-RSB Shell v. Clarke, No. 7:2011cv00363 - Document 32 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 09/27/2012. (kab)
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(L S OFFj U.. SX GOURT J ERK' CE S DI ATROANOKE, A V FL I ED SEP 272 1 22 I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FO R TH E W ESTERN DI STRI O F VI G I I CT R N A R O A N O K E DIVISIO N R O B ER T ED W AR D LEE SH ELL, J I ULA BK Dt CL R R K D U CLERK C A SE NO .7: 11CV 00363 Pettoner, ii V. M EM O R AN DU M O PI O N NI H A RO LD CLA RK E , I CTO R , D RE By: G l n E.Conr e ad ChifUnie St esDit i Judge e t d at srd Res pondent . Robe tEd r Le She l aVigi ai t pr e ngpr K ,fl t spe ii f a r wa d e l, r ni nma e oc edi o ied hi tton or wrtofha sc puspurua t 28U. C.j225 Shelc le t vai t ofhi i bea or s nt o S. 4. l halnges he ldiy s c ni e n p ru n t te2 0 j d me to t Cic i Co r o t Ci o Ra fr o tn me t u s a t o h 0 7 u g n fhe ru t u t f he t f do d y c c i hi ofi unt r mansa t ra ot ofe es r a e t t J 2003 de t of onvitng m nvol a y l ugh e nd her fns , elt d o he une ah M a i Fr nkln. A fe c r ulr vi w oft pa tes s bm i s ons a t sa e cour r co ds t r on a i tr a ef e e he ri ' u s i nd he t t t e r , he co tgr nt r ponde ' m oto t dim is ur a s es nts i n o s s . 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On Ocobe 26, phi , nd srbuto az pa t r 2007,t Cour s nt e Shel t a he t e enc d lo t t lof32 yea sa s x m o hsi pr s n. oa r nd i nt n i o Shela ald o t e gr l ppe e n hre ounds ( )ti c t rori de ngt motont dimisa1 : 1 ral our er n nyi he i o s s l c r sba e ont Commonwe lh' f llet prs vee de e;()ti c ter i hage s d he at s aitr o eer vi nc 2 ral our ror n den ngt m o i t s es e de efom t mor nebotl cn a a c yi he ton o uppr s vi nc ' he phi r te, mer , nd omput rha d e r drve bec us o t unpr nc nofc t ,a ( ti c ter i denyi t moton i s a e f he ove hai usody' nd 3) ral our ror n ng he i t s es t f e i t c ogy r por due t de t o d l bor t y s m pl s The Cour of o uppr s he or ns c oxi ol e t o s r ye a a or a e . t Appe l ofVigi ar us She lsa a on Oc o r29, as r ni ef ed l' ppe l t be 2008, nd peii f r he rng o a tton or e a i n J nua y 27, a r 2009. She l he a l t n ppea ed t t Supr m e Co tofV i gi a, hi h r f e hi l o he e ur r ni w c e us d s pe ii o J 25,2009,a de e hi pe ii f rr he rng on Se e be 25,2009. tton n une nd ni d s tton o e a i pt m r She lfl a pe ii f a w rtofha a c pusi t Su e e Cour ofV igi a on l ied tton or i be s or n he pr m t r ni Augus 16, t 2010.TheCour dim is d t peii on Aprl1 2011 a de e She lspe ii t s s e he tton i , , nd ni d l' tton f r r a i on J ne 1 2011 o ehe r ng u 6, . Shel t n fl d hi i ta f de a ha aspe ii i J y 2011. She la l ged t l he ie s nii l e r l be tton n ul l le he f l ngcamsf r i underj225 olowi li or elef 4: TheCour a l d t Com monweat t a tac rik a eofa yss t lowe he 1h o dmi e tt t nal i w ihoutt t s i ony oft l b t c ci n i vi a i ofpe ii r sr ght t he e tm he a e hni a n ol ton ttone ' i t c r t ton. o onf on a i 2. Them e c le mi r pe ofiepo iy,desr di a xn ne , r fc lc toyed sxpr s rpton botl i e ci i tes a t i c e sbe or t i lw ihou a l i t nd he r ont nt f e r a t t na yz ng hem a w iho nd t ut notf ng t Co to t pa tes iyi he ur r he r i . The Co m onw e 1h f ie t pr e v a ops s m pl f c tor r d m a t a l d o es r e ut y a es or our - de e i pe ntt tng,a t Co ts dha s es e t t c ogy nde nde esi nd he ur houl ve uppr s d he oxi ol r epor . t 4. TheComm o nweat c mitd a d s r vi a i wih r pe tt lh om te icove y olton t es c o w hi h m e be oft r c s d ani d fr ton t c i e s e . c m r he es ue qua ve i s he rm c ne 5. Evi nc s z d i t J 3,2003wa r ntes s a c ofM a i de e eied urng he une ra l s e r h ron Fr nkln' a rm e s d ha bee s es e bec us t s r h was n i s pa t nt houl ve n uppr s d, a e he ea c unr a ona e a polce r co d kee ng ofs i d ie sm a i i pos i e e s bl nd i e r pi e ze t m de t m s bl t s y defnii l w hi h ie sc m e f om t tl t o o a i tve y c tm a r ha oca i n. 6. The i c m e sw e e de e tve a du i tve, c e t ndi t nt r f c i nd plca i be aus he Co n at c mmitdfa db f r t eg a dj r . mmo we l o te ru eo e h rn u y h l w a i pos i e f pe ii rt c m i s xua c i e wih a c r e t s m s bl or ttone o om t e l rm s t o ps . 8. Pe ii r sc ttone ' ouns lw a i f tve by: e s nefec i a. Cii i or e ts a ut s i t a la e br e ' tng nc r c t t e n he ppe l t i f , Falngt i i et t1b t c cin Viki M ilrha ne r ii o û c ha a e hni a c e le d ve not t tfe orbe n c os e m i d';a es ii d e r s xa ne ' nd Fa lng t r i e Cl i s5,6,a 7 a ti la on a al ii o a s a m nd t r a nd ppe . Cum ul i e r r quiesr ve s . atve r or e r e r al Pe ii rw a c c e ofi unt r m a l ug e ,a of e e f ttone s onvi t d nvol a y nsa ht r n f ns or whi h he w asnoti ct d, nd c ns lwasi f e tve i f ii t r s c ndi e a ou e ne f c i n a lng o ai e t si s on a al hi s ue ppe . Afe t c tga e Shelsr s frla t a ndhi j225 peii Shelalge t tr he our rntd l' equet o e ve o me s 4 tton, l le d he f l i addii na c a m s olow ng to l l i : TheVigi aDe rme tofCore tons(i r ni pa t n rci t VDOC' a t Rul oft ' nd he es he ) Supr m eCour ofVigi ade i d pe ii rofa es t doc e t e t r ni prve ttone cc s o um n s f om hi c e, n vi a i ofhi rghtt ac es t cour . r s as i ol ton s i o c s he t 1 2. The m e ca e r' e de e wasi uf i i ntt pr ve pe ii rguit di l xpe ts vi nc ns fc e o o ttone ly ofi unt r m a l ught ra t s xualof e e ,a pe ii ri nvol a y nsa e nd he e f ns s nd ttone s a t ly i e oft s xua o f ns s be us t Com m onw e lh di c ua l nnoc nt he e l f e e , ca e he at d no e t bls t tt vi i w asde d a t tm e oft e of e e . t s a i h ha he ctm a t he i hos f ns s The Com m onwea t ale e di t le de e i vi a i ofpe ii r s 1h t r d gia vi nc n ol ton ttone ' r gh t confont ton,d pr e s and r g t pr e e de i to r ai ue oc s , i ht o es nt vi nce. 1 4. A n i c m e f di ti i ofd gsw a de e tve i f ii t i ntf ndi t nt or srbuton nl s f c i n a lng o de i y t r pi . he eci ent 3 1 5. TheCour e r d by al wi t Commonwe lh t pr e c z e t re lo ng he at o es nt om pt d, 1 m e ngl se de . ani es vi nce 1 6. The e de w a i uf i i ntt pr t tpe ii rw asguit oft vi nce s ns f c e o ove ha ttone ly he s xua of e es e l f ns . 1 7. Peii ne wasde i ofhi rg t a s e til tto r prved s i ht o pe dy ra . 18. The Co m onw e lh w a guit ofdi c r vi a i . m at s ly s ove y ol tons Res ponde fld a s ond moton t dimis t whi h Shelr ponde m a ng t m at rrpe nt ie ec i o s s,o c l es d, ki he te i f di pos ton.2 or s ii 1 1 A . Exhauston i A bs n a vald e us ,a s a e prs ne m us ha e et i xc e t t i o r t ve xhaus e hi s a e c t e edi t d s t t our r m es bef es ki ha asc pusrlefi fdealc t U. C.j225 b) Br adv. u t,1 or ee ng be or ei n e r our.28 S. 44 ; e r Pr et 34 F. 61 61 (t Ci.1998 .Spe iial apeii rç tha taryprs nt t t sae 3d 5, 9 4h r ) cfc ly, ttone ç mus ve fil e e ed' o he tt c t t çubsa e'o hi f r lha sc puscam .'Ande s n v.Ha l s 459 U. 4,6 ours he s t nc f s ede a bea or li ' ro res , S. ( 982)( tngPiadv. 1 quoi c r Connor 404U. 270,275,277- ( 971) tti note ht tal , S. 78 1 ).û s noug ha 1 l t f c snec s ar t s he a t e s y o uppor t f r lcli we ebe or t sae c t ... t ta t he ede a a m r f e he t t ours or ha s me tsmia sae-a cam wa mad ' 1 ( ti cttons.ûl bur nofpr ng o wha i lr tt lw li s e.' d. omitng iai ) t-he de ovi t tacli i e use le wiht ha speii r' Brad,1 F. a 61 ( ti ha am s xha td is t he bea ttone.' e r 34 3d t 9 omitng ctto ) iains. The pa tesag e t t She le us e Cl m s 1 2,3,5,6,7, 13,1 1 1 a 1 by ri r e ha l xha t d ai , 9, 4, 5, 7, nd 8 pr s ntng t m t t Supr m e Cour ofVi gi a vi hi s a e ha asco puspe ii orpe ii e e i he o he e t r ni a s t t be r tton tton 1Bot Cl m s 1 a 15 appe t r at t sat habe cl m 16, whi chale h ai 3 nd ar o el e o t e as ai ch lngedt he e de i y val oft di t i a r vi ntar ue he gial m ges ecover d fom pettone sca er e r ii r' m a. 2Re po d n ' s c dmo i t dimisa drsespeiine ' a diina alg to ( amsl s n e ts e on ton o s s d e s tto rs d to l le ains Cli 1 1 )b i ohe wiei nia t tefrtmo i t ds s.Th r f e t ec ur wil s s t frt 8 ut s t r s de tc l o h is ton o imis e eor, h o t l dimis he is mo in( No. )a moo . to ECF 8 s t 4 t a a t Cour ofAppeasofVig ni sor ra tr i Shel' c c i . Shel o ppe l he t l r i a' de fim ng ls onvi tons l ac knowldgest hedi no e us Cli 8b)() 1 11 1 a 1 Ho ve,t pates e hat d t xha t ams ( -c, 0, , 2, nd 6. we r he ri diag e whehe Shelexha tdCli 4a Cli 8a) Afe rviwi t saec t s re t r l use am nd am ( . tr e e ng he tt our r or t c ttndst tSheldi note us Cl m 4butdi e us Cli 8() ec d,he our i ha l d xha t ai d xha t am a . 