Graybill v. Clarke, No. 7:2011cv00331 - Document 63 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 7/31/2012. (tvt)
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CLER/: oppi: t s. t4. r t: l ot 'COURT r l AT ROANQrf, vz VA ' Fl:t L 3 I T H E UN I N TED STATES DI STR I C O U RT CT FO R TH E W ESTERN DI STRI O F VI NI CT RGI A R O A NO K E D I ISIO N V JUL 3 1 2 1 22 J A C. ULI DUDLEY CLERK -, BY: .#. . z DEP C EF I PAUL C.GM YBI JR. LL, , Case No.7: cv11- 00331 Pe i i r, t tone V. M EM O M ND U M O PINIO N H A R O LD W .CLA RK E,D I ECTO R, R By: Jam e C.Tur s k Seni U nied StatesD i ri Judge or t st ct R espondent . Peii r Pa C.Gr y l, r (k tto r'o ûGrybil', oc edi pr s ,fld a ttone , ul a bilJ .s iine ' r G a l' pr e ng o e ie pe ) Peiinf aW rtofHa sCor purua t 28U. C.j225 ( . 1 .Res tto or i bea pus s nt o S. 4, DktNo. ) ponde nt fldaM oint Dimis ( tNo 3 ) a daS p lme tl s n e ( t No 5 ) a tr ie to o s s, Dk . . 6 , n u p e n a Repo s , Dk . . 5 , fe Peii ra nde hi cl ms ( . 33) Peii rrple t Res ttone me d s ai , DktNo. . ttone e id o ponde ' Supplme al nts e nt Res e.( . 62) c di y,t matri now rpef de son.Fort r s ns pons DktNo. .Ac or ngl he te s i or cii he ea o sa e be ow ,Re ponde ' M oton t D im i si G R ANTED a t Pe ii f a W rtof tt d l s nt s i o s s s nd he tton or i H a asCor i D ENI . be pus s ED 1. Fact and ProceduralBackground ual The Pe ii rw asco c e a t i li t Cic tCour ofBot t t ttone nvi t d t r a n he r ui t e our Count ofunl wf y a ul womdiga do j c s x a pe erto o J n 2 , 0 .( tNo. 8 3a 16 .Hewa t n n b e t e u l n tain n u e 6 2 08 Dk . 3 - t - ) s sntnc dt 1 ye r i prs (d..Viwe i t lghtmos fvorbl t t Commonwe 1h, e e e o 0 as n ion. l ) e d n he i t a a e o he at t e de e pr en e a ti li de c i d be ow . 1 he vi nc es t d t r a s s r be l lThef t a e a ed fom t V igi aCour ofAppeal'or denyi Gr ybilspe ii f appe . ac s r dapt r he r ni t s der ng a l' tton or al Grybil Co nwe lhofVigni, 22 108 3( CtApp. b.2 20 ) a lv. mmo at r i a No. 3 - - Va. . Fe 3, 09 . 1 On Se e be 9,2006,t vitm enc nt r d Gr y l a a l alma ke .The vitm ptm r he c i ou e e a bil t oc r t ci kne Grybilbutdi no know Grybilsc w a l, d t a l' ompani RuselBowl ($ wls'.Thevitm, on, s l es C Bo e ' ) ci wh wa 40y asoda t etmeo tilh ds f rdh a ij re i ac ra cd n a a o s e r 1 t h i f ra, a ufe e e d nu is n a c ie t s t ena ra w a una e t drve He as d Gr ybilf a rde t hi hom e i Roa e ge nd s bl o i . ke a l or i o s n noke, igi a V r ni a Gr bilag e d. nd ay l r e Gry il r vd dt ev ci wi b e a dmai a ad igterd .Enr uet a bl p o ie h itm t e r n r u n urn h ie h j ot o Roa noke Gr y l s o d by hi taie and i t t vi tm i i e t w a t The vi tm s ton , a bil t ppe s r lr nvied he c i ns d o i . ci a t s f a c i d t dr nk be r G r ybilga t vi tm a ope Co o be rt drnk. A he o a nd ontnue o i e . a l ve he c i n n r na e o i s t i l t ,Gr ybila Bowlsa ke t vitm i hesilwan e ardet Roa hor tme aer a l nd e s d he c i f tl td i o noke The . vitm r s nde a fr a i l a sa t wa ki t t door Onc sa ng,t vi tm ci e po d fim tve y nd t red l ng o he . e tndi he ci notc d hi çl gs f l a ltl bi te bl ' nd w e e f oi outa lt tm e' a i he w e e i e s le e t ite t r m y' a r t ng g l he i ' s f r i t ca e The vi tm adm it d t c um i be w e n s ve a t n be st tni t bu n oxi t d. ci te o ons ng t e e n nd e er ha gh , t t s ii d t tba e on prordrnki e renc st ta oun ofbe r woul no ha a f c ed e tfe ha s d i i ng xpe i e ha m t e d t ve f e t hi i t tm a r H e f t rt s i i d he f l t i e bef e r c ng Gr l ' t uc By t m n ha nne . urhe e t fe elw c or ea hi aybils r k. he tm e Bo l shel d hi i o t t uc t vi tm c ul no s k a had difculy f elng hi i w e pe m nt he r k, he c i o d t pea nd fi t e i s l gs A s ttm e l t r he l tcons ous s e . hor i a e , os ci nes . Thevi tm ' ne r c l c i w a Gr ybild a i hi by hi pant outoft tuc c i s xt e ole ton s a l r gg ng m s s he r k and r m ovi hi pa s The vi tm c i e ng s nt . c i ontnued t ha no f lng i hi l . G r ybils ood o ve ee i n s egs a l t be nd t vi tm ,m a a t usi m oton, nd s a m e t vi tm ' he d i o t t u k a hi he c i de hr tng i a l m d he c i s a nt he r c co eoftm e . Thevi tm he r Gr ybils y d tup t r lket t' The Gr ybilsa me upl i s ci a d a l a û Ge he e i ha . ' n a l lm d t vitm' he da i a pe tae t vitm' r t wih s t ngûg l )hot' The he ci s a gan nd nertd he ci s ecum t omehi lve' . y ' vi i s Gr l' çf s ng som et ng' and t Bowl s ood behi hi . The vi i ctm aw aybils tace ayi hi ' hen es t nd m ctm f l hi r c um be ng pe ta e aga n a û i down' o t i i The vi tm ' ne t et s e t i ne r t d i nd s ng cool ' n he ns de. ci s x r oleci n wasofbengpus ou oft tuc i hi ft rsdrve ec l to i hed t he r k n s ahe ' i way. Eve ual t vitm nt ly,he c i cr wl d i o hi f t r shous a g i o be a e nt s a he ' e nd ot nt d. The ne m o ni t vi tm w a bl e ng f om hi r c um a hi t e h wer br ke xt r ng, he c i s e di r s et nd s e t e o n. Thec oth ofhi pan sw a s ked i bl r c s t s oa n ood.For i t si de e mi d t bl be o ensc e tng t r ne he ood l nged onl t t vi tm . H ow e ,Gr bil sDN A wa r c r f o a s ai on t ty a e oft y o he c i ver ay l' s e ove ed r m t n he l r a he vitm ' boxe s t. Thevitm t d hi f t rt tt m e ha r pe hi a hi f t r ci s r hors c i ol s ahe ha wo n d a d m nd s ahe c ldt polce.W henDe t Ke nHi arved(t put Hi ',hevitm sae heha ale he i puy vi x ri sDe y x' t ci ttd ) d be n a s ule by Gr ybila aCa asa ma hedi notknow. Thevitm coul no pr de e sa td a l nd uc i n n d ci d t ovi Gr ybil ss r eta es buts a ed t ta l ng d i way 1 d u t G r ybils ta l ra t a l' te ddr s t t ha o r ve e p o a l ' r ie nd he drve a w a ga ed w ih a sr ofe e t i wi e H e alo t d De t H i t the had r dde i i w y s t t tand l c rc r . s ol pu y x ha i nn a r orm a oon c or d w o k t uc w ih w hie o i. ed r ol e r r k t t nt De y Hi a qui e Gr ybilsadd e sa vi ie hi ta l ri m edi t l upon l a ng put x c r d a l ' r s nd s t d s r ie m a ey e vi t vi tm ' hous A t c m a c ng t vi tm ' des r p i w a pa ke o s de t t a l ra he c i s e. nz k t hi he c i s c i ton s r d ut i he r ie nd a s ngl sr nd ofe ec r c w ie ga e t drve a i e ta l ti r t d he i w y. Dee tveNes Tole (i t tveTo1e ' ta po tdt vitm t t hos tl The tci lon ly i eci De 1y' rns re he ci o he pia. ) vitm wa ble ngpr us l a una et stdo Annet Tapl (éNureTa ey',he ci s e di of ey nd bl o i wn. te r ey d s pl ' t l f e i nur e w ho e m i d t vi tm , e t vi tm had a br ke f ontt h a eihe or ns c s xa ne he c i not d he c i o n r 00t nd t r bnls sorbr n bl ves e son hi f e a se um ,lf br hi a poseror Heha ie oke ood s l s or he d, t m e t ow, p, nd t i . d a tona br sng on hi f e l ,a w e la m uli e a a i t hi a om e c t knee , ddii l ui i s or a' s l s tpl br s ons o s bd n, hes , m s e bow s a f e nns H e al o ha bls e ed,o n w ounds o hi butoc t w e e c i t nt l , nd or a . s d itr pe n s t ks hat r ons s e wih abur a blse sa a asonson bot ha .Nur eTa pl y a s not d t tt vitm t n nd it r nd br i h nds s r e lo e ha he ci c d note a n t pr s nce ofw hie ad i on hi a m s oul xpl i he e e t hesve sr . 3 Thevi tm wa i s muc pan t tNur eTa pl y ha difc t pe f mi ar cal ci sn o h i ha s r e d f uly ror ng e t e mi to Bot sde oft a lope ngwee'veyrda s ln, r (ndjtnd rt xa nain. h i s he na ni r ç r e nd wole ha d a e e o ghe t h. Taplyde ci t i dit a e aoundt ana ope ngasSaw'a t q ouc ' r e s rbed he mme ae r a r ' he l ni s ' nd r br s d. She not a s a lt rt tc i d t ooz bl d. l he opi on, he vi tm ' ui e ed m l ea ha ontnue o e oo n r ni t ci s bl e ng orgi t d f om i i hi r c tm r t rt n f om t s a l ea a t a lope ng, e di i na e r ns de s e tl a he ha r he m l t r t he na ni b ts ewa u a et v s aiehsitr a ij re b c u eis rigas o ei t h srcu u h s n bl o iu lz i nen lnu is e a s n e t n c p no i e t m wo dha be n t pa nf .The vitm not t thec i d t haver tlpan f s ve a ul ve e oo i ul ci ed ha ontùue o eca i or e r l w e ks a trt i de a s f r d f om e osve di r he e fe he nci nt nd uf e e r xpl i a r a. Dr t tng r vea e t tt vi tm ' urneco anedpr c i i media i : ug esi e l d ha he ci s i nt i es rpton c tons a ti y i a c l nza ne.A f r nsct c ogitt tfe t ta ti ylnei ace r mirpt lne nd ycobe pi o e i oxi ol s esiid ha mirpt i s ntal ne v s t m de es a t tc n c us dr s ne s di zi s di ore a i n,a l k of r ous ys e pr s nt ha a a e ow i s , z nes , s i nt to nd ac m us l c nt ol Cyc obe prne,o fe r l i a t rde es a w hi h c n r ul i ce o r . l nza i r l xe i, s no he pr s nt c a es t n dr snes a l k ofm us l c di ton. The f e i t c ogita s t s ii d t ta c ow i s nd ac c e oor na i or nsc oxi ol s l o e t fe ha l ohol woul e nc t efec soft dr .Thevitm de edhewast ki anypr s rpton d nha e he f t he ugs ci ni a ng e ci i med c ton a t tmeoft i de . i a i t he i he nci nt W he t polc viie Gr l' taie on Se t mt r 1 2006, a l s w t m n he ie st d aybils r lr p e be 0, Gr ybil a he a oa h a es pe w ih Bowl st ough t ba k w i ppr c nd ca d t e hr he c ndow . The t o m en t n t a l d by bus w he r ve e t N o t Ca olna A f d l t r D e e tve Tole a s x o he ofi e ss a che Gr ybils o r h r i . ew ays a e , t c i l y nd i t r f c r e r d a l' t a l r W hie t ofi e sf r ie . l he fc r ound neihe de es a m e c tons norbl i t taie , l y t r pr s nt di a i ood n he r l r Tole f und duc t pei atas c n t twa û a d a ound lkei wa wr ppe a ound s one' o t a n r h a ha s t ppe r wr i t s a d r ome s a m s a . .had be n c of . D e e tve Tole r m e be e t pr s nc ofa r nd . e ut f' t c i ' l y e m r d he e e e dhesve on t i he vi i ' ar s. For c t tng reveal DN A on t t w hi bel ctm s m ensi esi ed he ape, ch onged t bot Gr l and o h aybil t vi tm . Add tonaly, he vi tm ' hai wasf he c i ii l t ci s r ound o t s i ky sde oft t pe. n he tc i he a Polc a r t d Gr ybilon Ocobe 3, i e rese a l t r 2006.Appr m ael t we kslt r Gr ybil oxi t y wo e a e , a l r s e t s a t De ec i Tole The i t r e be w e Gr ybila D e ec i Tole eque t d o pe k o t tve l y. n e vi w t en a l nd t tve l y wa tpe .l t eitr iw, ihwa p a e i f 1t tej r , a b l frtsae h wa td s a d n h n e ve wh c s ly d n ' 1o h u y Gry il is ttd e n e u t s a t Det tve Tole t c a iy t the a t vi tm ha c e ua s x o t ni t o pe k o ec i l y o l r f ha nd he c i d ons ns l e n he ght he v ci wa ij rd.Gr y ilhe sae t a h ha h dc nsns a s xwi t evci o tre it m snue a b lt n ttd h t e d a o e u l e t h itm n h e h pro oc asonsa t t scoul beveiidbyCl sW rnn(1 r m' .Grybilcamedhe ir c i nd hathi d rfe ui e i el ' a l li W ) t d W r nn a thi prors xua e ount sw ih t vi tm . D e ec i Tole s ol e bou s i e l nc er t he c i t tve l y poke t W r n o en abo t s c a m sa W r nn deni d a know l dge oft e oun er . A l o durng t ut he e l i nd e e ny e he nc t s s i he i t r iw,Gr ybilsa e t thi DNA woul no bef und on t vitm .Fi l t wa dst n e ve a l t t d ha s d t o he c i naly, o r he e oft i er e Gr ybili c t d t thet htt c ewaspoltc l motva e nd he nt viw a l ndi a e ha houg he as ii aly i t d. Grybilhie a i si t ,SueRube (inve tgaorRube 'ortt ' t asit a l rd n nve tgaor z s si t l z' i ubez' o ss l ) hi wih hi de e e.l tga o Rube viie Gr ybilstal rt ce.Prort heri ta vii m t s f ns nvesi t r z st d a l' r ie wi i o niil st on N o m be 15, ve r 2006, Rubez w a i onne t tt vi tm ha f le a br ke hi t h ne r s nf d ha he c i d a l n nd o n s 00t a t ba hr . Rubez f he t oom ound a br n t t i t ha l a be w ee t bedr oke 00 h n he lw y t n he oom a t nd he ba hr . The DN A i t t h m a c d t vi tm ' DN A . N e r y a yea a t rt i i nt t oom n he 00t t he he c i s al r f e he nc de , Gr ybilt d l si t Rube t r t t Gr ybilstal ra l f bl sansont a l ol nve tgaor z o eum o a l' r ie nd ook or ood t i he c p e i t s me a e a whe et br ke t t wa f a t n he a r a s r he o n 00 h s ound. Rube f z ound af i san i t ant t i n he ha l a The ca pe a a ed t ha bee c e ne a pr vi l puled fom t f oor On t lw y. r t ppe r o ve n l a d nd e ous y l r he l . he r ver e sde oft c r tRube f e s i he a pe z ound a l r s a n t tha s e t ough f om t s f e a ge t i ha d e ped hr r he ur ac . The s a n c a ne t vi i ' bl t i ont i d he ctm s ood. Gr ybilt t s and i hi own def ns H e de ed d uggi t vi tm oras a tng a l ook he t n s e e. ni r ng he c i s uli hi . H e t tfe t the a t vi tm ha had co e ua s x i t pas . He f t rs a e m es ii d ha nd he c i d ns ns l e n he t ur he t t d t the Bo l ,a t vi tm had enga d i s xua r a i i hi t a l ron Se em be 9, ha , w es nd he c i ge n e l el tons n s r ie pt r 2006.Gr ybile ane t tt vi tm bur hi s fwhe hef l a knocke ove t lt a l xpl i d ha he ci ned m el n e l nd d r wo i c ndl . The m e had be n w a c ng por a a Gr ybilbound t vi tm w ih t pe a a es n e t hi nogr phy nd a l he c i t a t tevci srq e t Gr y l sae t a tevitm' rca ij re we et r s lo a o h r h itm' e u s. a bi ttd h th ci s e tlnu is r he e ut f n t e l f l whiet m e wer i t ba ht t t r Gr ybilwa d gial m a pultng t vi tm ' al l he n e n he t ub oge he . a l s i t ly ni a i he ci s a uswhe t vi tm si n n he ci lpped a f l on Gr ybilsha Thevitm wa ble ng a Gr ybil nd e l a l' nd. ci s e di nd a l a Bow l of e ed t t hi t t hos t l butt vi tm r f e a a ke i t d t be nd es f r o ake m o he pia , he c i e us d nd s d ns ea o t ke home.W he Bowl wakedt vitm t t doo o t ta lr t vitm wa a r a a n n es l he c i o he r f he r ie , he ci s ng y nd t d Gr ybila Bowl t tt y wo d be(s r ' a l a Bo e r t nedt t taie ol a l nd es ha he ul tory. 