Hudson v. Boddie-Noell Enterprises, Inc., No. 7:2011cv00466 - Document 52 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/13/2012. (ssm)
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CLERK' OF CE U.S. ST. S FI DI COURT AT ROANOKE, VA FI LED J 13 2 1 UN 02 I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A RO AN OK E D I I ON V SI BJ I Y: A UL D ?Nr ' j' 4 J CL ,s, r. EA RL HU D SON , Ci lA c i n N o. 1 CV 00466 vi to 7; 1 Pl i if a ntf , M EM O M N DU M O PI I N N O BODDI NOELL ENTERPRI ESES,l , NC. -- 7' 7 By: Hon.Gl n E. e Conr d a Chi fUnie Stt sDititJ e td a e src udge Def nda . e nt I t sprmiesla lt a ton,EalHuds ($ on',s e t rco rfrpe s l n hi e s ibiiy ci r on ç Huds ' e ks o e ve o rona ) ij re s tie a trh alg dysip do ap tho ieo tiet ee ta c t aHad es nu is usan d fe e le e l lp e n ac f c u sd h n rn e o r e ' rsa rn o e a do eae b t ed fn a t Bo d eNo lEn ep ie ,nc (l d ie tu a t wn d n p rtd y h ee d n , d i- el tr rss I . C de Bo No l'.Th c s i p e e t b fr t ec u t nted fn a tsmo infrsl r u g n . el' e a e s rs nl eo e h o r o h ee d n ' to o l ) y mmayj d me t Fo t r as sa e be o t de e ntsmotonwilbede e r he e ons t t d l w, he f nda ' i l ni d. Fac ualand Pr e alBac ound t oc dur ker The f l ng f c sar pr s n e i t lg m os f vor bl t t pl i if See olowi a t e e e t d n he i ht t a a e o he antf And ro v. b ryLo b .n .47 U. 2 2 2 5( 9 6 (o igt a a1e d n emu tb es n Lie t b y Ic, 7 S. 4 , 5 1 8 ) n tn h t 1 vie c s e c nsr e i t elg t s fv r bet t ep ryo po igsl r j g n) o tu d n h ih mo t a o a l o h a t p sn l mmay ud me t. O n t m o ni o D e m be 1 201 Huds a hi w ie, a y,ta l t Roa he r ng f ce r 7, 0, on nd s f M r r ve ed o noke f om t i hom e i Fr nkln Co y f a m e c a nt e t Re t f om t N a i nal r he r n a i unt or di al ppoi m n . por s r he to Clma i Da aCe eri caet ta oxi t l t e i he ofs i tc t nt ndi t ha ppr ma ey hr e nc s now a fe zi r i ha nd r e ng an d f le i Roa a ln n noket da be o ea r mai d ont gr he y f r nd e ne he ound. Folow i t m e c la l ng he di a ppoi m en , he c nt t t oupl we t t H a dee sr t tr nton Rout e nt o he r ' es a la e 41 , r t yarv dj t eo e 1 :0am.Ac o dn t M ay p rin o t er sa rn ' 9 whee he ri e us b fr 10 . c r ig o r , o t s f h etu a ts o par ng l and s dewal had been cl ed,w hie ot ar wer s ilcover w ih s . ki ot i ks ear l her eas e tl ed t now o ' M a y e e e t r sala frt I me a ey prort e t rng t r sa a ,s o e v a r nt r d he e t tr nt is . m dit l i o n e i he e t ur nt he bs r ed n araoft a kie...ihta youge r d t se i t door' ( ayHuds De a 41. e t c c rg s bl t ea y o tp n he . M 1 ' on p. t ) M a y t tfe t ti a r esiid ha t ppea e t tt pa tc a a e oft sdewal ha notbee s led o r d ha he riul r r a he i k d n at r te t d. rae W hieM a ywat d t pl c t c e' or r t pl ntf atm p edt e e t l r ie o a e he oupl s de , he ai if te t o nt r he r sa rn .Hed dn th v a yto b eç ni ( e we tot d o a dpuldo ia d( s fe e tu a t i o a e n r u l t tl h ) n t he o r n le n t n hil e t u we t u fo t e (i . ( d o De a 6 . Th icd n ha pe e v r q ik ya d n o t r m md r hml' Hu s n p. t 5) e n ie t p n d ey uc l n ' Huds di no s ewha ca e hi t f l Durng hi d poston,Huds t sii a f l : on d t e t us d m o al. i s e ii on e tfed s olows Q. An wh nddy ufrtraiet a y uweeflig d e i o is e lz h t o r aln ? W he lsa tdt f l.l ha ne s q c y, di tknow i. n t re o al t ppe d o ui kl you dn' t Q. Anddi youknow wha c us dyout