1. C l m 4. ai Cl i 4 i t f de a pe ii a l gest tt Com m onwe t c m m it d a di co r a m n he e r l tton le ha he alh o te s ve y vi a i a pr f r f l e t s i o a ol ton nd of e ed a s e tm ny boutt i ntt oft Em e ge y M edi alSe vi s he de iy he r nc c r ce (ç S' tc ca whotrtrpo tdt t s e afe Shels911c la t eduepr es d EM ' e hniin ) is e re o he c ne tr l' al nd hes oc s vi a i q lf asnew l dicove e e de e. Cl i 4 i r a e t , butba e on a di f e ol tons ua i y y s r d vi nc 3 a m s el t d o sd fer nt l ga t or t n, w o c ai sdi c s i t sa e ha aspe ii St t ha ascl m 7 alege e l he y ha t lm s us ed n he t t be tton. a e be ai l d t tt Com m o e t w asne i n f notc a tng ori e vi w i A us i W i klne a ut ha he nw a1h glge t or ont c i nt r e ng tn c i bo t vitm ' c ton whe W iklnefr ta rved. St t ha scai 7 di nota l et tt he c i s ondii n c i is ri ae bea l m d leg ha he Com m o nwea t kne ofW i klne' i ntt orr l va e t Shel' ti lorknow i l pr f r d lh w c i s de iy e e nc o ls ra ng y of e e f l e t s i ony. St t ha ascl i 1 a l d t tt Com m on e lh f ie t tm e y di c os a s e tm a e be a m 9 lege ha he w at al d o i l s l e who isa nt i e v e e a t ge s nt r i w d boutt vi tm ' de t b on t tc ai ,She ldi notdi c s he c i s a h, ut ha l m l d s us W i klne orHare s Acc di y,Sheldi notpr pe l e us Cli 4 be us hedi not c i ls . or ngl l d o ry xha t a m ca e d pr s ntt s m e f t a l ga t oresa e e he a ac s nd e l he i boutdi c r ofW i i ' a Hares 'i ntte t s ove y cklne s nd l s de ii s o t Supr m e Co tofV igi at theno pr e si Cl i 4. Se Pi a d, U . a 275he e ur r ni ha w es nt n a m e c r 404 S. t 76 (i ngha scl m une use wheepeii rf ie t pr s n s mealge çe tt i l tndi bea ai xha td r ttone ald o e e t n le d sonsiutona def t't saec t t theŠsre i fdealha speii . ec' o tt ours ha se td n e r bea tton) 3Shel s ysAusi W i i wast fr tr ponde , butJ fHares ,awines f t la tn cklne he is es r ef l s t s or he Com monwea1h,t tted t he wast fr tr ponder t esii hat he is es . 5 2. Cl m 8( . ai a) Shela g i saeha ascam 21e t tco elsf llet mai ai c l r ued n tt be li () ha uns ' aitr o nt n ommuni ton cai vi a e t Si h A m e ol t d he xt ndm e bec us Shel w a una e t i or c nt a e l s bl o nf m ouns a el bouta Lega l Opi o fom t Ator yGe rlofVigi aan Vigi aCodej1 2- 4: a j1 2nin ' he t ne nea r r ni d r ni 9. 270. 1 nd 9. 327. . The Supr m e Cour ofV igi a a e s t s c a m on t m e is fndi t tShel di 1 e t r ni ddr s ed hi l i he rt , i ng ha l d no sa ea Si h Am e t tt xt ndme vi a i be a e, ntra i t s e i ofa lae is si lf nt olton c us i e la,he elcton ppel t s ue s e t t t dicei ofc e.Shelaguesi fdealha sCli 8()t tc e was o he s rton ouns l lr n e r bea am a ha ouns l i fe i e f c tng t ww ng sa utsi t a laebre i tad oft Le lOpi on fom ne f ctv or ii he tt e n he ppel t i f nse he ga ni r t Ator yGe r ofVigi aa Vigi aCodej 1 2- 4: a j 1 2- 1 he t ne neal r ni nd r ni 9. 270. 1 nd 9. 327.. Ac or ng y,Shelf ry pr e e t t Supr m eCour ofVigi at s t nc oft Si h c di l l ail es nt d o he e t r ni he ubsa e he xt Am e entcl i a ndm a m boutt Leg Opi on a t w r s a ut s he al ni nd he ong t t e . B. ProceduralD ef t aul i fa sat cour c e ry a e e syba esisdim is lofaha spe ii ne ' cai on t te l t l a l nd xpr s l s t s s a bea tto rs l m asa epr dur lr e a t tpr e la nzepr de an i pe nta ade t gr tt oce a ul, nd ha oc dtr l l ovi s nde nde nd qua e ound f or t dim i s l t ha aspe ii rhaspr e la l de a t d hi f de a habe s c a m . Br ar he s s a , he be ttone oc dtr ly f ule s e r l a l i ' e d, ' 1 F.da 61 (ii Colma v. mps n,5 U. 722,73132( 991) A peii rs 34 3 t 9 ctng e n Tho o 01 S. - 1 ). ttone ' c a m sa e a s pr e a l ba r d f om f de alha asr vi w w he he di notf il pr s ntt l i r l o oc dur ly r e r e r be e e n d a r y e e he c ai st t s a e c t a :a s a e pr e al ul w o d ba c i r ton i t c ai w as l m o he t t our s nd : t t oc dur r e ul r ons de a i f he l m ltrprs ntdt t saec t.' Mat wsv. t,1 F. 907,911( hCi.1 , ae e e e o he tt ourll' the Evat 05 3d 4t r 997) ove edo ot rcoundsbyUnie Sttsv. r te, F. 1 ( h Ci.2011.A sae nul n he r td ae Banet 644 3d 92 4t r ) tt c ts a i a i ofa pr dur lba i a tndi off c e il t t pr s pto of our ' pplc ton oce a r s i ng a t ntted o he e um i n c rcne s 28U. C.j22544 ;St kt v. ore t s . S. * oc on Munuv, F. 920,92 ( hCi.1 4) 41 3d 4 4t r 99 . 6 1. Cl ms4,8( -c,1 12,and 1 ai b)() 06 6 cl m t tha no be pr en e t t hi tsa e c t ve t l sm a be 1 ai ha s t en es t d o he ghes t t our ne rhe es A y t e t d ase us e i i i c e rt tt cl i woul be pr ce a l ba r unde s a e l w i rae xha t d f t s l a ha he a m d o dur ly r ed r tt a f t pe ii ra t m pt d t pr s n i t t sa e c t' Ba rv. c a 2 F. 276, he ttone te e o e e t t o he t t our . ' ke Cor or n, 20 3d 288 (t Ci. 0 0 (iigGrvv. te ln , 8U. 1 2 1 ( 9 6) Co e u nl 4 h r 2 0 ) ctn a Neh ra d 51 S. 5 , 61 1 9 ). nsq e ty, t mexha tdCli 4,8b)() 1 11 1 a 1 aepr ed alydefule be us sae use ams ( -c , 0, , 2, nd 6 r oc ur l a td ca e tt co t w oul s m a iy di m i st s c a m sass e s ve i She lno pr e t d t m t s a e ur s d um r l s s he e l i ucc s i f l w es n e he o t t co t.Se Va CodeAnn.j8. - 4( ( ( ri as o ors e ntha scam basd urs e . 0165 B)2) barng ec nd ubs que bea li e onf t knownt t peii ra t tmeofflngaprorsaeha speii .Shelf l t acs o he ttone t he i ii i tt bea tton) l ais o e t iht Cl ms4,8( -c,1 11 1 and 1 ar ba e onfcsnotknownt hi a t sabls hat ai b)() 0, , 2, 6 e sd at o m the tmeofhi prvi saeha spetton,a t ,Shelpr durlydea t Cli 4,8( i s e ous tt bea ii nd hus l oce al fuled ams b) () 1 11 1 a 1 c, 0, , 2, nd 6. 2. Cl m s 1,5-7,13-15,and 17ai 18 The Supr m e Cour ofV igi a e i il di m i s Cl i s 1 5, 7,1 1 1 1 and e t r ni xplc ty s s ed a m , 6, 3, 4, 5, 7, 1 aspr durlyba edby Slvonv.Parga 21 Va. 30, S. 2d68 68 ( 74) 8 oce al n' at ri n, 5 27, 205 E. 0, 2 19 . Slvt hedt ttg)prs ri note ildt us ha a c pus(oltgaeis st l.... a on l ha ta ione s ntte o e be s or t ii t sue hat c udh v be nrie a da j iae a peiin rstila du o . . p a t t e g u rme o l a e e as d n dudc td t tto e ' ra n p n . a pe l o hk) s p e Cour ofVigni) .... 21 Va.a 30,205S. 2da 682.TheFourhCic tha uphed t ri a. ' 5 ' t E. t t r ui s l Slyt a ç vald sa epr edt a r l i pe a on s ( i tt oc l l ue, nde nden oft f der lquesi a a qua et a r t he e a ton nd de t o s p r tej d me t' oa t b rfd r l e iw o cams Ro a v Ta l r 1 8F.d23 , 45 u po th u g n 's s o a e e a rv e f li . v l . y o , 8 3 9 2 ( hCi.1 9)( tng Smihv. u 4t r 99 cii t M nuv,477U. 527,5 39( 986). S. 33- 1 ) Shel co e t tbec us he pr e e t i s s i Cl i s 13 a 1 t t Supr m e l nt nds ha a e es nt d he s ue n a m nd 5 o he e Cour ofVi gi a o a al t e cl i sa e no pr e aly ba r fom f de a r vi w a t t r ni n ppe , hes a m r t oc dur l r ed r e r l e e s he rs n e t r ue .Th c u t a n t ge .S aeh b a cam 1 ( ihi tesmea Cli epo d n a g s e o r c n o a r e tt a e s li 6 whc s h a s ams 1 a d 1 s bjdc )agu dt a t atrddgul vd n eha n e i nir v l ea dwa 3 n 5 u u ie r e h the lee ii e ie c d o vde tay au n s hg l p eu iil i vo ai no Fe ea Rueo Evd n e4 .T Su r meCo r o Vign a ih y rj dca,n ilto f d r l l f ie c 03 he p e u t f r ii f ound sa eha sca m 1 pr edlaly ba edund rSl yt be us t ca m co d ha t t bea li 6 oc tr l n' e a on ca e he li ul ve be b wa no ,r ie on a pe l en, ut s t a s d p a. She l sr l t a la e c ai f us d on a l ge s t om i i t Co m onw ea t s l' e a ed ppe l t l m oc e le d horc ngs n he m lh' c n ofc t ofdi t li ag f om She ls c m e a a gui t tt pos i lt t tt hai us ody gia m es r l ' a r , r ng ha he sbiiy ha he e de e ha be n a t e ort nt d r ui e s es i oft e de ptr ua t V igi a vi nc d e ler d ai e eq r d uppr s on he vi nce ls nt o r ni lw .She lf ist r butt pr s m pton t tt saecour' fndi ofde aul i core t a a l a l o e he e u i ha he t t ts i ng f t s r c , nd t ,f de alCl m s 1 a 1 a e al o pr e a l de a t d. Se St kt 41 F. a 9 hus e r ai 3 nd 5 r s oc dur ly f ule e oc on, 3d t 24 (i ngt saec tsa i tonofSlvt ba i e ildt pr umpinofcore t s) fndi hat tt our' pplcai a on r s ntte o es to rcne s. C.Caus ,Pr j ce andFundame alM ic rageofJusie e e udi , nt s ar i tc A co tm a notr vi w a pr dur ly de a t d c ai t l s pe ii rde ons r t s ur y e e oce a l f ule l m m e s ttone m t a e et e ( )c us frd futa da t a p eu ie o ( )af n a na E s ara eof u tc ' ih r 1 a e o e a l n cu l rj dc , r 2 u d me tls c rig j sie' mi duet peii rsa t li e e.W olev. ohns 5 F. 1 160( hCi. 09 .The o ttone ' cua nnoc nc f J on, 65 3d 40, 4t r 20 ) c u t o cu e ta Sh l fist s o c u ea dp eu ieo e tbihh sa ta i c n ei o r c n ld s h t el al o h w a s n rj dc r sa ls i cu l l e c n mo o d f t cour t co i rpr e al bardCli 1 4,5,6,7,8( -c,1 11 1 1 r er or he to nsde oc durly re ams , b)() 0, , 2, 3, 1 , 15,16,17,and 18. 