Canada v. Wright et al, No. 7:2011cv00499 - Document 43 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Samuel G. Wilson on 07/26/2012. (kab)
Download PDF
' el eF I U8 91 eoe FR> #eE 81 A R A 6K-v ToN k A , Fl bEo I T H E UN I ED ST A TES D I R I CO U R T N T ST CT FO R T H E W ESTE RN D I STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A R O A N O K E DI I O N V SI K ELV IN A .C AN A D A , JUL 2 6 2 1 92 JULi : - ' ' CL RK A ; Y BY; D. C i lA cti N o.7: vi on 11cv00499 Pl nt f ai i f, M EM O R AN D U M O PI O N NI SG T .W I I M W RIG H T et # . LL A . f, D efendants. By:Sam ue G .W is l l on Unied St esD i t i tJudge t at sr c Thi i a aci purua t 42U. C.j 1 f ij tverle a da ge b s s n ton s nt o S. 983 or nunci eif nd ma s y pl i ifKel n A.Ca antf vi nada, Vigi ai aepr e di a r ni nm t oc e ngpr s al gi t tt def nda s a l / e, le ng ha he e nt , l e oye ofRedOni Stt Prs ($ mpl es on ae ion çROSP' a t tmeoft alege i i t, oltdhi ' the i ) he l d ncdens vi ae s Ei t A m e gh h ndm e r ghtt be f e f om c ue a un ualpuni hm e .1 C anada a l gest t nt i o re r r l nd us s nt le ha va i dee nt ()us de e svef cebyc iui t punc ki a s rthhi atr rous fnda s 1 e xc s i or ontn ng o h, ck, nd cac m fe hewasf l r sr ne nonbe lge e ,a l ngon hi so a h f l ng af c ulc l uly e tai d, li r nt nd yi s t m c olowi or ef el e r ton;( we edelbertl i fe e bynoti e v ni ( ûs ditc l ' a dhi i xtaci 2) r i aey ndifr nt ntr e ng; 3) sa sialy'plce m n a ultr r sr it; 4 rf sdt p o iea iep c t s oh p i fo h sij re ; nd( ) mb ao y e tan s ( ) e u e o r vd n c a k o o t e an r m i nu is a 5 rf s dt gvehm adn rta Thed fnd nsh v mo df rs e u e o i i ine r y. ee a t a e ve o ummayj g n . e r ud me tTh y m ai ai t tCa nt n ha nada w a c ba i dur ng t c lexta ton and t t f c t y us d w a s om tve i he el r c i hat he or e he e s nec s ar t r gai c r a s c e Ca e s y o e n ont ol nd e ur nada a trhe a r nty f l whie a oac ng t fe ppa e l e l l ppr hi he e r c i t m wih ahom e a knie t tt us ofambul or r tant wasa opra e xta ton ea t m de f , ha he e at y esr i s ppr it , t tCa ha nada r f s d t i e pa k, nd t tm i s ng di r f one ni i nota Ei ht e u e he c c a ha s i nne or ght s n g h Ame d n vilto Th ug Ca d ' ce iii ma b s b e t q e to i lg to te n me t oain. o h na a s r dblt y e u j d o u sin n ih f h y 1Thedefndant a eSg . W ilam W rght Sgt PaulPa Lt Del Tae,Sgt Jef y Ha to C/ e s r t li i , . yne, . mar t . fer rs ck, O Bil La ge C/ Br e M igrm , O St or Fi ds, c r Rowl te, pt St c M uli ,Lt Blvi Ca . ly r , O adl y l i C/ anf d el Ri ha d e t Ca . a y lns . e ns, pt De a Tur r a Lt J Fa n. w yne ne , nd . oe nni num e o f i ous c ai she ha fl d i t s c t2t e cour i nota lbe t t m ake c ed biiy r us rvol lm s ie n hi our , h ts t i ry o r i lt d tr n to so amo inf rs mmayj g n , ndh r t r i af cu l ip t a t eemiai n n to o u r ud me ta ee hee s a ta d s ue s o w he he va i usdef nda s punc d,ki ked,a s r t he Ca da w hie he w a f l t r ro e nt he c nd c a c d na l s uly r s r i no li r nt a l ng on hi s om a a whe herot r f ie t i e vene e t a ned, nbe lge e , nd yi s t ch nd t he s a l d o nt r . Ac o dn l t ec u t e ist d fnd n s mo inf rs mma yj d me ta t tos cams c r igy,h o r d ne he ee a t' to o u r u g n s o h e li . Ho v r t ec u t rn st ed fn a t ' to frs mmayj g n a t a1o Ca a as we e ,h o r g a t h ee d ns mo in o u r ud me t s o 1 f n d ' oh r li a dd n e h smoin f rp ei n r ij n tv r l fa t h srmann cams te cams n e is i to o rl ay n u cie ei s o i e iig li mi e be us i i c e t thi ow n delbe a e m i be vi l t t c l e r ton a t the c n ca e t s l ar ha s i r t s ha or ed o he e l xt ac i nd ha a a d a lge exc sve f c d i cele r to i t f t eby notm ibe vi i t frt voi le d es i or e urng l xtaci ns n he ' ur u s ha ng n he is pl c a e. 1. On N ove be 1 201 Ca da pari i t d i a g oup de ons r ton a RO SP t t m r 8, 0, na tc pa e n r m ta i t ha i ved pr s s c r ng t rce lw i w sa ki ki t rce ldoor .Som e pr s r a s nvol ioner ove i hei l ndo nd c ng hei l s i one s l o bl kedt ta sotdoo wih t i f ta a br cels i e he ds I r pons , oc he r y l r t her ood r ys nd oke l prnklr a . n es e ROSP ofk il as Ca t a s ked nadamuli etm e t unc rhi wi tpl i s o ove s ndow a ber taned.3 Aj nd esr i ur Cana sr f s l ,prs ofi i l a i s e e a s tbur tofpe r s a t ough t c l da' e u a s i on t c a s dm ni t r d hor s ppe pr y hr he e l ve t Prs of i i l t n as Ca da a i t c e rhi w i n . i on fc a s he ked na ga n o l a s ndow a be r tai nd esr ned. W he n Ca da r us d, tc s a i s e e a t rs tbur tofpe r s a O fk e s a i na ef e ofi er dm ni t r d no he hor s ppe pr y. t r ga n or r d Ca de e nada t unc rhi wi o ove s ndow a be r tai d. A ferCa nd esr ne t nada r us d,of i e s ef e fc r 2Se Ca e nadav Clr e No 7:1 v 0 8 2 1WL 4 0 9 ( . Va Oc. 1 2 1 (imisng ak , . l c 0 40 , 01 91 3 3 W D. . t 1 , 01 ) ds si wi o t rj dc ac mplitn migt nyeg td fn a t a dc nann l 7p g so maeil; n d v. t u p eu ie o an a n we t-ih ee d ns n o tiig 8 a e f tral Ca a a h Jh o , 71 c 0 3 9( . Va Au 1 2 1 ) ds sigwi ou peu c ac mplitfrfi r t saea o nsn No. :1 v 0 6 W D. . g. 6, 0 1 ( imisn t t rjdie o an o al e o tt h u p a sbl cam f rr l g; n d v Ra , 708 v 0 9 201 W L 21 9 6 ( . Va M a 2 , 01 ) lu i e li o e i Ca a a . v No. : c 0 2l , 0 e 7 0 2 W D. . y 8 2 0 (imisn a e c siefn cam, na c s t tec ut cam, n al n c n to scam) ds sig n x esv ie li a c e s o h o rs li a d i g o di n li . vi i . 3Onamoinfrs mmayj d me t c u ts o l viw fcstntelg t e itd' yvd oe ie c to o u r u g n, o rs h ud e at t h ih d pce 'b ie vd n e i iwle o p sngp ristlt dfee tsois o eo whc ibltnl c nrditdb terc r , ota n û h n p o i at elwo ifrn tre, n f ih s aa t o ta ce y h e o d s h t o l e y rao a ej r c udb l v i. Sc tv. ri, 5 U. 3 2 3 0( 0 ) e s n bl uy o l ei e t' o' Hars5 0 S. 7 , 8 20 7 . e ' t pe f me a c l e r c i Durng t e r ci n,ata e e e Ca ror d e l xta ton. i he xta to e m nt r d nada' c la us d f ce s el nd e or t r tai hi . Ca da alege t tt t n us d e es i f c be aus he w asf l o esr n m na l s ha he e m e xc sve or e c e uly r tai d,non- lge e ,a l ng on hi som a h w he W r ght Ta e,Fi ds M igrm ,a esr ne beli r nt nd yi st c n i , t el , l i nd Lar punc d, c ge he ki ked,a s r t he hi . H e a s a l gest tTur r Pa ,a Ha tock nd c a c d m l o le ha ne , yne nd r s f l t i e ve and t tHa toc hi t de enda s'be vi by delber t l m ovi a aied o nt r ne ha rs k d he f nt ha or i a ey ng ha hel c e a r co di t e r c i nd d am r e r ng he xt a ton.The de e nt m a nt n t ast y w e e ope ng f nda s i ai hat he r ni t c ldoorCa he el nada f lwhie a oa ng t e r ton t nm w ih a hom e ade knie,a t t el l ppr chi he xtac i e t m f nd ha t fr texta i t am m e he is r cton e mberti d a f lon Ca da.The de enda sf t rsa et t rppe nd el na f nt urhe tt ha Ca da wasr it ntand c ba i durng t e r c i a t tt y us d no m o ef c t na essa om tve i he xta ton, nd ha he e r or e han ne e s r t Ov r om e t sr s s anc c s ay o e c hi e i t e. Oncer m o d fom hi cel Ca dawe t as e ve r s l, na nt o howe f de ami ton fom t r or cont nai r he pe r s a A f e l vi t s e , t e sbr ppe pr y. t r ea ng he how r ofk r ough Ca da t t f oorw he he r f e t t na o he l n e us d o w a k a o de e hi t c l nd r r d m o oope a e O fi e st n s rp s a c d Cana and puthi i r t . tc r he t i e r he da m n a bul t y r s r i t due t hi be vi rbe o e a durng t e r c i n.4 O n ce i n bul t y m a or e t a n s o s ha o f r nd i he xt a t o n m a or r t a nt , nada r ei d a m edi ale l ton.RO SP m e ca s