f l d ta e o al? A1 lkno i m y f e s i pe outf om unde m e. 1 w s e t lp d r r Q. Oka y. A. M y f e wen ba k t swa a lm g a ngt tyt hol t e t t c hi y nd ' r bbi o r o d he doorbec us 1ha my a m i i,a Iwe a1t wa do a a e d r n t nd nt l he y wn nd hi on t swrs a a t hi it nd nn. Afe you f l,di yo s e a hi o t gr und? tr e l d u e nyt ng n he o A. M a'm ,ldi ts enot ng' wa kno ke out a dn' e hi , s c d . I Q. Di yo e rs ea blc ie d u ve e ny a k c ? A. Idi n' s e not ng m a' m ,e pts a s d te hi , n xce t r . Q. Oka y. W he lhi rghthe e, ha di m e f ra ltl w hie. n ti r t t d o ite l (d. 74- ) I at 76. 2 De a Gr y, onty a who s w Huds f l,a Donad De n, no he c t e ,hepedlf a on al nd l a a t r usom r l it Hu s nu a d it t rsala t a tsiida h sd p sto t a t eewa ieErih i d o p n no he ett n .De n etfe t i e o iin h t h r s c s lg t n r l fontoft door'n t a eai whih Huds f l,a t ta ie c ppe wa sti nea t r he 'i he r n c on el nd ha n c hi r s itng r he e ta c .( a De a 1 - 3. W h na k dt d srb t ep tho ie De ntsiidta tit n rn e De n p. t 1 1 ) e s e o e cie h ac f c , a e tfe h t t j l wa foz nlyes... r youha ta ke lkeyouha wal doni a t n iha fozel s r e a r whee d rc d i d ke t nd he t d r nq i ta ofmetng. (d. t1 ) nse d li ' l a 4. ' Huds factr hi l h wrs a t e rbsasar ul oft f l.Hea s s f r d fom on r tled s e it nd hr e i es t he a l lo ufe e r ac n u so a dt o s ligi teb an' ( d o De a 3 . o c sin n t me weln n h ri . Hu s n p. t 6) s ' Huds fld t sne i e a ton a i tBoddi- l i t Cic tCour f t on ie hi glg nce c i gans e Noe l n he r ui t or he Cot yofRoa ke.Bodd e Noelt n r move t a to t t sc to t ba i ofdi r iy mt no i - l he e d he c in o hi our n he ss ve st o ctz n hi Folwigteco eo ds o r , d i- el v df rs mmayj dg n . f iie s p. l n h ls f ic vey Bo deNo l mo e o u r u me t o The c the d ahe rng ont moton on J 5, 2. our l ai he i une 201 St andard ofR e e vi w Und rRue5 o t eF d rl lso Cii P o e u e a a r o s mmayj d me t s e l 6 f h e ea Rue f v l r c d r, n wad f u r u g n i a oprae o y li t m ova s ppr i t nl df he nt howst tt r i no ge ne is ofa m ae i lf c a t ha he e s nui s ue ny t ra a t nd he mo n i e tte t j g n a amatro lw. F d. Ci P. 6 a .I rve ngamoin va t s n ild o ud me t s te f a ' e R. v. 5 () n e iwi ' to f rs mmayj d me tt c u t s c nsr et erc r i telg tmo tfv rbet teno o u r u g n,he o r mu t o tu h e o d n h ih s a o a l o h n mo i p ry An e s n 4 7U. a 2 5 Towih tn sl r j d me tt en n mo i vng a t. d ro , 7 S. t 5 . t sa d l mmay u g n ,h o - vng p rymus ofre ie c fo whc ara o a l j r c ul rtr av r itfrt a p ry La t t fe vd n e r m ih e s n b e u y o d eu n e dc o h t a t. d a a 25 t 2. Di cuss on s i çl ese ilee nt ofane i nc cam i Vigi a a eswhee, r ( )t s- s nta lme s -he glge e li n r ni, s le r a e 1 he i ntfc tonofalga d yoft dee ntt t pl ntf;( abr c oft tdut a ( ) de iiai e l ut he fnda o he ai if 2) ea h ha y; nd 3 ij r t t epanif r xmaeyc u e b t eb e c ' Talyv Da e M e ia.nc,1 9 nu y o h litf p o i tl a sd y h ra h. le . n k dc l I . 7 ' F.d 1 4 1 47(t Ci. 9 9 .I mo igfrs mmayj g n o Hud o scam o 3 5 . 