'Gr ybil nd wl s eur o he r lr a cl a d u t bl and s le wax f o t c ndl s nd e ne p he ood pil d r m he a e . Aft bei convi ed i t Cicui Cour ofBot ourtCount Pettonerappeal hi er ng ct n he r t t et y, ii ed s co c i ns t t Cour ofA ppe sofV igi a c le ng t s t c enc oft nvi to o he t al r ni , ha l ngi he ufi i y he Com m o e t s e d e. The Cour ofAppea sofVi g ni de e hi pe ii f a a o nw alh' vi enc t l r i a ni d s tton or ppe l n Fe ua y 23,2009. Pe ii rt n a br r ttone he ppea e t t Supr m e Cour ofV igi a, hi h al o l d o he e t r ni w c s r f e hi pe ii n f appe on Se t m be 8, 9. e us d s tto or al p e r 200 The ea t r Pe ii rt l d a sa e ha sco puspe ii i t Supr m e Cour of r fe , ttone i e t t bea r tton n he e t Vigi a. He s eque l a e d t tpeii n.Bewe n t i tala ame d peii , r ni ubs nty m nde ha tto t e he nii nd nde ttons Gr ybilr s d 27 c am s TheSupr meCour ofVigi adim is t habe pe ii on J y a l aie li . e t r ni s s ed he as tton ul 5, 1 a Pettone di no fl f r he rng. 201 , nd ii r d t ie or e a i On J y 8,2011 Pe ii rtmel fl dhi pr s ntf r lhabe c puspe ii i ul , ttone i y ie s e e ede a as or tton n whi h he r i e 29 cl i s 2 Pettone w a s e nty g an e l ve ofCour t f l a c asd am . ii r s ubs que l r t d ea t o ie n 2Gr bilshabeas petton di notls al ofhi cl ms i one centall i r hert y wer s e ay l' ii d it l s ai n r ocaton; at he e pr ad t oughouthi l hy s ison. l s equentt i Gr l appea st cont tt manneri whi hr s engt ubm s i n ubs ilngs aybil r o es he n ch t Commonwea1h a t Cour have consr hi cl ms. The Cour has lber l consr he t nd he t tued s ai t i aly tued Grybilscl ms Gor on v.Le k ,5 F.d 1 4 1 51 (t Ci.1 )(ttng c rsmus lbeal a l' ai , d e e 74 2 1 7, 1 4 h r 978 sa i ou t t i rl y 6 Am e d Petton.Bec us oft vol no naur ofPeii r sprortlngs t Co t nde ii a e he umi us t e ttone ' i ii ,he ur diec e Pe ii rt ti he w i he t s i a a to c a m she w ast do s co i e y r t d ttone ha f s d o ubm t ny ddii nal l i o o nc s l a wihouts nd t uppori doc ntr e bis ( . 27 .TheAme tng ume ay xhi t. DktNo. ) ndedPeii at tton, lhough notc s byt sCour' dei ton o t ttr r ie 1 cams ( . 33) The oncie hi ts fnii f ha em, as d 7 li . DktNo. . Am e d Petton m ade r f e e t pr vi l s it d doc e a y e bisa i l d nde ii e er nc o e ous y ubm te um nt r xhi t nd nc ude l gala gum e i a ton t a ls ofc ai s Se r loft 1 c a m sw e e duplca i ofor e r nt n ddii o it l m . ve a he 7 l i r i tve c os l r l t d t c a m sr i ed i t i ta f e a ha spe ii .3 The Cour a l l e y e a e o l i a s n he nii l ed r l bea tton t lowed t he Co mmonwe lht fl as e ntt isprormoto t dimis(t e nt Repons' t at o ie upplme o t i in o s s ûsupplme al s e' o ) a e st s 1 a tona c ai s a t add es t a i a lt oft Supr m e Cour ' r e ddr s he e 7 ddii l l m nd o r s he pplc biiy he e ts ec nt de ii i M a tne v.Rvan,1 S. .1 09,1 8( 2 .( . 55) Peiine wa cson n ri z 32 Ct 3 31 201 ) DktNo. . tto r s pe m it d t r pl t t Com m onwe t s Suppl m e alRe po e on orbe or M a 27,201 r te o e y o he alh' e nt s ns f e y 2. ( . 53 .Peii rrquese a e e i oftmeuntlJ 24,201 ( . 57 ,ha DktNo. ) ttone e td n xtnson i i une 2, DktNo. ) t t t Cour gr nt , ( . 60 .Peioner he t l rple ( . 62) he t a ed DktNo. ) tt 4 i t n i y e id. DktNo. . me c sr pr s pe digs, c ma h v r s td i s bdi sono camsGryb lc sde st b o on tue o e la n ) whih y a e e ule n u vii f li a il on i r o e ne cai ( eDk No,6 a 4)(e e i al camsa 1 cams. Co r r t Grybilss geto l m. Se t 2 t rnumb rng l li s 4 li ) ntay o a l' ug sin t i do sno prj die Gry l bu rte e u e te Co r h c nsd r d e r po sbe gr n f r hs e t eu c a bil t ah r ns r s h u t as o ie e vey s il ou d o r i . elef 3Ad to lCli 3 i p rily d iai o Orgn Cli F( a G( ) Addii a Cli 4 i diina am s a tal uplc tve f iial am 2) nd 2 . ton l am s du iai ofOrgi lCli F( , 2 , nd0.Ad to l am 5i d iai ofOrgi lCli B, plc tve i na ams 2) G( ) a diina Cli s uplc tve i na ams D( ) a D( ) Addto lCli 6 i du iai ofCli A( . Addiin Cli 8 i du iai of 1, nd 3 . iina am s plc tve am 9) to al am s plc tve Orgna Cli L( ) Addiina Cli 9 i d plc tv ofOrgna Cli i A( ,A( ) a d L( . ii l am 1 . to l am s u iaie ii l ams n 6) 7 , n 2) Addii Cl m 11 i duplcatve of Orgi Cl m 1 Addii Cl m 1 i duplcatve ofOrgi tonal ai s i i i nal ai . tonal ai 4 s i i i nal Cli A( a A( .Ad to lCli 1 i d plc tv o Cli D( )a D( ) Addiin Cli 1 ams 2) nd 4) diina am 5 s u iaie f ams 1 nd 3 , to al am 6 i duplca i ofOrgi Cl m sM and P. Fi l Addii Cl m 1 i duplc i ofOrgi Cl m s i tve i nal ai naly, tonal ai 7 s iatve i nal ai A( ) 5. 4 I hi r y, Peii e sae ta te C t ne Ge e a i rs nsbl f r g s i biiy t rs n n s epl tton r tts h t h û or y n r l s e po i e o hil na lt o e po d At a c rt y (n c cs l t t mo in t dimis' ( t No.61a l. Hego on t e pli t ti c u ael a dj on iey o he to o s s . Dk . ' t) es o x an ha s b c us t ç D. C.)(oo p s s i lf alg s p ro lp o ry,glg flsa t e e tr e a e he ç va. O. ( t kq ose son o j 1 hil e s na r pe t le al ie nd h nie c s peiin tl r c r wih alp p ra d lga b ok . (d.. Fi l h saesh wa tob d o a e tto ii e o d t 1 a e n e l o s' l ) nal e tt e s : be f ng ' y, r ( s fna sve da ofp e r ton tme t twa g a te )by t s Cou t' (d.a 12 . Ho v r hiq i l e n ys r paai i ha s r n ld hi r. 1 t - ) ' we e , Pe ii r doesnots a e wha addii ar e s he woul have made i gi m or tme. Nor does ttone tt t tonal gum nt d f ven e i Pettc accountf t f t t Courtgave hi a l hy i talr y tme lm i a s equenty iimer or he act hat he m engt nii epl i i t nd ubs l gr nt Pe ii ' ext nson r ques. a ed ttoners e i e t 7 ll. St andard ofR e ew vi A . Sum m ary Judgm entStandard S mma yj d me tma beg a tdo l wh ndheei n g n i ds t a t a y u r u g n y r ne ny e k r s o e une ipue s o n t mae il a ta dt mo a t se tte t j g n a amatro lwa Fe R. v. 5 () tra f c n he v n i n i d o ud me t s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 a. l ' Mor t a o i nartvei r uie t deea amotonf s e han n pposng rai s eq rd o f t i or ummayj r udgme be a e nt c us (wq e o p sn p ristlt d fee t tre , n o wh c i baa tyc n rdce b t e t h n p o ig a t el wo if rn so is o e f ih s ltn l o ta itd y h l e rc r , ota n ra o a ej y c udb le ei, c u t h ul n t d p ta v rino te e o d s h t o e s n bl ur o l eiv t a o r s o d o a o t h t e so f h fcsfrp r o e o r l o amo infrs mmayj d me t'S ot Hars 5 0U. 3 2 a t o u p s s f ui n ng to o u r u g n . c t v. ri, 5 S. 7 , ' 3 0( 0 7 .Anoh r s t r p rys p o tdmoinf rs mma yj g n 'wil o b 8 20) te wie i o e l u p re to o u r ud me t' l n t e p d e t byt e se eofmeel a fcua diput nomatrho mi ;rt r tr nl efaed he xitnc r y ny a t l s e, te w nor ahe,éoj y di put ove f c s t tm i hta f c t out om e oft s tunde t g s es r a t ha g f e t he c he ui r he over ng 1 w w il ni a l p o el p e ld t ee tyo s mmayj d me t' An e s nv. b ry Lo b . n .4 7U.. r p ry r cu e h n r f u r u g n. d ro Li e t b y I c, 7 S ' 2 2 2 7 4 ( 9 6 .Towi tndas mmayj d me t to , h n n mo i gpat mu t 4 , 4 -8 1 8 ) t a hs u r u g n moin t e o - v n ry s pr oduc co pe e te de s f c en t r vea t e s e e ofa ge ne i s ofm a era f c e m t n vi nce ufi i t o e l he xit nc nui s ue t il a t f til Thomps v. oma Elc. or ra. on Pot c e PowerCo.31 F.d645,649( h Ci. , 2 3 4t r 2002) Neihe . tr co l o y alega i nsnort pr nc us r l t o he oduc i ofa i e e s i il ofe denc ' i s ton t r c ntla vi e ' n uppor ofa nonm t mo i gp ry sc s s fie t f rsal u r j d me t L. I c s swhee(h rs l i v n a t' a e u fc s o o etl s mmay u g n . d n a e . a r t e e ut s t obvi ,' s dont pl di ,s ous'ba e he ea ngs ummayj r udgme s dbegane Bosikv. e ns nt houl r td. tc Stve on, 58 F.d 1 1 ( h Ci.2009) 9 3 60, 65 4t r . B. A ED PA ' D e er ntalSt S f e i andar ofR e e d vi w Fe r c t gantha a rle I yont gr t tghepettone li i c t i deal ours r be s eifç onl he ound ha t ii r s n usody n vi ai oft Co tt i orlwsorte te oft Unie Stts' 28U. C.j225 $. olton he nsiuton a rais he td ae .' S. 4( Purua t t rf msoft Anie im a Efe tveDe t Pe lyAc (S s nt o he eor he ttnors nd fci ah nat t C AEDPA' a ), 8 f d r l a e sc u t yn tga th b a rle i t r s e t a y dam t t sa j d c td e e a h b a o r ma o rn a e s eif s h ep d o n i ha wa du iae wi o t meis'nsaec u t ne st esaec u t d u iain( )te utdi ad cso t a n he rt'i tt o r u ls h tt o r a j dc to 1 f s le n e iin h t r w a c r r t ora unr as bl a i a i of c ea l e t bls d Fe r l w , de e m i d s onta y o, n e ona e pplc ton , l r y s a i he de al a as t r ne byt SuprmeCour oft UniedStt ,' U. C.j2254( () o ( çe uledi a he e t he t aes'28 S. d)1, r 2) i s t n r de s on t tw asbas d on an unr a ona e de e m i to oft f c s i lg oft e de e ci i ha e e s bl t r na i n he a t n i ht he vi nc prs nt i t sat cour pr ee ng. 28U. C.j2254()2) Fort pur e of28U. C. e e ed n he t e t oc di ' ' S. d ( . he pos s S. j2 5 ( )1, na j iaino t meisa pl st al li ta weer a h da dd cd di 2 4 d () a dudc to n he rt p i o l cams h t r e c e n e ie n e s a e c t e n i de i d i s m a y f s on. t t our , ve f c de n um r a hi A s a e c t c s on i ( ontar t ' he Supr m e Co tscl ary esa i he pr ce n t t our de i i s s r y o' t c e ur ' e l t bls d e de t i ( )t saeco tS ri a ac usonoppost t t tr c byt SuprmeCour a a f 1 he tt ur i rves t oncl i a ie o ha ea hed he e ts matrofl 'o ( t sat cou tS onfont fct t taemae ilyi si s bl fo a te aw' r 2) he t e r t r s a s ha r tral nditnguiha e r m c r l va tSu e e Co t e ede a a rve a a r s toppost ' t t tr ac d by t e e n pr m ur pr c nt nd r i s t e ul ie ' o ha e he he Sup e Cour.W ila v. yl ,529U. 362,405( r me t lims Ta or S. 2000) Byc r s,asaec t . onta t tt our de i i n c tt e a k ea o bl ap i t o ' cl a l es a i hed f de a l w i t s a e c s o ons iut s n ç unr s na e plca i n' of e r y t bls e r l a f he t t c t()i ntfe t core tlgalr ebutunr s y a isi t t fcsoft pa tc ar our 1 de iis he r c e ul eaonabl pple t o he a t he riul c e;( unr s na yextndsalga prncpl fom SuprmeCo 'prce ntt ane c e as 2) ea o bl e e l i ier e ul e de o w ontxt t wheei s dnota y;or( d e ona yr usst e e t tprncpl t ane c e r t houl ppl 3)t as bl ef e o xtnd ha i i e o w ontxt unr wher i s d a y.' I a 407. e t houl ppl ' d. t A fd r l itit o r stigi rv e o asaec u tu g n mu t fo d d frn e e ea dsrc c u t i n n e iw f tt o rj d me t s a fr ee e c t t t saec tdeer nai See28U. C.j2254( o he tt our t mi ton. S. *.TheSu e Cour hase ane prme t xpli d t tj225 d)c ansal ghl de ee i sa r f e l tngsae-our r i 't t ha 44 onti t y f rntal tndad or vauai tt c t ulngs'ha hi Cdem andst s at courtdeci i be gi t beneftoft doubt' W oodf d v.V i oti û hat t esons ven he i he .' or sci t, 537U. 1 24( S. 9, 2002)( rcurn (ntr quotto maksomitd) I ed,i t c s ofa pe im) i enal ain r te . nde n he a e n 9 C e ona ea ia i ' he Supr m eCo tha e pli t tbe a e a i pplc ton mus t as bl pplc ton't unr e ur s x aned ha c us n ç ia i a t beç j tvel t e ona e''beor aco tma grntha a rle,t obeci y mras bl ' f e ur y a be s eif L AEDPA t i e a hus mpos s i ghl def e i lsa r f e l tng s a e co t ulngs '' R e co v.Le t 1 S. .1 hi y er nta t nda d or va ua i t t - ur r i .' ni t, 30 Ct 855, 1 6 ( 01 ) Ant n e s n bea piain'i n ts n n mo swi er rbe a etth 8 2 2 0 . i r a o a l p lc to 's o y o y u t ro c us t l e u h g que ton unde A ED PA i notwhe he a f er lco t i vest s a e c ts d t r i to si r s t r ed a ur bele he t t our ' e e m na i n wasi or e tbutwhe he t td t nui ton wa unr a ona e a s t nta l hi r nc r c t r ha e e na i s e s bl - ubs a i ly ghe t es d.'Sc iov. ndrc 550U. 465, 3( hr hol ' hrr La ian, S. 47 2007) fde a co tma notdit bt .A e r l ur y sur he s u dj d me o tesaec u t ndln i nu ra o a l a pl ai no fd r la u ls te o n u g nt f h tt o r a i d s n e s n be p i to f e ea 1w ne s h a c sae c ur' decson leswelou sdet bo t t o ts ii i l t i he unda isofpe m isbl dif r nc sofopi on. re r s i e fe e e ni ' ' Tiev. ohns n,6 F. 87,1 ( h Ci.2011 (ntr lquottonmaksomitd) c J o 47 3d 08 4t r ) i e na ai r te . C . ProceduralD efaul t The Supr m e Cour ha e t bls t ta f der co t a notg a tha e t s s a ihed ha e al ur m y r n beasr le f r ei f o u xha t d sa ec am snotpr s n e t t hi tsa ec t O' lva v. r l 526 ne use tt l i e e t d o he ghes tt our. Suli n Boe cke, U. 838,84 (999 .Abs ntavai e us ,asaep io rmus e us hi saec r S. 2 1 ) e ld xc e tt rs ne t xha t s tt ou t r me e bef es e ng ha asco pusr ifi f r lc t Br r v.Pr t,1 F. 61 e di s or e ki be r ele n ede a our. ea d uet 34 3d 5, 61 ( h Ci.1 ) 28U. C.j225 .dl bur nofpr ngt tacai i e use le 9 4t r 998 ; S. 4*) d-he de ovi ha l m s xha td is wiht ha aspeii n' 1 (ii Malor v.Smih, F. 991 994( hCi.1 t he be ttone ' d. ctng l y t 27 3d , 4t r 994:.A pe ii rs t s i t e us i r qui e e by s ttone a i fes he xha ton e r m nt howi t tt t s nta l galt resa ng ha he ' e i l e heo i nd es fcua alegainsad e i fde a c t..gr t s meast ead nce a las onc t a t l l to vanc d n e r l our . aej he a hos va d t e t e o t hi s saec t' Pr t v.Thomps n,7 F.Supp.1 1 ( D.Va 1 ) afd he ghet tt our. uet ' o 71 428, 436 E. . 991, f' 996F. 1 ( hCi.1 .l cai aenotap o i eyr s di saec tpr ee ngs 2d 560 4t r 993) f l ms r pr pratl aie n tt our oc di t t ar procedur l def t hen hey e aly auled. 10 Fu t r e,hedocrneofpr durldefulpr dest ttgl asaeco tceal rhemor t ti oce a a t ovi ha tif tt ur l ry a e e sy bas is di m i s lo a ha a pe ii r sc a m on a sa e pr e a nle a nd xpr s l es t s s a f be s ttone ' l i t t oc dur l l , nd t tpr e alr l pr vi a i pe nta a qua e g ot d f t di m i s ,t ha s ha oc dur u e o des n nde nde nd de t r m or he s s al he bea peii rha pr e zalydefule hi fdea ha a cai ' Br ad,1 F. a 61 (ii ttone s oc dtr l a td s e rl be s l m. e r 34 3d t 9 ctng ' Colma v. e n Thomps 501U. 722,731 2( 991) Se aloTe uev. ,489U. 288, on, S. -3 1 ). e s ag Lane S. 2 ( 9 9 .Th s th e h usinrq ie n f rcamsn tfil p e e tdt tesae s 98 1 8 ) u ,l e x a to e urme t o li o ary r s ne o h tt' t hi hes c ti . .m e whe a sa e pr ed a r e w oul ba c i r ton i t c ai w a g t our s . t n t t oc ur l ul d r onsde a i f he l m s ltrprs ntdt t saec t'Mat wsv.Eva' 1 F. 907,911( hCi.1 , ae e e e o he tt our. the ' t, 05 3d t 4t r 997) ovenle o ot rgr r ld n he oundsbyUnie Sttsv. r te, F. 1 ( hCi.2011.Unde td ae Banet 644 3d 92 4t r ) r V igi a' pr d a r e pe ii ne sa e ba r d f o r i i c a m snotpr s nt i one' r ni s oce ur l ul s tto r r r e r m a sng l i e e ed n s i ta s a e ha asc puspe ii a t e c ai sw oul be dee e s ce s ve a V igi a nii l t t be or tton, s hos l m d m d uc s i nd r ni pr biss ce svesaeha aspeii . Codej8. - 4( ( ;Va.Codej8. ohi t uc si tt be ttons Va. 0165 B)2) 01 654( ( ;Has v.Le 560S. 2d256,257- ( .200 . A)2) s e, E. 58 Va 2) A pe ii rmay,howe r e us apr e al dea t cai by de ttone ve , xc e oc dur ly fuled l m monsr tng ta i et e ( )c us a da t l rj d c f rhso he fi r t e h u t cam o ( )t t i o h r i r 1 a e n cua p eu ie o i r r al e o x a s a li r 2 ha hs r e h u c i me consiuts$ mic ni geofj tc ' olev. ohns 565F. 1 1 ( h onfne nt tt e 4 sa a a usie. 