tr soft c ta t t n et rpa t i or na iy atlbery nf re ai nf r nc r he e m he on r c , he ihe ry s di rl i t t t r i t t conta atw il upon gi ng t ot rpa t r s bl notce ' 1 I ot r o e m na e he r ct l, vi he he ry ea ona e i .' d. n he wor ,i m os i t nc , V igi a e pl rm a fr a e pl ds n t ns a es a r ni m oye y i e n m oyee f a r a o orf no or ny e s n or r a on a al Howeve ,begi ngi 1 ,t Supr m eCour ofVigi abega t r cog zea e s t l. r nni n 985 he e t r ni n o e ni na r e e i t t s ge r r e, e r ow xc pton o hi ne al ul t nned t k i polc e e i ' he k publc i y xc pton. ' The Supr m e Co tofV igi a fr tr c ni d t publc polc exc pton i Bow m a e ur r ni is e og ze he i iy e i n n v.Stt Ba o Kevs le,331S. 2d797( 1 .l Bowma t pli if we e ae nk f vil E. Va. 985) n n,he antfs r e pl m oyed a t St t Ba ofK e vil ,a a s ow ne a s a lnum be ofs e i t t he a e nk ys le nd l o d m l r har s n he c pa The Ba sm a ge e tha neg i t a m e ge w ih a herc pany,a a om ny. nk' na m n d ota ed r r t not om nd s ehol m ee i w asconvened t vot on t m er . The Bank' Pr dentt d t har der tng o e he ger s esi ol he pl ntf st t woul be fred i t f l t vot i f ai if hat hey d i f hey aied o e n avoroft m er he ger. The pl ntf s, ai if f af l fl i t ij bs voe i t afnnai , u ltrsn tep e ie talte camig e ru o osng her o , td n he fi t b t ae e t h r sd n etr li n ve 8 t tt i pr e we eç la voi 'be a et y ha be n obt i ilgaly.The Ba s ha her oxi s r t nul nd d' c us he d e aned le l nk' Boa d s e nty vot d t a ndon t m e ge . Sho ty t r fer t pl i if w e e fr d and r ubs que l e o ba he r r r l he ea t , he a ntf s r ie br hta tonsf wr f t na i Theba ar ue t tsncet pl ntfswe eatwil oug c i or ong ul enni ton. nk g d ha i he ai if r - l e pl e , he w e e ou ofl k. The co tf l dif e l Rea oni t tt pl ntf sha a m oye s t y r t uc ur e t fer nty. s ng ha he ai if d s a ut r r ghtt vot on c por t m a t r , t tr g w asi f r he a ofes a i he tt o y i o e or a e te s and ha i ht n u t r nce t bls d publcpolc t c t l t tan û mpl rma notl wf l us t t ea ofdic r o a i iy,he our hed ha d oye y e a uly e he hr t s ha ge f n a - l e oy asa de c t co r t o he wie unf tr d dic e i ofa s r hol rt twil mpl ee vi e o ntol he t r s ete e s r ton ha e de o vot f e y hi orhe s ock i t c por ton. Bo m a 331 S. 2d a 8 l s doi t e r el s rt n he or a i ' w n, ' E. t 01. n o ng, he c t m pha i ed t ti w asonl c e tng a C r ow ' e ep i t t e pl ym e - t w ilr e our e s z ha t y r ai d r ' xc ton o he m o nta - l ul . na Si Bo m a t V igi a Supr e Cour ha r c ze a exc pton t t a - l nce w n, he r ni em t s e ogni d n e i o he t wil docrnei onl t eei tnc '( )wheeane o rvi ae apolcye blngt e r s of ti n y hr nsa es 1 r , mplye olts i na i he xecie a e o ssaut iy ce tdrg ;( wheet e oye vi aesapublcpolc t ti n mplyee' tt orl rae iht 2) r he mpl r olt i iy ha s e i il e e s d i a saut a t e o wast e ry ame be oft tcas ofperons xplcty xpr s e n t t e nd he mpl yee k al cl m r ha l s s die tye ildt t pr e in e itdbyt publcpolc 'and( wheeane oye i rcl ntte o he otcto nuncae he i iy'; 3) r mpl e s fr d be us ofhi orhe r us t e ie ca e s r ef al o ngage i a c i i a t R owa v. a t Suppl Co. 5 n r m nal c . n Tr c or v , 59 S. 2d709, 1( 2002) Hee,Shomocli s wa fr dbe us s rf e t a r he E. 71 Va. . r ams he s ie ca e he eus d o bo t r unbo' chid. Shea g t tt sfrng wa c r