af not s eli o es r i s Ca ec ve c va ua i di l t f ed w lng n Ca da' f ce a ar na s a nd ound hi e s asw e la f c a s r t hes a s a ll e aton on t bac o s ye , l s a i l c a c , m l ac r i he k f hi he d, ode a ebl di fom hi nos a as l e s a m r t ee ng r s e, nd ma l demaon t bac ofhi ne k.Ski he k s c n i e iy ar und t r t a ntar a r m a ne i a t Ofi r t n dr Cana t a l l nt grt o he es r i e s e i d nt c . tce s he ove da o oca hos t f e m i ton.Att hos t ,Ca ar c ve x-aysa tt nusa di he i pial or xa na i he pial nad e ei d r nd e a nd pht ra va oi tons Al c c nai . l omplt d t s swe enor a e e f aç tona ena a fadur ' ee e t r m l xc pt or t quesi bl s l r e. ' ( oo eAf. 4,ECFNo.25. M r f! ) 4Ambul o yr tant a eus when i aese bi i nge ousordir ptvebeha or' ( wlteAf. atr esr i s r ed nm t xhi t f da r su i vi . ' Ro e t f !6 ECF No 2 ) , . 5. Upo r t ni t ROSP,ofi er a i pl c Ca da i a n eur ng o fc s gan a ed na n mbult y r tant , nd a or esr i s a m e c lpe s r lpe f m e a e l ton. M e c lsa fc ke t ambul t yr tant 'ft dia r o me ror d n vauai dia t f hec d he aor esr i s i by pl i t o f nge s unde e c r s r n . Bas d on vi o e de e,Ca ac ng w i r r a h e tai t e de vi nc nada di notha any d ve co pl nt a t ttm e. Folow i e m i to Ca da w e unde m e c lo e va i n a m ai s t ha i l ng xa na i n, na nt r di a bs r to nd l t rcom pl ne a ae ai d boutm i s ng hi di rtay.Cana alege t the as d Bl vi f di r si s nne r da l s ha ke e ns or nne a t tFam i a M uli s i t ta wa wihhel be a e Ca nd ha l n nd lns a d he r y s t d c us nadaonces d Fami ue r n. Ca da as al gest tFa n a M uli r f e t gi hi a i epa k t tni .The na lo le ha nni nd lns e us d o ve m n c c ha ght de e nt m a nt i t tt y r por e t w or a t rdi rt a wer di t i e a c nnot f nda s i a n ha he e t d o k f e mw r ys e s rbut d nd a r ca lCa da as ng f a di rt a ora i e pac M e ca r or i c t t tsaf ofer d e l na ki or nne r y n c k. di l ec ds ndi a e ha t f f e Ca a aa iep c , u h rf sd i.( o r Af. 5 ECF No 2 ) OnNo e e 2 , 01 , n d n c a k b t e eue t M oe f! , . 5. v mb r 0 2 0 a t ra oxi a e y f t f z holr i a bul t y r s r i s durng m e ca o er ton, f e ppr m t l or y- olr zs n m a or e t a nt i di l bs va i ofk e sr move Ca f r e d nada' r sr i t . M e c lsaf t n pe f r e a e ua i n. Att stm e s e ta n s5 di a t f he r o m d n val to hi i , Ca dasa e t tt a na tt s ha he mbult y r tai sl e a e hi wrssa a esand c us d s li a or esr nt ac r t d s it nd nkl a e welng; ho e , de e de i ca est tm e ca per onnels o y m ode ts e lng a w ver vi o vi nce ndi t ha di l s aw nl s w li nd s ri i l e a i . upe tc al ac r tons Il. Acc di t Ca or ng o nada' ve iid compl nt va i de e nt punc d,kike a s rfe ai , rous f nda s he c d, nd s r t he hi a tr he w asf ly r t a ned, nbe lge e ,a l ng on hi som a h d i hi c a c d m fe u l esr i no li r nt nd yi s t c ur ng s c lex r c i . 6 The de e nt ha tl d a tda t c r c i Ca da' ac ountoft s el t a ton f nda s ve i e fi vis ontadi tng na s c he e 5iTlema i c ni o stmeta a uaoyrsrit (a )b a pidwi o ts ca a p o a s h xmum o tnu u i h t mb ltr etans c n e p l t u pe il p r v l ( e h fo t eRe ina Die t ro Re ina Duy Ofie i 48h u s' ( e i S p o De s' o . o S mm . . , r m h g o l r co r go l t fc r s o r. M m.n u p. f f. M t f r u J 9 ' ECF No. . Po iy d ca e t a H e tan sa pl d wihn ac l wil ermo e a s o a t eo f n e ' 25) l itt s h t r sr i t p i t i e l l b e v d s o n s h fe d rs c e da r be vi hass i a i i det mi dt ofe nol rpos at e tt hi el o ot r . ngeous ha or ubsded, nd t s er ne he fnder onge es hr a o ms f r he s' ' ( wlteAf. 