'W f J on, 3d 40, 60 4t Ci. 0 9 .A p tto e c ns o c u eb d mo srt g( o o j ciefco e tra t te r 2 0 ) eiin r a h w a s y e n tai t me be tv a t r x en lo h n s dee egha)i de couns lsef t t c ywiht Stt' pr dur r e.. fns t t mpe d e' fors o ompl t he aes oce al ul . (ncudi t tt f t orl lbassf acam wa no ra ona y a lbl t co e,o i l ngj ha he acual ega i or li s t e s bl vaia e o unsl r t ts m e i e f r nce by ofi a sm a c pla e i pr c i a e. M ur av v.Ca re , U . ha o nt r e e tci l de om i nc m a tc bl ' ' r r i r 477 S. 478,488( 986 (ntr quotto maksa cttonsomitd) ma as ngof 1 ) i enal ain r nd iai te .To ke howi prj c t peii rmus de nsrt t tt co anedofc eudie he ttone t mo tae ha he mpli onduc c us dr lham t t t a e ea r o he peii r Se W anwrz v. ke , 3U. 7 8 85( 977 . ttone . e i iht Sv s 43 S. 2, 4- 1 ) Furhe m o e t Supr m e Cour r c nty hel t t f i f e tve a s s a o co e t r r , he e tee l d ha , or ne f c i s i t nce f uns l c ai s a pe ii r c n de ons r t c us t exc e hi orhe pr edu a de a ti he ors l m , ttone a m t a e a e o us s r oc r l f ul f he pr s t a û u t nta ' c ai ofi f e tve as it nc ofc e en s t bs a i l' l m s ne f c i s s a e ouns lunderSt i a Se e rckl nd. e Ma tne 1 2 S. . t1 8(ttng1 prs rma esa ihc us f adea tofa ri z, 3 Cta 31 sai $ ione y tbls a e or ful n a i f e tve a s sa cl i . .whe e a nt c ne f c i - s i t nce a m . r ppoi ed ouns i t i ta - e e cola e a el n he nii lr vi w lt r l pr ee ng,w he e t c a m s ul ha be n r i e w a i f ec i unde t s a r of oc di r he l i ho d ve e a s d, s ne f tve r he t nda ds Sti kl nd v. as ng on,' nd t tta prs rm us a s de ons r t t tt unde l ng rc a W hi t ' a ha ç i one t l o m ta e ha he ryi i f e tve as it nce of ti lco e c ai i a s t ta one whi h i t s y t tt prs r ne f c i - s s a - -r a - uns l l m s ubsan i l , c s o a ha he i one mus demonsrt t tt cli ha s mei )(ntr lcttonso te ) TheSuprme t tae ha he am s ome rf' i e na iai mitdl. e Cot t ea o t tbe a e t he i ta - e e c l t r lpr e ng i t f r tde i t u'r s ned ha c us l nii lr vi w ola e a oce di s he i s s gna ed t pr e ng f a pr s rt r i e a c ai ofi f ec i a s sa a t i ,t c l t r l oc edi or i one o a s l m ne f tve s i t nce t ral he ola e a pr e ng i i m a w a t e va e ofa prs r sdie ta oc edi s n ny ys he qui l nt ione ' r c ppea ast t i f e tve l o he ne f c i - as it nc ca m . l a 1 6.Fi ly, he Supr meCour hassa e t tt sa l i i a s ssa e li ' d. t 31 ' na l t e t tt d ha hi nayss s lo a ia et t eca e i whih t St t C d nota nta at ne t a ss t prs ri pplc bl o hos s s n c he ae ' di ppoi n tor y o s it he ione n t i ta -e e c l t r lpr e di ' s h a t p es ntc e. l a 1 7. he nii lr vi w ola e a oc e ng, uc s he r e as d. t 31 ' A p tto e d mo srtsal sara eo j sie'tr u hd a p o e s o n o eiin r e n tae t c rig f u tc , h o g û j r p r h wig f mi ' l a t li ce e.'W ole 565F. a 1 (ii Hous v.Bel 547U. 518 536- .A cua nno nc ' f, 3d t 60 ctng e l, S. , 37) peii ri l cual i ent'fIti mo elkel t nnott tnoras ej o woul ha ttone s ç t ly nnoc 'i i s r i y ha a i ha e onabl urr d ve c ctd ghepeii r i lgh oft ne e de e. Sc upv. l 51 U. 298,327 onvi e t ttonej n i t he w vi nc ' hl Deo, 3 S. ' ( 995 .Thepupos oft a t i 1 ) r e he cualnnoce ee e ini tobaa et s itli eessi nc xc pto s t lnc he ocea ntr t n t fnaiy,c t a co er to ofs rej calrs c wiht i vi li ee ti i lt omiy, nd ns vain cac udii eoures t he ndi dua ntrs n j tcet taie i t e r or naycae. I a 324.l d,hi e e i t pr du a usi ha rs s n he xta di r s ' d. t ' ndee t s xc pton o oce r l de a tr fe t s e y' Gf f ul e l c s oci t s ûundam e a val de er i ton . .t ti i f w o s t c c a nt l ue t m na i . ha t s ar r e o onvi t n l 2 inoc ntma t nt ltaguit ma g fe ' l r W i hi 397U. 358, ( 970)( ra n e n ha o e ly n o re.' n e ns p, S. 372 1 Ha ln, J,c uni ) Bec us t ssa r Cf l )t i uiyon a t i e e..hediti . onc ng . a e hi tndad kocuses he nq r cualnnoc nc .t srct c ti no bound by t r e ofa i s biiy t twoul gove n a ti l l t a t e pha i our s t he ul s dm s i lt ha d r t r a . ns e d, he m s s on l c ua i a t l nnoc nc a l st r vi wi t i lal o t c i rt pr tve f c of e e' low he e e ng rbuna s o ons de he oba i or e r e nte de t twaset re ude oruna ia ea ti .'Sc up,51 U . a 327elva vi nce ha ihe xcl d val bl t ral' hl 3 S. t 28. D . Inef i A ssi ance ofCouns St fectve st el andard M a ofGr bil scl i s f uson t a l e y i f ec i a s s a ofc ny ay l' a m oc he leg dl ne f tve s it nce ouns l e pr d by G r ybilst i land a la e couns . W ih i f e tve as i t nc cl i st c t ovi ed a l' ra ppe l t el t ne f c i s s a e a m he our l k t tefmiirS a ea dp eu ie'etd l e tdi Src lndv W a h n t n 4 6U. oo s o h a l ç us n rj dc 'ts ei ae n tika . s i co , 6 S. a c n 6 ( 9 4 .S eKn wlsv. r a a c , 5 U. 1 1 1 2 2 ( 0 9 (l d e ,h sCo r h s 68 1 8 ) e o e Miz y n e 5 6 S. 1 , 2 - 3 2 0 ) tn e d ti u t a ç rpe e ya i ( rc a t e l t i f tve- ssr ceofc elcai wheet r e atdl ppled Stiklndl o vauae nefeci asit - -ouns l ms r hee i noot rSu e Cour prce ntdie tyonpon UnderStiklnd,as c sulcli s he prme t e de rcl if). rc a uc esf am f i fe i a ssa eofc e mus esa ih()t tc e' pef ma fl beow a or nefctve sitnc ouns l t tbls 1 ha ouns ls ror nce el l n o jciesa d r o ra o a ln s, u ht a c u s l sno a tn a t c u e g a a te be t tn ad f e s n be e s s c h t o n e wa t cig s he o nsl u r ne d v b t eSxhAme me t a d( )t tb t o c u s lso j cieyu r a o a ep ro ma c , y h it nd n ; n 2 ha u f r o n e' b e tv l n e s n bl ef r n e t r i a r a ona e pr biiy t out m e oft ti lw oul ha bee di f e . Sti kl nd, he e s e s bl oba lt he co he r a d ve n f er nt r c a 466 U . a 68 S. t 7-91. l a r vi wi cour de er i t tt pe ii r s c ai f l on e t rt f e e ng t t m nes ha he ttone ' l m ais ihe he t a s 'o t ed rj d c 'p o go t eS rc ln ts,h c u tsiq iyma so tee I a G u e' r h t eu ie' r n f h tik a d et te o r' n ur y tp h r .d. t c p To e t bls defc e pe f r a e,a pe ii rm us s s a ih i i nt r o m nc ttone t how t thi tc ha s t ouns l s e' rprs nttonfl beo a o j ci sa r ofr s blne s' Stiklnd, U. a 688. e e e ai el lw n b e tve tnda d eaona e s . rc a 466 S. t ' I s doi t pettoner dm usti iy t act orom i onsofcouns t ar aleged nott n o ng, he ii t dentf he s ssi el hat e l o ha be n t r s tofr s bl pr es i lc uc . L. a 690. Co t mus ûi ul a ve e he e ul ea ona e of sona ond t' d t ' a urs t ind ge sr pr s pton't tde e eco e ' co tong e um i ' ha f ns uns ls nduc f l wihi t bo t el t n he undsofr s bl c ea ona e onduc t t a dt ditri ofhi i t Ya brug v. ohns 520F.d 329,337( hCi. o voi he so ton ndsgh. r o h J on, 3 4t r 2008) ( i Stiklnd, 6U. a 689 .I ed,ûouns i sr l prs quotng rc a 46 S. t ) nde tc els tongy e umedt ha rnde e o ve e r d ad equa e as i t nce a m a a ls g tc ntde i i ns i t exe c s ofr a ona epr e sona t ss a nd de l i nii a c s o n he r i e e s bl of s i l j g n. Src ln 46 U. a 6 0. ud me t' tika d, 6 S. t 9 ' Toe tb ihprj ie ap t in rç s s o t a t eei ar a o a l p o a ii , u sa ls eudc , ei o e û t h w h t h r s e s n be r b b ly b t t mu t f c or ouns ' unpr e s ona e r r , he r s toft pr ee ng w oul ha be n di f r nt' els of s i l r o s t e ul he oc di d ve e f e e . ' Stiklnd,466U . a 694. The Supr me Cour ha de i at ea ona e pr ba lt 'a ta rc a S. t e t s fned t s bl o biiy' s û r pr biiy s fc e t unde m i c i e i t out om e. I a 694. Spe fca l oba lt uf i i nt o r ne onfdenc n he c ' d. t ' cii ly, Gl he adefnda tc lnge ac cton,hequetoni whehe t ei ar s bl ûwl n e n hale s onvi i t si s t r her s ea ona e pr biiyt t a e gouns ls ew r,hefcfnde wo dha ha aras bl doub oba lt ha, bs nt c e'j l s t a ti r ul ve d e ona e t rs e tn g l. l . t6 5 Ho v r ta i n tos yt ep tto e mus p o ta t ej r s e p ci g ui ' d a 9 . we e ,h t s o t a h eiin r t r ve h t h u y' t' veditwoul havebe difr .Gr vv.Br nke,529F. 220,234- ( hCi.2008 rc d en feent a a r 3d 35 4t r ) (e esn a da r i gh b a r l f e a etesaec u ti a s si p eu ie a k d rv rig n wad n a e s ei b c us h tt o r,n se sng rj dc , s e e wh t e teçu ywo dn c sa i 'h v ra h dadfee tc n l i nbu f rc u s ls eh r h j r ul e e s rl ' a e e c e ifrn o cuso t o o n e' y dei e y) Unde t ssandad,çgl lkei ofadifrntr s tmus bes tnta,not fcinc . r hi t r çthe i lhood fee eul t ubsa il j s c n ev b e'Harn t nv Rih e,1 1S. . 7 , 9 ( 1. u t o c ia l. ri go . c tr 3 Ct 7 0 7 2 201 ) ' I t c extofa ha aspe ii t St i kl nd s a r ha be n d c i a 'd n he ont be tton he rc a t nda d s e es rbed s t oubl y de e e i l'be a e t de e e i lr vi w unde AEDPA ove l psw ih t de e e i s a r f r nta ' c us he f r nta e e r ra t he f r ntal t nda d unde Stiklnd.Cule v.Pi se,1 S.Ct 1 1 0-411( 1.Coursmus û ppl r rc a ln nholtr 31 . 388, 41 1 201 ) t tt y a t t o s a r s m ula usy r t rt n s que i ly, whi h ûi pos s a ve y hi b de he w t nda ds i t neo l a he ha e nta l ' c tm e ' r gh ur n f a pe ii rt o c e be aus t s s a r a e e h ç ghl def r ntal t t sa e or ttone o ver om , c e he e t nda ds r ac hi y e e i ' o he t t cou tsadudiai a û nt t a y i tnde rviw i do ys ''Ri r onv. r' j c ton nd, whe he wo ppl n a m,e e s ubl o.' chads Brnke,668F.d 1 1 ( hCi. 2)( tngHa rngt 1 S.Cta 788)(iai a r 3 28, 39 4t r 201 quoi ri on, 31 .t cttons omitd) W iht eprncplsi mi t Cour now t nst ea hofGrybilscams te . t hes i i e n nd,he t ur o c a l' li . 11 1. Di cuss on s i A. A legatons ofa Fundam ent M i l i al scarri ofJus i age tce Cons r d lbe aly,Gr ybilm a s a a t ptt r vi hi pr ed a l de a t d tue i r l a l ke n tem o e ve s oc ur ly f ule c ai s dic s d i de ai be ow ,by a gui he i û t ly i e ' oft c i e ofw hi he l m , s us e n t l l r ng s i ua l nnoc nt' he rm s ac ch wasc onvi t d bec us t s xuale ount rw ih t vi tm w a ,i f c , ce a e he e nc e t he c i s n a t cons ns l A s e ua . e pan da o e ap t in rma d mo tae< mic rig o j sie't r u hta p o e x li e b v , ei o e y e nsrt d sara e f u tc , h o g t j r p r t a ' l s ngofa t li e e. W ole, F.da 1 ( tngHous ,547U. a 536- .A howi cua nnoc nc ' ' f 565 3 t 60 cii e S. t 37) p t in ri C cu l i c n 'i tt smo el eyt a n t h tn r a o a l j r rwo l h v ei o e s i tal l e t'f d i r i l h n o t a o e s n b e u o ud a e t a y mo i k c ce (hepeii r i lghtoft ne e de .'Sc up,51 U. at327.Thus a onvitd t ttonel n i he w vi nce' hl 3 S. , s i ofa t li ce r quiesa s i ofne r i bl e de e t tt s xual how ng c ua nno nce e r how ng w ela e vi nc ha he e e ountrwa i f c c e ual Uns nc e s n a t ons ns . uppore a lga i ofi e a e i ufii t l t td le tons nnoc nce r ns fcen . n he pr s tc e, r ybilhasnotc e f wa d w ih a ne e de e, e al ne r i bl e en as G a l om or r t ny w vi nc l t one w ela e e de . Thus Gr ybilc l e us a ofhi p oce a l de a t d cl msunde t s vi nce , a l amot xc e ny s r dur ly f ule ai r hi e e i t pr e r def ul. xc pton o oc du al a t B. Pr e aly Def t d Cl m s oc dur l aul e ai 1 Orgi Cl m H () . i nal ai 1 Orgi lCli H( )fisbec us Gr bilhasnote use hi saeco trme e and i na am 1 al a e ay l xha td s tt ur e dis t cai i now pr e alybar l Cli H( )Grybila gue t tti c e wa he l m s oc dur l red. n am 1 a l r s ha ral ouns l s co tt i l i f c i f f lng t pr ve t Co m onw e 1h f om us ng V igi a sRa ns iutonaly nef e tve or aii o e nt he m at r i r ni ' pe Shil La t t once l'hevitm' alge prors xua asa tofafve- a- dboy.( t ed w o s a't ci s le d i e l s ul c i ye zol Dk . 15 No.11a 3 . Hee,Gr l di notpr snta ha no ague t thepr entd Cli H( ) - t )5 r aybil d ee nd s t r d ha es e am 1 durng hi die ta i s r c ppea ori hi s a e ha a pe ii Unde V i gi a' pr dtr lr e , l n s t t be s tton. r r ni s oce za ul s Gr ybilc ul notnow pr s ntt sc am t t Supr m eCo tofVigi aasi woul be a a l o d e e hi l i o he e ur r ni t d pr bie s esi habe peii SeeVa.Co jj8. - B)2)& 8. 65 A)2 . ohi td ucc sve as tton. de 01654( ( 01- 4( () Thus t sc am i pr dur ly de a t d f pu pos off de alr vi w. Gr y,51 U . a 1 , hi l i s oce a l f ule or r es e r e e a 8 S. t 60. Gr ybilcam ote us hi pr ed a de a tbec us hehasf l t de onsr t ca e a l l xc e s oc ur l f ul a e aied o m tae us a dp eu ie Gry il a n t r s ne e i e c o a t b e tv f co e en lot n rj d c . a b lh s o p e e td v d n e f n t j ci e a tr xtr a t he o de e e'hatpr ve e hi fom r sng t cli , ura 477 U. a 488,ore de ofa f ns 't e nt d m r aii he am M r y, S. t vi nce S ubsa tal' am ofi feci as it nc ofco e und rSti kl M a tne ,1 S.Ct a i t n i 'cli s ne f tve ssa e uns l e rc and, ri z 32 .t 1 8. V igi a' Ra Shi d La pr bist i r 31 r ni s pe el w ohi t he ntoduc i ofi vi nc ofs ii i t nc ton i de e pec f c ns a es e ofghec ani wines'lprors lc t ompli ng t ss i exua onduc'u e st c t' nls he ondud i Selva 'a i s k e nt' nd s r et r()e de t fr dt pr dea atr tvee a ton f physca evi nceoft ihe 1 vi nce û e e o ovi n lenai xplnai or i l de of he ofens chage '( evi eûofsxualc f e r d, 2) denc i e ' onduc bewee t compl ni wines a t t t n he ai ng t s nd he a c e ' fr di s c usd'ofe e n uppor ofadee et tt s xua co t fns ha he e l nductwa c e ua, ( e d e s ons ns lor 3) vienc C f r d t r b e de oft c pli ng wine ssprors xua conduc i r edby t t e e o e ut vi nce he om a ni of t s' i e l t ntoduc he pr e uton.'Va. osc i ' CodeAnn.j 1 2- 7.Hee t e de eGrybilcli oug t ha 8. 67. r,he vi nc a l ams ht o ve be n i r e ntoduc - t vi tm ' a l ge as a toft fve ye r ol boy doe notf l w ihi one ed he c i s le d s ul he i - a - d s al t n oft s e e i a t r f e i i dm i s bl A n a t m p by c he e xc ptons nd he e or s na s i e. y te t ouns lt i r e o ntoduc s h e uc e de e w oul ha be f tl ,a ti lc vi nc d ve en u ie nd r a ouns lcam o be he d i f ec i f f ii t pur ue e l t l ne f tve or a lng o s f iea g nt,motons o srt is oodvv.Pol 408F. 1 ,1 ( hCi. utl r ume s i , r taege .M k, 3d 41 51 4t r 2005) . 