4 4 1. NoCaus and Pr j ce e e udi . Tos o c u e p tto rmu td mo srt t o o j cief co e tr a t te h w a s , eiine s e n tae i me be tv a tr x en lo h s def eghaqi ens t t mpede c ms lsef t t co ywiht St e' pr edtrlr e'by s ng d ot e' fors o mpl t he at s oc la ul,' howi 4Shel need nots l how ca e ast Cl m s2, 3,8 a, nd9, c u eh pr e l e a t dtes us o ai () a be a s e op ry xh use h e camsund rj225 ( . S l d e no atmp t agu c us f hi d ful o Cli 1 a l The li e 4 b) hel o s t te t o r e a e or s e a t f ams 3 nd 5. c ur do sn n e t ad r s wh t rShel ss ownt elv lo prj c f rt eCli f whihhe o t e ot e d o d e s ehe lha h h e e f eudie o h ams or c f ld t esabls caus Unied St tsv. a y 45 U. 1 2 1 0( 98 ) aie o t ih e. t a e Fr d , 6 S. 5 , 7 1 2 . - 8 : ha t f c ua o lga ba i f ra cai wa notr a ona y a l et c t t he a t l r e l ss o l m s t e s bl vaiabl o ouns l ort ts e , ha ome i e f r e by of i i l m a c m planc i pr c i a e ...' M u r y v.Ca re ,477 U . 478 nt r e enc f c a s de o i e m a tc bl . ' ra rir S. , 488(1 6)(ntnzlquoai maksa cttonsomit .Peii rç z esa ih c us t 98 i e a tton r nd iai ted) ttone t mot tbls a e o ca exc ehi de aul i he s d ha known o s h cai t ough t e r ieofr s us s f t f houl ve f uc l ms hr he xe cs ea onabl e dii nc ' i tm e t br ng t m pr r y be or t s a e co t St kt 41 F. a 925. An lge e ' n i o i he ope l f e he t t ur . oc on, 3d t er byc e ma s r easca e butonl i peiine de ror ouns l y e v us , y f tto r monsrts( )t tt er wass tae 1 ha he ror o e e ou t i vi atd pe ii ne ' co tt i na rghtt e f ctve a ssa e ofcouns l an gr gi s hat t ol e tto rs nsiuto l i o fe i s it nc e, d ( t tt i fci asitncecai is fi e use andno pr edu al d a td. 2) ha he nefe tve ssa l m tel s xha td t oc r ly efule Edwa dsv. r ntr 5 U. 4 45152( r Cape e , 29 S. 46, - 2000) . a. Cl m 1 ai W he t Co monwe lh move t a tal or t y a l tsce tfc eofana yss n he m at d o dmi ab a or na ys ' riiat l i s i t pr s nce ofm or ne i t botl She la l ge y ga t polc d e e couns how ng he e e phi n he te l le dl ve o i e, ef ns el a gue t She lha arg t c os e m i t anays,Viki M ilr The c ta it d t r d hat l d i ht o r s xa ne he l t c e le . our dm te he c riiaes b e t od fns c u slb i alwe t cos e a n M ilrltri t ec s . e t c t u j c t ee e o n e eng lo d o r s x mi e le ae n h a e f ( t M e Sup.1 22. Shelase t i Cli 1t tt tilc t r byal ngt Pe . m. 0- ) l s rs n am ha he ra our ered lowi he Com m onw e t t r s isca e wihou c lng M il r a t alh o e t t s t t ali le , lhough t pr e ut o had s he os c i n ubpoe e na d he t tsiy.( Pe.43. r o e tf Am. t ) She lar st tt l ga bas sf Cl m 1 wasnota ia e t c l gue ha he e l i or ai va l bl o ouns lbe a e t e c us he cai i bas on c tdec sonst twe ei s d afe hi c c i 5 Thi a gume f is l m s ed our ii ha r s ue tr s onviton. s r nt a l 5Se M elndez- i v. M a s c usts 5 U. 3 ,31 ( 9 ( l n t a a ays' wrten D az e e sa h et, 57 S. 05 1 200 ) hodig h t n l ts it a t t i t bl t tr ulsconsiut at tm oni sa e entand def tesaton o ood es es t tt es es i al t t m endanthasrghtt confont i o r a ays a til;Gr n v. mmo at ,68 S. 2 8 8 ( . . p. e t l 20 ( oli u r n l t t ra) a t Co nwe lh 2 E.d 4, 9 Va Ct Ap S p . , 09) h dng nde M ee e - a t ta sin o ac riiaeofa l i o rt obe tono t edee da tc nsiue a lnd zDiz ha dmiso f e tfc t nayss ve he j ci f h f n n o tt td volto o t Co r ttonClus ) The ed cso weeis d a trSh l' c itonbu whiehi i ain f he nfon ai a e . s e iins r sue fe els onvc i t l s diec a alwassilpe ng. Shel doesnotalege t couns pr de i f i as it r t ppe tl ndi l l hat el ovi d nefectve ssanceby f lng t s ek per s i t amend hi appealt add a Confont i Cl ecl m pur uantt M el aii o e mi son o s o r aton aus ai s o endezDiz. a 9 be a s , sS el d t, oms l asd aCo fo tto Clu eo j cinu e te e itn c u e a h l a mis c t e rie nr n ain a s be to nd r h n-x si g l w ,whi h t Co tr cog z asha ng m e i. Shel a s a g t tc a c he ur e ni ed vi rt l l o r ues ha ouns w a i f ec i el s ne f tve f fii t notc a ob e tt t a e ofMilrst tmony.Thi eour ara or alng o ie nd j c o he bsnce le' esi s t le dy dee ne t tShelfie t pr e t scam ofi fe tveasitnce whihi Cli 8( , tnui d ha l ald o esnt hi li nefci ssa , c s am b) t teS p e Co r o Vign aa d c n e u n l, am 8 b i p o e u al d futd o h u rme u t f r ii n , o s q e ty Cli ( ) s r c d r l e a le . y Bec us Shelf ist de o taec us f f lng t r iet scli t t sa ec t Cli a e l al o m nsr t a e or aii o as hi am o he t t oul am 8b c n o c nsi t c us t e c s d futo Cli 1 e i S el o l s o c u ef rhs () n n t o t ue a e o x u e ea l f am .Ev n f h lc u d h w a s o i t d ful, eha n tma eter q ii s o n o p eu ie W ih u as e ii s o ngo wh t ea th s o d h e u st h wig f rj dc . t o t p cfc h wi f a e M il r s m i sng t s i ony w oul ha r a ed,Shel c nno de o ta e t tt i lt t le ' s i e tm d ve eve l l n t m nsr t ha he nabiiy o c os e m i M il ra utt c rik a e ofa l i û or d t hi a t a s t nta r s xn ne le bo he e tt t na ys s t ke o s c ual nd ubs a i l w di a n a i e tng hi e ie t i lw ih e r ofc tt i ldi e i . Fr dy, 6 U . s dva t ge, nf c i s ntr r a t r or ons iutona m nsons' a 45 S. ' a 1 A c r ngl She lspr e a def ul bar r vi w oft m e is f Cl m 1 t 70. eo di y, l ' oc dur l a t s e e he r t or ai . b. C l m 4 ai She la t m pt t s l te s o how c us f de a tng Cl i 4 bas d on t f l i e nt . Shel a e or f uli am e he olow ng ve s l a l gest tdtrng t i ,when J f H a l s t tted f rt Com m o e lh and i ntf e hi s l le ha li ral e f r e s es ii o he nw a t de ii d m e f ast EM S t c ci n w ho fr tr s he e hni a i s e ponde t t s ne on J 3,2003,She lr ogni d t t d o he ce une l ec ze ha Hare s wasnott i vi lhe r m e be e ast tr tEM S r ponde . I t daysafe hi ls he ndi dua e m r d he i s es r n he tr s c c i i Se e r2007,Shel a lgedl r c ze t fr tEM S r ponde a onviton n pt mbe l le y e ogni d he is es r mong t he i a e a t N e R i rV a l y Re o J i w he e She lwasco i d.6 She1 l a e t nm t s t he w ve le gi nal a l r l nfne 1 e m d he i t sna Ausi W iklne, di no ha acha et t l t W i klne I M a c 2009, nma e' me, tn c i but d t ve nc o ak o c i . n r h pr s of i i l t a f r e She la W i klne t Poca t s St t Co r c i lCe e a i on f c a s r ns e r d l nd c i o hon a a e r e tona nt r nd hous d t m i t s m e pod. She la W i klnet l d a utShe lsca e, nd W i klne e he n he a l nd c i a ke bo l' s a c i e ut an a tda tt tShe ls it d i s xec ed fi vi ha l ubm te n uppo toft sa eha spe ii n.W iklne saed r he t t bea tto c i tt 6Shel doesnotexpl n why W i i i i r at . l ai cklne s nca cer ed t twhe heani d t e m i esbe or ot rEM S wor r a t She lsplcedoi CPR ha n ve hr e nut f e he ke s nd ook l' a ng o Frn i, ik ieûud e ilk l t a ( n kiqc ul b rv v db c u ete ewa n n a kl W c ln j g d t iey h t Frn l o d e e i e e a s h r s o n n sgn ofbl ne si he lps' n Cli 4,Shel c e t tt Co monwe lh c mit a i ue s n r i . 'I am l ont nds ha he m at om ted dicove y vi ai n by f ii t dicos t t de e eW iklne' c s r ol to alng o s l e o he f ns c i s onve s ton wih t 911 rai t he dipathe a t tW i klne' t tmony a ti wo dha c r c e t Comm on alh' s c r nd ha c i s esi t ral ul ve ontadit d he we t s t or t tFr nkln ha be n dea f s e tm e whe r c pe s m e ar i he y ha a i d e d or om i n es ue r or l rved. She la guest thehass l r ha hown c us f rhi de a tofCl i 4, c us t f c ua ba i a e o s f ul am be a e he a t l ss oft c ai w a nota l bl t hi durng t i la t the coul notc a thi a t ne w ih he l m s vaia e o m i r a nd ha d ont c s tor y t t ne es a y i or a i t ad t scli t t a a bre .Thes a g nt c nnotexc e he c s r nf m ton o d hi am o he ppe l i f e r ume s n us She l sdef ul o a po ton ofCl m 4. By hi o n ad i son,She lkne durng t i t t l' a t f ny r i ai s w m si l w i ral ha W i klneha be n c i d en mong t ewho r s hos e ponde t t 911cal pe Commonweat ti e bi d o he l, r lh ral xhi t 1 a be us Shelr og ze t tHa l swasno t frtEM S t c cant a rve as 8, nd ca e l ec ni d ha res t he is e hni i o ri , Hares t tfe Y e ,Shel f ie t pr e t sf c t hi a t ne ort t c td li ti l l s es ii d. t l a l d o es nt hi a t o s tor y o he our tr ng r a , i a m oto f rnew t i l o o a pe lt tm e y de o t se d e a utW i klne. Be us n in o r a , r n p a o i l vel p hi vi enc bo c i ca e Shelt ho dha knownof(heW iklne cli jt o ht e r s ofr s e l ç ul ve s t c i j amg hr ug he xecie eaonabl dii nc 'i tm e t pr s nti e r i rt c lge e' n i o e e t a le o ouns a t t s a e c t ,he i note us d f om el nd o he t t ours s xc e r de a tunde Sl vt n,t bas son whi h t Supr m e Cour ofVi gi a di m i s d s a e ha s f ul r a o he i c he e t r ni s s e t t bea c ai 7. M or ove ,She lc e ry kne t f c s ne es a y t r s hi di c r c ai abou lm e r l lal w he a t c s r o ai e s s ove y l m t W i klne i t s a e ha aspe ii buthe of e s no va i r s f f lng t do s c i n he t t be tton, fr ld ea on or aii o o. The e or t c tfndst tShel f ist s r f e, he our i ha l a l o how c us t e us de a tofCl i 4. a e o xc e f ul am c C l m s 10- 2 and 1 . ai 1 6. Shel ar ue i Cl m 11 t tVD O C o tc al 'pr ve t hi f om a es i t nude l g s n ai ha f i i s e n ed m r cc sng he i age oft vi tm a vol i m s he c i nd um noust a c i soft