5 4h r 1 9 ) n vn o u r ud me t n s n' li f ne i nc Boddi- l a g st tHuds se de e i i ufi i tt esa ih a oft e glge e, e Noel r ue ha on' vi nc s ns fcen o tbls ny hes es e ilelm e s a t ti i ce ,a am a troflw, ha Huds n wasguit ofcon rbut r s nta e nt, nd ha t s lar s te a t t o ly ti o y ne i nc Fort f l ng r as , hec t ncl st tg nui is sofm a e ilf t glge e. he olowi e ons t our co ude ha e ne s ue t ra ac p e ld t ee tyo sl r j d me ti fv ro t ed fn a t rcu e h nr f l mmay u g n n a o f h ee d n. 1. Tlr i fr tt t ee e tofdu y,t c t e t ti i t s t t tHuds n wa lnng is o he lm n t he our not s ha t s mdipu ed ha o s a i t on Bod e Noelspr m ie and,t ,t tt def ntowe hi % dut ofusng n nviee di - l' e s s hus ha he enda d m ç y a i o dn r c r t mananisp e s si ara o a l s f ma n ra dt wan gi o a y r iay a e o iti t rmie n e s n by ae n e n o r hm) f n hd e d n es' Amo v. to s n N. ,5 4S. 2 3 5 3 6 ( . 9 ) Ont eoh r id n a g r. ' s Nain Ba k. A. 0 E.d 6 , 6 Va 1 98 . h te ha Boddi Noe lwa no t i tr rofHuds ss f t M ia eM a tI v.W e 1 nd, e- l s t he nsle on' a e y, r cl r. nc. bb, 37 S. 2d887,890( 1 4) a ii weletbls dt tabusnes owne hasnodut t E. Va. 96 , nd t s l sa ihe ha i s r yo r move i d i t tmet tm oit ei f li a fe zi o t gr e ce urng he i ha sur s a lng nd r e ng n he ound. FAD Lt d. Pa te s i v. a ly 3 7S. 2 4 7 4 8( .1 8 ) l ta ,i b ie se tbl h n . . rn rhp Fe ge , 7 E.d 3 , 3 Va 9 9 . nse d ç usn s sa i me t . a s m a watuntlt e ofa so m a ar as bl tmet r a trbe or r m o ng ie a s y i i he nd t r nd e ona e i he e fe f e e vi c nd now fo a out ore r nc wal plto m o se . Amos 50 S. 2d a 366. r m n do nta e, k, a f r r tps' ' , 4 E. t Ast pl i if Huds be r t bur n ofe tbls ngt t a t tm eofhi f l, he antf, on a s he de sa ihi ha , t he i s al Boddi- lha t dut t cea isp e ssofiea s eNoel d he y o l r t r mie c nd now.J Thedee ntc rcl Z fnda ore ty no e t twhe he t sdut ha ars n a t tm eofHuds n' f l C sa ç e qu ton ofl t t s ha t r hi y d ie t he i o s al l pur esi i aw' o bed i db t c t' Z ( i Bm' v.J o 458S. 2d448,450( 1 ) ecde y he our. 'J quotng ns ohns n, E. Va. 995). H ow e r w he t e s e e ofs h d y de ve , n he xi t nc uc ut pendson t r ol i ofa m a e i lf t l he es uton t r a ac ua di put t f c s s d fr tbe de er i d by t f tfnde . Se e. ,Sa r on v. s e, he a t houl i s t m ne he ac i r e, g. nde s Boddi e 4 No l En ep ie ,n .2 0 U. DitLEXI 41 6 , t*1 ( D. . t 1 , 0 5 el tr rs s Ic, 0 5 S. s. S 7 4 a 1 E. Va Jme 3 2 0 ) (su ng frt ep mo e o t ed fn a tss mmayj d me t to ta Bo deNo lh d a s mi , o h u s s f h ee d n ' u r u g n moin,h t d i- el a a d yt e oyr s na e e f rst r ut o mpl ea o bl fo t o emovei ea s w fo issde l ,sncet r was c nd no r m t i wa ks i he e tage nedipu eoff ctr pe tng whe he ,a t tm eofSande s sf l,he sonn ha t nui s t a es c i t r t he i ron' a l t t d e d d). n e' I t i t c e, hec t r eswihHuds t tage nef c ua diput e sswih n he nsant as t our ag e t on ha nui a t l s e xit t r pec t whe he t wi e sor ha e d a t tm eofhi f l t h Huds swie es t o t r he ntr t m d nde t he i s al.Alhoug on' f and De a Gr y t sii d t tt r wa foz n pr ci tton f li a t tmet tHuds n onty a e tte ha he e s r e e pia i a lng t he i ha o at mpt d t e e t r sa a , e rsfom t Na i lClm ai Da aCe e i c t t tt te e o nt r he e t ur nt r po t r he tona i tc t nt r ndi ae ha he pr cpia i e e i t ton nded i Roa n nokeon t e ni ofDe mbe 1 201 a t tno pr cpia i he ve ng ce r 6, 0, nd ha e i tton f l o t da oft i i t Li wie Donad De n t tfe t thedi no r c ls e ngan el n he y he ncden . ke s , l a esii d ha d t e al e i y r n orse twhe heta e t t r uur ntont da i que ton.Be us t co tmus ai le n r veld o he es a he y n si ca e he ur t consr t e de ei t lg mos f vor bl t Huds t c ti t a et c l e,a tue he vi nc n he i