5Ther i s e diput as t t age oft vi i a t tme oft aleged ass ul. Gr ybilar e s om s e o he he ctm t he i he l a t a l gues t he vitm was 1 a t tm e of t alege as aul and coul have been t i as a adul, whie t ci 5 t he i he l d s t d red n t l he Commonwealh as erst vitm was llor 1 year ol Thi diagr m enti,however i ma eralt t s t he c i 2 s d. s s ee s ,m t i o t applca i ofVigi a' Rape Shi d Law t t pr e cas he i ton r ni s el o he es nt e. 16 Thus be a e Gr ybilha f l t s tsy t pe f r , c us a l s aied o aif he r o manc pr ofSti a he ha notm a e ong rcklnd s de a ts t ntal i f e tve as i t nce ofc dubsa i ' ne f c i ' s sa ouns lc a m a hi pr edur lde a ti note e l i nd s oc a f ul s xcus d. e Th ,t sCour dimis Cli H( ) us hi t s ses am 1 . A ddii tonalCl m 1 A ddii ai 2, tonalCl m 1 and Or gi lCl m F ai 3, i na ai Addii lCli 1 Addii lCl i 1 a Orgi lCl i V f i bec us Gr ybil tona a m 2, tona am 3, nd i na am al a e a l ha note us e hi s a e c t e e esa t s c ai s a e now pr e aly de auled. s xha t d s t t our r m di nd he e l m r oc dur l f t Thes cl i sa e s m ia i t tt y c e n ti c e a m r i l r n ha he onc r ral ouns ' pr e a i oft Def ns e r ' els es nt ton he e e xpe ts c rc um via a t s i ony. l Addii lCl i 1 Gr ybilas e t t tt i lcou e w as ur i ul t e nd e tm n tona a m 2 a l s r s ha r a ns l i f tve f rf ii t as a s f c e nu be ofq s i a utt Def ns s DN A e r nefec i o a lng o k uf i i nt m r ue tons bo he e e' xpe t wine ssc cul viae.( . 33a 1 .l Addii lCl m 1 Grybilc e t t t s ' uni um t DktNo. t 4) n tona ai 3, a l ontnds ha tilc e wa i f tvef ds rptto l (il..wihoutM r Gr ybilskno ed a ra ouns l s nefeci or ture iiusy sc . t . a l' wl ge nd a i thi l ga a fna ali e e t' aii t i r uce i o evi nce t e r w ines ' ga ns s e l nd i nci nt r s ' f lng o nt od nt de he xpe t t s s DNA si prs ntton frwhihGrybili i i a nce..afeof$2, 5 ( tNo.3 a lde e e ai o c a l i d n dva . e pa 500. Dk . 3 t 5 1 .l Cli V,Gr ybila g st thi tilc e wa c tt i l i fe tvef f lng 5) n am a l r ue ha s ra ouns l s onsiutonaly nefci or aii t a guef t i r o r or he ntoducton oft De e e' DNA e r t ough aû onua r a ng a i he f ns s xpe t hr t f l e di nd e anai ' t e r' c rc um via ( . 17a 1 . xpl ton'of he xpe ts uriul te. DktNo. - t 4) H e e,Gr ybildi notpr e a oft s t e cl i sdur ng hi die ta a ori hi r a l d es nt ny he e hr e a m i s r c ppe l n s saeha a peii I e t r c d i c t t tGr ybilonl sg d t a fda tus dt t t be s tton. nde d, he e or ndi aes ha a l y i ne he fi vi e o s uppor O rgi Cl m V on J m e 30,2011 s ve a m ont a r s itng hi ûs e ent l' t i nal ai t ,e rl hs he ubm ti s fuppl m a ' s a e ha a pe ii N orha Gr l a gue t the p e ous y pr s nt d t e g ounds. t t be s tton. s aybil r d ha r vi l e e e hes r U nde V igi a' pr dur r est s c ai scoul no now be pr e e t t Supr m e Co t r r ni s oce al ul he e l m d t es nt d o he e ur ofV igi a Thus t e tu'e cl i sar pr e a l de a t d. r ni . , hes l e a m e oc dur ly f ule Gry il a n t d as o n o c us a p eu ieet rb p e e tn e ie c o a b lh s o ma e h wig f a e nd rj dc i y r sn ig vd n e f he a û b e tv fco e tr a t ted fn e' rv n e hm fo riigt ecam, u ry 4 7 n û j cie a t r x en l o h ee s 'p e e td i r m asn h li M ra , 7 o U . a 488,o by pr e i e de ofa ' ubsan i ' c ai ofi f e tve a s s a e of S. t r es ntng vi nce û t tal l m s ' ne f c i s i t nc co e unde Sti kl uns l r r c and,M a tnez 1 S. .a 1 1 Re e oft r or i c t st tti l r i , 32 Ct t 3 8. vi w he ec d ndi a e ha r a co e e ee t Dee eexpe tsc rc um viaei oe de ea til (/ 08Tr 1 unsl ntrd he fns r' uriul t nt vi nc tra. 226/ . 36- 3 ) Astej r r h dt ea ta c riulm vtea albea arfr n ed rngd l e ain ,t 7 . h u o s a h cu l u rc u ia v ia l s eee c u i ei rt s i b o wa u n c sayt ra t ec ni uu vi et t ej r r o e tnsv l q e to t ee pet s n e e sr o e d h u c lm t o h u o s r x e iey u si n h x r a a bouthe ac om pls e s a e a i lba kgr nd, To t e e Gr bilar st ti r c i hm nt nd duc tona c ou he xt nt ay l gue ha t woul ha be n m or pe s i t r ad a q ton t e r w ines e e i l a d ve e e r uasve o e nd ues i he xpe t t s xt ns ve y bouther e ai lba kgr a a co ihme s ( tNo. 1a 2 ,r t rt nr yi ont duc tona c ound nd c mpls nt, Dk. 62- t 2) ahe ha el ng he j r r t rviw tec riulm v ted rn d l eain ,h t saq sino tilsr tg a d u o s o e e h u rc u ia u i g ei rto s t a i ueto f ra tae y n b i t w ihi t di c e i ofti c s hus t n he s r ton ral ouns l G o l v. t d St t ,553 U . 2 249e . nza es Unie a es S. 42, 50 ($nmos i tnce t at ne wilha abetrund rtndi oft pr e a c ce t n i 1 t nsa s he tor y l ve te e sa ng he oc durl hoi s ha t cle ;ora las t lw s ds a s .) Thes mepr e ntc r sc e' he int t e t he a houl o sume'. ' a ec de ontol ouns ls de i i n nott us t s i pr e a i l A dd tona l t Cour no est ta t c so o e he lde es nt ton. d. ii ly, he t t ha lhough Gr ybilalege t i lc a l l s r a ouns ldi no pr s ntt cuni ul via t ough que toni a di e d t e e he c um t e hr s i ng nd d no pr s ntt s i pr e a i i or rt co t e e he lde es nt ton n de o ndens w ha w ass he ed t be a t e da t i e t c dul o hr e- y ral i ot da ,( . 62- a 23- ,Grybilhasfie t algehow r di t e r' nt wo ys DktNo. 1 t 24) a l ald o le ea ng he xpets q aiiain a ba k r u dt t ej r o s o n tesi ep e e tto wo l h v atrd u lfc to s nd c g o n o h u y r h wig h ld rs nain u d a e lee t out om e ofhi t i . I i nots f c e f rG r ybilt s be t pr e a i n oft s he c s ral t s uf i i nt o a l o ay ter es nt to hi t s i o a e de w o d ha a t r t out m e he m us expl n how o w hy t e tm ny nd vi nce ul ve le ed he co ; t ai r he evi dence w oul have had t efect Gr l has f l t do t s. Fi l t Com m onwealh d hat f . aybil aied o hi naly, he t 18 ha a g t tt De e e' DNA e r' t si s r ued ha he f ns s xpe ts e tmony wasr e ntt t a elva o he bduc i c r a ton ha ge nd b c u ePeiin rwa a q i e o t t h r e Gry il n n ts o p eudc . e a s t o e s c ut d f ha c ag , a bl c n o h w rj ie t t Gr y il a fie t s o d fce t ef r nc o p eu c u d rS rc a da d a bl h s ald o h w eiin p ro ma e r rj die n e tikln n t r f e he ha no m a a ts t nta ' s i ofi f e tve as i t nc ofc he e or s t de dubsa i l' how ng ne f c i ssa e ouns l M a tne e . r i z, 1 2 S.Ct a 1 3 . t 318. A c di y, ddii lCl m s 1 and 1 a Or gi lCl i V a e ba r d cor ngl A tona ai 2 3 nd i na a m r re fom t s Cour' r vi w unde t doc r ne ofpr e a def ul a t c nnotpr vi a bass r hi ts e e r he t i oc dur l a t nd hus a o de i on w hi h t s Cour m a g a ha sr i . Thi Cour m us dim i st e c ai s c hi t y r nt bea elef s t t s s hos l m . J Org n lCli C, 1 ,G() J() a d ()1 . ii a ams F() 1, 1 , n L () Orgi lCli C,F() G( ) J1 ,a L()alco er er sma byt tilc ur. i na ams 1 , 1, () nd 1 1 nc n ror de he ra o t The e c a m s f i be a e t y a e pr e a l de a t d a Gr bilha notde onsr t d s l i a l c us he r oc dur ly f ule nd ay l s m tae c u ea da t l rj dc t e u et ed fut nOrgn l am C, a bl alg st a te a s n cua p eu ie o xc s h e a l.I i ia Cli Gr y i l e h th l e til o r erdi d n igs e i cv i dr q eto sp o fr dbyhi r g r igtej r rs ra c u t re n e yn p ct or ie u sin r fe e i m e adn h u o ' opi onsonhomosxuaiy a s xua co uc.( . 1 1a 1 21 .Orgi lCl m F( ) ni e lt nd e l nd t DktNo. - t 2- ) i na ai 1 a g t tt t i lc te r d i r f i t a l w t polc i s i tve r r ues ha he ra our r e n e usng o lo he i e nve tga i epors t be ad it t o m ted a tilunde Vigi a' Ra Shi dLa DktNo.18 .Orgi Cli G()aleg t tt t ra r r ni s pe el w.( . -) i nal am 1 l es ha he tilc te r d i r usng t a l t polc i si i r porst beus d t i ac t ra our re n ef i o low he i e nve tgatve e t o e o mpe h he vitm' t tmony.( . 18) Orgna Cli J 1 c tndst tt ti c t re i ci s esi Dkt No. - . ii l am ( ) one ha he ral our er d n fiigt srketv j o sf rc u e Orgn lCli L()alg st a t tilc u t re i al o ti i e ur r o a s . i ia am 1 l e h the ra o r erd n n e al nghypot tca tsi lowi hei l e tmonyoft f e i t c ogit ( . 14) he ornsc oxiol s. DktNo. - . Gr ybilr i e e ch oft e cl i si hi s a e ha aspe ii butf ie t r i e t m a a l as d a hes a m n s t t be tton, a l d o a s he t t i oro d r c a al A c or ngl t Sup e e Cour ofV igi a f ral n i e t ppe . c di y, he r m t r ni ound t tt e cl i s ha hes a m we edea td.( . 38- a 8- 11 1 1 (ii Slvt v. ri n, S. 2d680, r fule DktNo. 22 t 9, , 3-4) ctng a on Parca 205 E. 19 68 ( .1 4). slvonhel t t(llprs ri note il t us ha sc pust 2 Va 97 )6 a t d ha sa ione s ntted o e bea or o cru e t h til n a p l t p o e s sfra iq iyit a alg dno j rs ito a ic mv n t e ra a d p el e r c se o n n ur no n l e n-u idcin l a e d fc o aj dg n ofc n ito 'wh nt is e d o l h veb e rie a daj dc tda ee t f u me t o vcin' e he su s i ud a e n a sd n du iae t c pe ii r st i la u ttone ' ra nd pon hi a s ppea t t s c r . .' l The Fou ' Cic thas sa e t t l o hi ou t .. d. ' t h r ui t t t d ha Sl vt ti a va i s a e pr e a r l i pe ntoft f de a q s i a a qua e t a on ts ld t t oc dur l u e, nde nde he e r l ue ton nd de t o s p o th j d me t a dt u i s fiin t p o ii fd rlrve o cams Ro a v. u p r te u g n' n h s s u tce t o r hbt e ea e iw f li . v l ' Ta or 1 F. 239,245( h Ci.1 ( tngSmihv.Mura 477U. 527,533yl , 88 3d 4t r 999) cii t rv, S. 39 ( 986:. 1 I t pr e c e,Gr ybilca te c pe t f c t tt s cl i sa e pr edu a l n he es nt as a l nno s a he a t ha he e a m r oc r ly d fu tdb c u eh c n o s o c u ea da ta p eu iet o ec met d fu t W of , ea le e a s e a n t h w a s n cu l rj dc o v ro he ea l. le 5 F. a 1 Gr ybilhasnotde o ta e t tt f c ua orl ga ba i f a oft s 65 3d t 60. a l m nsr t d ha he a t l e l s s or ny he e cli weeû tra onabl a ia et ( mla t tmeoft saepr ee ng. He ikv. ams r t e s no y valbl o hi the i he tt oc di ' drc ' Tre 4 F.d3 2 3 6(t Ci. 0 6 .W i rg r t Orgn l am C, ss o a Gry il u , 43 3 4 , 6 4h r 2 0 ) t e ad o iia Cli a o n s a b l h lse e t v i d r h wo l h v b e a r t a t ep tn il u o sween t s e te itn d o o r ie e ud a e e n wa e h t h oe ta j rr r o a k d h quesinshewa e a ke Si lrl ca ist Orgna Cl m F( ) Orgi Cl m G( ) to ntd s d. mia ogi pple o ii l ai 1, i nal ai 1, Orgi lCli J 1, ndOrgi Cli L( )a Grybilwa pr en durngt tila woul i na am () a i nal am 1 s a l s es t i he ra nd d ha per ona l w ines e t t i lcou tc m i t s a l ge e r s A c di y, r ybilha ve s ly t s d he r a r om t he e le d r or . cor ngl G a l s notm e t sanda d t dem ons r t c us t e us hi pr ed alde a t Thus t s Cou t t he t r o ta e a e o xc e s oc ur f ul. , hi r dimis sOrgi lCli C, 1,G( , ( ) a L( )a pr durlybar s se i na ams F( ) 1)J 1, nd 1 s oce al red. 4. Orgi Cl msH()andI i nal ai 2 Orgi lCl msH( a Ic er algainsof ur tmpei a mic i na ai 2) nd onc n le to j y a rng nd sonduc on t be l oft pr e orandt Commonweat Spe ii al Orgi lCli H( al st t haf he oscut he lh. ctc ly, i na am 2) lege ha 6G rYbilv. r o t eDe t o Co r cins Re or No.1 7 ( . uy5, 1. a l Di. f h p . f re to , c d 01 40 Va J l 20l ) 20 t pr e ut rkno ngl wiluly,a i t ntonal c he os c o wi y, lf l nd n e i ly once l dt vi tm ' p i s xua as a t a e he ci s ror e l s ul ofafve- rol boy.( . 1 1a 3) Orgi lCli lalege t tt Co i yea- d DktNo. - t . i na am l s ha he mmonwe lh' at s Ato n y' o tc a dt eClr so tc tmp r dwihtej r ls.( t No 16 .Liete tr e s f e n h ek' f e a ee t h u y it Dk . . - ) k h i i c am sdic s i e a e y a li s us ed mm dit l bove, a l r ie e hoft s cli si hi saeha a Gr ybil as d ac he e am n s t t be s peii butfie t r iet m a ti loron die a a .Acc di y, tton, a ld o a s he t ra r ct ppe l or ngl unde Slv on t s r a t hi Cou ti pr hi t d f om r vi w i t e c a m sast ar pr e a l de a t d. Sl yt n, r s o bie r e e ng hes l i hey e oc dur ly f ule a o 205 S. 2d a 682. E. t Gry il a n t e n tae c u ea dp eu c t e u eted fut l tep e e t a bl h s o d mo srtd a s n rj die o xc s h ea l. n h r sn c e G r ybilha pr vi d no ex a ton a t w h he co d no ha pr s nt d t e cl i s as , a l s o de pl na i s o y ul t ve e e e hes a m o drc a l Thus t sCour mus dimisOrgi lCl msH( a la pr e al n ie t ppea. ,hi t t s s i na ai 2) nd s oc durly ba r d. re 5. A ddii tonalCl m 1 ai I Add to lCl i 1 Gr ybila g t tti lc n ii na a m , a l r ues ha ra ouns lw a i f tve f f ii t e s nefec i or a lng o c tuc atilbre .( . 33a 3 .Peii rague t ti i elme ayl alpr e e onsr t ra if DktNo. t ) ttone r s ha t s e ntr eg oc dur t dr f a t i lbr e a f iur t do s i s fci ntt s ts y Sti kl o a t ra i f nd a l e o o s uf i e o a i f r c and. Pe ii r how e r ttone , ve , neglc st f c t thef ie t pr s t sa gume ondie tappe oraspa'ofhi sa e e t he a t ha a ld o e ent hi r nt rc al l t s tt ha a pe ii Thus t scl m i pr e a l de a t a Gr l ha notde onsr t d be s tton. , hi ai s oc dur ly f uled nd aybil s m tae c u ea da ta p eu iet e u et ed fut a s n cu l rj dc o xc s h e a l. Gr ybilhasf l t e a l aied o xcus hi pr d a de a tbe a e he hasf ie t pr s nta e s oce ur l f ul c us a ld o e e çs t nta ' cl i ofi f c i as i t nc ofc subs a i l' a m nef e tve s s a e ouns . M a tne 1 S.Ct a 1 el r i z, 32 . t 318. H e e, r Gry ilscam s tsi sn ih rc u en r rj dc u d rSrc ln W ihrg r t p eu ie a b l' li aite et e a s o p eu ie n e tika d. t e ad o rj dc , Gr bilhasf ie t e ai how t pr pa a i ofa ti lbrefo t i not book woul ha ay l a l d o xpl n he e r ton r a i r ral e d ve aleedt ouco oft tilandt hasfie t s w prj c Re r ngpef ma , tr he t me he ra, hus ald o ho eudie. gadi ror nce 21 pr pa ai n ofatilbrefi bu onede son o ofm a de ii m a whiede o ng a e r to ra i s t cii ut ny c sons de l velpi nd pur ng a ti s r egy. D evel entofa ti s r egy f l s el w ihi couns ' si r al t at opm r al t at als quar y t n el s di c e i G o l z 55 U . a 249. Thus f l e t pr pa e a t i brefdoesnotc tt e s r ton. nza e , 3 S. t , aiur o e r ral i ons iut d fce t e fr n e c us Gry il sfie t stsyet rtepef nn n eo p eu ie e in p roma c .Be a e a blha ald o aif i h ro a c r rj d c he pr ofSti klnd,Gr ybilha no ma at u t n i 's wi o i feci a ssa eof ong rc a a l s t de l bsa tal' ho ng f ne f tve s it nc s c ouns lt e us hi pr du a def ul.M a tne 1 S.Ct a 131 e o xc e s oce r l a t ri z, 32 . t 8.A c or ngl t Cour c di y, he t m us di m i sAddii lCl m 1 a pr ed a l ba r d. t s s tona ai s oc ur ly r e 6. A ddii tonalCl m 2 ai Gr ybilalege t tti c a l l s ha ral ouns lwa i fe tvef f ii t d a twrte que tons e s ne f c i or a lng o r f it n si d ori pea hm en pur e . .ofc pl i ng w ines o num e o con r c i s a e e s i i m c f t pos s . om a ni t s n r us t adi tng t t m nt n polc rpors'a cons ntywa unprpaedfrhe i .