5 ECFNo. . Ro et f! , 25) 6F d r l l of v l o e u e8 a ( )r q ie aç h r a dpli sae n o t ecam s o n ta t e e ea Rue Ci i Pr c d r ( )2 e u rs ç o t n an t tme t f h l i h wig h t h s plade i e ildt r i .'Thoug t r l i geal r lxedf rpr seplitfs i doesnotr uieac r t e r s ntte o elef' h he ue s r ty ea o o an if, t eq r ou t o 4 e nt a t y have pr de a vi r or ng oft c lexta i The c tfndsa diput ve s nd he ovi d deo ec di he el r cton. our i s e ast t m a e i lf t s r o he t r a ac s ur oundi t c le r c i a t f c us t s ur Ca da. ng he el xt a ton nd he or e ed o ec e na Ac od n l,hec u t e e ted fnd ns moi nfrs mmayj d me t st ti cam. c r i gy t o r d nis h ee a t' to o u r u g n a o h s 1i 7 D e e na i ofe es i f ce t n on d he he f c was a i d i a good f ih t nni tons xc s ve or ur t t r or e w pple n at e f tt m a nt i o r s or di c plne orm alc ous y a s s i a l f t pur e ofca i f or o i a n r e t e s i i i i l nd adi tc ly or he pos usng ha ' Unie Stt v. e,592F. 489,49 ( hCi. 0)( i W hilvv. bes 475 nn. td aes Gor ' 3d 4 4t r201 quotng te Al r, U. 31 31 ( 98 ) l t sca e Ca al est tc r tona ofi r W rg ,Tae S. 2, 9 1 6). n hi s , nada leg ha oreci l fces iht t, Fi ds M ig i , nd La g punc d,ki ke a s r t he hi whiehew a f l r tane a el , l rm a re he c d, nd c a c d m l s uly esr i d nd on hi s om a h. s t c The de enda sm a nt i t tCa da f lashe r he t t ce ldoorwih a f nt i a n ha na el us d o he l t hom e a knie. A f e Ca da f l t def nda ss a e t t tr te r c i t m m em be m de f t r na el, he e nt t t hat he i s xt a ton en r t i d a f l on Ca rppe nd e l nada a t tCa da r m a ne r i t nta c ba i w hie be ng nd ha na e i d es s a nd om tve l i r sr i e t a ned. Ha ng r vi w ed t vi o evi nce t cour i una e t ve i y e t rve son of vi e e he de de , he t s bl o r f ihe r i e e t.Th c u th r f r d ne t d fnd n s mo inf rs mmayj d me ta t Ca a a s v n s e o r t ee o e e is he ee a t' to o u r u g n s o n d ' e es i f r e cl i . xc sve o c a m 111 . Ca da a l st tc r ona ofi e s Tur r Pa ,a H a t oc w e e de i r t l na lege ha or edi l fc r ne , yne nd r s k r lbe a e y i f e e whe t f ie t i e v ne whie ot rde e nt us d e e s ve f c durng hi ndif r nt n hey a l d o nt r e l he f nda s e xc s i or e i s e vo t dic r cohe e e whe et r i none.Asf ra t c r ca t lt def nt i t scai ae ndea r o s e n r nc r hee s a s he ou t n el,he enda s n hi l m r W rght Tae,Fil ,M igrm ,a La ge. i , t eds l i nd r 1Su i t e ngs h ic v r n ico ue tras n ie a d mmayj dg enti a op it whenihepladi ,tedso eya ddsls r maeilo fl, n r u m s ppr rae a yatd vt s o ta teei n g n n is ea t a ymaeila t n ta t mo a ti e t ldt j d me t n fi a i h w h t h r s o e uie su s o n tra fc a d h the v n s nie o u g n s t a amatro lw. F d. Ci. 5 ()2.Th pat mo igfrsmmayj d me tb ast bud no s te f a ' e R. v P. 6c( ) e ry vn o u r u g n e r he re f ' i or i t c toft ba i f ism o i a i ntf ngt epat oft r c dt demonsr t t a e e nf m ng he our he ss or t ton nd de iyi hos rs he e or hat tae he bs nc o ag n ieis eo maeilfc.Ceoe Co p v. tet4 7U. 31 , 2 (9 6 .I rve n asmmay f e un su f tra a t ltx r . Cart, 7 S. 7 3 3 1 8 ) n e iwig u r j d me tmoinu d rRue5 ,h c u tç s da alu tfa l i ee c si fv ro t no vn pat. u g n to n e l 6 te o r d t rw lj siibe nfrn e n a o fhe nmo ig ry' mu ' UntdSae v CaoiaTrn fr rCo,9 8F.d8 2, 3 (t Ci. 9 2 (iigAn es nv Li rvLo b ie tts . rln a so me . 