ht t a a e o on, he our s m bl o oncud t t ssag oft pr e ngs t tBoddi Noe lha no d yt e o r as hi t e he oc edi , ha e- l d ut o mpl y e onabl e f t t e fors o r emovei ea s c nd now fom ise r nc a t tm eofHuds sf l r t nta es t he i on' al. Bodd e Noelat m ai l a gue t ti ha no d yt wa n Huds a i - l le tvey r s ha t d ut o r on boutt pach of he t i ebec us i wa o a ob ous eFobbsv. e Bl Lt P'hi 3 S. 2d 355 357 c a e t s pen nd vi .Se W bb dg. d. s p, 49 E. , ( 1 6)(W nowne ofprmiesowe ad yt isi te. .t us or na yc r t wanis Va. 98 ç r e s s ut o t nvie . o e di r a e o r t i vieeofa t af c ton t twasknown, byt us ofo di r c r s d ha be n n t ny ms e ondii ha or he e r na y a e houl ve e known,t t owne ;e ptt tt o rhasno d y t wa n isi t eofa t a eco ton o he r xce ha he wne ut o r t nvie n ms f ndii whihi ope a obvi t ar s bl pes n e rii or nayc r frhi o s ft ' . c s n nd ous o eaona e ro xecsng di r ae o s wn aey.) ' The que ton ofw he hera da r c to wa o a ob ous i no ly one f t si t nge ous ondii n s pen nd vi s nna l or he j yt deemi Se Vol v.CiyofLexi on,708S. 2d8 8 ( 2011 ( di t t ur o tr ne. e pe t ngt E. 24, 28 Va. ) hol ng ha t tf t ly s c fcde e mi i n' ofwhehe ada pr s nt a o n a obvi da r he tacual pe ii t r nato ' t r m e e ed n pe nd ous nge ç sa is ef rtej l 'a dta t elwe c u t re i d cdn t eis ea amatro t n su o h uy ' n h t h o r o r er d n e i ig h su s te f wa lw) a . Viwi t e de ei t lghtm os f vo a l t Huds t c tco l st t e ng he vi nc n he i t a r be o on, he our ncude ha r as bl mi co d dif rast whehe t i wa a ope a obvi da rt tHuds e ona e nds ul fe o t r he ce s n n nd ous nge ha on s udh v o s r e a d tu ,h t d i- elsn te t ldt s mmayj d me t nti ho l a e b e v d n ,h s t a Bo deNo l i o ni e o u r u g n o h s t g ot W hieDonal De n a M a yHuds n t sii dt tt y o e v ieby t d r t y r md. l d a nd r o e tfe ha he bs r ed c he oo , he as i c t t tt y di nots et i un i t y we eon i orbe i i.I e M a y lo ndi aed ha he d e he ce tl he r t sde t nde d, r Hud o d srb dtes b tn ea ( lc ie' ( ayHu s nDe a 41) Asoh rc u t ha s n e ci e h u sa c s t a k c . M r d o p. t . b ' te o rs ve r c ze bl k ie t isve ynaur ...snotnotc a eupon c s li pe i ' W ooda d e ogni d, ac c t t r t e i by i e bl a ua ns cton. ' r v. pOp rtn L d. s i , 51F. u p. 47 , 5( D. ih. 0 )( o dn t a t e Er eaig t P'h p 3 S p 2 08 71 E. M c 2 05 h l ig h t h . alg dp e e c o blc iece tdaf cu lsu f rtej r t d tr n c n enn wh te l e rs n e f a k c r ae a t a is e o h u y o ee mie o c r ig eh r e t ed ng rwa o e a o viu , eeteplitf tsiidta h s w t eiea trh fl) h a e s p n nd b o s wh r h an if e tfe h t e a h c fe e el; s a s As e v.W a feHous .l .No. 0 225 1 1 ,2006 U. Dit LEXI 288 a #8ee lo hl y fl e nc, 6:4- 02-V 1 S. s . S 0, t 1 ( S. J n 1 , 0 6 (e yngd fn n ' moinf rs mmayj d me twh r te 1 D. C. a . 0 2 0 ) d n i ee da ts to o u r u g n e e h p an ifalg dy si e o ba kiea tee ta c t t ed fn a tsr sa rn) litf le e l l d n lc c t h n rn e o h ee d n ' e tu a t. pp I a ton,he pr miy ofHuds n' f l t t r t r n c nno bei ed.Ast n ddii t oxi t o s al o he esau a t a t gnor he d src c u t o e i As e , rto a j r c udtn ta ap ro wh h ds c e sul itit o r n td n hly a ain lu y o l q d h t e s n o a u c sf ly na gaed apa ki 1 torsde l ç oul a s r a o y bei vet tt e r nc was vi t r ng o i wak ç d lo e s nabl le ha he nta e c na g e es ci l whe e t i ea t e r ewa algedl bl c i e. As e 2006 U. vi abl, pe aly