m ulida t i lt pr r hi sa e a r ns rpt he t- y ra o epa e s t t nd 11 t er lha aspe ii whiei a c r t d. shelf rhera gue i cl m 1 t tsupr m e kd a be ttons l nc r e a e ; l u t r s n ai 1 ha e Cou tofVigni sRul 5: a( ,whihlmisha speii t ffypage ,i a abirr r r i a' e 7()6) c i t bea ttons o it s s n r ta y a c pr c ous r e t tde e hi t a lt t pr s nta 1t ha asc a m snow c i r d nd a i i ul ha ni d m he biiy o e e l he be l i onsde e une used. xha t Shel' frtsa eha aspe ii e ee d ffy pag .TheSupr ls is t t be tton xc de it es eme Cour ofVigi a t r ni r t ne She lsi ta sat habe speii wih a lte ,sai t tt pe ii e ee d t e ur d l' niil t e a tton t et r t tng ha he tton xc de he ffy- gelmiunde Rul 5:( )6)andt tShelc deihe fl a a nde peii t tme it pa i t r e 7 a( ha l oul t r ie n me d tton ha t p o t pag lmiortl amoto f la t e e t pa lmi. ( e'' Second Res t he e i t ie in or e ve o xc ed he ge i t8 P tr s . Rep'' Mott Dimis( No. )Ex.B. Shelofesnovibl ras f hi fiur t s ts .o s s ECF 27 ) l fr a e e on or s al e o mo ef rla et e c e tep g l t n e Ru e5 1 ()6 .l se d S el e a4 - g v o e v o x e d h a e i u d r l :7 a( ) n ta , h l fld 5pa e mi n mende ha aspe ii r ii 22 cli s She la s f ist ofe a vi er a on f hi d be tton a sng am . l lo a l o f r ny abl e s or s a l ge i biiy t pr s thi s a e ha asc a m sw ihi t ffy- ge lm i.9 M oreover,she l le d na lt o e en s t t be l i t n he i t pa i t l f ist e ai how l c ofa c st t t a c i sors ii nude i a s pr vent d hi f om a l o xpl n ak c es o he r ns rpt pec f c m ge e e m r f il pr e i a cai t t Supr me Co t Vigi a.Thus Shelc r r l on Rul ary es ntng ny l m o he e ur of r ni , l amot ey e 5: a( ort VDOC' sc iyprc i a c us t e us hi dea tofCli 1 11 1 7()6) he S e urt e autons s a e o xc e s ful ams 0, , 2, and 16. 7Shel alegest t VDOC ofi al t d hi t thecoul notkee s m any m at i si hi l l hat he fci s ol m ha d p o eral n s cel a once,a t l ci ous nude i agesoff ebondage and geniala woul cons iut lt nd he as vi , m emal t i d tt e cont a r band. BRul 5: a ( )pr vie ta aJ sieo t eSu e Cou to Vigii ma a ho iea e 7()6 o d s h t u tc f h prme r f r na y ut rz pettonert exc t fit page lm i. ii o eed he fp i t 9The Supr eCour ofVigi a ltt advied Shel dYou shoul t i o consi a i t f em t r ni e er s ld d ake nt der ton he act t t Cour ver r el gr ss m otons'r er i t motonss ng aut i ton t e d t hat he t y ar y ant uch i ,' ef rng o i eeki horzai o xcee he pa elmi.( trsSe o Re p.oRe p'' M o .oDimis( No. 7)Ex. ) Sheli e p ee t s g i t Pe'' c nd s t s ts t t s s ECF 2 B. l ntr rt d hi wanigas( )a i iaint a h c ul n tfl b t a a n dpeii a amo ins e ngt rn 1 n ndc to h t e o d o ie 0 h n me de tton nd to e ki o e e dt epa elmi,a d( teCou tsa tmpt odic r g hi fom tln s c amoton.Sh l xc e h g i t n 2) h r' te t sou a e m r iig u h i el cli t thec l no a j s t sae nso hi camst ftt ffppa lmi,b c us hedi no ams ha oud t d u t he ttme t f s li o i he it ge i t e a e d t have acces t a com put rand had difculy ga ng how many pageseach ar so e fi t ugi gumentwoul r r d equie when usng at i ypewrt orha ier ndwrtng. Fi l Shel bl ii naly, l ameshi l k ofl t ni Thes exc es s ac egal rai ng. e us r ton Shel' ow n choi and do notdes i any tue i pedi es ls ces crbe r m mentt tpr vent d hi fom s ncty ha e e m r ucci l pr e i hi ar e st t Supr Cour ofV igi aw ihi tRy pages es ntng s gum nt o he eme t r ni t n i . d. Cl ms5 7and 8( -c ai b)() She la t pt t s l tem s o how c us t e a e o xcus def ul ofCl m s5,6,a 7 by alegi i Cl i e a t ai nd l ng n a m 8()t tc e wa i fe tvei f ii t rieCli 5,6,a 7ona l Bec us Shel c ha ounsl s nefci n alng o as ams nd ppea. a e l ddno prs n Cli 8b a d( ) ot eSu r meCo r of r ii, ams8b a d ()ae i t ee t ams ( ) n c t h p e u t Vign a Cli ( ) n c r une use butpr ed al def ule undert sa eba ag ns s es i ha aspe ii . xha t d, oe ur ly a t d he tt r ai t ucc sve be ttons Se s a(ttngCl m 1 a Rul 5: a( donotc tt eca et exc eapr durl e upr sai ai 1 nd e 7()6) onsiut us o us oce a dea t.Cons que l Cl m 8c ca no s r easc us t e us t dea tofCli 5ful) e nty, ai () n t e v a e o xc e he ful ams 7. Se Edwads 529U. a 452(i ngdea tdi fci a ssa cai cn sr a e r , S. t fndi fule nefe tve s itnce l m nnot e ve s c us) a e. e. Cl m s 12,14,and 17-18 ai Shel as e t t theco d notr ieCli s1 1 1 a 1 on a al be us hehad l s rs ha ul a s am 2, 4, 7, nd 8 ppe , ca e nowa t c a tcot e durng pr pa ai oft a alb if . Shel ale st tc y o ont c ms l i e r ton he ppe re s l l ge ha ouns ls e' t l phone s t m di notac e i a e c ls a t tc ee ys e d c pt nm t a l nd ha ouns di notr pond t Shel' l te s el d es o ls et r . She lf l t de ons r t howe r t thi l c ofc a tw ih c ns lpr vent c m s lf om l ais o m t a e, ve , ha s a k ont c t ou e e ed ot e r r i i a oft def ule c ai s a r quie t s a sng ny he a t d l m , s e r d o how c us . See M ur a 477 U . a 488 a e r y, S. t (a s r q rss wi ofçb e tv fco e tr a t t ed fns (h t i e e c u s ls c u e e uie ho ng t j cie a t r x en l o h ee e t al mp d d o n e' o ef t'.M orove ,Shelha notagueda i pe ntfdea ha ascam t thi at ne s fors' ) e r l s r n nde nde e rl be li ha s tor y' r pr s nt ton durng t a a w a c tt i l i f e tve,s he c nnotr l on co els e e e ai i he ppe l s ons iutonaly ne f c i o a ey uns ' alege a t orom i s onsdtr ng t a l d cs si li he ppea asc us t e us de a t 1 Edwar ,5 U . a l a e o xc e f ul. 0 ds 29 S. t 45 seas J s 463U. a 7515 ( di t s e tonofis st a es ona li 2; e lo one , S. t - 2 hol ng he elci sue o ddr s ppea s l tt t di c e i ofa l t co m s land c ef o he s r ton ppela e l e ouns lne d nota e s e r pos i e i s o e e ddr s ve y s bl s ue n 1 sh l le d i saeh b a cam 21e ta c un e wa ie fci f rf iigt sa i t uc 0 elalge n tt a e s li ( ) h t o s l s n fe tve o aln o ty n o h wih Shel duri appeal The Supr m e Cour ofVigi af t l ng s. e t r ni ound t scl m t bewihoutmertunder hi ai o t i Stika d v. a hi tn, U. 6 ,6 7 ( 9 4) a dJ ne v. r s 46 U. 7 75152( 98 . rc ln W s ngo 466 S. 68 8 1 8 , n o s Bane , 3 S. 45, - 1 3) ( o .o DimisEx. p. ) M t t s s H, 7. a al.Ac or ngl peiine fist esa ihc et exc epr edurlydea tngCli ppe ) c di y, tto r al o tbls aus o us oc al fuli ams 1 l 1 a 1 1 2, 4, 7, nd 8.1 2. N o Fundam ent M i al scarri ofJustce age i A di ti tc t t r i s t m e isofa l o dlr ly de a t d c a m s i i fnds a s rc our de e m ne he rt l pr ce za l f ule l i f t i f n a na mic rig o j siee it b c us tepeiin ri a t al i o e t Tee u v. u d me tl sa ra e f u tc xss e a e h t o e s cu l nn c n . lg z t y Pe ron,689F.d 3 329( h Ci.201 .çg rs r a sri imo nc a agae yt as 3 22, 4t r 2) 4pliones se tng r ce e s twa o dea tdcli mus esa iht t i lg ofnew lndr iblqe de e( tpr e e a fule ams t tbls ha,n iht a ela e vi nc no esntd t til,ti mo el eyt a n t h t ora o a ej r rwo dha ef u dpeiin rg l ral i s r i l h n o t a n e s n bl u o ul v o n tto e uiy k t be yondar s na edoub.'Hous v. l,547U. 51 536- ( ) A ice bl 'a t l ea o bl t' e Bel S. 8, 37 2006 . sr di e' cua im oc e cl i r qui e t w r la e e de e w he heri be exc pa or s i i i e de e, l enc a m e r s i ne e i bl vi nc t t ul t y c entfc vi nc tu t rh e e t e sa c u t, rciia p y ia e ie c ta wa no p e e tda til.' r swo ty y win s c o n s o rtc l h sc l vd n e h t s t rs n e t rall' I a 5 ( i Schl v. l 51 U. 298,32 ( 995) l de di whehe t peiine d. t 37 quotng up Deo, 3 S. 4 1 ). n ci ng t r he tto r ha m a a &s t nta s i 'ofa t li s de tubs a i l how ng' c ua nnoc nc t tw a r nt a e den i r he r ng,t e e ha r a s n vi t a y a i he c t ed no k es t ne e de e by a s a our ne t t t he w vi nc t t ndar ap o i t f r d i ng a m o i f d pr pr a e o ec di ton or s mmayj dg n'b tma ç o sd rh w tetmigo tes b sin a dtel ey u r u me t u y f n ie o h i n f h u miso n h i l ' c k c e biiy oft afint bea ont pr bl r la lt oft te d e. Schl 51 U. at r di lt he fa s r he oba e e ibiiy ha vi enc ' ' up, 3 S. 32122. ( heha a c tmus c nsde a1t e de e o1 andne i rmi tngand Tj be s our t o i r 1 he vi nc , d w,nci nai e ul t y,wihoutr ar t whehe i woul nec s rl bea te unde xc pa or t eg d o t rt d es a iy dmit d r r lsofadmisbiiyt twoul govena til ...( hec t tma a ue si lt ha d r t ra. Tl our mus ke p o a lsi d tr nain a u wha ra o a l, r p ryi t ce jlo s r b bi tc eemi t bo t t e s n be p o el nsnztd t r i o r 1 Furt m or , Shel a gued i Cl m 1 t tt m edi e i rs t tm ony r di 1 her e lr n ai 2 ha he cal xam ne s es i egar ng Fr i stm eofdeah wass ankln' i t pecultveand uns ai uppore by evi td dence. Shel bas t scl m,i pa ,on l es hi ai n rt tne 'opi on evi e Shel gat ed aferc c i aboutt I h oftm eneces ar f lgat e d w' ni denc l her t onviton he engt i s y or i ur makst f d ( Pe. L & M . Be a eSh lofe sn r a o whyheorc ns lc ul n h v r o a e. Am. tEx. ) c us el fr o e s n ou e o d ot a e de oped s evi vel uch dence i hr E ough t exe cie ofr onabl dii e' i tm et pr entShel' curent t he r s eas e lgenc ' n i o es ls r ar ent durng ti orappeal Shel' Enew' evi ncecannots ve ascaus t excus def tofCl m gum s i ral , ls û ' de er eo e aul ai 1 on appeal 2 . 