7 2 3 8 5 4h r 1 9 ) ct n d ro . bet b v. lc, 7U. 2 2, 5 (98 ) n .47 S. 4 2 5 1 6 ) cele r c i .8 Theco tfndsage nediput a t t m a e i f t s r l xta ton ur i nui s e s o he t ral ac s uroundi t s ng he e e e t a dd n e t ed fn n s moinf rs mmayj d me ta t Ca a asd l rt v ns n e is h ee da t' to o u r u g n s o n d ' ei ae be i fe e c am . ndif r nce l i To de onsr t de i r e i f er nc a pl i i fm us s m t a e lbe at ndi f e e, a ntf t how t tt of i i lw a a a e ha he fc a s w r off t f om w hi h he coul dr w a i e e e t ta s t nta r s ofha m e sed a t the ac s r c d a n nf r nc ha ubs a i l i k r xi t nd ha a t lydr w t ti eenc Famerv. ema 511U. 825 837( 994) The apli if cual e ha nfr e. r Brl n, S. , 1 . n, antf mus s t tt ofi i dir r t rs by f lngt tke t ea ona em e s e 't t how ha he tcal sega ded he ik aii o a t s bl a ur s'o r a l vi t t rs 1 a 832. H e e,Ca le a e he i k. d. t r nada a s r s t tTur r Pa ,a Ha t oc f ie t s e t ha ne , yne nd r s k a l d o i e v neasot rdef nda sus d e e svef c d i hi c le r ton a t tHa toc nt r e he e nt e xc s i or e urng s el xtaci nd ha rs k delbe a e ym ove a ha i rtl d ndhed cn ar or ng t e r to i or rt cove up t l mer ec di he xtaci n n de o r he de enda s be vi .Thede enda sm ant i t tt y us d a opra ef cea t tfl ng f nt' ha or f nt i an ha he e ppr it or nd ha imi t e r c i wasdifcul be a e numer ofi e swe er quie t r tan Cana i hi he xta ton fi t c us ous fc r r e r d o esr i da n s c l. Ha ng r vi w e t vi o e de ,t cour i una e t ve iy e t rve s o ofeve t . e l vi e e d he de vi nce he t s bl o rf ihe r i n ns Th c u th r fr d nist d f n a t' to f rs mmayj dg n o Ca a ascam ta e o r t ee o e e e he e e d n s moin o u r u me t n n d ' li h t t def nt w e e de i r t l i f e e by f ii t i e v dur ng hi ce lexta ton. he enda s r lbe a e y ndif r nt a lng o nt r ene i s l rci I . V Ca da alegest tva i def nda sçs ditc l ' a d hi i am bul t r r tai s na l ha rous e nt da s i aly' pl ce m n a o y esr nt a trhi c l e r c i and ti t t hos t whieot rde enda sf l d t i e ve g The fe s e l xta ton rp o he pial l he f nt aie o ntr ne. co ttndsnoEi h Am e e vi ai a gr nt t de e ur i ght ndm nt ol ton nd a s he f ndan s moton f s t ' i or umm a y r j g n a t t e ecams ud me t s o h s li . Bsee s a no e 6. Asfrast cour ca tl,hedefndan si t scli a eHars k, yne,a Tur r upr t a he t n elt e t n hi am r toc Pa nd ne . 9Se s a not 6. Asfra t c tc n tl,hedefndant f t scli ar M igrm ,Fi ds, rgh, e uor e a s he our a elt e s or hi am e l i el W i t Ha tock,La ge Tat Pa rs r , e, yne,Tur , ner Row lte, l ns Fa n,a M uli . e t B evi , nni nd lns 6 Ambul t y r tant a e de i d and a i t lmi aprs ne ' m ove e .Hole v. aor esr i s r sgne ppled o i t i o rs m nt ly J on,201 W L 2640328,a *1 ( . Va J 30,201 .Dlrngt rsr ntperod,a ohns 0 t 0 W D. . une 0) zi he e tai i n i a e w e r l ions a ha uf sw ih a bl k box c r ng t keyhol Bl untv. nm t a s eg r nd ndc f t ac ove i he e. o W iln , 70 c 0 5 , 0 7W L 9 5 5 a * ( . Va M ac 2 , 0 7 .A s c rt l ms No. :5 v 05 6 2 0 i 51 5 , t 7 W D. . rh 3 2 0 ) e u i y w a s c n l enough t a l i a est s a i t upr g pos ton r nst o h t bl k i t hai ong o low nm t o t nd n he i ht ii u hr ug he ac box a dow n t t 1 g ions l Thus t r tai sdo nott aly pr ve a r s r ne nd o he e r . d. , he esr nt ot l e nt e tai d pr s rf om c ng ng pos tons s r t hi hi m us e ,s e pi ore tng hi m e s Se i one r ha i ii , te c ng s cl s l e ng, a i s al . e J c onv. or n,1 F. x97,1 ( hCi. )( a ks M ca 9 App' 03 4t r 2001 unpubls opi on) Hole 201 ihed ni ; lv, 0 W L 2640328,at*13. He e, he def ndant pl ed Ca da i r s r i t due t hi de i r t m i be vi be o e r t e s ac na n e t a n s o s lbe a e s ha or f r , durng, a a t rt c le r c i 1 A nur e e 1 t d Ca da a t bot t r t a nt ' i nd f e he el xt a ton.0 na fer h he esr i s s va ua e a i a i a r oval Ca da r ai d i r t a nt f l s t n t m a m um n o mtof pplc ton nd em , na em ne n esr i s or e s ha he xi m t tm e alow e w ihouts ci la oval a Cana w a u rm edi lobs r to durng hi i l d t pe a ppr , nd da s nde ca e va i n i s e ie tm e i r s r i s.The r t a nt m a ha be n unc f t e f Ca ntr i n e t a nt esr i s y ve e om orabl or nada orc us d a e mio s li a s p rkila e ai n '1 o ve,h r ween sg tc n ij re , n r wel nd u e t a lc r to s1 h we r te e r o ini