r he c t he ntanc s le y a k c ' hl y, ' S. D i t LEX I 2880, t*11 Fo t s r a ons t c r i una e t c l ,a a m a t rofl w , s. S a . r he e e s , he ou t s bl o onc ude s te a t tt pa c ofi wa t pe a obvi t ar as bl pe s e r ii or na yc ef ha he t h ce s ç n nd o ous o e ona e ron xe c sng di r ar or hi own s f t ' Fobbs 349 S. 2d at357. s a e y. ' , E. II. B reach Bo e Nbelnexta gu t Huds c nnotesa ih t ti had a t alorc tu i ddi- l r es hat on a t bls ha t cu onsr ctve no i oft pr e eoft iet ta lge y ca e Huds t f l ort ti f ie t e r ie tce he es nc he c ha le dl us d on o al, ha t a ld o xe c s o di r c r t ma ispr m ie r s bl s f unde t cr um sa es Fo t f lw i r na y a e o ke t e s s ea ona y a e r he ic t nc . r he olo ng r s ,hec tc l ea ons t our oncudest tma e i f cua dipu e pr cudet e r ofs ha t ral a t l s t s e l he nty umm a y r j d me twihr s e t ob t o te eis e . u g n t e p c t oh f h s su s l o d rf rBo deNo l t b a j d e n gie ti t i c s , d o mu tp o ta n r e o d i- elo e d u g d e l n n hs a e Hu s n s rve h t g Boddi - l t d a t lo co tu tvenotc 'oft da r co to As v. ion & eNoel i ha c ua r nsr c i ie' he nge ous ndii n. hby Fa s Asocs,l ,440S. 2d603,605( 1 .Spectcal hemus s t tBoddi- l s . nc. E. Va. 994) ii ly, t how ha eNoel t w or s d ha known' o t i e t taleg y ca e hi f la t a l d t r m ove i t kne houl ve ' f he c ha l edl us d s al nd û ie o e f t wihi ar as bl tmeort wa' ofispr e . I ;s as M ia l M a t l ,1 S. 2d t n e ona e i o l n t es nce' d. ee lo r c e r. nc. 37 E. ' a 8 0(t ) o d rt i o ela ii frij r t a ivtet d n eo sc n iinmu th v t 9 $ln r e o mp s iblt o nu y o n n ie he a g r u o dto s a e ( y bee known t t owne oroc upa toft esa ihme , ha e s e f rs h al ngt of n o he r c n he tbls nt or ve xit d o uc e h tmeast ma it dee tsd yi t e r s ofodi r c et ha dic rdi.) i o ke the fndan ' ut n he xecie r nay ar o ve s ovee t' . ' Ap yi t ssa r t c ti t bl t c udet tBoddi- l i e tte t pl ng hi tnda d, he our s ma e o oncl ha e Noel s n ild o s mma yj g n o t eis o n tc .Asstfrha o e tealg dp th o iewa u r ud me t n h sue f oie e o t b v ,h l e ac f c s e l t i e a ey outi t e r nc t t r sa a ,n a a e i whi h c t ocaed mm dit l sde he nta e o he e t ur nt i n r a n c usomer woul s d ne t wal Donal De n t siid t tt ie a pe r d t ha be n pa ke down by ed o k. d a e tfe ha he c p a e o ve e c d c t e s and t ti w a i t s m e vi i t a a i e c ppe . A lhough J a te Bar i , he us om r , ha t s n he a c niy s n c hi r t e nne t r os t 7 m a ge on dut c d no r calwhe s i pe t t a e d i t t eeho pe i na r y, oul t e l n he ns ced he r a urng he hr - ur rod be o e t pl i ifsf l, ri t sii d t ts wa s f r he antf al Ba ros e tfe ha he s uppos d t i pe tt ar a( vey holr' e o ns c he e t r z. e ' ( ri sDe a 1 . Co sr igti e ie c i tel h mos fvo a l t Hu s n t ec u t Baro p. t 4) n tun hs v d n e n h i t t a r be o d o ,h o r g c n ld sta ara o a ej r rc ul fn t a Bo d eNo l' e ly e weea r o t ie o cu e h t e s n bl u o o d i d h t d i- els mpo e s r wae f he c ort i e sed f r s h a l ngt oftm e t t s d ha di c ed i. hat t xi t o uc e h i hat hey houl ve s over t Cii t Vigi a Supr m eCo tsdecson i W y mev.Spanhotr 205 S. 2d 634 tng he r ni e ur' ii n r i l, E. ( .1 7 ) Bo deNo l atr aieyag e t a e d n ei n n t ee sis fiin , sa Va 9 4 , d i- el len tv l r u s h t vie c s o eh ls n u fce ta ma troflw, o s w t ti wasneg i nt n W y , hepl ntf si d on apa c ofie te a t