r t t publcpolc ofVigi a a l n l r ues ha hi ii s onta y o he i iy r ni , nd t r by unl wf de pie t ge r r e. he e a ul s t he ne al ul TheVigi a Supr m eCour ha esa ihe t tapl ntf s ki t brng aBowma r ni e t s t bls d ha ai if ee ng o i n cl m m us i iy w ih s tciy t sour oft publc polci alegedl vi at ai t dentf t pecii t he ces he i i es l y ol ed. Lawr ence Chr er 465 S. 2d at809. Shom o has i ii t ee s fc s cesofpublc ysl , E. dentfed hr peci i our i polc t twe evi aedb he tr nai ()Va Codej 1 2- ( Va. iy ha r olt y r e mi ton: 1 . 8. 57; 2) Codejj 1 2- 8. 71 9 76..()t Vigi aa Unie Stt Consiutons TheCo twiladdrs e c oft s i 1 3 he r ni nd td aes tt i . , ur l e s a h hee n t lr . tr l a. Prohi t ons on Assaul and Bat bii t tery Shom otrta guest s s d bea et brng awr uldic r cli be aus is r hat he houl bl o i ongf s ha ge am c e tot e tn (h jddn twiht ha ea a rin s ewo l h vet c ns n t t e t he xe t s e i o s o v n bo t , h ud a o o e t o h t o c mmiso o a a sula b teya an t e he (i)p ro t k e he j b. P1 sM e i o sin f n sa t nd atr g is h r r sc es n o e p r o ' . m.n ' ' Opp. o M ot t Di m i s Sec Am .Com pl a 8,Apr 24,201 ECF N o. l M ic m v, t .o s s . .t . 2, 35. n t he Cou s 5 S. 2d246( 200 ,t plitf alge t the e oyerk sge he nt, 23 E. Va. 0) he anif le d ha r mpl ' a d r mas s de s pa t d he butoc ,t hed herl g,r bbe he knee a hugged hera ns he houl r , te r t ks ouc e u d r nd gai t r w i1' f a 248. She a s alege t ton one oc ason,t e pl l. J. t ' l o l d ha c i he m oyerS l d he on o hi l p, t e r t sa pul wr pped bot a m sa ound he ,a ti d t ki she on t lps' 1 Fi ly,s a l d t ts a h r r r nd r e o s r he i . d. na l he lege ha he ' c it nty r us t e e i o a s xua r a i hi w ih he e pl r The pl ntf br ons s e l ef ed o nt r nt e l el tons p t r m oye . ai i f oughta Bo na c ai ,a g ng,i e ala, ha s w a t r f r usng t c e t a ba t r upo m n l m r ui nt r i t t he s i ed or ef i o ons nt o te y n he p ro whc b teywo l b i voaino Va Cod j 1 . 5 .Th c u t ee tdt i r es n, ih atr ud e n ilto f . e 82- 7 e o r rj ce hs ca m,be aus t publcpolcyr tece i t a s ul a ba tr sat e di no r fe ta li c e he i i el td n he s a t nd te y t ut d t e lc w r ult m i ton unde t c r um s a es The co t e s d t tbec us t pl ntf s ongf er na i r he ic t nc . ur r a one ha a e he ai if e pl ye di notr qui e he t c mi ba t r a a c i d c ton ofem pl e t a m o r d e r r o om t te y s ontnue ondii oym n , nd be a e i t pl ntf ha c e e t t c m i son oft ba t y,no ba t r w oul ha c us f he ai if d ons nt d o he om s i he ter te y d ve o ur e a al, he f tt ts w oul be r quie t c e t a ba t r w asnotenoug t cc r d t l t ac ha he d e r d o ons nt o te y h o brng he w ihi t a bi oft publc polc unde l ng Sec i n 1 2i r t n he m t he i iy r yi to 8. 57. Her Shom o alegest hert m i i w as vi a i ofV i ni publc polcy because e, l hat er naton ol tve rgi a i i r qui i he t ha a a ton w oul ha t e f tofr quii he t cons ntt ba t r e rng r o ve n bori d ve he f ec e r ng r o e o te y. 10 Bu t i ra o igwa e pl iyrj ce i M ic e l i ce rt th Vign aSu r me t hs e s nn s x i t ee td n th m. t s la ha te r ii p e cl Cour w oul notr c t d e ogni e a Bowm a c a m o t bas soft c i i a s ta ba t r z n l i n he i he rm nal s aul nd te y sa ut a Co l lc nno s vi on t sbas s t t e, nd unt 1 a t ur ve hi i . b. Law sR egul ng Abort on ati i Sho o ne l m xt ooksf rs o uppor i Se to 1 2- t o h 1 2- 1oft Code of t n ci ns 8. 