a t nu is ng , i unr s na e r s ofs r ous ha m ,ore de e ofde i r t i f e e e t a d t r s o ea o bl i ks e i r vi nc lbe a e ndif r nc ow r he i ks f 1 tprs a i sr t s. . . s dbea or wi -a ng de eenc i t a i andexe utonof 0 i ion dm nitaor houl cc ded der ngi f r e n he dopton c i p l isa pa tc sta i ter u g n aen e e t p eev itma od ra ddsil a dt manan oi e nd rcie h tn h ij d me t r e d d o rsr e ne l re n icpi n o iti c ne isiuin lsc rt ' Bel . ots 4 U. 5 0 5 (9 9 . n ttto a e u i ' lv W l h, 4l S. 2 , 47 1 7 ) y. i 1 TheEiht A m e entdoesnotpr bi alap i to off c ori lci ofpai . Gor 5 F. a 1 g h ndm ohi t 1 plcain or e nfiton n e, 92 3d t 4 4(t Ci.01 ) if eifit no p i i tec u s o ap io sc rt me sr . . o sn t mo n t cu l 9 4h r2 0 . ç' n l i f an n h o re f rs n e u i au e . d e o a u to re -h co y a un ualpunihm e sm pl be us i m a a ri r tos c t tt deg eeoff cea horze ora i f nd us s nt i y ca e t y ppea n er pe t ha he r or ut i d ppled or sc rt p r o e wa u rao be a dh n eu n c sayi tesrc sn e' l ( u tn Whie , 7 U.. t e ui up s s s ne s na l, n e c n e esr n h tit e s . d.q oig t v 4 5 S a y ' l 3l ( 9 6 I Ho lvv. o ns n 201 W L 26 3 ,h sc u t o ndt a a u ao yr sr it plc d o a 9 1 8 :. n l e Jh o , 0 40 28 t i o r f u h t mb lt r etan s a e n n ima efrf rpeg th u swa n te c s i ef r ea dr a o e t a çot e tn t r sr it ma e( h n i n t o o t ih o r s o x e sv o c n e s n d h t ç he x e t he e tan s k c a gng t p sto s srthn hsmu ce , aighsme l, le ig o usn tetie)ls c mfra l a dmo edfkut o i n ,tec ig i sls etn i as se pn , r ig h olt es o o tbe n r it l i t exe ut efe i y,t y f ls r l am ongt ec to ofprs lf t ta etesrci a e n ha s o c e fctvel he al qua ey hos ondiins ion ie ha r r titve nd ve rh' wih u rsn t telv l fu c n tuin l mih n. 1 .Th rfr , nd rteo jciep o go a e c sie to t iig o h e e o n o si to a pt sme t' d eeoe u e h betv r n f n x e sv t ' f c cl m ,t c tf or e ai he our ound atm por r lm iai on prs r duet ambult r r tan swhih d us t e ay i tton ione s o a o y esr it c i es he ca imaen p y ia ijr oh rta tmp rl ds o ot nde arsme tsmpl c n o q aiya au eof n t o h sc lnu y te h n e oay ic mf ra mb ras n, i y a n t u l s s f freta i ie u na tot ec n ce c o ma knd' I. itra ctto so te ) o c h ts rp g n t h o s in e f n i .' d (nen l i in mitd. ' a ha m .1 T he cour t e or fndst tt undiput d e de e s r 2 t her f e i ha he s e vi nc howst de enda sdi not he f nt d pl c a kee Ca da i a bul t y r t a nt s di tc ly orf t pur e ofc i ha m , a e nd p na n m a or esr i s a si a l or he pos aus ng r a dt u eo to er srit wa no o j ci eyu ra o be n he s f h s e tan s s t b e tv l n e s na l. Ca daalege t tM uli a Fn n vi aed hi Ei ht Ame m e rg sby na l s ha lns nd nni olt s g h nd nt i ht de ng hi m e c lc r whe t y r us d t gi hi a i pac f pan a s li The nyi m di a a e n he ef e o ve m n ce k or i nd we lng. c t i no bassf an Ei t Amendme vi a i a g a st de enda s m o i f our fnds i or gh h nt olton nd r nt he f nt ' ton or s mma yj g n a t t t li u r ud me t s o ha cam. To de ons r t a c ai f de alofm edi alc r a pl i ifm us s m t a e l m or ni c a e, a ntf t how t tpr s ha i on ofi a swe edelber t l i fer ntt as ro m e c ne tcil r i a ey ndif e o e i us dial ed.Esele v. mbl 429 U. 97, t l Ga e, S. 1 ( 976) St e v. De tofCor.904F.Supp. 49 ( D.Va 1 ) Apprprae 05 1 ; apls Va. p' r, 487, 2 E. . 