ho ha t lge .I nne t ai if lppe th c be wee t pa ke ca si t de e an ' par ng lt L. a 634t n wo r d r n he f nd ts ki o . ds t 635. Thee de epr s nt d , vi nc e e e a ti ,whi h wa ( t t ral c s ç houtm ae ilc lc 'rve l dt tçs wi tra onfit' e a e ha iome t e t f l ho sbef et hr e o otr ur or he pli iff l s l ha be n s e on t iy s s i l ng t s whe et f l oc ured. antf el, at d e pr ad he c pot ,ncudi he pot r he a l c r ' ' I a 6 5.I sti a ietej r ' v r iti fv ro t epanif t eSu rmeCo r hedt a d. t 3 n e t sd h u y s edc n a o f h litf,h p e ng ut l ht t ed fn a t i n t ra ha yd t o dt t plitf.J- 'heCo r e h sz dt tdby h e e d n d d o b e c n u y we o he an if .a I d ' u t mp a ie ha G l l s r pi t s c a ng he now fom t pa ki l s a trt sor a a tmptng t r fert r move r he r ng ot oon fe he t m nd te i he ea t o e s t m ai a l t r m ani s sofie, hede e ntdi alt to di r c r r quie t yse tc ly he e i ng pot c t f nda d 1 ha r na y a e e r d o m ant i hi pr s i ar a ona y s f c tonf rt pli ifsvii. l i an s emies n e s bl a e ondii o he antf st' d. ' Ha ngr e d t r c d i t i t ntca e t c t sunabl t c l t t vi eviwe he e or n he nsa s , he our i e o oncude ha W y n c mp l t ee tyo s mmayj g n i fv ro tedee d n .Un i W y n ,h n e o es h n r f u r ud me t n a o f h fn a t l ke n e te f t i t s c s a e no t ihoutm a era conti t' I A lhough Boddi N oe ls e pl ye ac s n hi a e r t t t w t i l l c . d. t ' e- l ' m o es t s ii d t y s ve ed a s ea I M el on t m o ni oft pl i t f a ci nt M a y e tf e he ho l nd pr d ce t he r ng he a n i fs c de , r Huds t sii d t ti di nota on e tfe ha t d ppea t tt a e i fontoft e r nc hadbe n c e r d a a1 r ha he r a n ' r he nta e e l a e t 1: Q. ( i i a a t tt sde l ae i fo oft doorha bee ceae Dld t ppe r ha he i wak ra n rnt he d n l rd orte t d? rae No,i ha no be n cla e t d t e e r d. Q. Oka I had notbe n c e r d a a l y. t e l a e t l? N o. Q. N obod had- i di tl k lkea y t dn' oo i nybodyha s l d? d hove e A. I dd t. .o kl ea y o yh dd n a ytig I ij s lk y up ti t in' . lo i n b d a o e n hn . t s u t i e o u t k downt r andt r i was The ewas ta hi t ta he e he e t . r n' nyt ng ha nybodyha d c pped;t e was ta hi t tyou putouton i, ha you c d hi her n' nyt ng ha tt t oul s i e on i,t r w as ta hi prnkl t he e n' nyt ng. ( ayHu s nDe a 4 - 3) M r d o p. t 2 4 . Gi n t a lge l to oft ie,a i lghtofM a yHuds st si on t c t ve he le d ocai n he c nd n i r on' e tm y, he our i t bl t c ude asam at roflw, ha Boddi Noe ldi a 1t tor na y c r r q r d t s ma e o oncl , te a t t e- l d 1 ha di r a e e uie o mai ai ispr m ie i ar s bl s f co ton f t pl i ifsvii.l t a t sis nt n t e s s n ea ona y a e ndii or he antf st nse d, hi s ue mus b d cd db aj r . t e eie y uy 11 1. Proxi at C ause m e Bo deNo l h sas mo e f rsl r j d me to t eis eo prxi t c us . d i- el a lo v d o l mmay u g n n h su f o mae a e Vigi a1w i c e rt tne i nc wilno bepr sl e fom t m e eha r ni a s l a ha glge e l t e l d r he r ppeni ofa m ng n a i nt t pli ifmus pr t tt de e ntsne i nta tonswe et a i nts ccde ; he antf t ove ha he f nda ' glge c i r he ccde ' p o i t c u e W e d ev Drp r 1 0S. 2 4 2 4 5( . 