( . 33at2) Gr y l ie e t' nd eque l s e r o arngs DktNo. . a bil a s r st i lc s e t r a ouns oughtt ha us d t nk de tpur ha e r cor ,sa e e sa D e ec i el o ve e t bn bi c s e ds t t m nt nd t tve Tole gild ttpe'a i ac nte de ,( . 33a 3 , lr el fist s ciy lys sc uc a ' s mpe hme vi nce DktNo. t ) but a g y al o pe f wha que tonshe w oul have a ke bas d of oft s m a e i l . Gr ybila s s a e t i l t si d s d e f he e t r a s a l l o t t s ra c ouns loughtt ha as d t vitm whe he hewa te up orbou durng t e ni e o ve ke he c i t r s id nd i he ve ng, whe he t y s o t r he t pped w hie en r ut t Gr ybils r i nc ,a w he he a l o e o a l' es de e nd t r nyone,s as uch Bo es lf t e ni (d..Fi ly,Gr bilsae tilc ns oughtt ha as wl ,ethat ve ng. I ) nal ay l tts ra ou el o ve ked whehe t vi i ha prvi l ha s xua r ainswihamae.(d.a 4) Aswih t r he ctm d e ousy d e l elto t l l t . t A ddii lCl i 1 t s c a m w asnotpr e e i s a e c te t ron di e ta a o i s a e tona a m , hi l i es nt d n t t our ihe r c ppe l r n t t habe s r vi w . Thus t s c a m i pr e a l de a t d. a e e , hi l i s oc dur ly f ule Agai Gr ybilc nnotde o ta e c us t exc e hi pr e a de a tbe us he ha n, a l a m nsr t a e o us s oc dur l f ul ca e s f ie t pr e a ls t ntal' a m ofi f e tve a s s a e ofc a l d o es nt çubs a i ' cl i ne f c i s it nc ouns l M a tne 1 2 S.Ct e . r i z, 3 . at 1318. The deci i t pr s on o epare w rten ques i t as r di pot i i peachm ent it tons o k egar ng ental m 22 m a e i li a a pe toft i s r t gy t ti w ihi t di c e i ofti lcouns . G o l ,553 t ra s n s c ral t a e ha s t n he s r ton r a el nza ez U . a 249. The t i lt a c i c e ry i c t s c S. t r a r ns r pt l a l ndi a e ouns lr pe t dl us d t t a c i s oft e e a e y e he r ns r pt he vi tm ' sa e e s t polc a t t a c i oft vi tm ' pr i i r he i t tm ony t c i s t t m nt o i e nd he r ns r pt he c i s elm na y arng es i o i ac hi ti t tmony.( 2508Tr 1 220) mpe h s ralesi 2/ / . 98- .Thus Grybilc nnotetbls dei in , a l a sa ih tce t pe f r anc Furher or Gr ybilhasf ie t aleg how a ki a tonals es e r o m e. t m e, a l a ld o l e s ng ddii ugg t d i pe hm e ques i w o d ha had a ou c e- le i e f c . Cons que l Gr bilhas m ac nt tons ul ve n t om a t r ng f e t e nty, ay l no me ete t ep ro ma c o p eu iep o go Src ln a t u c l t k as o n t t i r h e fr n e r rj d c r n f tika d nd h s amo ma e h wi g h o û ubs a i l'i f ec i as it nc ofc ns . M a tne 1 S. . t 1 f û t nta ' ne f tve s s a e s ou el r i z, 32 Ct a 318. Thus t Cour , he t m us di m i sA ddii lCl i 2 a p o dur ly bared. t s s tona a m s r ce a l r A ddii tonalCl m 3 ai l t por i ofA ddii lCl m 3 t ti no du i atve,Gr ybilcont ndst tti n he ton tona ai ha s t plc i a l e ha ral co e wasS oofa diore t 'durnghe rng .( . 33a 4 .Addii lCl m 3 unsl s al nd s ined' i ai s DktNo. t ) tona ai w a no pr s nt i s a e c te t on die ta a oron s a e ha sr vi . Thus t s s t e e ed n t t our iher r c ppe l t t bea e ew , hi c a m i pr ce a l de a t l i s o dur ly f uled. Gr ybilha f ie t dem ons r t c us t e us hi pr e a def ul. Gr ybilbe r a l s al d o t a e a e o xc e s oc dur l a t a l a s t eb r e o s o n t t ra c u s lspef n n ewa d fce ta dt t ewa p eu ie h u d n f h wig ha til o n e' ro na c s eiin n ha h s rj d c d by t de ii ntpe f m a e.Sti a 466 U. a 68 I i wi y a ce e t tidti he fc e r or nc rcklnd, S. t 7. t s del c pt d ha li s di fc tt e t bls i f ec i a s s a e w he c f i ul o s a ih ne f tve s i t nc n ouns ls o r l pe f e ' ve a l r onua e i ca esa tve nc ndi t c i a ca bl advoc cy.' El ev.Oz nt661F. 783,863( hCi. 1 ( i nd pa e a '' mor mi , 3d 4t r 201 ) quotng Harngonv. c e ,1 1S. .770,791( 1) Grybilha fie t pr s ta e de e ri t Rihtr 3 Ct 201 ). a l s ald o een ny vi nc i c tng t tt i lco e w a a hi o he t n pr e s o la pr pa ed d i t i . Tra ndi a i ha r a uns l s nyt ng t r ha of s i na nd e r ur ng ral i l 23 ay l t r a . nde d t i l c ouns lfl s ver lpr ti m otons a d f r e uly de e e ied e a e-ral i 1 n o c f l f nded Gr bila t i l l e , r a c ouns l sef o t w e e s s ce s ult tG r ybilwasa uit o t o c r t tca re e ' f r s r o uc s f ha a l cq ted n w ha ges ha r i d po e i lf s e s a f t r t m alc ousw o t ntal ie ent nce nd, urhe , he i i undi c r w asr duce t unl ul ng ha ge e d o awf w oundi Fi ly,f rt c r ofwhi h Gr ybilw a uli a el c ng. na l o he ha ges c a l s tm t y onvi t d, ralc c e t i ouns l e pr e e s t c e e de e t w a r nts nt nc be ow t m a m um pe i ofi a c r i es nt d ufi i nt vi nc o r a e e es l he xi rod nc r e aton p r si eb lw.Gr y il e ev d as v ny a s ne c o t eo j c s x a pe erto emisbl y a a b lrc ie e e -e r e tn e n h b e t e u l n tain c r e,a c r e t tc r i d a m a m um s nt nc oflf ,a a t e - rs nt e on t ha g ha g ha a r e xi e e e ie nd hr e yea e enc he m alci w oundi c i ous ng ount a c ge t tc r i a m a m u fve- rs nt nc , har ha a red xi m i yea e e e. Fi ly,Gr ybilw asr pr e e by t o a t r ysa t i . Gr l m a s n cl i o na l a l e es nt d w to ne t ral aybil ke o a m f l c ofpr e s o ls o pr pa e ak of s i na i m r e r dnes a i thi s c ti a t ne A st Fourh Cic t s ga ns s e ond ral tor y. he t r ui ha not d,tthe pr s nce ofa s c a t ne durng t pr ee ngs s rousy under i s e tt ee e ond tor y i he oc di ei l m nes a la ' cam ofi feci a ssa eo co e.' Fr v. e 235F. 897,907( hCi. ppelnts li nef tve s itnc f unsl'' ve Le , 3d 4t r 2000)(uotngLope Nivesv. t Stt ,91 F. 645,6 ( s Ci.1 ) q i z- e Unied aes 7 2d 47 1t r 990). Co s q e ty, a b lc ns tsyn i e tepef r n en rtep eu iep o o Src ln . n e u nl Gry il a aif et r h roma c o h rj d c r ng f tik a d h Thus be a e G r ybilhasf l t m a a d ubs a ta ' c ai ofi f c i a s sanc of , c us a l aied o ke t t n i l' l m s nef e tve s i t e c ouns l M a tnez,13 S.Ct a 1 8,Gr ybilc nno e us hi pr e a def ul a t s e s ri 2 . t 31 a l a t xc e s oc dur l a t nd hi Cour m us di m is A ddii lCl i 3. t t s s tona a m 1Revi oft Cicui Cour oft Count ofBot t tr or i c es ti couns fl a I tt ew he r t t he y eour ec ds ndiat ral el ied t eas he f lwi wrte p etilmotons M oto f Re cin ofBo ( / 120 ) M o i f rDic v r olo ng itn r -ra i : in or du to nd 11 / 07 ; ton o s o e y (/ 2 2 7) M oto i Li ne t Pr cu e Sttme t Al ge y Mad b Co De e a ( / / 0 ; 12 / 00 ; in n mi o e ld ae ns l dl e e y - fnd nt 42720 7) Mo in f rS po naDu e Te m f t Vitm' M e ia Re o ds( / / 00 ;M oi i Li net to o ub e c s cu or he c i s dc l c r 427 2 7) ton n mi o Prcu Evie c ofl ol tr Dr ggn (/ / 07 ;No ie t l tod e Evi n e o Vitm' Pror e lde d n e nv una y u ig 6 520 ) tc o nr uc de c f ci s i Ho e ua Con c ( /3/ 07 ; M o in i Li n on Vaius Topcs ( / 3200 ) M o i f mos x l du t 8 1 20 ) to n mie ro i 8 1 / 7 4 ton or Co tn yEv l to (/ / 07 ; ndM e r n um Re a di Compee c ( / 12 ) mpee c auain 9 2120 ) a mo a d g r ng t n y 2 1 / 008 . 24 #. A ddii lCl m 7 tona ai I Addii Cl m 7,Gr ybila guest ttilc elwa i fe i be us he n tonal ai a l r ha ra ouns s ne f ctve ca e ti e i ly l tt t i ' ase de e b c Ent ntona l os he ral' vi nc d y ouns l st a lng t ofe o a ope ng s a e e or e ' E ii o f r r l ni t t m nt f cl i s a e e toff t , (ndlfingt c tuc ti a ndame a os ng t t m n ac s a , pkt x 33 t , al o onsr tral ge i mor ndum.8 ( . o. a 1 1 .GrybilsAddii lCli 7wasnotprs ntd i saec tet ro die tappe lor 4- 5) a l' tona am e e e n tt our ihe n rc a on s a e ha a r vi w ,a t ,t scl i i p oc ur l de a t t t be s e e nd hus hi a m s r ed aly f uled. Asa i t l te,h Cou noe t a t emao iyo Ad iina Cli 7i n nia matrt e t' ts h t h j rt f dto l am s i t uns ppore f cual by t r or Tralc u td, a t ly, he ec d. i ouns ldi ma a ope ng sae e a til e d ke n ni t tm nt t ra, ( 25/ Tr 9 98,a ga acosngagume ,(/ / Tr 26172) M o e r e nha 2/ 08 . 6- ) nd ve l i r nt 22608 . - . r ove, ve d c ouns lde de nott m a a ope ng s a e e orc osng a gum e t tal w oul notbe e ci d o ke n ni t t m nt l i r nt ha one d s fcen t c tt t i feci a ssa eofc ufii t o onsiu e ne f tve s it nc ouns l I e i f r nc t c e . nde d,ç e e e o ouns lst c ial de e ' a tc de ii nsi hi cl i pr s ntto i pa tc a l i c so n s osng e e a i n s riul ry mpora be a e oft br r ngeof tnt c us he oad a l ii t de e esr t a t tsage' Yaboouc v. nty,540U. 1 5- ( 03) egtmae f ns taegy t ha t .' r r h Ge r S. , 6 20 . Fu t r e,ti welac ptdt ttll dee ntmus .. romet pr s i t t rhemor i s l ce e ha lthe fnda t .ovec he eumpton hathe r pr s nt ton t i htbe c i r d s e e e ai m g ons de e ound t i sr t gy.' Se U nie St t s v.Luc 611 F. d ral t a e '' e t d a e k, 3 1 1 ( h Ci.201 ( i Stiklnd, U. a 689) Hee, a lhasnotpr e e 83, 86 4t r 0) quotng rc a 466 S. t ). r Grybil esntd e de t ove co e t pr s pton a t r i no r c d e de e t s por hi a l ga i ns vi nce o r m he e um i s he e s e or vi nc o up t s le to . Thus he ca , nnots ts y t pe f m a e pr ofSt i kl nd,l ta one m a a t u t nta ' a i f he r or nc ong rc a e l ke t bs a i l' s s i ofi f ec i a s s a ofc how ng ne f tve s i t nce ouns l A c or ngl t sCour m us di m i sA ddii l e . c di y, hi t t s s tona Cl m 7. ai 8w ihr g r t Gr ybl' alg to c nc r i te fiu eto c tu t(jtila e dame r n m' t e a d o a ils le a ins o e nng h alr t onsr c a ra g n t mo a du ' t Cour bele t s ar he t ives hi gument i duplca i of Gr l' Addii s i tve aybils tonal Cl m 1, whih t Cour ai c he t dimi s ase ai above. s s ed xpl ned 25 < . - #. A ddii tonalCl m 10 ai Addii lCli 1 a s rst tt tilc t redbyno c lngmor j o st t tona am 0 s et ha he ra our er t ali e ur r o he ve r ( t No.33a 1 11.Thi Cli wasnotpr e edondie ta lordurng nie. Dk . t 0- ) s am esnt rc ppea i Gr bilssa eha asr viw .Thus t scli i pr e aly def t Gr ybilc l , ay l' t t be e e , hi am s oc dur l auled. a l amot h we r s o c us t e c eh sp o e u a d fu t e a eh c n o s o ds meo j ci o ve, h w a e o x us i r c d r l ea l b c us e n n t h w k o b e t t ve fco e enalt t dee e(hali dedg tto ')ef t't r s t cam i saeco t a tr xtr o he fns t t mpe peiiners fors o aie he li n tt ur a t a prpraetme. Brad,13 F. a 620( tngMura v.Ca er 477U. 478, the p o it i ' e r 4 3d t quoi ' ry ni , S. 488 ( 98 ) Hee,henumbe ofpes nsc l t t ve r woul ha be n knownt Grybil 1 6). r t r ro aled o he nie d ve e o a l du i hi t i la t r i no r as he coul no ha pr s nt t s c ai on die tr vi w . r ng s ra nd he e s e on d t ve e e ed hi l m rc e e Ros v. e 252F.d 676,687( hCi. )($Aqpeiinerc r etbls c us whe t e Le , 3 4t r 2001 $ g tto amot sa ih a e n he f c sunde l ng t cl i w e e i exi t nce a w e e a ia e upon a r as bl dii nt at ryi he a m r n se nd r va l bl e ona y lge s rh. Thus t sCour mus dimisAddtona Cli 1 aspr ed al bard. eac ' ). ,hi t t s s ii l am 0 oc ur ly re C. Suf i i nc oft Evi nc C l m fc e y he de e ai Tot e e t Gr ybils e t c lnget s fcincy oft e de i hi he xt nt hat a l e ks o hale he ufi e he vi nce n s f de a ha aspe ii i whih Gr ybila lgest tt e de ewa i ufi e t c c e r l be tton, n c a l le ha he vi nc s ns fcint o onvit hm o u lwf l u dnga o j c s x a p n taina tilt sCo r mu t imista i f na u wo n i nd be t e u l e erto t ra,hi u t s d s s h t c ai . A tt ss a oft pr e ngs a s a e prs nerl s e il t ha s c pusr lefi i i lm hi t ge he oce di , t t i o û ntted o bea or i ei f t s f und t tupon t r c d e de a o ha he e or vi nce dduc a t t i lno r tona t i rorf c c d ha f ed t he r a a i l re a t oul ve ound ,9 , pr fofguitbe oo l yondar s bl do t J c onv. r ni,443U. 307,32 ( 979) ea ona e ub. a ks Vigi a S. 41 , . W is v. e ne1 F. 396,405- ( hCi.1 .I e iheJ ks i r doe no lon Gr e 55 3d 06 4t r 998) nde d,' ac on nquiy s t t f ocuson whe hert t eroff tm ade t corectguitori t he ri ac he r l nnocence det m i i butr her er naton, at 9Thi Cour ' r vi oft evi ts e ew he dence i lm ied t t r d e de . Herer v. Coli ,506 U . 390, s i t o he ecor vi nce s r a lns S. 4 2(9 ) 0 1 93 . 26 whehe i ma artonalde sont c c ora qui.'He rr 50 U. a 40 (mpha i t r t de ai cii o onvit c t' rea, 6 S. t 2 e ss omitd) te . The Cour ofA ppea s ofV igi a' c i r ton oft r or e de e i t sca e t l r ni s ons de a i he ec d vi nc n hi s a he e t t J ks n s a r , des t note i il c tng i.0 The Cour ofAppe s c r c l d r d o he ac o t nda d t al or e ty pie xplc ty ii t1 sa e t a i bl V i gi a l w ,hi i htng t tc e biiy oft w ines esw a a m a t r t t d he pplca e r ni a ghlg i ha r di lt he t s s te s ll frt ej r S n o a v, mmo we 1h 4 5S. 2 7 0 7 2( . . p. 9 5 , n oey o h u y, a d v l Co n at, 5 E.d 3 , 3 Va CtAp 1 9 ) a d t t$ co ci f r peand o he s xua ofe esma be s t ne s e y u t ha i nviton or a a t r e l f ns y usai d oll pon he unc r ae t tmonyoft vitm, W is v.Commo orobortd esi he ci ' lon ' nweat 61 S. 2d500,507( . lh, 5 E. Va her CtApp.2005)li Furt m ore, t Cour ofAppe l c rcl not t tt f tfnd ,a pa t . . he t as ore ty ed ha he ac i er s r o j d igwi s ce iii kse tt dt ds eiv t es l-ewi tsi n o t ea c s d f u gn t s r db ly,' nil o ib l e h efs l ng e tmo y f h c u e ne t i e e a t conc ude t tt a us d i l ng t c e hi g l. M a abl v.Co m onw e t 500 nd o l ha he cc e s yi o onc al s uit' ' r e m a1h, S.E. 233, ( Ct App.1 98 . 2 2d 235 Va. . 