14 woul do.Thec tsf ton i no t m a a i pende f ct d our' unc i s t o ke n nde nt a ual d t r i ton a e e m na i boutwha lkel oc ure butr t rt a s st lkey i t i y c r d, a he o s es he i l mpac of t t e de eo r a ona ej or. he vi nc n e s bl ur s Bel,5 U. at538( ti i ena quottonsandciai ) l 47 S. omitng ntr l ai ttons. Afe ag igbae t fn c u ea dp eu iet e c s p o e u a d fut S l n td tr r un s s o i d a s n rj dc o x u e r c d r l e a l, hel oe i a ha w rte por i oft a e d pe ii û ii l Pe ii r a s rst the i n nd it n ton he m nde tton, i tonaly, ttone s e t ha Add s a t ly imoc ntofalc r . She lsr inc on s h aba e a s ri i nots fce t c ual l e l ha ges' ' l' ela e uc r s e ton s ufi int o c ryh sbld no p ru so t e c s p o e t al d futn Cli 1 4, , 7 8b -c ,1 , ar i t e f e s a i n o x u e r c dl l ea lig ams , 5 6, , ()( ) 0 r r y l1,l2,l3,1 15,16,17,and l8. 4, Shel pr e se e pt fom a ari eby Dr Stve B. r h,M . ,a l es nt xc r s r n tcl . e n Ka c D. boutpos- o tm tm re dif i ofd g c e r tonsi avitm ' bl whi h c l ed,t e i i ba e on fuson nz onc nta i n c i s ood, c oncud r c sons s d co e r to mea ur me sm a i a sngl posmorem bl s ci e ca bem it ken.,2 nc nta i ns s e nt de n i e t t ood pe m n n s a ,l ( Pe.8. Shelas r ee se bisatc t t orgna anda nde fderlha as Am. t ) l lo efrnce xhi t ta hed o he ii l me d e a be pe ii t ti ude doc e s no pr s t d a ti lwhi h a s a g bl bea on t fndi of ttons ha ncl um nt t e en e t r a c l o r ua y r he i ng g l.3 E ve afe r vi w i t D r K a c squot d t xta a t c e bisa a t r uit1 n t r e e ng he . r h' e e nd ta hed xhi t nd f e c n iei t e ao gwi al t re ie c i ter c r ,h c u t id ta aj r r ve n o sd rng h m ln t lohe vd n e n h e o d t e o r fn s h t u y e iwig h s h e de wo d mor lkey t n notsilfnd pe ii rg ly be uc vi nce ul e i l ha tl i ttone uit yond ar as bl d . e ona e oubt Ac r ngl Shelfist etbls afndame a mic rigeofj tc a t c twilnot codi y, l al o sa ih u ntl sara usie, nd he our l rviw t meisofCli 1, 5,6,7,8( -c,1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 a 1 e e he rt ams 4, b)() 0, , 2, 3s 4, 5, 6, 7, nd 8. 1 Shel doesnotpr de t cour a copy oft a tcl alhough he alegedl quot i. 2 l ovi he t he ri e t l y es t 1 Shel' exhi t A- and Jar ceriiat ofanal i a polce orhos t r ds Ot 3 ls bis F e tfc es yss nd i pial ecor . her exhi t r at t t ti c ' l r i c bis el e o he ral ourts egal ulngs oncer ng desr i ofunt t evi ni tucton esed dence,s es i of uppr son evi dence,a dicover Exhi tK i a not f om t vitm ' f he t gr edper ison f polcet nd s y: bi s e r he c i s at r hat ant m s i or i o s c t vitm ' aparment Exhi tN i an emai dat Aprl30,2010,aboutgener pr i i t ear h he c i s t ; bi s l ed i al actces n he Ri chmond,Vigi a,m edi exam i ' ofk ef handlng a sor ofevi r ni cal ners t or i nd t age dence r a edt a c m i elt o ri nal c s ;a Ex biQ i apa eo c n a tif mainofpe eitr e ddu igt ei e tgain o t e a e nd hi t s g f o tc n or to opl ne viwe rn h nv si to f h vci sd ah.Exhi t A, F,a dJweep e e td a til Exhi t K, a d Q ha n b a igon itm' e t bis B, n r r s n e t ra. bis N, n ve o e rn Sh lsgui . Th , bisA- JK, a Q d no qu lf a E w e d nc 'ofa t a i oc nc el' l t us Exhi t F, - N, nd o t aiy s û vie e' cu l nn e e ne underSc up t exc e pr hl o us ocedur def t 5l3 U. a 324. al aul. S. t Exhi tG i l sne a tcesabou awo a fom Calf ni who wasc e ed of bi nc ude ws ril t m n r ior a l ar m ur ri A prl2008 by t c ogy t s sco ct on ts ue s m pl s nott t d bef e he t i l de n i oxi ol e t ndu ed is a e es e or r ra i 2007. Exhi tH c it ofhand- awn pi t e ofm olculsofde r m eho pha n bi onsss dr cur s e e xto t r n, lvome hor n,a m or ne.Exhi t1i Ausi W i i sa tda tt tsaeshewast e t pha nd phi bi s tn cklne' fi vi ha t t he tr tEM S wor r a t s e ,he bele Fr nkln c d be r vi d bec us herlpsw e e not is ke t he c ne i ved n i oul e ve a e i r bl a She lha ue, nd l ndedhi a ç o m û pperbo te wih ld't tW iklneputi t poc toff low dr tl t i 'ha c i n he ke el EM S wor r J f Ha l s ke , e f res .Exhi tL c it ofalte fom Dr CyrlH .W e ht M . .JD. bi ons ss e tr r . i c , D ,. , daedFe u y 8,2008,a t br ar boutlgatr m a ksa a tce a i tle r nd ri ls boutDr W e ' pe s la . chts r ona nd pr e sona hit y. Exhi tM i a e lfom Shelsfind abo r s t ofhers f of s i l sor bi s n mai r l' re ut e uls elc onduc e e t d xperm e t s e how l lga ur m a ksl s e on he body afe s unte r i nt o e ong i t e r a t d r t r he i d opes f om he t ghs 1 r r hi . 4 Dr Ka c st xta e bisG,H, andM do notc tt e ç w'e de not . r h' e nd xhi t L, onsiut t ' vi nce ne pr vi l a ia eand a em e e ytadif r ts n'ofe de pr e e a ti l Se St wa t e ousy val bl r r l ç fe en pi ' vi nce es nt d t ra . e e r v. el ,No.97- 1 U. App. Ang one 26, 998 S. LEXI 1 S 0886, t*11 1 W L 276 , t* ( hCi. a , 998 291 a 4 4t r 1 ( 998) unpubls d)(ii Ba se v.Del 1 F.d61 61 ( hCi.1 )(tpl tnga ihe ctng nnitr o, 00 3 0, 8 8t r 997 ig uti dfee ts i o e ie c t a wa p ee tdt t ej r d e n t aif t erq ie nss t ifrn pn n vd n e h t s r s ne o h u y o s o s tsy h e ur me t e frhi Sc up.'.TheCaior awoman' ex re saenotpr tveofShel' i o t n hl ' ) lf ni s peince r obai ls nnoce e, nc a he s ce sula pl e a nd r uc s f r m nt boutc a nae bi ogia s mpl wa a s a l bl t Shel ont mi t d ol c l a es s lo vaia e o l be or ti l The m ol c a s r t esofde r e hop ha l vo e hor n,a m o phi w e e f e ra . e ul r t uc ur xtom t n, e m t pha nd r ne r smial a albea til ndaen tl e ' vd n e Dr W e h ' p ei nayc n e tr a o t i lry v i l t ra a r o t w'e ie c . . c ts rlmi r o j cu e b u a n lga ur m a ksi notr la e a c ni ltl pe s s ve w e ght and,a hi bi a es i t e r s e i bl nd a es ite r ua i i , s s ogr phi esabls he w a a ia e asa e r wines a t tm e ofShel' ti . She ls f i nd' t i h, s va l bl n xpe t t s t he i ls ral l ' re s 1 She1 atached Exhi t G ,H ,l and M t hi ha 4 1 t bis o s beaspe ii i t Supr Cour ofV igi a. tton n he eme t r ni , Shel pr ent onl t fr page ofExhi tL,Dr W ec ' lter t t Supr m e Cour ofV igi a. l es ed y he ist bi . hts e t , o he e t r ni uns i n ii e rme wih s l-nfit d lg tlema ksi smia l unr la e a nots c e tfc xpe i nt t efi lc e i a tr r s i lry ei bl nd o pe s i a t ove c e c us onsa utt vi tm ' lga ur m a ksby W ila M as e l r uasve s o r om oncl i bo he c i s i t e r li m s lo, t M e ca Exa i rwho pe f m ed t vi tm ' a ops Ri r M c a y,She lse r he di l m ne r or he c i s ut y. cha d G n' l' xpe t wines who i at xiol y c ulan ,r git r d phn ma s,a f me f e i t c ogit t s s o c og ons t t e se e r cit nd or r or nsc oxi ol s f t Com m o e t ofV igi a t tfe a l ngt ho m or ne C ood conc nt a i a one or he nw a1h r ni , es ii d t e h w phi i bl e r tons l c nb s r o mila i g . .l t sp riulrc s , o ral d n'k w j s fo lo nga a e o t f se d n . . n hi a t a a e y u e l o t no u t rm o ki t c y t bl co ntai ofmophi whehe ...t si s fce t ha c us d de t ...'( . he ood nce rton r ne t r hi s ufiint o ve a e ah. ' Tr 21 32- , 21 5 7 2 1 1 - 3)M c rye p an dt t e u yta ters o dso tdlv l 9 2 7 2 0:- , 21 :0 1 . Gar x lie o h j r h t h ik f itre e es ofmor nei he tbl co e ta i woul ha be n a de by t tng t de toye phi n ar ood nc n r tons d ve e voi d esi he sr d s m pl s t s m e pos ton She lr le o f om Dr K a c s a tcl Eve i t a l ed s e ii n e , he a ii l ei s n r . r h' ri e. n f he leg ci ntfc opi on by D r K a c w asa s pr s nt a t i l t sposton w a r buted b M as e l w ho ni . rh l o e e ed t r a , hi ii se t y s lo, s i t the r bl i ass tcinty a c a et t s f m or neasbl fo ot rtsue ad ha a t ood s ufi e l c ur t o e t or phi ood r m he is . ( .1 - ) Thus Dr Kach' opi onwasnotû w e de e'a r r es,pr bl Tr 70103. , . r s ni û vi nc ' nd, egadl s oba y ne wo l no h v c a g d ajlo ' fn igo g l. u d t a e h n e t rs i dn f ui r t AlhoughW iklne' afi vi ( 1 ma quaiya ne e de ,W iklne' t c i s tda t Ex. ) y lf s w vi nce c i s a r nt dono s tsy Sc p bec us t tmony a ve me s t aif hul a e esi boutt vitm ' c orwasale y he c i s ol r ad c lc i t s e e e . W i klne a r t tt vi tm w asnotbr t ng,i oolt t t h, onfi tng o om xt nt c i ve s ha he c i ea hi t c o he ouc ' ' a ha 4 sgnofbl ne si he lps .' ( iklneAf.l. Hals ,hetrtdipac dEM S nd d t i no ue s n r i gl' W c i f ) re s t is s the t c c a t a rve a Shel' a rm e ,t s ii t the f und t vi tm pul e es ,a c, e hni i n o r i t ls pa t nt e tted ha o he c i s l s pnei bl s coolt t t uih, o he ouch,a no brahi ( .1 1 1 1 9,1 2- ) Chare nd t e t ng. Tr 064:6- 7, 066: 067: 15. ls Cofet t s cond dipa c d EM S t c cin t a rvea Shel' a rm e ,t tfedt tt f l, he e s t he e hni a o r i t ls pa t nt esii ha he vi i w astve y pal ' and he di Enotr l'anyt ng a ctm l r e,' d t ecal' hi boutt col ofherlps. ( . 