71 hr ug 8. 76. he V igi a whi h co prs va i r s rc i o abo ton. An i vi r ni , c m i e rous e t i tons n r i ndi dualm ay no brng a t i Bowma cli ba e on t publcpolc i e r d fom asa u eunl s heors f lswihi t n am s d he i iy nf re r ttt es he a l t n he cl s ofpe s t tt s cii pu i polc i i e d t be i .D r y v. e M kt Po t v as r ons ha he pe f c blc i y s nt nde o neft a N w . ulr Pr .I ,518S. 2d 31 31 ( 1 .Shomoaruest tt a tonsaut wa me nt odss nc. E. 2, 4 Va. 999) g ha he bori tt e s a t pr t c pr na m o he sfom t s c e ofot r doi ha m t t i unbo chidr But o o e t eg nt t r r he pe t r he s ng r o her m l en. teVigni Su r meCo r ha s u rl rjce t sr ao i g dl Vign aa t-b rin h ri a p e u t s q aey ee td hi e s n n : t- r ii n ia o t -he o s a u e .... a pa s no f t pr t c i oft w o a bu f t pr ec i oft unbor tt t w s s ed t or he o e ton he m n, t or he ot ton he n c l a dtr u hi s cey. M ilrv. n et 5 S. 2 2 7, 21( .l 49 . hi n h o g t o it ' l Be n t, 6 E.d 1 2 Va 9 ) d ' e Sho s e rf i Vigi a' c ce eca e Va Codej18. 75,a g ngt ti mo e ks euge n r ni s ons inc lus , . 2- r ui ha t pr bis d ni lofem pl ym e t a pe s who r f e t pa tc pa e i a abo ton. Fis ,t ohi t e a o nt o ny r on e us s o r i i t n n r i r t he co c enc cl us i cl ary a m e a pr t c i m ed c lpe s m e who d notw i h t pa tc pa e ns i e a e s e l i d t o e tng i a r ol l o s o ri i t i an a r i Butm or i por a l Shom o f ist r d t r toft s a ut The c c e e n bo ton. em t nty, a l o ea he es he t t e. ons i nc c a e o ypr hi t t frng oft ei vi l who r f et pa tci t i a a to afe l us nl o bis he ii hos ndi duas e us o ri pa e n n bori n tr te ha ed tt gqi wrtn a o j cint a ya o t no a1 bo to o p ro a, tia, h y v t aed n iig n b e to o n b ri r 1a rins n e s n lehc l s o morlo r ii gr a r elgous ounds' .'Va. Codej18. 75.NowheedoesShomoale t ts sae 2r lge ha he ttd s ha o j cin.M o e v r S o ' rla c o Co ej1 .- 6., ihp o iis uc n be to ro e , h mo s ein e n d 82 7 1 whc r hbt e our ge e orpr oton ofa ton, sa s m i pl c d be us t ts c i a i onl t nc a m nt om i bori i l o s a e ca e ha e ton pples y o 11 t ea tonst ta eot r s pr bie unde t c p e , .ilgala tons Aga n, hos bori ha r he wie ohi t d r he ha t r Le le bori . i t r i no hi i t Com pl ntt ti c t sJmi ort Cor a i f ce Sho ot ha he e s t ng n he ai ha ndia e t or he por ton or d m o ve a il la ri Be aus t saut sr srci abori we enotm e t pr t c s m e ne n lega bo ton. c e he t t e e titng ton r ant o o e t o o i Shom o' posto s c nnotbrng aBowm a cai on t sbass n s ii n, he a i n lm hi i . c Vi gi a and U nied St e Cons i ut ons . r ni t at s tt i Shom o a s a gue t ts ca brng a Bowm a c a m on t bas soft V igi a a l o r s ha he n i n li he i he r ni nd U nie St t Cons iuto . The V igi a c t ha ne rr cogni d a Bow m a c a m on t t d a es tt i ns r ni ours ve ve e ze n li he bassofpublcpolcy e dde i t f de alConsiuton.Rahe ,Bo a r c ni e a i i i mbe d n he e r tt i t r wm n e og z d n exc ptont t empl ym e a wildocrnewher a e o ewa t r i e i vi a i of e i o he o nt t l ti e n mpl ye s e m natd n olton Vigi a publc polc The Cour fnds i unlke y t tt V igi a Supr m e Cour w oul r ni i i y. ti t i l ha he r ni e t d r cog z a c ai on t bas soft f r lCo tt ton. e ni e l m he i he ede a nsiu i The V igi a co tt