9 )1 Nordoest Cou tofAppe l 'de sonr s o anunr s na e fndi off t. Se 28 he r a s cii e t n ea o bl i ng acs e U. C.j22544 28U. C.j225 e()((A1deemi tonofafcualis madeb aStt S. *; S. 4()1 C g tr nai a t sue y ae co ts lbe pr um e t be c r c . The a i a s l ha t b de ofr buti t ur hal es d o or e t pplc nt ha l ve he ur n e tng he prs inofcor cne sbycla a c ncnge de e. Appl ngt a cie 1 e umpto re t s e r nd onvi i vi nc ' ). yi he bove td aw t t fcs t Co tofAppe sr s nedt tçl owihsa nga lntscamst t o he a t,he ur al ea o ha lnlt t tndi ppela ' li o he c nr r t efc fn e c udr ao a l rj c a p l n ' a c u tha t i wa ac n e s a o tay,h a t id r o l e s n by ee t p el ts c o n t t hs s o s n u l a s xua e mt rbe wee t e m e 'be us at e l ncot e t n hr e n' ca e lhought vi tm ' oul notr cala 1oft he ci t d c e l l he e nt oft e ni hi t tmony wasc r a e byhi physc co ton.'Gr v l v. ve s he ve ng, s esi orobor t d s ial ndii ' a bil 1 W hen a sat ' hi hes cour doesnotr e on t mert ,as i t cas her , a f r cour m a l 0 t ul he is s he e e ede al t es g t t y ook t ough t t decii t t underyi mert opi on,her t opi on by t Cour of Appeal of hr ha son o he l ng is ni e he ni he t s Vigii Y1tv. nn ma e ,5 U. 7 ,8 - 4( 9 ) r na. s Nu e k r 0l S. 91 03 0 1 91 . 1 G r bilv. ' aY l Comm onwealh ofVigi a, No. 231083, t5( CtAp Fe 23 200 . t r ni 2 - - a Va. . p. b. , 9) : G rYbilv. 2 a l Comm onw e t ofVigi a, No. 231083, t6( CtApp. b. , 9) a1h r ni 2 - - a Va. . Fe 23 200 . 27 Co mmonwe lh ofVigi a No. - - a 6( Ct App. b. 2009 .TheCour of at r ni, 2231083, t Va. . Fe 23, ) t Appe sw e i o de a lc al nt nt t i once ni t physca e de e t c r a e t vi tm ' r ng he i l vi nc hat or obor t d he c i s a c .J Fi l t Cour ofAppe l hihlghtdGr ybilsti fom t a e whe c ount #a naly,he t as g i e a l' lght' he r a, n r poievstdh sr sd n e a gvn tej r a dto a e i n eo Gry l' g i .I . t - . l ii i e i e c , s iig h u y d i n l vde c f a bi s ul d a 6 7 c e i l t Thi Cour ac s t know l dg t tG r ybil sa oun oft ni htc lc sw ih t toft e es ha a l ' cc t he g onfi t t ha he vi tm . Alhough s e oft phys c le de e pr e e a t i l s ii a l t l a i oft ci t om he i a vi nc es nt d t ra , pec f c ly he oc ton he vi tm ' t t i i Gr ybil staie , a he t n o s de i, ppea s t co obor t G r ybils c i s 00 h nsde a l' r l r r t r ha ut i t a r o n- a e a l ' ac oun ove t toft vi tm , he e w ass ila pl phys c e de e pr e e a t i lf t c t r ha he c i t r tl m e i al vi nc es nt d t r a or he j r t d s o n Gr y ilsv rino e e t.l e s n e Gry l akst sCo r t d wh tti u y o ic u t a bl' e so f v ns n se c , a bi s hi u to o a i s l notpe m it d t do w e g t e de e dif r nty t n t t i roff tt fnd i Gr ybils r te o - i h he vi nc f e e l ha he r e ac o i n a l' fvor Se M as l v.Lonbe g , U. 422, ( 983) Thus Gr bili note ildt a . e rhal r er459 S. 433 1 . , ay l s ntte o f de a ha sr i a t s f c e y oft e de e c a m m us be di m i s d. e r l bea elef nd he uf i i nc he vi nc l i t s se D. I f e tve A s i t ne f c i s s ance ofTr alCouns lC l m s i e ai l i undi ed t t sat courta i t cor ectl s andard- st ckl ts sput hat he t e ppled he r egal t ri and- t o de e m i w he he ti lcouns pr ded ef e tve a s s a e. Thus i o dert be g a e r le , t r ne t r ra el ovi f c i s i t nc ,n r o r nt d e i f Gr ybilm us de o t a e t tt s a e c t ni lofhi c a m s w a an i z ea o e a l t m nsr t ha he t t our de a s li s û r s nabl ul a iai ' t Stiklnd sandad.28U. C.j225 d () pplc ton'of he rc a t r S. 4() 1. 1 Orgi Cl ms. ()-A():DNA Evde andDe ns Ex r . i nal ai 4 1 4 i nce fe e pet Orgi lCli A( )-A( c ent t t 1 DNA e i ncet wa no br htt i na ams 1 4) onc r he 00h 3 vde hat s t oug o c torus a ti durngt t tmonyofGr l' DNA e pe t l Cli A() Grybil our f e t ral i he esi aybils x r. n am 1, a l a s t t tti lco elw a i f ec i f r a l w i t t i lt pr e w ihoutt DN A s ers ha r a uns s ne f tve o lo ng he r a o oc ed t he 1 Thi e dence i s e i r e r t as t tt h and cr 'evi 3 s vi own' dence butt physcalevi s om tmes ef r ed o he çoot he i dence , wasone t h,notas ae t h and cr 00t epar t 00t own. 28 e ie c .( tNo. - a 1 ) nCli A( ) Gry il r u stil o ns l siefcief r vd n e Dk . 1 1 t 7 .I am 2 , a bl ag e ra c u e wa n fe tv o ds u sn t efiu et s p tet 0hDNA e ie c i tep e e eo t j r a df rf in ic si g h alr o hi h 0 t vd n e n h r snc f he u y n o al g i t us t si s pr enai (d..l Cli A( ,Grybilase t tilc e wa o e he lde how es tton. 1 ) n am 3) a l srs ra ouns l s i feci frfii t r uetac i nc t ha t DNA e de br tt co t (4,. ne f tve o alng o eq s ontnua e o ve he vi nce ough o ur. L ) l Cli A( ) Gry il se t tilc un e wa ie fciefrfi n t mo ef ramitil n am 4 , a b la srs ra o sl s n fe tv o al g o v o i sra a trt eao ed tie p o lmswi t ep y ia DNA e ie c o c re i ve o tej r fe h f r eald r be t h h sc l h vd n e c u rd n iw f h u y. (d.. I) The Supr e Cour ofVi gi a consde e a 1oft s a l ga i a pr ry appled em t r ni i r d l he e le tons nd ope l i t Sti kl nd s a r t de e m i t tt s a l ge f iur sby t i c he rc a t nda d o t r ne ha he e le d a l e ral ouns lf ie t s ts y e al d o aif Stiklnd.Grvbilv. r oft De t ofCore tons Re or No.1 740,a 2- ( J y5, rc a a l Di. he p. r ci , c d 01 t 3 Va. ul 2011.W ihr a dt Cli A()a A( t SuprmeCo tofVigi asae t ttone ) t eg r o ams 1 nd 3) he e ur r ni ttd t ii r pe doe no a l ge wha di f r nc ,i a havi t phys c le de w oul ha m a s t le t f e e e f ny, ng he i a vi nce d ve de. Furhe m or ,c t r e ouns lpur ue t e de e r ga di t t t a c ow n i o d rt c es a e s d he vi nc e r ng he 00 h nd r n r e o ont t n a ton c r ofwhih peii ne wa a quitd. L. a 2.Theco ta s not d t tû l of bduc i ha ge, c tto r s c te ' da t ' u ur lo e ha d l a tei o tn e ie c r ltdt tet 0ha dco wa beo et j r 'b c u eih a ls h mp ra t vd n e eae o h 0 t n r wn s f r he u y' e a s d e nay t t who t t d t e de f pe ii nert s ii d t ti co a ne DN A co i t ntw ih t vi tm es e he vi nce or tto e tfe ha t nt i d ns s e t he c i a t a l t sr por a pho ogr phs oft t h a c o n w e e ad it d i o e d nc .' nd he na ys ' e t nd t a he 00t nd r w r m te nt vi e e ' J. Thus be us Gr ybilwa a quitdoft a tonc r ,ii cea t thec nnotpr ve .z p , ca e a l s c te he bduci ha ge t s l r ha a o p eu ie W i rg r t hsoh rt c n ito s Gry il a n t l g dh w t emisn rj dc . t e ad o i t e wo o vcin , a bl h s o al e o h sig h e p ysc l v d n ec ul h v af ce t er s l, s e il i l h o t ef c ta t j r wa h ia e ie c o d a e fe td h e ut e p cal n i t f h a th t he u y s y g gi n pho ogr phs oft t h a c e r y be i ve t e de e a s n by Gr ybils ve t a he 00t nd l a l le d he vi nc s how a l' a quitli t a tonchage.Theeor Grybilha alofie t pr prj cewih c ta n he bduci r rf e, a l s s ald o ove eudi t r d t hi ot t o convi i egar o s her w ctons. Accor ngl havi f l t s di y, ng aied o how t t Supr e Court hat he em 29 o Vigna sd s o iino Cli A()a dA( )wa a u ra o a ea pl ai no t e f r ii' ip sto f ams 1 n 3 s n n e s n bl p i to f h c Sti a s a r t Cour di m i s t s c a m s rckl nd t nda d, he t s s es he e l i . W ihr gadt Cli A( a A( ,Grybilc e t tt tmes nts ac ngf t e r o ams 2) nd 4) a l ontnds ha he i pe e rhi or t misngDNA e de ewa dirptve,antdt jly' opi onoft e de e and he si vi nc s su i ti e he tr s ni he vi nc , wa nunt a m i ti . The Su e e Cour o V igi a a i f ed s ral pr m t f r ni ga n ound t t e a l ga i di no hat hes le tons d t s tsyteSrc ln p eu iep o g.W ihrg r t Gr y l' cam ta tedinzto aif h tika d rj d c r n t e ad o a bi s li h t h s p in l p eu ie tej r a an thm,h sCo r' rve o t etilrns rp r v ae o l ab if rj dc d h u y g i s i ti u ts e iw f h ra ta cit e e ld ny re e ha ebewe ntilc e a t wines rgadi t misngt h.( 2608Tr a xc ng t e ra ouns l nd he t s e r ng he si 00t 2/ / . t 1 )1 l de d,tilco elhassae t tt e ha a s rhlse ap o maeytve 41.4 n e ra uns ttd ha he xc nge nd eac atd prxi tl i mi tsa no t t nt mi est tGrybilale .( . 38- a 27- .Gr bil nue nd t he we y nut ha a l lges DktNo. 17 t 28) ay l h so fr dn e pa ai na t whyt i b ife c a g wo l h v p eu ie tej r a an t a fe e o x ln to s o hs re x h n e ud a e rj dc d h u y g is hm; o c nh , stej r a q te hm o tea d cinc r e t rb s o n t a te i n r a e a h u y c ui d i n h b u to hag ,hee y h wi g h th y t be i ve t e de a w e e c pabl ofr i i hi f vor le d he vi nce nd r a e ulng n s a . W ihr gadt t filr t r ues amitilCl m A( ,el ngont rcod t e r o he alze o eq t sra, ai 4) r yi he e r e d nc t Supr m eCour ofVig ni r s d t t( ttone f l t s vi e e,he e t r i a ea one ha t ii r ais o how t tam itil pe ha sra 1 4The e hangewasasf l xc olows: Q:Ar t s t ie ,nt sb ,aete eteie t twees n t yo Ib? e he e he tms i hi ox r h s h tms ha r e t o ur a A: Yes. Q: W oul youop n t tu a yo c n sa up,tsq t o y,a j trmo t ie . W er n t d e ha p nd u a tnd i' uie ka nd us e ve he tms 'e o alowed t brng s ss si t c toom . l o i ci or n he ourr A: Be eIdon' have any. caus t g tr e l :Tha yo (n udi e .Tha t t i i t r s me e e Ato n y ) nk u. ia bl) t 00h s n he e o wh r . Cour: Fol ,It don' have aprvat conver a i J tr pond t any ques i t m a be pr ent t ks e s t i e s ton. us es o tons hat y es ed t you. o A: ia i e (n udbl) Cour: M a' ,can' hearyou. t am t E t ne 2 :Youg t u et mir p ne Ator y ) ota s he c o ho . A: 1don' s t c own wih t s. t ee he r t hi ( tr y 1:Oka wo dy op nt sohe p c ge I t tt c r e s mpet a wa s n t yo Atone ) y, ul ou e hi t r a ka . s ha he a p t a l h t s e t o u? A : Y es . 30 m o i w o d ha bee s c s ulgi n t e de e r l tng t t t h a c own t twas ton ul ve n uc es f ve he vi nc e a i o he 00t nd r ha p e e tdo ta t ej r wa p eu ie a ans p tto e atro ev n t es ac f r h r s ne r h t h u y s rj dc d g i t ei n r fe bsr i g h e rh o t e i e ie c gv nt j r a q i e p tto e o t ea d cinc ag , o whc tet 0ha d vd n e i e he u y c ut d ei n r f h b u to h r e f r ih h 0 t n t i co weei o tn (v d n e . Grv il Di. ft eDe t o Co r cins Re odNo rwn r mp ra t e i e c l' a b lv. r o h p . f re t , c r . ' o 1 740,a 3( J y 5, 1 .I d,Grybilha no e ai dho tilcou e c dha 01 t Va. ul 201 ) ndee a l s t xpl ne w ra nsl oul ve pr vaie on a m oton f a m i t i li lghtoft a plc bl s a e ld i or sr a n i he p i a e t ndar f a m i ti unde d or s ral r Vignalw.Vign ar q ie t a t ej r h a e d n eta i s (mpr p r' n S o r ii a r ii e ur s h t h u y e r vie c h t s o ' o e'a d i i s p eu iil ta i c n o b c r dbyac u in r isr cin fo tec u' Se Be v r v. rj dca' h t t a n t e u e ' a to ay n tu to r m h o l. e a es t Commo alh, S. 2d411 420( .1 ) Fu t r e,het ton (sone o fc t nwe t 427 E. , Va 993 . rhemor t s i i ) f a t o ques be r ol by t ti lcour i ea h pa tc a c s ' l l t s c e,i lg oft f tt tt es ved he r a t n c r i ul r a e. d. n hi as n i ht he ac ha he ' pit e oft misnge de eweei r uc di oe de e,2/ / Tr 1 ,herby curs he si vi nc r ntod e nt vi nc ( 2608 . 43)t e e i nai e n t si t thitt e de ewasf brc t d,t ti co tdi note n tnd i lmi tng ve he lgh es n he vi nc a ia e he ral ur d ve i t ne es a y t i s a c a i i t c i n. Thus t si ha dl a e m pl ofe de e s c s r o s ue ur tve ns nlt o , hi s r y n xa e vi nc o p eu iilta e e ac u in r i tu to wo l b is fce tt p o e t h d fn a ts rj d ca h t v n a to ay nsr cin u d e n ufiin o r tc t e ee d n ' rght . Acc di y, c us Gr ybilhasf ie t de o ta e t tbutf couns ls a l ge i s or ngl be a e a l a l d o m ns r t ha or e ' le d er or t r toft pr r s, he esul he oceedi w oul have been dif ent t s Courtm us dim i Cl m s ng d f er , hi t s ss ai A( andA( . 2) 4) 2. Orgi f/zz çA(), 7,andL():Pr s cuton' Ex tWines i nal lt/ax 6 A() 2 o e i s per t s Orgi lCli A( ,A( ,a L( c e t pr e uton' fr nsct col its i na ams 6) 7) nd 2) onc nz he os c i s o e i oxi ogs' alge yi ope t tmony a til nCl m A() Grybilaguest ttilc elwas le dl mpr r esi t ra.l ai 6 , a l r ha ra ouns i f e tve f f lng t c l ne f c i or aii o halenge t a m i s biiy oft f e i t xi ogit J m esJ he d s i lt he or ns c o col s , a ohn Kuhl n',etmo a apr -ra heai ( . l 1a 26- & DktNo.14a 133 . ma s tsi ny t etil rng. DktNo. - t 33 . - t- ) Specii l t t col s s d nothave been alow ed t bas hi opi on on urne t t tcaly, he oxi ogi t houl l o e s ni i es r ulswhe bl ts rs t oughtt ha be nusd.I Cli A( ,Grybila s t t ttil es t n ood et e uls o ve e e n am 7) a l sers ha ra c elwasi fci f f lngt obec t t hypot tc quesi t Commonweat ouns nefe tve or aii o j t o he heial tons he lh a ked t t c ogi tc e ni t efec sofc r a n dnz on a i vi l a t tt s he oxi ol s onc r ng he f t e ti gs n ndi dua , nd ha he tsi youghtt ha bee s ppr sd.(d..I Cli L( ,Gr ybilague t ttilc ms l e tmon o ve n u ese l ) n am 2) a l r s ha ra ot e wa i feci f f ii t pr e c s ne f tve or alng o es nt ompe e lga a g nta t why t t c ogits ul t nt e l r ume s o he oxi ol s ho d notha be nalowe t a we t Commo alh' h hei lquesi .(#=. ve e l d o ns r he nwe t s ypot tca tons J . ) To putt f e i t col s ' t s i o i pr rco e ,o m us al o c i ert he or ns c oxi ogit s e tm ny n ope nt xt ne t s ons d he t s i ony oft f e i nur e, ur e Ta pl y,who e m i d t vi tm w he he we t t e tm he or ns c s N s r e xn ne he c i n nt o he hos t . N ur e Ta pl y t s i i d t tno bl w a cole t d be aus t m uc tm e ha pas e pial s r e e tfe ha ood s l c e c e oo h i d sd bewee t tmeoft asa ta t vitm' ti t t hos tl ( 2608Tr a 89) The t n he i he sul nd he ci s rp o he pia. 2/ / . t . vi tm w asa s uled on t eve ng ofSe e be 9,2006, t s xuala s ul e m i ton ci sa t he ni pt m r but he e s a t xa na i di notoc uruntl2pm t f l ngda ( 2508Tr a 230- .NureTaplye ai d d c i he olowi y. 2/ / . t 236) s r e xpl ne t ta trt ve hour ,dr gs a e m e a i ed by t bod a no l rpr e i t ha fe wel s u r t bolz he y nd onge es nt n he bl te butc n silbedee tdi t u i .(/ / Tr a 89- .Thus i a or nc oodsram, a tl tce n he rne 22608 . t 90) ,n cc da e wihsa a dpr dur ,NureTapl t aurnes mpl frd ugtsi (d.a 8 . t tnd r oce es s r ey ook i a e o r e tng. I t 9) Ba e o t e de c l c e by N ur e Ta pl y, he t c ogitt tf e t tt s d n he vi nce ole t d s r e t oxi ol s es ii d ha he urnaysss i l i howedt vitm hadi se t dr .(/ 08Tr a 33537) Thed ugswee he ci ngetd wo ugs 225/ . t - . r r a ti ylne,a a ide esa t ti as pr ci dfri omni a mi ai he c s (d. mirpt i n nt- pr s nt ha s lo esrbe o ns a nd gr ne ada he , 1 a 337- ) a cycobe a i ,amus erl a ,(d.a 338) t 38 , nd l nz prne cl eu nt 1 t .Howe r ont bassoft ve, he i he urnal i al ne he coul notdet r i t l ve oft dr i t vi tm ' bod a t usc d i ys s o d e m ne he e l he ugs n he c i s y nd h oul nottsiyt how t yafe tdt vitm s cfc ly.