995 . o it t e t e f a m e c lne i d ofm edi alne es iy' a çnots m pl t tw hi m a be r a m nt or di a ed s t one c c s t ' nd s i y ha ch y c nsd r dme eyd srbl. Bo igv. d n, 5 F.d4 48( t Ci.1 7 ) Hee t e o iee rl e ia e' wrn Go wi 5 1 2 4, 4 h r 9 7 . r ,h ' undiput d e denc i c t st tROSP m e c sa fa per o la a l alhos t lteae s e vi e ndi a e ha dial t f nd s nne t oc pia r td Ca a asij re .Ca d as o tie x-a sa drc ie v c i ain .F rh r r, n d n d ' nu is na a lo b an d ry n e ev d a cn to s u temo e Ca a a w a unde m e ca o er ton w he M uli a Fa n a l dl deni d hi a i e pa k. s r di l bs va i n lns nd nni lege y e m nc c G i n Ca ve nada' pr oust e t e a con i s evi r a m nt nd tnuousm e c obs r ton,a i e pa k w a di al e va i n c c s ( e e y desr bl 'a no ço ofm e ca nec s iy.' The c tt r f e g a st t rl m i a e' nd t ç ne di l e s t ' our he e or r nt he deenda s motonf s f nt' i or ummayj r udgme ont scam. nt hi li 1 Se W oodsv. Uni dSae, . :0 0 2 , 01 WL 1 0 01 y t*1 ( . . . rh2 , 01 ) 2 e t tts No 7 l CV0 4 0 2 2 e 0 5 0 a 0 W D Va Mac 2 2 2 (i dn t a t eu c n e td e d n ed e n ts p r ar a o a l i e e c t a t ed f n a t we edeie aey fn ig h t h n o t se vie c o s o u po t e s n b e nfr n e h t h e e d n s r l r t l b idiee te e to hrsrit ma h v c u e mio a rso s n f rn , v n h ug etans y a e a sd n r bain ) f 8 VI . Ca a aalg st a Mulis Fa nn a dBlvn s b e tdhi t c t l n t s a n d le e h t ln , n i, n e is u jce m o rz a d mu u l e lvi co tonsby w ihhol ng hi di rta on a s ngl occ s on.1 The c tfndsno ba i i ng ndii t di s nne r y i e ai 3 our i ss fra Eih hAme d n vo ai na dg a t t ed fn a t'mo inf rs mmayj g n a o n gt n me t ilto n rn s h ee d ns to o u r ud me t s t t tc a m . o ha l i To s uppor a Ei h Am e t n ght ndm e c ai c l ngi pr s co tons a pl i ifm us nt l m hale ng i on ndii , a ntf t s o ete t a hes ti e asro sij r a ars lo t c aln e c n iin o ta t e h w i r h t usan d e iu nu y s e ut f he h l g d o dto s r h t h h e c tons c e t d a unr s na e r s ofs rousda a t hi f tle he lh,Sti kl rv. ondii r a e n ea o bl i k ei m ge o s u tr a t r c e W ae s 989F. 1 1 0-81( hCi.1 ) a t tprs n ofkil acedwihdelbeae tr, 2d 375, 38 4t r 993 , nd ha io t as t t i rt i f e e t a d t r s ofha m ,Fa m e ,51 U . a 835;Ta orv. e m a 3 F. 266, ndif r nce ow r he i k r r r 1 S. t yl Fr e n, 4 3d 271( h Ci.994) Tode taedei rt i fee et asrousrs ofhnr apl ntf 4t r1 . monsr t lbeae ndifrnc o e i ik m, ai if m us s w t ta pr s of i a w a a a e off ct f o whi h he c d dr w a i e e t ta t ho ha i on fci l s w r a s rm c oul a n nf r nce ha s t ntalrs ofha m e s e t tt ofi a a t ly dr w t ti e e ,a t tt ofi i l ubs a i i k r xit d, ha he tci l c ua l e ha nf r nce nd ha he tc a di r ga ded t r s by f lng t t ke S ea ona e m e ur ' t a l vi t t r s Fa m e ,511 se r he i k aii o a ç s bl as es' o le a e he i k. r r r U . a 832,837. I t s c e, he deprva i ofone m e lne t rc e Ca da t s f r a S. t n hi as t i ton a ihe aus d na o uf e sro o sg iia tme t l rp y ia ij r n rce tda t e s na l rs o s ro s eius r infc n na o h sc l nu y o rae n mra o be ik f e iu dam a t hi f ur hea t The c r t r f e fndst Ca ge o s ut e lh. ou t he e or i hat nada hasnotde ons r t d a m ta e s fiinl s ro sd p i ai n a t u g a t ted fn a t' to f rsz r j d me t u tce ty e iu e rv to , nd h s rns h e e d n s moi n o t mmay u g n o t scai . n hi l m 1 To t e e Canadacai st m is d di wa ar t it ya i by t de e t ,hi c a m f l 3 he xtnt l m he s e nner s ealaor cton he f ndan s s l i ais. Tosaeap i fce cam o r t l t n u d rj 1 8 , n imaemu t l g t a, sar s l o ter t l t r tt rma a i li f ea i i n e 9 3 a n t s a l e h t a e ut f h eai o y ao e a a ton, s fr d s ci he ufe e ome a r ei c ont contnuede r s ofhi consi i rght.A CLU v.W i c dve s mpa t he i xecie s tt onal i s m comio Co nv 9 9F.d7 0 7 4( t Ci.9 3 .Misn o edin rh dn a v rei c o tec niu de ecs of u t, 9 2 8 , 8 4h r1 9 ) sig n n e a o d es mpa t n h o tn e x rie Ca nada' c tt i rght . s ons iutonal i s 9 VI l. Ca a afldmo in f rp ei n r ij n tv rle .Her q e t a e r e c n d ie to s o r l ay n u ci e eif mi e u ss n me g n y ta f rt prs out i ofs ut s Vigi aa ape ma n ta f rt Sus