9 3 .I t ep e s sl bit r xmae a s . d l . a e , 3 E.d 6 , 6 Va 1 6 ) n h rmie i l y a i c e ,ast de e ntno e i isbre , hepl ntf mus esa ih t tt uns e c ton of ontxt he f nda t s n t i f t ai if t t bls ha he af ondii whihheco ai wast pr xi t c us ofhi ij y.Se Rol ( W a Ri .nc. c mpl ns he o mae a e s nur e l R' y nks I v. Smih, S. 2d 1 1 ( .1 .W hieevi nc s t 237 E. 57, 62 Va 977) l de e uppori pr maec us nee no be tng oxi t a e d t s e ikaly e t i t tbe s fcintt r movet c s ou oft r l ofs c a i a cintt l xac, t ç mus ufi e o e he a e t he eam pe ulton nd c n e t r a di t ter am o lgtmaeifrn eb f r s b ûigit aj z f ris o j cu e n no h e l f e ii t n ee c eo e u mi n t o u y o t d tr n to ' Blc av. a s 1 9S. 2 4 , 0( . 9 4 ; e as W e de 1 0S. 2 a ee miain. a k J me , 3 E.d 7 5 Va 1 6 ) s e lo d l, 3 E.d t ' 4 6 Cl i ic mb n o t plitf wh alg sn gi e et s o wh a dh w t a cd n 6 t s n u e t n he an if o l e e lg nc o h w y n o he c ie t t e h p n d, n i ta i lft c n e t , u s o rn o j d me th c n o r c ve . a pe e a d f h t s e to o j cme g e s r a d m u g n e a n t e o r' ). l mo n frs mmayj d me t nt sis e Bo deNo l ctst Hu o so n vig o u r u g n o hi su , d i- el ie o ds n' wn de ii t si onya t tofDe a Gr y, heonl i vi who s w Huds f l. poston e tm nd ha onty a t y ndi dual a on a l Boddi Noel e phasze t tHuds n co d no s ywha ca edhi t f l,a t tGr y e- l m i s ha o ul t a t us m o al nd ha a t sii d t Huds a ar d t m ist se u ont t c b i fontoft r sa a . e tfe hat on ppe e o s he tp p o he ur n r he e tur nt Alhoug t sis i a tedl cos i lg oft e denc hi i t d byt def nt t t h hi s ue s dmit y l e n i ht he vi e ghlgh e he enda ,he c ti c ta ne t c udet tt pl i ifse d e when viwe i hi fvo ,i our s onsr i d o oncl ha he antf vi enc , e d n sa r s s fiin t s r ies mmayj d me t u fce t o u vv u r u g n . I r a hi t sde son, hec ti pe s svet Vigi a Supr m eCo ts n e c ng hi cii t our tnds r ua i he r ni e ur ' d cso i Fo b v W e bBuli gLi tdPates i, 4 S. 2 3 5( . 98 ) i whc e iin n b s . b idn mie rn rhp 3 9 E.d 5 Va 1 6 ,n ih t Cour e he t mpha iedt tf c sesa ihi pr xi t c us t dno bepr d by die t sz ha a t tbls ng o ma e a e t nee t ove rc e de e, i tad,ma beesa ihe b cr um sn ile de e.'I a 35 Thepli if vi nc but nse y tbls d y ic t nta vi nc ' d. t 7. antf i Fob a rve t wor a t de e a ' ofi ebuidi on ar nym om i a si don t n bs r i d o k t he f nd nts fc l ng ai ng nd lppe he foori fo oft elvaor.JZa 3 Ranha bee fli f apr rce pei bef et l n r nt he e t s .. t 56. i d n alng or ota td rod or he 4 a ci nt c usng wae t a c ult ne rt e ta eoft b l ng.L. a 358.Alhoug t c de , a i tr o c um a e a he n r nc he uidi d t a t h he pl ntf tc d nots y wha ca e hert f l, s t sii t ts si d on s m ehi ai if toul a t us d o a1' he e tfed ha he lppe ' o t ng si r a çl t rwine sst tfe t tbohbeor a a trs fl,he o e v wae lppey nd ûolhe t se esiid ha t f e nd fe he elt y bsr ed tr ont tra zofoori t vii t ofhe fl. L. TheSuprmeCour hedt tçglr t s he erz l n he cniy r al' da ' e t l ha it om hi 10 dr c a cru tn il vie c ,h j r ra o a l c udh v f u dt ttea c muaino ie t nd ic msa ta e d n e t e u y e s n by o l a e o n ha h c u lto f waero t t nw zo foori t vii t oft e e t sc tt e ahaz r t n he e l n he cniy he l vaor onsiut d a dousc tont t ondii ha c edHobbst f l' J= aus o a1. - . 'p l t i t ntca e whieHuds ca no i ntf wha ca e hi t f l, n he nsa s, l on n t de iy t us d m o al Huds on t tfedt thi f tsi pe ou fom unde hi a he a t e t o nt door a bot hi esii ha s ee lp d t r r m s temptd o pe he , nd h s wiea Donal Dea t tfe t tt y obs r d apa c ofieon t sde l i t s mear a f nd d n esi d ha he e ve th c he i wak n he a e i whih t a i ntoc ured.Alho De t y Gr y sa e t tHuds a a edt n c he ccde c r t ugh on a a t t d ha on ppe r o e s ntal ti ove t c b i fontoft r t lr nt Huds t tfe t the I dn' ha a s e i ly rp r he ur n r he esaza , on esii d ha t di t ve ny toubl se ng up ove t c b,' nd t ti wasnott i hepule on t doo t thi f t r e t ppi r he ur 'a ha t mtl ld he r ha s ee sip do tfo u d rhm.