(d a 336 .W he t t c ogit etf o he fce he ci pe iial L- t ) a n he oxiol s began t t tf aboutt ef ect oft dr on t cent alner o es iy he f s he ugs he r vous s t ,Def ysem ense counsel obe tda a g t tapr rf jce nd r ued ha ope oundai f t t tmonyha notbee esa ihe lI a ton or he esi d n tbls d. LL t 32 3 8 .Th tilc u t v mze t eo jcin, oi gt a teCo n at h dno a k dte 3 ) e ra o r o e ld h be to n tn h t h mmo we l a t s e h h w ine st t s iy a t s o e tf boutt ef e t on t vi tm s c f c ly, r t a he f c s he c i pe ii a l but a her boutt efec oft he f t he d u si g n r l (d a 3 9 .Tra c u s l d afrh ro j cinwh nt eCo n at r g n e ea . l . t 3 ) il o n e ma e u te be to e h mmo we l h pos d a hypot tca ques i r ga di whe he t dr c d ha c us d t s m pt st e he i l ton e r ng t r he ugs oul ve a e he y om he vit rc u td d rn h stil etmo y.(d. t3 2 .Th b ssf rtilc u s lso jcin ci e o ne u ig i ra tsi n l a 4 ) e a i o ra o n e' be to m w a t tt t c ogi tdi notû ve t r gh s mpl ' bec us he onl ha a urne s m pl a s ha he oxi ol s d t ha he i t a e ' a e y d i n e nd notabl smpl (d.a 342) Afe he rngt txiol s tsiyt tbec us t dugs ood a e. l t . tr a i he o c ogit etf ha a e he r w e e pr e i t urne t y c d ca e t sde e f t he ha des r be a t tt onl r es nt n he i he oul us he i f ec s d c i d nd ha he y vaibl wast itnst oft esdeefecs t tilco t r e couns ' obe ton.(d. ra e he ne iy hos i f t,he ra ur overuld els j ci 1 a3 - . t 4344) TheSu e Cour ofVigi aa e s e c ofGr bilsa ve a lga i a f pr me t r ni ddr s ed a h ay l' bo le tons nd ound ta n n o t e stsi det e tep roma c o p eudc p o go Src lnd Re adn h t o e f h m aite ih r h e f r n e r rj ie r n f tika . g r ig t alcounsels f l e t chalenget t col s ' pot i hypot i t tm ony a a pr ri ' aiur o l he oxi ogi ts ental hetcal es i t e- tilhe rng,heco tras t tt rcodr ae co e o e tdt t ra a i t ur e oned ha he e r eve ld unsl bjce o he Com m o e t s h t tca ques i oft t xi ol s butwasove r ed. G r ybilv.Di . nw alh' ypo he i l tons he o c ogi t r ul a l r oft De .o Coreci , c dNo.1 7 a 5( .J y5,2011.TheSuprmeCour of he pt f r tons Re or 01 40, t Va ul ) e t V igi a f r he not t tGr bilha no a tc a e a s e t pr ventt t tm ony fom r ni u t r ed ha ay l d t r i ul t d ny t ps o e he es i r be ng a it d t tt i lcou e c d ha t ke d i a p e ti lhe i t tw e e nott ke i dm te ha r a ns l oul ve a n ur ng r -r a arng ha r a n durng t t i . 1 Thus t Supr m e Cour ofVi g ni co ude t tG r ybilha f ie t i he ral d. , he e t r i a ncl d ha a l d a l d o s ts y t eihe pr ng ofSt i kl nd. l a i f he t r o rc a d. W i r g r t Gry ilscam t a til o n e wa iefcief rfii t o j c a t e ad o a b l' li h tra c u s l s n fe t o al o b e t nd h v ng f ii t ha t t c ogit st s i on i r s a lng o ve he oxi ol s ' e tm y n e pons t t Com m onw e t s hy t tc l e o he alh' po he i a ques i s es t Supr e CourtofV igi a not t t e alegatons l tons uppr sed, he em r ni ed hat hes l i acked a f ual act 33 ba i.Grvbilv. r oft De . Core tons Rec r No.1 740,a 6( J y5, 1. ss a l Di. he ptof rci , od 01 t Va. ul 201 ) Asn tda o e til o nslddo j c t t eCo n at sh p t tc lq sinn o te oe b v ,ra c u e i be to h mmo we l y oheia ueto ig f h h' t c ogit (/ / Tr a 338,3 ) TheSuprmeCo tofVigi aconcude i lg oft oxiol s. 22508 . t 42 . e ur r ni l d,n iht he fc t a c u e ' o j cin weeo er lda dt a Gry il aldt p e e t n b sso a t h t o nsls b e to s r v rue n h t a bl fie o r s n a y a i n w hi h t a wer t t hy t tc lq s i oughtt ha be n s es ed, ha G r ybil c he ns s o he po he i a ue tons o ve e uppr s t t a l fie t stsyteet rted tce t ef r n eo p eu iep o go Src ln .l a 6 ald o aif h i h eiin p ro ma c r rj d c r n f tika d d. t . he Furhe m or ,t sCour' r viw oft r cor hasnotr ve l a i r s i eors ultve t r e hi ts e e he e d e aed ny mpe mi sbl pec a i e r t s i ony by t pr e uton' f e i t c ogi t Thi Co tdoesnotdoubtt t xpe t e tm he os c i s or nsc oxi ol s . s ur ha Gr ybils nc r y be i ve t t tm ony oft pr e uton' f e i t col s o htt ha a l i e el le s he es i he os c i s or ns c oxi ogi t ug o ve be n e l ed,b be i fw ihouta co r s e xc ud ut le t r e pondi l ga f ng e l ounda i f rt tbe i fi i uf i i nt ton o ha le s ns fc e t warn ha e sr l f Be a s Gry il a fie t s tsytepef r nc o p eu ie o ra t b a ei e c u e a b lh s ald o aif h ro ma e r rj dc pr ofStikl nd wih r r t hi a lga i co r ng ti lco elspe f ma ei ong rc a t ega d o s le tons nce ni ra uns ' ror nc n r a i t t t s i on oft pr e uton' f r nsc t col i t t sC o t us di m i s el ton o he e tm y he os c i s o e i oxi og s , hi ur m t s s Cli A( , 7) a L( . ams 6)A( , nd 2) Orgi C?z? çA()andA()tVoi Die i nal t/p. 5 8 r r Gr ybila s m ake t o i f ec i a s sa e ofc a l lo s w ne f tve s i t nc ouns lc a m sba ed on ti lc e li s r a ouns ls e' c uc durngvoi die l Orgi lCl m A() Grybilalge t tti c elwas ond t i r r . n i na ai 5 , a l le s ha ral ouns i fe tv f rfiigt o j c t tetilu g ' rf s loalw t r ca vordr q sin 't nefcie o al o b e t o h ra j d es eu a t lo û u il i ie ueto s'o n c beas oft j y.( . 1 1a l& DktNo.13a 5) I Orgi lCli A( ,Grybil ked he ur DktNo. - t . - t . n i na am 8) a l cl i st tti lc a m ha r a ouns lw a i f ec i f r f lng t as e h w ines t i ntf t m s l sby e s ne f tve o aii o k ac t s o de i y he e ve na d i voi diefrt co trc d.( t No.1 1a 3 . me urng r r o he ur e or Dk. - t 6) W ihr r t Orgi lCli A( ,Gr bilaset t tt quesi hewa e t ak t egad o i na am 5) ay l s rs ha he tons ntd o s t pr pe tvej or weede i dt dee newhehe t pot il u or weeprj c he os ci ur s r sgne o tnni t r he enta j r s r eudied 34 ag ns hom os ai t exua sorce t n s xua ac i t The Su em e Cour ofV i gi a he d t tt s l rai e l tviy. pr t r ni l ha hi cli stsidnet rt pef ma enort prj cepr ngofStikl Gr bilv. r of am aife ihe he ror nc he eudi o rc and. av l Di. t De .o Cor to , or No.1 7 a 3( J y5,2011. Ther or s dt t he pt f recins Rec d 01 40, t Va. ul ) ec d howe ha t unsls tedpr pos dvoi dieq tonspro t til (nd)s vealoft quesi wee k e ubmit o e r r uesi co ir o ra, a e r he tons r e ude by t t i lc ton t gr xcl d he r a our he oundst tt y r vea e f t oft ca e r t rt n t ha he e l d ac s he s a he ha he p eu c o tej r r..'l a 2 3 F rh r t ec u t oe t a t rc r s we te rj die f h u o s.. d. t - . u te ,h o r n t d h the e o d ho d h ' pr peci j or we ei or doft naur oft c eandweea ke whehe t yco dbe os tve ur s r nf me he t e he as r s d t r he ul i pa talgi n t c r s a whe he t y be i ve Gr ybilw a guit by vi t ofhi m ri ve he ha ge nd t r he le d a l s ly rue s h mo e u lt.M o e v r t c u t tu kt j r r E a e o terrs o s s .. 1 . t o s x aiy r o e ,he o r sr c wo uo s t s d n h i e p n e ..'d a 4. b ' Thi Cour fndst tt Supr m e Cour ofVi gi a' a i a i ofSti kl nd t t voi s t i ha he e t r ni s pplc ton rc a o he r die co r r i e by G r ybilw a no unr a ona e. A t i c t s di c e i t e l r nce ns a s d a l s t e s bl ral our ha s r ton o xc ude voi dieq tons Thomasv.Commonweat 68 S. 2d2 237( Ct App. 0) r r uesi . lh, 8 E. 20, Va. . 201 (ttngSi i wihi t ti c tss sai dt s t n he ral our' ounddic ei t de dewhe ad e ntha ha ' sr ton o ci n efnda s d'a 'fll n fi' p o tni t a c ranwheh rp o pe t ej r r 'tn id fee t i t e ç-l a d ar o p ru t o s e ti çt y te r s ci u o s sa d n ifrn ' n h v c us')(nenalcttonsomitd) Hee,heti c r al a e' itr iai te . r t ral ou t loweds fce voi diet rvea ufiint r r o e l ba , ss wnb tec u tsd cso t srk t j r r frc u e Th til o r n e n t is a ho y h o r' e ii n o tie wo u o s o a s . e ra c u t e d o al t Defnda t a ke r conc i bl que to i ode t e ur anunbi e j y.Thus low he e nt o s ve y eva e sin n r r o ns e asd ur , tetil to n y sd cso n tt p ru wh t udh v b e af tl o j cinc n o b s i h ra atr e ' e iin o o u s e a wo l a e e n u i b e to a n t e ad e t bei fe tveasitnc ofc e.Se Moodyv.Pol 408F. 1 ,1 ( hCi. 05) o nefci ssa e ounsl e k, 3d 41 51 4t r 20 ( tngt twihoute de t dac i ncesoodara ona ec nc ofbei grntd, noi ha t vi nce hatt ontnua t e s bl ha e ng a e ( ttone lcamotde peii r r monsrt t tra ona ecou e woul nec s aiy ha rquese a tae ha e s bl nsl d e s rl ve e td c i nc .'.Th ,hi Cour mus dimisCli A( . ontnua e' ) us t s t t s s am 5) 35 Th S p e Co r o Vignaas rj ce Orgn l am A( ) fn n t a Gry il e u rme u t f r i i lo ee td ii a Cli 8 ,idig h t a b l ha nots ts i t St i a s a r d a i fed he rckl nd t nda d.Re yi o a a t da tfom c l ng n n fi vi r ouns t c t e el he our not d t tS ha d elha ac r whihi l dt na so e hj or t tbot c e a couns d ha t c ncude he me f ac ur ,ha h ouns l nd p tto e k e t en me o t j r r wh nt ya s rdq e to s a dta c u s l oe o eiin r n w h a s f he u o s e he n wee u si n , n h t o n e n td n t ec a t a ho t ej r rsrmak . Gr v lv. r o t eDe to Co r cins Re o dNo h h r e c f h u o ' e r s' a bi Di. f h p . f re to , c r . ' l 1 7 a 7( J y 5, 1 .Ont sbasst c t l t tGr bilha fie t 01 40, t Va. ul 201 ) hi i he our hed ha ay l d ald o d mo taet t o ns lspef r n ewa d fce to t a h wa p eu ie b c u s ls e nsr t ha c u e ' ro ma c s eiin r h t e s rj dc d y o n e' co uc . Thi Cour ag ees Couns ls c uc durng voi die i l ed s m itng pot nta nd t s t r . e ' ond t i r r nc ud ub ti e il ques i nst t J to o he udge a kee ng tac oft e a w e s s h t the c d s e s uly m ove nd pi r k hos ns r uc ha oul ucc s f l t h v t poe ta j r r src e frc u e Fial, a b lha no alg dhewa u a l t o a e wo tnil u o s tik n o a s . n l Gr y il s t le e y s n be o k e ta ko tej r rsie tte .Th s t eS p e Co r o Vign asa piaino e p rc f h u o ' d n iis u ,h u rme u t f r ii ' p lc to f Sti kl nd w a no unr as bl unde t s f t . Ac r i y,t sCour di m i s s Cl i rc a s t e ona e r he e ac s co d ngl hi t s s e am A( . 8) 4 Orgi Cl m ,(3: Con i o ntr s . i nal ai 4 9 llctfl e e t Orgna Cli A( , r pst mos outa s cli a ngGrybilsma y cams ii l am 9) peha he t lndih am mo a l' n li , ale t tone ofGr ybils t o a t e e e e i o a ho os l ges ha a l' w tom ys nt r d nt m exua r a i hi w ih l el tons p t Gr ybil sc de e nta lf pa t r Bo l . Gr y l s cii ly a l ge t thi a t r a l' o- f nda nd ie r ne , w es a bil pe fca l le s ha s to ney û da tveypurueasxualr ai hi wihM r Bo esbeor t peii r giltil gndl û ci l s di e eltons p t . wl f e he ttones sc ra,a prort t s t nci he i a afe t c nc us on oft ti lf m ont di a tve y pur ue i o he en e ng arng nd t r he o l i he r a or hs d c i l s Mr Bowls vi t l er torW ordwi - b..' ( . 1 1a 5 .Theonl e de eo . e , a he nt ne l dewe .. DktNo. - t ) ' y vi nc f t sr l tons p t tG r ybilpr e si a sa e en by Bow l . G r ybilpr e sno e de e hi e a i hi ha a l es nt s t t m t es a l es nt vi nc t cor obor e Bowl s s at ent G r l ar o r at es' t em . aybil guest t srel i hat hi atonshi cr ed a confi of p eat lct 36 itr s, n a ars l, o n e wa iefciea til f rhe a g e t a p eu ies o l nee t a d s e ut c u s l s n fe tv tra.He u t r r u s h t rj dc h ud be pr um ed i t s case. es n hi The Supr m e Cour ofV i g ni r vi w e t e denc ad es ed Gr bil sa g e t , e t r i a e e d he vi e, dr s ay l' r um n s a f und t tt St i kl nd s a r w asnots tsi Thi Co ttnds t tt Supr m e nd o ha he rc a t nda d a i ted. s ur i ha he e Cour ofV igi a' hol ng w asnota unr s bl a i a i ofSt i kl nd. Fis ,Gr y l' t r ni s di n ea ona e pplc ton rc a r t a bils c a m i t de m i by t f tt tG r ybilha t o a t ne a t i la Gr ybilhasnot l i s m r ned he ac ha a l d w tor ys t ra nd a l a l d a une hi a c lege ny t c l onduc orc lc ofi er to t pa tofhi s co a t r y. Fr 235 t onfi t nt es n he r s e nd to ne ve, F.da 9 7( t Ci. 0 0 ($ hep ee eo as c n at r e d rn t p o e dn s 3 t 0 4h r 2 0 ) fT1 r snc f e o d to n y u ig he r c e ig ( sro l undemi a l tscai ofi fe tveasitnceofc e.) eiusy r nes ppelan ' l m nefci ssa ouns l'. ' Se ond,wihr ar t Grybilsapl ntt tprj c s dbepr s di hi c t eg d o a l' r me ha eudie houl eume n s c s ,hsCo r ds g e s W h l u d rS rc ln , rj dc i p e u dwh r C na t a ae t i u t ia re . ie n e tik a d p eu ie s r s me ee ' cu l a co lc ofi ees a rey afce (hejlwy ' pef ma ,' e v.Suli n, U. nfit ntr t dves l fe td t a ers ror nce'Cuylr lva 446 S. 3 350( 980) Grybilha no de tae t thi tilcou e' alge r ntcitrs 35, 1 , a l s t monsrtd ha s ra nsls le d oma i nee t i Bow l r e t t l ve ofa a t c lc ofi e e t A n a t lc l c ofi e es e s s n es os o he e l n c ual onfi t nt r s . c ua ont i t nt r t xit whe t a t ney' i e es sa t de e n ' i t r s s ' ve ge w ih r pec t am a era n he tor s nt r t nd he f nda t s n e e t û r di t es t o t il f c ua orl ga i s ort a c s ofac i ' Cuyl r 446 U . at356,n. Furhe m o e, a t l e l s ue o our e ton. ' e, S. 3. t r r p eu iei o l p e u dtf h c nfith ssg iia tyafce c u s lsp roma c rj dc s ny r s me t t e o lc a in fc nl fe td o n e ' e f r n e i te e yr n eigt ev r it n eibe e e t o hS rc ln p eu c c n o b s wn' h r b e d rn h e dc u r la l, v n h ug tik a d rj die a n t e ho . ' M ike v.Ta o ,525U. 1 1 ( c ns vlr S. 62, 73 2002) nal unls Ec e waset rttlya e , .Fi ly, e s souns l ihe oal bsnt orpr ve e fom a s s i t a us d i a c ii a s a oft pr e ng . . he e i e nt d r s itng he cc ed ur ng rtc l t ge he oc edi . t r s ge r l no ba i f fndi a Si h Am e en vi a i unl s t ac us d ca s w how ne aly s s or i ng xt ndm t ol ton es he c e n ho s f c er or ofcouns under i t relabiiy oft fndi ofguit' Unied St t v. pecii r s el m ned he i lt he i ng l.' t a es Cr c 466U. 648 659n. - ( 984) oni, S. , 256 1 . 37 I t pr s ntc e, t h Gr ybilal ge t thi tilc n he e e as alhoug a l le s ha s ra ouns lsa lge s xual e ' le d e r ai hi wihBowlste vgdlalmotvet efci l defnd,Pa C.GrybilJgj' eltons p t e d mo e 1 i o fe tvey e r ul a l, r., ' ( . 