e 1sa eprs r nse o ions sde o hwe t r ni nd r ne t r ns e o s x tt ion t a d a l ged r t la or a t c a exc s ve f r a R O SP. H e a s r que t t tpr s o voi le e a i t y t a ks nd es i o ce t l o e s s ha i ons s s e dt eus o a u ao yr sr it u tl i c s i a j dc tda dt a p io sso usn u p n h e f mb ltr etans ni hs a e s du iae n h t rs n tp ig a bul t y r s r nt bec us t r t a nt vi a e hi Ei ht A m e m a or e t ai s a e he es r i s ol t s g h ndm e rght . The c t nt i s our d ne al fCa a asrq ssf rp ei n r ij n t r le . e is 1 o n d ' e uet o rlmi ay n u ci eif ve Prlmiayij n tv r le i a e ta r i ayrme yta c urss uda pl ei n r n u cie eif s n xro d n r e d h t o t ho l p y s rngl Die lr lLt v.Br a hr pa i y. rx saes d. e kt ouchMed.Co p.952F. 8 811( h Ci.991.As r, 2d 02, 4t r1 ) ap ei n r ij n to tmp rrl a f r sa e ta r iayr me ybeo etilha c nbe r l ay n u ci n e o a iy fo d n xr o dn r e d f r ra t t a mi g a tdp r n nl a trtilt ep rys e i gt ep ei n r ij n to mu td mo srt : rn e e ma e ty fe ra,h a t e k n h r l ay nu cin s e n tae mi ( )b aS la s o ng't a hei lk l t s c e do t me isa til ( )t t ei l eyt 1 y t e r h wi , h t s iey o u c e n he rt t ra; 2 ha h s i l o c ' k s frirpaa ehn m i t a enc ofpr lmi r rle ;( t tt baa ofe testpsi ufe re rbl r n he bs e ei nay eif 3) ha he lnce quii i n hi fv r a d( )t t n ij cini i t ep bi itrs.W itrv Nama Re . f Co n i s a o ; n 4 ha a nun to s n h u lc ne et ne . t l s De. u cl I ,555U. 7,20( ) nc. S. 2008 .Thepli ifmus s t tt ir paa eham hef e i t antf t how ha he re rbl r ac s n he a e e ofr i i t iherr m o e no s ul tve, a t la i m i nt' D ie I r e ,Lt , bs nc elef s t t e t r pec a i but c ua nd m ne . r x s a l d. ne ' 952 F. a 81 2d t 2. Th c u t e isCa d ' rq e t f rp ei n r ij n tv r le b c u eCa d h s e o r d n e na as e u ss o rlmiay n u cie eif e a s na a a no de o t a ed t the i lkel t s f ri r pa a e ha m i t a e e ofpr lm i r t m nsr t ha s i y o uf e r e r bl r n he bs nc e i na y ij n tv r le a dt t h ham i a ta a di n n .I ti c s, h h r Ca a aalg s n u cie eif n ha t e r s cu l n mmie t n h s a e t e am n d le e a os outofCana sdelbe a em ibeha ort tnec s ia e hi f ci eeelextaci n. r e da' i r t s vi ha e stt d s or bl l r to Ca nada c n a d a f r i e ce le r c i i t f t r by note a voi o c bl l xt a ton n he u ' e u ngagi i t ki ofde i r t ng n he nd lbe a e di obe e e t unco r c e r or s w s he e. Fi ly,Ca da ha f ied t de o t a e s di nc he nt adi t d ec d ho r na l na s a l o m nsr t 10 t a e ut tp i fv ro prlmi ayij n tv rle a t a aprlmia yijmcini i t h t q i i s n a o f ei n r n u ci e eif nd h t ei n r nt to s n he y pu i i e es . blc nt r t V lII. Fo t ra o ssae t ec u t e ist ed f n a t' to f rs mma yj d me ta r he e s n ttd,h o r d n e h e e d n s moin o u r u g n s t Cana s Ei ht Am e o da' g h ndm e c a m sofe e s ve f c a delbe a e i f e e t t us nt l i xc s i or e nd i r t ndi f r nce o he e oft tf c durng t c l e r cto The c tgr nt t de e nt m o i n f r s m a y ha or e i he e l xta i n. our a s he f nda s' t o o um r j g n a t a1o Ca a asoh rcamsa d nishsrq e tf r ei n r ij n tv ud me t s o 1 f n d ' te li nd e e i e u s o prlmi ay n u ci e r if1 ele . 4 EN TER :J y 26,201 ul 2. UN I TED STA TES D I STRI J D GE CT U 1 Ca da' cl m sf m onear da age agai tRowltea M uli i t i ofii c pa te ar not 4 na s ai or t y m s ns et nd lns n her fcal a ciis e c g ia eu d rj1 3.Se W i v. ih. p'o SaePoie 4 1U.. (9 9 ( l n ta n i e asae o nzbl n e 98 e l M c De t f tt l , 9 S 58 1 8 ) hodig h t et r tt l c h n riso fcasa t i terofca c p cte aep ro swihntemenn o j 1 8 ) Alo Ca a a'oh r o t fiil ci n h i fiil a a iis r es n ti h a ig f 9 3. l f n d s te ng cam sa ea i tt defnda si t i i vi c pa te li r gans he e nt n her ndi dual a ciis. 11