i r ni ns iutonalc a m i m o e c m plca e l i s r o i t d.The Su e e Cour o V igi a pr m t f r ni hasne rr ogni d a Bow m an c a m on t ba i oft s a e co tt i l M ic m , he ve ec ze li he s s he t t ns iuton. n t he t t i lcou the d t tt pl ntf c d notba e a wr uldi c r cl i on t U nie St t ra r l ha he ai if oul s ongf s ha ge a m he t d a es Consiu i n,heVigi aConsiu i n, t De l r to ofI tt to t r ni tt to or he c a ai n ndepe nce, be a et nde but c us he pl i i fdi notc e tt e de i i on a alt V igi a Supr e Cour de lne t r c a ntf d ont s hos c sons ppe he r ni em t c i d o ea h t que ton. M iche ,5 S. 2 a 248 n. Shom o a guest tbe us t Bowm a c t he s i t m 23 E. d t 3. r ha ca e he n our l ke t l w s ofo he sa est i or isa ys s a snc s e oft e ot rs a e a l oo d o a t r t t o nf m t nal i , nd i e om hos he t t s low f a w r ngf t r i ton ac i ba ed o t i s a e c tt i ,V igi a m us asw e l The or o ul e m na i ton s n he r t t ons iutons r ni t l. Cour ne notr s ve t ti s her . t ed e ol ha s ue e Even as i t a pl ntf m ay bri a Bowm an cl m on t bas soft sum ng hat ai if ng ai he i he Cons iuton oft Co m onw e 1h,Sho o' c a m m us f i. Shom o now cl i s t tone oft tt i he m at m s li t al a m ha he 12 r s s r f e t ha a a to wa duet he r lgi be if ,a s poi t t va i ea ons he e us d o ve n bori n s o r e i ous le s nd he n s o rous sci oft ConsiutonofVigi at tt honr i on.See eg.Va.Cons.Ar.1 j1 e tons he tt i r ni ha ouc elgi ,. , t t , 6. The e c tt i s ons iutonalpr sons s a gues r pr e V igi a' publc polcy ofr i i ovi i , he r , e es nt r ni s i i elg ous lbe t Butnowhe ei t Compli doe Shomo a lget ts wa fr d on t ba i ofhe i ry. r n he ant s le ha he s ie he ss r r i ousc ci ort the r f a t ha a a to se me fom t er lgius elgi onvi tons ha r e us l o ve n bori n tm d r hos ei o c c i . I ed,t Com pl i do notm e ton r lgi a a l A gai t sm a t ri be or onvi tons nde he a nt es n i e i on t l. n, hi te s f e t Cou ton a m o i t di m i s t compl nt a l t - ounde a l ga i ofr lgi iy he r ton o s s he ai , nd a e f d le tons e i ous t not t t ndi P1' M e . n Opp. o M ot t D i m i s a 1 t Cour c nnotl o s d t wihs a ng, .s m i t . o s s t 2, he ta ook ut i e he Compli . Bute n i Sho o ha pr ry al dt ts r f e t ge an a ton on ant ve f m d ope l lege ha he e us d o t bori r i ousg o elgi r unds dicrm i ton ont bassofr lg oni oneoft pr e tonss ii ly , s i na i he i ei i s he ot c i pecfcal outi di t Vigi aHumanRiht Ac.Va.Codej23900.Ani vi lc nnotbrnga lne n he r ni g s t ndi dua a i Bowm a c a m ba ed upon a publc polc t ti r fe t d i t Vi gi a H um a R i ht A c . n li s i i y ha s e l c e n he r ni n g s t Dps v.J mc l , S. 2d441 447( 1 .Ac r ngl a Bowma cam o t s s a p.nc.492 E. , Va. 997) co di y, ny n li n hi bassmus alo f l i t s ai. Te m i tng a e pl r nai n m oyeesmpl b a es r us t ha a a to ofe t i y ec us he ef es o ve n bori n f nds he c c e eoft Cour.M or ove , he ei s t n i e de et tt publcpolc oft ons i nc he t e r t r s ubsa tal vi nc ha he i i y he Com m onw e t s e t lm i a r i Butt q ton he e i w he hert ti e alh e ks o i t bo ton. he ues i r s t ha s nough t a l o low Shom o t s t i he s a e 1 w c ai t r Bo m a a ispr ny. The Cour r l t nty o us a n r t t a l m mde w n nd t oge t e uc a l c l onc udest ti i not Bow m an doe open t doort a cl i f rw r f t r i ton i ha t s . s he o a m o