( ds nDe a 6 . l e u r m n e i Hu o p. t 5) p Vi ng t die ta cr m sa i e de ei t lghtm os f a e t Hu on,t ewi he r c nd icu t ntal vi nc n he i t avor bl o ds he c u t o cu e t tar ao a ej r c udfn t ttea c mu ain o ieo t sd wak o r c n ld s ha e s n bl u y o l id ha h c u lto f c n he ie l a j c n t ter sa rn ' e ta c c u e Hu s nt f l.Ac o dn l,h is eo p o mae da e t o h e tu a ts nr n e a sd d o o al c r igy te su f r xi t c us mu t d cd db a u y a e s be e i e y j r . I . V C o r but y N e i nce nt i or glge Forisfna a g e , t i l r um nt Boddi Noe lc endst tHuds scli i ba r d by t e- l ont ha on' am s re he de e eofc rbut y ne i enc To esabls c ti o y ne i nc ,a de e ntm us s f ns onti or glg e. t ih on rbut r glge e f nda t how bot t tt pli ifwa neglge a t tt pli tf ne i e wasapr xi t c us of h ha he antf s i nt nd ha he a n ifs glg nce o ma e a e t ep an ifsijr .Ra c e v. re d 6 9S. 2 6 , 6 - 5( . 1 ) çf is wh t e h litf nu y s h r F in , 8 E.d 61 6 4 6 Va 20 0 . the sue eh r apli tf i guit ofc rb or neg i nc i or na iy aq si off c t bedecde by t a n if s ly onti ut y lge e s di rl ue ton a t o i d he f tfnde.Theis be soneof1w f t ()c tode i onl whe r s bl mi ac i r sue come a or he our t cde y n eaona e nds 11 coul notdif ra d fe boutwha c l i c dbedr wn fom t e de e' J nki v. e ,611 t oncuson oul a r he vi nc .' e ns Pyl s S. 2d40 407( 2005 . E. 4, Va. ) Tos p r ismoinf rsl z u g me to t sis e Bo d eNo l ag e t a u po tt to o l mmayj d e n n hi su , d i- el ru s h t Hu o çale t a tra o a l f rhso s ft'a dtale jt h e teo na do vo ds n t ildj o c e s n by o i wn aey' n ç ild o e d h pe n b ius f f c n iino s w a d ie' ( fsBr a 2 ) F rter ao s t o t a o e h we e,h o dto f no n c . De ' . t 5. o h e s ns e f rh b v , o v r te c t suna et c l ,a ama troflw,t tt pa c ofiewaso n a obvi us ort t our i bl o oncude s te a ha he t h c pe nd o , ha Huds wa ne i e i t mame i whih he a tmptd t e t rt r sa a . Aspr vi l on s glg nt n he r r n c te e o n e he e tur nt e ousy n td, r to lu yc u dfn t a ap ro wh ha s c e sul n viae t ep r i 1ta d oe a aina j r o l i d h t es n o d u c sf l a g td h akng o n y sde l çc d a s r s bl bele t tt e r nc wasna ga e, peca l whe et i e i wak toul lo ea ona y ive ha he nta e vi bl es ily r he c a t e r ncewa al ge y blck ie. As e v.W a feHous 2006U . Dit LEXI 2880, t he nta s le dl a c ' hly ' fl e, S. s. S a *11 seas Ki M akes l , S. 2d2 25 ( 1 )( lni t c udet t t ; e lo ncs r t.nc.307 E. 49, 2 Va. 983 deci ng o oncl ha a c t e w ho s i us om r lpped o i e afe de r i a s or wasguit ofc rbut r ne i nc a n c t r pa tng t e ly ont i o y glge e, nd emphaszi t tt c t rts ce s uly neg i td hi e r nc fom t pa ki l tt t i ng ha he usome çuc s f l otae s nta e r he r ng o o he so e' tr ' ) Concl on usi Fo t er a o sae , d i- elsmoi nfrs mmayj g n mus b d ne . r h e s ns ttd Bo deNo l' to o u r ud me t t e e id The Clr i die t t s nd c riid co e oft sme a e k s r ced o e e tfe pis hi mor ndum o ni an t a co pa ng pi on d he c m nyi or rt a1c de o 1 ouns lofr co d. e e r ENTER: i / R d yo Jme 201 Th s Z a f t , 2. Chi U nied St esD i ti Judge ef t at sr ct 12