17he or i Tr 918: 1 ) Masel t tfe t tabo begi t ngbl beor de t a c tber diy 8. s lo esiid ha dy ns umi ue f e ah nd anno ea l dig e a trde t be a ea1bodi l eo nahe de t ( .1 4- 0. Nonehee s a nos d fe ah c us 1 es os xyge r ah. Tr 649: 1 ) t ls , W i klne, f t H a l s a M a s lo a 1c ude t vi tm wasno br a hi a s ns c i Cof el, res , nd s e l l oncl d he c i t e t ng nd a hea t a whe t EM TSarve Furhe mor W iklne ac ced f l m a t a fda t rbe t n he ri d. t r e, c i , onvi t eon, de he fi vi ye safe t c i e Thus W i klne' s a e e sa e l s r la e a per ua i t H a l s ar t r he r m s. , c i s t t m nt r e s e i bl nd s s ve han res ' t tm ony,w hi h i c bi ton w ih M as e l st tm ony a es i c n om na i t s lo' es i boutt tm e s a psofphot a he i t m os nd lga ur m a ks on t cor e s i t e r he ps , uppor st c l i t tShel per o m e s xuala t a trt t he onc uson ha l fr d e c s fe he vitm did.( .1 59,1 - 1 4- 7. Ac di y,W i i safi vi woul not ci e Tr 658- 66163, 71 1 ) cor ngl cklne' fda t d ma eimo elk l t tn th t ra o a l j r rwo l n t a efu dpeiine g i y k t r i ey haz o ta a e s n be u o ud o h v o n tt r ul o t be yond ar s na e d . ea o bl oubt I II A. St andar ofRe e f Cl msAdj c e by t Supr meCourtofVi ni d viw or ai udiat d he e rgi a il tt c t aet prnci lf u f asetngc nsiutona c le t sae lsqae ours r he i pa or m or s ri o tt i l halnges o tt c ci .'Ha ngtnv. c e ,56 U. , ,1 S.Ct 770,787( 1.A f rlc t onvitons' ni o Rihtr 2 S. 31 . 201 ) edea our m a notg a awrtofha asc pusba e o a cai t ta sa eco tde de on t me is y r nt i be or s d n ny l m ha tt ur ci d he rt u e st a aj d c to : nls h t du iain ( )r ule i ade ii t twa c tayt orivol da unr as bl 1 es td n cson ha s onrr o, n ve n e ona e a i to of cl ry e t bls d Fede a l w, de e ne by t Supr me pplcai n , ea l sa ihe r l a as t nni d he e Cour oft Unie St es or t he t d at ; ( r uledi ade sont twa basdona unr s na edee mi ton 2) es t n cii ha s e n ea o bl tr nai oft f c si lghtoft e de epr s nt d i t Stt c tpr e ng. he a t n i he vi nc e e e n he ae our oc edi 28U. C.j225 * .ThequetonCsnotwheherafdea c t ive t saecou ts S. 44 si i i t e rl our bele s he tt r' de e m i ton w a i or e tbutwhe he t tde e m i ton wasunr as na e a s t nta l t r na i s nc r c t r ha t r na i e o bl - ubs a i ly hihe t es d. Sc iov. ndrga 550U. 465, ( g r hr hol ' hrr La i n, ' S. 473 2007) Thefdealha sc ts . e r bea our' r e oft saeco tsj eviw he tt ur' udgme frr s na e si lmiedt Cher c dbef et sae nt o ea o blnes s i t o t e or or he tt t c q'i r er ncet Unie St t Supr meCour dpr c de sa oft tmet saeco t our ' n ef e o t d aes e ti e e nt s he i he tt ur 18 rn e sisd cso . Culnv Pi h se, 6 U.. , ,1 1S. .1 8 ,1 8( 01 ) e d r t e ii n' le . n oltr 5 2 S ' 3 Ct 3 8 39 2 1 ( ti i ena quotto a ciai ) t saec tsdeemi i t tacam lc omitng ntr l ains nd ttons.t tt our' tr naton ha li a ks A meip e ld sf d rl b a r l fs ln a Car n e j rssc u dds g e 'o te rt r cu e e ea ha e s ei o o g s fimi d d u it o l ia re n h e cor cne soft saec tsde iin. Ha ngt 562U. a ,1 S. .a 786( ti re t s he tt our' cso ' ni on, ' S. t 31 Ct t omitng ciai ) ttons. B. C l m s 2 and 3: D es ai tructon ofEvi i dence tg l t Stt s pprsesorfist dicos maei e ul t ve de e t good t' hen he ae u e s W al o s l e tral xc paor vi nc ,he o ba f ih oft pr e tc i ir e nt aduepr es vi aton oc swhe r d at he os cu im s relva : oc s ol i cur neve s h r uc e de ei wihhel ' Ilnosv. s r 540U. 544,547( vi nc s t d.' li i Fihe, S. 2004)(ii Br v.Mar a ctng adv vlnd, 373U. 83( 963) Unie Stt v. ls 427U. 97( 976) (mphassadde .A difrnt S. 1 ; td aes Agt , r S. 1 ) e i d) fee s a r a i w he t s a e f ist pr e v pot nta l exc pa or e d e. l W he e t nda d pples n he t t a l o es r e e i ly ul t y vi enc d. r s a e ofi i l f i t ç e e' e de ta y m a e i lofw hi h no m o e c be s i t n t ti t t fc a s a l o t s l vi n i r pr ve tra c r an a d ha ha t c udh v b e s be tdt tss ter s lso whc mih h v e o eae t ed f n a t,' o l a e e n u j ce o e t,h e ut f ih g t a e x n r td h e e d n g ' l t i a tons do no vi a e d pr e sS e s a c i i ldef nda tca s he r c i t ol t ue oc s l s rm na e n n how bad f ih on t unl at he ' pa t t ( fcas.1 L ;s eA rzonav Youngbl 488U. 51 58( 988)( ngnoba r of he ofiill' 5 4, e i ood, S. , 1 fndi d . fihwhe et fiur ofofi il t pr evee de etloul)a wo s bede ci da at r he al e tcas o esr vi nc tc d t rt s rbe s ne i nf';Unie Stt v. khta,994F. 97 975( Ci.1 (ttngt tpr of glge ) td aes Ba ir 2d 0, 2d r 993) sai ha oof duepr es vi ai n arsng fom de t c i ofpotnta l e ul t y e de r quie oc s ol to ii r snzton e ily xc paor vi nce e r s hi rs a r ofba f t t n s i s a e' s t m ofe de e pr e va i w a ghe t nda d d aih ha how ng t t s ys e vi nc es r ton s unrla e) Ther uie n t tadee n s w ba fiha isrgadls ofdicovey eibl . eq rme t ha fnda t ho d at pple e r e s s r 1 S eas calf ni v. Tr mbet, U. 4 , - 9( 98 (i ngf iu et p e e'e 5 e lo ior a o ta 467 S. 79 488 8 1 4) fndi alr o r s l v e de pr e scons iutonalvi aton onl whe e i ul or val ... appar 'bef e vi nce es nt tt i ol i y r G exc pat y ue was ent' or desr i and tdef ndantwoul be unabl t obt n compar eevi tucton t e d e o ai abl denceby ot r onabl a l e her eas y vaiabl m eans,'butfndi no vi aton wher ofi al aced ti good f t a i a d w ih t rnor al ' i ng ol i e fci s t tn aih nd n ccor t hei m pr tc 'and w ih ç alegaton ofofk i ani t r r ac ie' t t no l i t al mus owa ds espondent orofacons ouse f tt s ci f or o s pp e se cup t y e de e'. u r s x laor vi nc ' ) 19 r quessm a f t e d ebe or o fc asde toy i a r ga dl soft c nta iy of e t de or he vi enc f e fi i l sr ed t nd e r es he e r lt t te de e t t pe ii r sde e e ort pr e uton' c e i c ef Fi her 5 U . a ha vi nc o he ttone ' f ns he os c i s as n hi . s , 40 S. t 54849. She lc endsi Cli 2 t tt media e mi rspr tilde t u ton ofau ops l ont n am ha he c l xa ne ' e ra sr c i t y s mplsa pr s rpton pilbotlsa t rc t nt de i d Shel ofduepr es . Shel a e nd e c i i l te nd hei on e s prve l oc s l c e i Cl m 3t tt Commonwe lh' t c ogy r por s dha bee s e s ont nds n ai ha he at s oxiol e t houl ve n uppr s ed be us t m e ca e m i rde t oye t a t y s m pl s Shel s c a e t tt s i o ca e he di l xn ne s r d he u ops a e . l pe ul t s ha e tng r r t tng t de toye au ops s mpl sa pilbotl c e swoul haver s t d i eesi he sr d t y n e nd l te ontnt d e ule n e ul t y e de . Shelas s cult st tt si onl s m eoft a o y s mpl may xc paor vi nce l lo pe a e ha e tng y o he ut ps a es ha s w e t t tr uls a t tt unt t d pil m a ha be n il ga s t es ve ke d he es es t nd ha he es e ls y ve e le l ubsanc m a ac ur t l lke l lpr c i i t e s nuf t ed o ook i ega es rpton abl t . l addr s i t s c a m s t Cour ofAppea s f und t f l ng f c s n e sng he e l i , he t l o he olowi a t : On J 2,2003,M a i Fr nkln di d ofa a r ntdr o r ewhih une ron n i e n ppa e ug ve dos c o ure a a lntsphot r phi sudi Durng aJ 4,2003 a ops cc r d t ppela ' og a c t o. i une ut y, s m pl ofhe tbl a es ar ood, t e hum o ,g t i c e s bie,a urne w er vir ous r asr c ont nt , l nd i e c l ced fo Fr nkln' body. Onl t vir o hum o a hea t ood s mpls ole t r m a i s y he te us r nd r bl a e w e e t t d. Bo h s ed hi h l ve sofm or ne,c ai ,a ot rdr gs A1 r es e t how g e l phi oc ne nd he u . l s m pl s w e e r t ne t t m e c le m i rand we e de t oye pr ort ti l n e r e ur d o he di a xn ne r sr d i o ra wiho f t rt si a wihou notc t t cour,t Co monwe t or t ut urhe e tng nd t t i e o he t he m a1h, a la . ppe l nt Si pilvi swe e c l c e fom Fr nkln' apm m e a we e a s desr x l al r ole t d r a i s nt nd r lo toyed w ihoutha ng bee t t t vi n esed. ( ep'' Ex. ,p.1.TheCour ofAp asr ed:6 R s ts A ) t pe l ul ' t es a la c ns badf t ont pa'oft g i l ort tt t s ppelnt a how unl aih he l he polce, ha he t m i s ng e de e w oul be e ul t r f l e t pr s r pot nta l r ev s i vi nc d xc pa o y, aiur o e e ve e i ly el ant e de doesno c tt ea de a ofd pr e s' Ga br ih v. vi nce t onsiut nil ue oc s . l at ' 1 On diec appeal t Su r meCo t Vigi arj ce Shelsp ii f appealw ihout 6 r t t , he pe ur of r ni ee td l' etton or dicus ng t i s s si he s ues. Thi cour l s t ookst ough t ts hr ha umm a y decii t t CourtofAppeal of r son o he s V igi a' det l r i on Shel' appela e cl m sand pr um est t Supr Cour ofVigi a r ni s aied ulngs ls lt ai es hat he eme t r ni dim is t pe ii f t samer ons.Y 1tv. Nu ma e , U. 7 ,8 3- 4( 9 ) Be net s s ed he tton or he eas s nne k r 50l S. 97 0 0 1 91 ; n t v. eo , F.d 1 6,1 43(t Ci.1 96 . Ang lne 92 3 33 3 4 h r 9 ) 20 Co n at ,1 Va Ap 7 4 7 9 4 6S. 2 63 6 6( 9 4 (iig mmo we lh 8 . p. 3 , 3 , 4 E.d 3, 3 1 9 ) ctn Arz n v. u blo , 8 U.. , 8(98 :. io a Yo ng o d 4 8 S 51 5 1 8 l t s c e, ppe l ntm ake s r lale i ofba f ih on t pa toft n hi as a la s eve a l gatons d at he r he polce a Com m onwe t sAtor y' ofi e. H ow e r none oft a l to i nd alh' t ne s fc ve , he lega i ns pe t n t t ha i ordesr c i oft e de a i s on a a . l f c , rai o he ndlng tu ton he vi nce t s ue ppe l n a t t m e ca e mi rt sii d t ti wast i nor a pr edur t d toy he di l xa ne e tfe ha t he r m l oc e o esr a t y s m pl , h t se a unt se a o he t sa ee de e s it d u ops a es bot e t d nd e t d, nd t r e t bl vi nc ubm te t t m oneye ratrr ept Appela ' r inceo F igi a Codejj2. o he a fe ec i . lnts ela n r niq 211 a 2. 