ong ul e m na i n c r ve ton ofV igi a publc polc Butast Supr m e Cou tofV igni ha s a ed a i onta n i r ni i i y. he e r r a s t t ga n a a i Bo nd gan, wmani anar ow e e i t t e oyme a wildocrne,a çl hiea1 s r xc pton o he mpl nt t l ti nd swl l 1 s a ut oft Com m o alh r te tpublcpolc t s e e e ,s nc o he w i e t t t es he nwe t e l c i i y o om xt nt i e t r s hey pr uma ywo dnothavebe n e ce by ghe)Ge r As e y,emi tonofa es bl ul e na td t neal s mbl tr nai n 13 e oye i vi a i oft polc unde l nga o oft m doesnota o a ialy gi rs mpl e n olton he i y ryi ny ne he ut m tc l ve ie t a c m on 1 w c us ofa ton f wr uldi c r ' Ciy ofV i c ni Be c v. a s 523 o om a a e c i or ongf s ha ge.' t r i a a h H ni , S. 2d239,245( 2000) Fort s ras ,Countllmus bedimisd. E. Va. . he e e ons l t s se D. M oton f a Pr e i O r r i or ot ctve de The Co por ton ha as move f apr eci or rlm ii dic r t t i s of r ai s lo d or ot tve de i tng s ove y o he s ue whe he i e pl l s t n f fe n pe s w ihi t m e ni ofTil V l oft Ci lR i ht t r t m oys e s ha i t e r ons t n he a ng te l he vi g s A d . A snot d a e bove, he Cor r ton onl i ur la lt unde Til V I i i m e t t s t po a i y nc s i biiy r te l f t e s hi t es d ofnum e os t D e e n f t rr q s st ta s h pr e tve or r r m a n i hr hol r iy. f nda t urhe e ue t ha ny uc ot c i de e i n e f ctt tla trt di pos tve m oto s a . The Cour m a lm i d s f e m i fe he s ii i n t ge t y i t i cove y t pr t c ape s n r o oe t ro orpa t f om ûa ry r t nnoya e e ba r s e ,o es i orundue bur n ore ns .' Fe R. nc , m r as m nt ppr s on, de xpe e ' d. Ci P.26()1.AlhoughShomoha no fldawrte r pons t t smoi s cli a v. c( ) t s t ie itn es e o hi ton, he amed t or la g e t tenty of s h a or w oul çd a r um nt ha r uc n der d i oubl t c tofdi cove y' and be ove l e he os s r ' ry b r e s me Ha ig c n iee t ep ris lgtmaec n e , swel s u iil c n my u d n o . vn o sd r d h a t 'e ii t o c ms a la j dca e o o e a dt eitr sso j tc ,h Co r h sd tnnie ta bf rae d s o r i a p o raei n h ne et f usie te u t a ee n d h t iu c td ic vey s p r p it n t sc e and wilgr tt M o i f a Pr t c i Or r hi as l an he ton or o e tve de . The pa te w ilha 90 daysofdi c r w hi h w ilbe lm ie t t i s ofwhe he r i s l ve s ove y c l i t d o he s ue t r J orCo por i em pl uni r aton oyed 1 o m or pe s w ihi t m ea ng ofTil V l dt i t 5 r e r ons t n he ni te I l ng he r r l va ttm e pe i The ea tr a pa t w ho wi hest f l a di postve m oton a t t ee n i r od. r fe , ny ry s o ie s ii i s o he num e os t i s m us do s w ihi 1 da o t e ofdi c r I Shom o' cl i s v ves r iy s ue t o t n 4 ys f he nd s ove y. f s a m ur i , t n f t rdi co r wilbe gr nt d w ih r ga d t t r m ai ng i s s i t ca e,a t he urhe s ve y l a e t e r o he e ni s ue n he s nd he pa tesw ila i be a f ded t opporuniy t t l dipostve m o i a t e oft s s c ri l ga n f or he t t o i e s ii tons t he nd hi e ond sa ofdi c r t ge s ove y. 1 4 l . V Concl on usi Fort f r goi r a ons Def nda J orCor a i s M oton f aPr e tve Or r he o e ng e s , e nt uni por ton' i or ot c i de i G R AN TED i pa a D EN I i pa t nd is M oto t Di m i st Se ond A m en d s n rt nd ED n r a t i n o s s he c de Compl nti GR ANTED.An a opraeOr rs l is t sda ai s ppr it de hal sue hi y. E NTER: hs /*Y dyo Jn , 02 T i e') a fu e2 1 . 7 7 a Se or Unie St t s Di t i tJ e nl t d a e s rc u 15