11 t de 06 nd 2- 07, o monsr t t spr ed e i t a ul i miplc ta e hi oc ur s mlwf , s s a ed. Thos s ci add e sonl t dipos ofha a do ma e i sr t t n t e e tons r s y he s al z r us t ral aher ha he t pe ofe de e a i s i t sca e M or ove , he r c d co a nsno evi nce y vi nc t s ue n hi s . e r t e or nt i de ofba f ih on t pa toft polc I e t undipu e e de e a ti d at he r he i e. nde d, he s t d vi nc t ral de ons r t d t tt m e c e i r s of i e de t o d t e de a or ng m ta e ha he di al xam ne ' fc s r ye he vi nce cc di t t i r tne pr dur . The e wasno e denc t tt r w a a i e or o he r ou i oce e r vi e ha he e s ny nt nt co c ousef or on t pa toft polc t de t o e ul or e de . ns i f t he r he i e o s r y xc pat y vi nce Li wie a la f ist s ke s , ppelnt a l o how t tt desr ha he toyedevi nc woul ha bee de e d ve n e ul t y.Thet se s mpl f ly e t bls t c us ofFr nkln' de t xc pa or e t d a es u l sa ihed he a e a i s a h. Li wie t pil cole t d fom Fr nkln' a rme we ei ntfe prort ke s , he ls lc e r a i s pa t nt r de ii d i o desr ton asl ga m e ca i ns tuc i e l di to . Ba e on t e de e a la t a a s r no m or t n t m er pos i lt t t sd he vi nc ppe l nt t n s e t c e ha he e sbiiy ha f t rt si co d ha e ul t d hi , whi h i no e urhe e tng ul ve xc pa e m ' c s t nough t esa ih adue ' o t bls pr es vi a i Lovit W a de 266 Va. 6, oc s ol ton. t v. r n, 21 242,585 S. 2d 8 81 E. 01, 6 ( 0 3 (iigYo n bo d 4 8U.. t5 n.) Be a et erc r d e n t 2 0 ) ctn u g lo , 8 S a 8 *. c us h e o d o s o s how a ba f ih ont pa toft polc ort tf t rt si oft s mpl s ny d at he r he i e ha urhe e tng he a e wo d ha bee e ul t r wecamo s yt f iur t pr er t s mpls ul ve n xc pa o y, r t a he a l e o es ve he a e c tt ed a de a ofdue pr es . Cons que l w e hol t t i co tdi not onsiut ni l oc s e nty, d he ral ur d e ri de ng a lntsm o i t dimi st i cm e s r n nyi ppela ' ton o s s he ndit nt . *** Appela a s a guest ti c t r e i a ti t f e i t col lnt lo r he ral our e r d n dmitng he or nsc oxi ogy r por . I s ppor oft squesi pr e e he r ie a e hi a gtm e s f t e t n u t hi ton es nt d, e t r t s s r t nt et or h a bove r a di t de t uc i oft s pl obt ne durng t a o y. eg z ng he s r ton he am es ai d i he ut ps Not ng i t r or i c t st t sed s mplswer t ei bl Thef c t t hi n he ec d ndi a e he e t n e e mr la e. a t ha ot ie s we eno t s e ha no bea i on t a he i iy ora tr c oft her t m r t etd s rng he ut ntc t cc la y he s m pl s t tw e e t s e n e ha r e t d. d-hea isbiiy ofe de ei wihi t br d dic e i oft ti c t a i- dm s i lt l vi nc s t n he oa s r ton he ral our, nd a r lng w ilno be di tzbed on a a i t a e e ofa a e ofdi c e i .'' ui l t slr ppe l n he bs nc n bus s r t on Bli v.Commonwe t 7Va App.1 1 371S. 2d838,8 ( 988) W e an alh, . 0, 6, E. 42 1 . tnd no abus ofdi cre i i t courtsadm i i oft t col r i e s ton n he ' sson he oxi ogy eport . ( o.oDimisEx. pp. 4. M tt s s A, 2- ) 21 Th c u t o cud st a t eCo r o Ap e l'a j d c to o S elsCli 2a 3 e o r c n l e h t h u t f p as du iain f h l' ams nd w asne t rco r r t no a unr a o bl applca i off der ll a w a no bas d on a ihe nt a y o r n e s na e i ton e a aw nd s t e n unr s bl de e m i ton oft f t i t s a e co tr c d. The t i r or di nots ea ona e t r na i he ac s n he t t ur e or ral ec d d uppor t atndi t tt desr smpl a pil ' ss ldla e ul tr val t twas i ng ha he toyed a es nd ls i e se n xc paoy ue ha pos a r ntbef e i w a d t oye ' asr quied f r a duepr e s c a m . Tr be t ,467 U . 479, ppa e or t s es r d,' e r o oc s l i om ta S. 488 8 Ri ha d M c ry,t f m e f r i t c ogitc ld a ade e ewines ,tsiid - 9. c r Ga r he or r o ensc oxi ol s ale s f ns t s e tfe t tal t a o y s m pl sw e e i por a tf a co pl t pi tle oft m a roft vi i ' ha l he ut ps n e r m t n or m e e c t r he nne he ctm s deah,buthe c d nots y whehe t tr ulsfom a1t s mpl swoul ha s ppore t t oul a t r es es t r l he a e d ve u td he dee eort pr e uton.( . 91:6- ,2211:6- . M cGar alot tfe t tt vitm fns he os c i Tr 21 1 21 1 21) ry s esiid ha he ci di fom mor nea t tt lve oft tdr g i herhea t o wasdoubl t a r ed r phi nd ha he e l ha u n r bl od e he ve age ovedos lve.( .2 1 1 2270: 1 ) Tra tsi r e e l Tr 253:0- 8, 6- 4. il e tmonys upporedt Cour ofAppeas t he t l' fndi t te m i r vi ua l i n ii d t pil i t vi l f om Fr nkln' a rm e a i ng ha xn ne s s ly de t fe he ls n he a s ' r a i s pa t nt s i ent ove -he c nnoc , r t - ount rm e c to a dec ded t tt s i t c m i alm a up oft pil e di a i ns nd i ha e tng he he c ke he ls wa unnec s r ( .1 1 ) s esay. Tr 709- 2. Be a e t r co d i ca est tt desr c us he e r ndi t ha he toyed s m pl w e e a be t û e i l a es r , t s , t ntaly pot e ul t y,' hi e de ef l s ey unde t Younabl sa r r t rt n unde xc paor 't s vi nc als quar l r he ood tnda d ahe ha r Br ady. Fihe ,540 U. a 5 48.Thus Shelm us s t tofi i l a t d i iba f ih' i s r S. t 47, l t how ha fc as c e n s d a t ' n di posng oft e s m pl . 1 s i hos n es d. She la t m pt t s w ba f ih by poi i t s a e sa u esnow i efec t ts t l te s o ho d at ntng o t t t t t n f t ha e pr edt e t be f l oc l s o r olowed be or de toyi e de e r l t d t co t oc di a t ta l f e s r ng vi nc e a e o ur pr ee ngs nd ha low V m adee n t movef t pr s vainofe de e.7 See'a.CodeAl j9.- 1 fnda t o or he eer to vi nc 1 1 1 06 . ( t i ngt De t ntofFoensc t dipos ofc ranhaz r matras (feci auhorzi he parme r is o s e e ti adous eil) e f tve J y 1 2005,j9.- 1 ( t rzngt De rme ofFor ist dipos ofc ranot r ul , ) 1 1 07 auho ii he pat nt ensc o s e e ti he prpe t afe anayss (fe tveJ y 1, o ry tr l i) efci ul 2005) j 1 2- 4: ( s rbi t sor , , 9. 270. 1 de ci ng he t age pr evai a rtntonofhuma bi ogca e de ei fl ca e ) Shelase t,a he es r ton, nd ee i n ol i l vi nc n eony s s. l srs s s lo t c l mi r oul di on a d ppea ,8t a M as el , hemedia exn ne , c d notha a ' nna pr c i e' t t l1 h t ve C no l a tc ' ha vi ae sa esaut a t tM a s l s ul ha notfe t polc t c tt ol ts t t t t es nd ha s elo ho d ve ii d he ie, he our, he Co monwe lh' Ator y,a Shelb or de toyi t e de e.She lalo poi st t m a t s t ne nd l ef e sr ng he vi nc l s nt o he f c t tt Comm onweat de toy t s mpl sa pil afe She lha sa e hi i e t a t ha he lh sr ed he a e nd ls tr l d tt d s nt nt o ha t m tse t fusrtnghi saut yrg t dos Se Va.CodeAnn.j 1 2-27. ve he etd,hus r tai s tt or iht o o. e 9. 3 1 ( c i ngpr dursf ac ctdfl moto f s intfca l i ofne ydic r d desrbi oce e or onvi e eon' in or ce ii nayss wl s ove e o prvi l unt tds i ttce de e. r e ousy ese cenii vi nc ) 1 Shel alo as t t tdesr i oft s m pl and pil i hi cas wascontar t t 7 l s sers ha tucton he a es ls n s e r y o he fndi ofa Le Opi on i ued by t Ator y Gene alofV igi a on Oct i ng gal ni ss he t ne r r ni ober31,2003. Op.Va. At' Ge , 03 0 ,2 3Va. LEXI 4 20 W L 22 07 ( 03 .I r s ons t a i uiy ty n.No. - 94 00 AG S 7, 03 68 45 20 ) n e p e o n nq r abouthow I a cicui cour cl k mus mai ai human bi ogi evi ong r t t er t nt n ol cal dencei anon- t cas when n capial e adef ntdi notmakea moton t pr er human bi ogi evi enda d i o es ve ol cal dence,t Ator y Gener he t ne al c ncude t a Ethec ur ma o de ted ai o d sr c i o h ma bi o c e de erc ve o l d h tt l o t y r r h on ton r e tu ton f u n olgial vi nc e ei d l i ac i na c s o a a a tral p laer me e ha eb e e ha se ' J. I S l' c s , n rmi l a e n ppe l fe 1a pelt e dis v e n x u t d. J- n hels a e ' , how e ,t Courtdi notor t desr i oft a ops s pl ort pilbotl c e s. ver he d der he tucton he ut y am es he l te ont nt 1 ( n djec appeal Shel ct ofi al devi i fom nor alpr 8) r t l ied fci s' aton r m ocedur by f lng t t ta1 t e aii o es l he , a ops s m pl asevi ut y a es denceofbad f t t ts aih ha uppored s es i oft t col r por. Shel now t uppr son he oxi ogy e t l alo ar s guest of i al peror e complt t tng onl on oneoft aut y sa pl ,contar t t hat fci s f m d e e esi y he ops m es r y o he Cour ofAppeal ofVigi a' s aementoft f s a t tt t oft tng peror ed coul not t s r ni s t t he act, nd ha he ype esi f m d have de i tvel iol ed t dr i ntfed i t t tr uls. Shel f t ar fnii y s at he ug de ii n he es es t l urher guest t Cour of hat he t Appe sofVigi am iconsr hi cl m ,di notf l a yzet e dence,and mi i er et sat al r ni s tued s ai d uly nal he vi snt pr ed t e lw.Ho v r t i c ur do sno h vea elt urs ito o e t eCou to App asofVigi aa d a we e , hs o t e t a pp laej idcin v r h r f el r ni n doesnotdet m i whet rt Cour ofAppeal ofVigi a s d have consr Shel' appela e er ne he he t s r ni houl tued ls lt cli difr n l ç Fj raf d rlc ur t hol t tasaec ur h t eo oruni t r l o a am fe e ty. c o e ea o to d ha tt o t ad h pp t t o ue n g y cons iutonalcl m ast whi no r i wasr quesed,and t t r e on t m e isoft cl m is f tt i ai o ch ulng e t hen o ul he rt he ai t el, woul under net ver consder tonsofcomiy t t r esofexhausi we e desi d t pr ec .' d mi he y i ai t hat he ul ton r gne o ot t' M al yv. mih, F.d991 9 (t Ci.1 94 ( o i Gryv. e 9 F.d 1 7,1 ( dCi. lor S t 27 3 , 96 4 h r 9 ) qu tng e Hok , 33 2 l 20 2 r l 91) Furhemo e f d r lh b a r l fi n ta ia l t c rc itmr tto ofsaeIw t td 9 ). t r r , e e a a e s ei s o valbe o ore t ne eains tt a ha o e no i lc t a yf d r l iht S 28U. C.j2 44 (ttngh be sr le a ia l o yt c re t t mp iae n e e a rg . ee S. 25 /) sai a a eif valbe nl o o rc vilton off d r llw) Ha lvv. sv, 0 F. 1 2 1 5( hCi.1 8 Ut a tr o saelw no oai s e e a a ; ie Dore 58 2d l , 1 4t r 97 ) M te s f tt a t i ol ngf d r l o tt ina is saeno a pr p it g o ndsf fdea ha e sc r usr le .) nv vi e e a c nsi o l sue r t p o rae r u or e rl b a o p eif' . ut ' 23 NoneofShe lspr f r d e denc ora gume s l' ofe e vi e r nt upporsa tndi ofba f ih r lt d t t i ng d at ea e o t desr c i oft a o y s m pl s a pil , r quie t pr ve hi due pr s cl i s he t u ton he ut ps a e nd ls as e r d o o s oce s a m unde Young ood. 488 U . a 58. She lc t sno pr ce ntes a i hi t ta fndi ofba r bl S. t l ie e de t bls ng ha i ng d f t ca r ton ofk i l 'ne i ntf iur t c pl w ih a s a e s a ut r r ng pr e va i aih n es t a s glge a l e o om y t t t t t e ega di es r ton ofe de .Se Yo vi nce e ungbl 488U. a 58(i ngnoba f t wheet f lzeofofiil ood, S. t fndi d aih r he ailr fcas t prs r ee d n edc u d a wo s b d s rb da n g ie f Tr mbet, 6 U. a 48 o e e v vie c i o l q t rt e e cie s e lg n ); o ta 4 7 S. t 8 g 8 491n.2(i tngc tt inaldut t pr e v tonofmaei e ul tr e denc eve 9, 1 lmii onsiuto y o esr ai tral xc pao y vi e n i asaesaut s t dif e dut .Shel smpl fist d f tt tt e es fernt y) l i y al o emonsrt a r pe i whihEhe tae ny es ctn c t t Go r nti e to ly ( t t gan s tcia a va ageo r(hedee n ,' venme ntninal acedl o i ome a tc l d nt ve t fnda tl' Yo nz l o , 8 U. a 5 (iaina ditr a q tto mak o te ) o d sr y dte u b o d 4 8 S. t 7 ctto n nen l uoains r s mi d , r e to e h t s mplsa pil o of' tcila must r g llor...ac co efor t s e s a e nd ls ut û i a ni owads shel of ons ius f to upprs e ul t ye de ll' ombet 467U. a 488. xc paor vi nce,'Tr ta, S. t C.Cli 8() I feci a ssanceofe e am a : nef tve s it ouns l Shela g d i hi sa eha aspe iin t tco elwasi fe tvef rnotctng l r ue n s tt be tto ha uns ne f c i o ii Vigni Co j1 2- 4: a j1 2- 1a t Le lOpi o is byt Ato ne r i a de 9. 270. 1 nd 9. 327. nd he ga nin sued he tr y Ge r lofVigni onOdobe 31, ne a ri a r 2003.Se s anoe15( susi t Lega Opi o oft e upr t dic sng he l nin he AtonwyGenealofVigi a.Th Su emeCour ofVigi adeer ne t t i e ai t r r ni) e pr t r ni t mi d ha,ntr la, c ouns lsdecsonsa t wha i s st a g on a a we e e tte t de e e ea di not e' ii so t s ue o r ue ppe l r n ild o f r nc nd d c nsi t ief ci a ssa c .Th Co r' a j dc to o t scam wa n ih rc n rr t o t ue n fe tve s itn e e u ts du iain fhi li s et e o tay o t nora unr s bl a plca i n o f de a l w a w asnotba ed o a unr a ona e n ea ona e p i to f e r l a nd s n n e s bl dee m i ton oft f c si t s aec t ec d. Asar dy dic s t Atom e Ge r ls tr na i he a t n he tt our r or lea s us ed, he t y ne a ' Le lOpi on ha no bea i on Shelsc ebec us t tilc twasnoti vedwih t ga ni d rng l' as a e he ra our nvol t he detuci ofe de e.Vigi aCodej1 2- 4: dic s t prs r tonofe de e sr ton vi nc r ni 9. 270. 1 s uses he e evai vi nc 24 upont moto ofapes c ce ofaflnyo hi c e,al Vigi aCodej 1 2- 27. he in ron onvitd eo r s ounsl rd r ni 9. 3 1 d s s s t pr e va i ofne o pr vi usy unt s e s i ntt e de e upon t m oton ofa i cus e he es r ton w r e o l e t d c e ik vi nc he i pe s c r on onvi t d ofa f l ny o hi co m s l N eihe s a u e a i d t Shel' ca e be us t ce e o r s t e . t r t t t pple o l s s ca e he bi ogiala pha ma utc le de e wasdesr d bef eShel wa c ce Thus Shel ol c nd r ce i a vi nc toye or l s onvi td. , l c r te tbls et e c un e' d fce tp ro ma c o rs t p eu ief rn t kng amo sa ih ih r o s ls eiin ef r n e r eulng rj dc o o ma i i te eag me t.S eS rc a dv W a hn o 46 U. 6 , 7 8 , 9 ( 9 4 (e u rn a h s r u n s e tikln . s igtn, 6 S. 68 68 - 8 6 4 1 8 ) rq iig p tto rt e tbihc u s lsd fce t ro na c a drs l n p eu iet saeavo ai n eiine o sa ls o n e' eiin pef n n e n e ut g rj d c o tt ilto i oft Si hAme he xt ndmen) t. D. Cl m 9: Cum ul i E r or ai atve r Shela g d i sa eha scli 22 t tt ot r21sa eha l r ue n tt bea am ha he he tt beascai s whih lm , c de c i d vi a i oft Fouree h A m e e rghtt d pr e s a t Si t s rbe ol tons he t nt ndm nt i o ue oc s nd he x h A m e e rghtt t efec i a s s a e ofco m s , a r n e vac tng hi c ndm nt i o he f tve s i t nc l el w r a t d a i s onvi to . c i ns TheSu e Co tofVigi ate t d sa eha scli 22 a onelm ie t t c pr me ur r ni r a e t t bea am s i t d o he umultve ai i fe tve s ofc ne f c i ne s ouns be us t Cour dimi s d t o he sa eha sc am sas el ca e he t s s e he t r t t bea l i pr dur l ba r The Cour hel t tt c ul tve e orc a m w asm e il s be a e Shel oce aly r ed. t d ha he um a i n' l i rtes c us l f l t e t i h a Si h A m e aied o s abls xt ndm e de i to ofe f tve c nt pr va i n f ec i ouns l a t ,c e , nd hus ouns l s e' e ai al der sc dnotwarntva tngt con ci .( s tsEx. p.8) umultve lege ror oul ra cai he vitons Rep'' H, . Th Co r' aj d c to o t i cam wa n ih rc nrr t no a u ra o a ea pl aino e u ts du iain f hs li s et e o tay o r n n e s n bl p i to f c f de a 1 and wa notba e on a unr a ona e dee m i ton oft f t i t sa eco t e r l aw s sd n e s bl tr nai he ac s n he tt ur rc r Se . . , tik a d 4 6U. a 6 7 8 , 9 (e urn ap tto e t etb ih e od. e eg.S rc ln , 6 S. t 8 - 8 6 4 rq iig eiin r o sa ls c e' dei intpef ma ea r uli prj c t saeavi ai oft Si h ouns ls tce ror nc nd es tng eudie o tt olton he xt Ame nt. ndme ) 25 Shelsmia l co pli i Cli 9t tt al ge vi ai nsoff de a 1w des rbe l i lry m a ns n am ha he le d olto e rl a ci d i t f de a ha a pe ii c ul tve y w a r ntva a i hi c n he e r l be s tton um a i l r a c tng s onvi to . Fort r as c i ns he e ons ale dydic s d, 1Cl mse ept2,3,8() a 9aenotpr pel beor t sc ta Shel r a suse al ai xc a, nd r o ry f e hi our, nd l ca tr l upon t m t a gue a û um ul tve' vi a i n off de a l w . Furhe nno e y he o r t c a i ' ol t o e rla t nnor t co t e, he ur deemi dt tCl ms2,3,a 8()dono warntgrntngha sr i ,a t , tr ne ha ai nd a t ra a i bea elef nd hus no c ul tve eror e ss Acc di y,Cl m 9 doe note il pe ii rt r le . um a i r xi t . or ngl ai s ntte ttone o e i f lAJ l c l i n, hec 'fndst tt moton t dim ism us begr nt d be us Shels n oncuso t oul i ha he i o s s t t a e ca e l' j2254cai aepr e al dea tdordono e il hi t fdea ha asr i .An l ms r oc durly fule t ntte m o e rl be elef a o i t or rw ili s t sda ppr pra e de l s ue hi y. Pe ii ri a s d t them a a ttone s dvi e ha y ppea t sdec s on,pur uantt Rul 3 a 4 oft l hi ii s o es nd he Fe e a Ru e o Ap elt Pr c d r ,faj d eo teUntd Sae Co r o Ap asf rt e d rl ls f p l e o e u e i u g f h ie tts u t f pe l o h a Fourh Cic to t sc tis ac tfc t ofa aa lt purua t 28U. C.j225 $. t rui r hi our sues eriiae ppe lbiiy, s nt o S. 3( A c tf c t ofa erii a e ppea a lt m a i s onl i t a i a ha m a a s t tals i of l biiy y s ue y f he pplc nt s de ubsan i how ng t de a ofac ttto lrght I j2253()1 . Thec tfndst tpeiine hasfie t he nil onsiuina i . d. c( ) our i ha tto r ald o dem ons r t C s t nta s w i oft de a ofa c ns iutona r ght'a t r f e t ta e 1 ubsa i l ho ng he ni l a o tt i l i ' nd he e or , he c u t e l e t is ea c riiaeo a p aa iiyp ru n t Rue2 ( )o t eFe ea Rue o r d ci s o su ny e t c t f p e lblt u s a t o l 2 b f h d r l ls n f ofAppelt Pr dur Se MilrElv.Coc el 537U. 3 ( ) Slc v. c nil 5 lae oce e. e lekrl, S. 22 2003 ; a k M Da e, 29 U. 47 ( S. 3 2000) l peii ri e t appe a s e ac riiaeofa lbiiyfom t . f ttone ntnds o al nd e k e tfc t ppeaa lt r he U nied St t Cour ofA ppe l f rt Fourh Cic t hi fr ts e i t f l a notce ofa t a es t a s o he t r ui, s i s t p s o ie i ppea l wih t sco t ihi 3 da oft daeofe r oft sme o a mn opi on a t t hi ur w t n 0 ys he t nty hi m r nd ni nd he a c pa ng or r o wihi s h e ende pe i ast c tm ay g a ptr ua t Rul c om nyi de , r t n uc xt d rod he our r nt l s nt o e 26 4()5 .TheClr i die tdt s ndc e oft sme a um o ni anda compa ng a( ) ek s rce o e opis hi mornd pi on c nyi or rt t pe ii ra t c de o he ttone nd o ouns lofr c d f t r s e e or or he e ponde . nt x r: 'i A9%a ospe e,02 xe R:r s y h y fetmbr21. 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