1 1a 5) Grybilma snos cii aleg tonso er rc DktNo. - t , a l ke pe fc l ai f ro ommitdbytilc e as te ra ouns l ar s toft tc lc ofi e es o di r nc i sr t gy ast s cii c s ofa ton durng e ul ha onfi t nt r t r ve ge e n t a e o pe fc our e c i i t i l I d, hi Cour ' r vi w oft r c d i c t sco e fl s ve a pr -r a m otons r a . ndee t s ts e e he e or ndi a e uns l ied e r l e ti l i , ses an.11(itngpr tilmoto fldb c nsl,a vi ousydef dGry la e upr lsi e-ra ins ie y ou e) nd gor l ende a bil t t i l The e a tonsr s t i Gr ybilsa ta on t o c r s t tc r i d lf s nt nc s i ra . s ci e uled n a l' cquit l w ha ge ha a re ie e e e n pr s a a r uc i n i t m a i i usw o i c r t unl w f woundi Fi l i on nd ed t o n he lc o und ng ha ge o a ul ng. naly, Gry il so l sn e c dt sv ny aso teo j c sx a p n tai nc a g , ih a bl wa n y e tn e o e e e r n h be t e u l e er to h r e wh c ca e a m a m um s nt nce oflf ,a t e ye r o t m alc o w oundi c r ,whi h ni s xi e e i e nd hr e a s n he i i us ng ha ge c ca e a m a m um s nt nce offve yea s ni s xi e e i r .Thus be us t Su e e Cour ofV igi a s , ca e he pr m t r ni ' a iai ofStiklndwasnotunras bl a t sCour mus dimisCli A( . pplc ton rc a e ona e nd hi t t s s am 9) 5 Orgi Cl m E : Venue . i nal ai l Cl i E,G r ybila g st tt i lc n am a l r ue ha r a ouns lw a i f e i be aus he f l d t m ov e s ne f ctve c e aie o e f a c nge ofve ûde pie t out a ous a oun ofpr ti m edi new s pera i e a i or ha nue û s t he r ge m t e ral a, pa nd nt r la, n wsc v rg , ihutmaeyd nidM r Gry il fi a di a t lrall'Dk . 1 1 e o e a e whc li tl e e . a b la ar n mp ri til.'( tNo. a a 3 ) Ho v r i rj ci ghi cam,h S p e Co r o Vigni n tdta Peiin rh d t 4 . we e ,n ee tn s li te u rme u t f r i a o e h t t o e a t f ie t o p o f ra e de ofm e a c r e ofhi ca e t tw oul ha s a l d t r f e ny vi nce t di ove ag s s ha d ve uppore a m oton td i frac n eo v n e' n t therc r s o dt to l o ep tn ilu o ha he z o ra o ha g f e u 'a d ha t e o d h we ha ny n oe ta j r r d ad r e d a yt n a o th c s i ten ws a df rh r ta p tn il u o tttdt t ec ul p t n hig b u te a e n h e , n u te ,h t oe ta j r rç ae ha h o d u s as de w hathe had r and cons dert cas bas on t evi i ead i he e ed he dence pr esent ' G r l v.Di . ed.' aybil r oft De .o Core to , or No.1 740,a 1 ( .J y5,2011. l i weletbls d he pt f rcins Rec d 01 t 2 Va ul ) t s l sa ihe t tti lt tcsa e l tt t di c e i ofc ha r a ac i r ef o he s r ton ouns l a whe he t m ove f ra c nge ofve e , nd t ro o ha nue 38 i atila t .S ee2.Co v. n s 1 3F.d5 5 5 ( t Ci.1 9 )( odngt a c t e' s ra tci e . , x No i , 3 3 6 , 73 8h r 9 7 h li h t oms ls c de i i nott r ue ta ic nge ofve be us he bele d o he c i sw e e pr ne t c s on o eq s l ha nue ca e i ve t r ounte r o o ha s rs ntnc 'des t pr ti publct oft ca ewast ou sdet r ngeof rhe e e es' pie eral i iy he s û not t i he a pr esi lc tnc '; e ksv. one , F. 103 1 n.3( 1hCi.1 )( tng of sona ompee e' W e J s 26 3d 0, 44 1 1 t r 994 cii ) Stiklnd, U. a 688-89)( di t tamotonfrcha ofve çi t t of rc a 466 S. t hol ng ha i o nge nue ss he ype t c i a de i i t tt Su e e Cou t sr c z t ta crm i ldef nda ' co e m a a tc l c son ha he pr m r ha e ogni ed ha i na e nt s uns l y el c a a r as bl c c co i rng a1 oft c r um s a esa ha c utoned coursag ns e t s e ona e hoi e ns de i l he i c t nc nd s a i t ai t quesini ' Furhe,i Vigi at r i apr umptont taci naldee tc nr c i to ng.). t r n r ni hee s es i ha rmi fndan a e eve af rti i t ve w he e t t i oc ur e Swi he v. ai ral n he nue r he ral c r d. s r Com m onwea t 506 S. 2d 7 1h, E. 63, 77 ( .1 ) I or rt ove c t tpr umptonadee ntmus pr ee de 0 Va 998 . n de o r ome ha es i fnda t oduc vi nce C e n tai gt a t efeig o p eu ieo t ep r o tectz n yi wi epra a di s c l mo srtn h t h e l f rj dc n h a t f h iie r s d s e d n s u h d n t tw oul ç r as bl c r a n t pr ve a f i ti l'' uele v.Com m onwe t 422 S. 2d ha d be e ona y e t i o e nt a r r a ,' M l r alh, E. 38 388( 1 92)(uoi St kt v.Co 0, Va. 9 q tng oc on mmonwe t 31 S. 2d371 380( .1 4). alh, 4 E. , Va 98 ) Th , e a et eewa n e ie c o wi ep e dp eu ieo t ep r o tej r a db c us us b c us h r s o vd n e f d s ra rj dc n h a t f h u y n e a e Gry il a p o uc dn e d n erg r i t ej r ' b a ,hsCo r fnd t th S p e a bl h s r d e o vie c e adng h u y s is t i u t i s ha te u rme Cour ofVigi a' a i a i ofStiklnd wasnotunr as bl a Cli E mus be t r ni s pplc ton rc a e ona e nd am t di m i s d. s se 6 Orgi Cl msF(),G() and0:Ra Shil Law . i nal ai 2 2, pe ed Gr ybila s m a s ve a aleg i r ga di t i lcou e ' conduc i r l ton t t a l l o kes e r l l atons e r ng r a ns l s t n e a i o he a iai ofVigi a' RapeShil La pplc ton r ni s ed w.Spe tc l i Cl m F( Gr ybila g til ci aly,n ai 2) a l r ues ra i c ouns w a i f e tve be us he f ie t ar ue c ra n e de w a a i sbl des t el s ne f c i ca e a l d o g e t i vi nce s dm s i e pie Vigni sRa Shi dLa ( . 1 1a 3 .I Cli G( ,Grybilalege t ttil ri a' pe el w. DktNo. - t ) n am 2) a l l s ha ra col s w as i f i f f lng t argue t pr m el nef ectve or aii o he opercas l t uset polce i e aw o he i nvestgatve i i 39 rpo t t i a ht vitm' tsi ny.(d..I Cli 0,Gr ybila s rst ttilc e e rs o mpe c he ci s etmo l ) n am a l s et ha ra ouns l w a i f ec i f f ii t pr pa e c pe e l ga a gum e r r ng V i g ni sRa Shi l s ne f tve or a lng o e r om t nt e l r nt ega di r i a' pe e d La i c elsmotoni lmi .( . 18) w n ouns ' i n i ne DktNo. - . TheSuprmeCour ofVigni rj ce Gr bilsagume st tti c e wa e t r i a ee td ay l' r nt ha ral ouns l s i efcieb c u eGr y il a f i dt stsy ete t p ro ma c o p eu iep o go n fe tv e a s a bl h d al o aif i r he ef r n e r rj dc r n f e h Stiklnd.Grybilv.Di. t De .ofCor to ,Re or No.1 740,a 11( J y5, rc a a l r of he pt recins c d 01 t Va. ul 2011 .S ctc ly,t Cour notdt tGrybilfie ûopr frt agume sc e ) pe ii al he t e ha a l ald i ofe he r t nt ouns l s d ha m a ort c e lw t whih c houl ve de he as a o c ouns ls ul ha cied.'I a 11 1 Thi Cour e ho d ve t ' d. t - 2. s t fndst tt Supr m e Cour ofV igi a sa i ton ofSt i kl nd w a no unr as bl i ha he e t r ni ' pplca i rc a s t e ona e. The de s on r r ng w hi h a g e s t m a and wha e d e t pr e a ti l ci i ega di c r um nt o ke t vi enc o es nt t r a le wihi t di c e i n ofti lc i s t n he s r to r a ouns l G onz l z,1 S. .a 1 .Ta or 48 U . a 41 e. a e 28 Ct t 770, yl , 4 S. t 8. Thi r l r c ze t complxiy oft 1w a sa t i s ue e ogni s he e t he a t tke, he mpora e oft rght a sa f r tnc he i s t t ke o t a c e a t pr c i a nec s ii soft i l The Supr m e Cour hase a ne he c us d, nd he a t c l e s te ra . e t xpl i d: Num e ousc ce a f c i c uc oft til i l ng t r hoi s fe tng ond t he ra , ncudi he o j cin t ma e tewin se t c l, n t eag me t t b e to s o k ,h t e s s o ala d h r u ns o a nc de nd noto y upon wha i pe m i s bl unde t r l s dva e, pe nl t s r si e r he u e ofe de a pr e r buta s upon t c i lco i r tons of vi nce nd oc du e lo a tca ns de a i t m om e a t l r rs r t gi pl n f rt ti l Thes m a t r he nt nd he a ge ta e c a o he r a . e te s c n be di fc tt e pl i t a l ype s a t r quie i a l a f i ul o x a n o a r on; nd o e r n l i t nc t tt y be a oved by t cle c d r s ns a es ha he ppr he i nt oul i k co pr i i t ef i i nc esa f ines t tt t i lpr es i m om sng he fc e i nd a r s ha he r a oc s s d sg dt p o t .I e e csn p ofsin l u g n , e ine o r moe n x r iig r e so a j d me t m o e r t a t ne dr w supon t e pe ts a e r e e r ove , he tor y a he x ri e nd xpe i nc t tm e ber oft ba s d brng t t t i lpr ce s I m os ha m s he r houl i o he r a o s . n t i t nc t a t ne w ilha a be t runde s a ng oft ns a es he tor y l ve te r t ndi he pr edur lc ce t n t c i nt o a l a tt l w s ul s oc a hoi s ha he le ; r t e s he a ho d o assunAe. Gonzal 1 S.Ct a 1770. Exam i i oft t alr d s st t i counselcom port ez, 28 .t naton he ri ecor how hat ral ed hi s fw el wihi t bounds ofpr essonalcom pet m el l t n he of i ence. Bef e t com m encem entofti , or he r al 40 ti c eltl d amoton t al w t pr e t ton ofi pe e e e denc i ral ouns i e i o lo he es n a i m a hm nt vi e ndudi ng s a e e s t vi tm m a r gar ng a s xua e oun e wih a he m a a e de e t t t m nt he c i de e di e l nc t r t not r n, nd vi nc he vitm ha ha pro c e ua sxualc a twihGr y lprort t ni a is .( . ci d d ir ons ns l e ontc t a bil i o he ght t sue Dkt No. 1 a 3537 .Themotonwasgr tdi pa t ndd nidi patalo ngt e de 38- 7 t - ) i ane n r a e e n r, lwi he vi nce ofprorcons ns s i e ual exualc ac be wee t vitm a Gr ybilt bea it d i o e de e. ont t t n he ci nd a l o dm te nt vi nc ( . 38- 7a 32- .Thus a ti Gr biltsiidt theha ha t pro c e ua DktNo. 1 t 33) , t ral ay l etfe ha d d wo ir onsns l sxuale t eswiht vitm.( 26/ Tr 1 - 51.Hefrhe tsiidt te hoft s e ncomtr t he ci 2/ 08 . 50 1 ) ' t r etfe ha ac hee u e ount r be n w he he s w t vi tm w al ng a ongs de t r d a he of e e t vi tm a nc e s ga n a he c i ki l i he oa nd f r d he c i rde.(d..Fi ly,Grybilt tfe t theha s e t vitm ç tpl e wheega peo e i 1 ) nal a l esiid ha d e n he ci û ac s r y pl a f e nt' nd t ti w hy he be i ve t vi tm wasi e e t d i ha ng s xua e unt r w ih r que ' a ha s le d he c i nt r s e n vi e l nco e s t Grybil ( 2608Tr 1 ) Thi pr e ainofe de e i lghtoft tilcou tsr i , a l. 2/ / . 51 . s esntto vi nc ,n i he ra r' ulngs doe note de de i entr pr e a i Furhe m o e,Gr ybilhasnotofer d s c tc s vi nce fci e es nt ton. t r r a l f e pe ii e ie c o ag me ta t h w h wa p eu ie b c u s lsp ro na c . c r ig y t i vd n e r r u n s o o e s rj dc d y o n e' e f n n e Ac o dn l ,hs Co t tdimisCli F( ,G( ,a 0. ur mus s s ams 2) 2) nd Orgi lCl msJ()andK:Jur s i na ai 2 or l Cli J2)andK,Grybila g stilc e wa i fci f fii t c le n ams ( a l r ue ra ouns l s nefe tve or alng o halnge c ranj rr f rc u el S e iial Gry il itista o ej r rs o l h veb e sr c eti u o s o a s .s p cfc l a bl man an h t n u o h ud a e n tu k y, f c us bec us herda e wast vitm ofaci 11ye r a ( . 1 1a 24) a or a e a e ughtr he ci rme as go,DktNo. - t , nd 1 The Cour doesnots how t e cl msdif l l orar f t l ditnctand t consi st 5 t ee hes ai fer egaly e acualy s i hus der hem t her oget . 41 a oh r u o s o dh v be nsnlkf rc u ebe a s t ec s d tciewa a e tbl he n t e j r r h ul a e e t c o a s c u e h a e ee tv s n sa i d s c t roft j orsbusnes,( . 1 1a 25 .6 usome he ur ' i s DktNo. - t )1 Un e Vigni lw, u o ma n tb sr c smpyb c u etej r rh s' rc n ev d d r r i a a aj r r y o e tu k i l e a s h u o a ' e o c ie p n to s o ii n , rmic n e to sa o tteci na j tc s se ci n l rasa d o in , pn o s o s o c p in b u h rmi lusie y tm, rmi a til n pr e e, a t patc a c s .'Cr s lv. oc dur or bout he riulr a e' esel Commo alh,5 1S. 2d 1 9( .2000) nwe t 3 E. , Va . l d e ,t q ec n t ui n lg a a teo a i a t lu' d e n tc ne lt e ldngtos n e d lth o si to a u r ne f n mp ri j l o s o o tmpae xcu i h e g t a y who ha r a orhea d ne s a co s c e ni t c s ore n e l i oft e who m a ve e d r w c unt onc r ng he a e ve xc uson hos y h v f nn da o iin b s do s ha c u t.. ets,n ta i wh t e aj r ri c p be a e o e n pno a e n uc c o n s. Th et ise d,s eh r u o s a a l . ofl yi as de a pr conc ve opi on a r nde i d ve di ts e y on t evi nce.' 1 a 6 a ng i e ei d ni nd e rng a r c ol l he de '' d. t ( u tn W i t v. mmo we l , 9 S. 2 5 4 51 ( .1 9 ).Th s o l to ej r r q oig l h Co n at 3 0 E.d 1 , 6 Va 9 0 ) u , ny h s u o s mo h whos voi diea we si c et tt c nnotbei ri mus b sr kf c e.Se j. e r r ns r ndiat ha hey a mpatal t e tuc or aus e l. s a 9(ii Grfi v.Commonwe t 454S. 2 3 364( Ct App.l ).l deemi ng t ctng itn a1h, E.d 63, Va. . 995) n tr ni wh t e ap tnilu o s o l besnlkfrc u etec u t h udc nsd r th j r rse tr eh r oe ta j r r h ud t c o a s h o r s o l o ies û e u o ' n ie t voi die, meeyioltdsae nt. Lovitv.Commonweat 537S. 2d866,8 ( . r r not rl s ae ttme s' ' t lh, E. 75 Va 2000) . l teprs n c s ,her c r i d v i o a yidc to t a et e p tnilu o wo l n h e e t a e t e o d s e od f n n iain h t ih r oe ta j r r u d ha bee bi s d a i a bl of s ti a i t tbi t r nde a f i a e t bl ve di t ve n a e nd nc pa e e tng s de ha as o e r a r nd quia e r c . W i r g r t tep tn il u o wh ed u he wa tev ci o aci ,h c u t s e t e a d o h o e ta j r r os a g tr s h it f rme t e o r ak d h m wh t e i lg to h rd u h e ' e p re c ,h poe ta j r rc ul b û ara d i a t lo eh r n ih f e a g trs x ein e t e tnilu o o d e ' i n mp ri t f a s onewhoi c ge wih,a latpa tal t ngst tc dbesmia . ( 2508Tr 47ome s har d t t e s rily,hi ha oul i lr' 2/ / . ' 49 .Atfrttepoe ta j r rrp idta s ewa n's r a ds ma es mea dto a ) is h tn il u o e le h t h s t ue n he d o d i n l i 1 a l al ar , ge r l t a ohe j or o h t ha eb e sr c f rc u e Ho v r hefi 6Gr ybil so gues ne al h t t r ur s ug t o v e n tu k o a s . we e , al y, s t name t m or pr de any expl i f w hy t y oughtt have bee sr f caus Thus t s o he ovi anaton or he o n tuck or e. , hi Courtdi mi est e ar e s. s ss hes gum nt 42 i ud bl co me s I To c a iy t i udi e c m me s t c tr a ke t que ton a na i e m nt . d. l rf he na bl o nt ,he our e- s d he si nd t potntalur rpledtIs dIt nk Ico dbei rilt t e de ..' l Thec r he e i j or e i t ai hi ul mpa ta o he vi nce .. d. ' ou t te ak di t ej o ha i nyd u ta t wh t e y u c udd ta?' n tep tn il uo h n s e f h urr d d o b s o eh r o o l o h t'a d h oe ta j r r a r ple t i e t ts di notha a doub t ts co d be f i a i pa ta . I Si ia l e i d w c ha he d ve ny t ha he ul a r nd m ri l d. m l ry, tepoe t lu o wh k e tec s d tcie wh na k db t c u t eh rh c ul b h tni j r r o n w h a e ee tv , e s e y he o r wh t e e o d e a i pa tal r ple t tno hi i hi busne sr l tons p wih t c s de e tve w oul afec m ri , e i d ha t ng n s i s e a i hi t he a e t c i d f t hi a lt kobefi andi rili t sc e' ndt thec d d ght(i)t e de ej t s biiy i t ar mpa ta n hi as'a ha oul t wei sc he vi nc us lkeanyo es s. ( 25/ Tr 25 . i ne le' ' 2/ 08 . ) ' Th , oh n i et e tu o ' r s o s sd rngv i d r idc t ta gih r j r r us n ti g n ih r j r rs e p n e u i or ie n iae h t et el u o wo l b p e e td o i ardi pef r n ted te o aj r ra rq ie b tec u ts ud e r v ne r mp ie n romig h u is f u o s e ur d y h o r' isr cinsa dt ej r rso t . vt, 3 S. 2 a 8 5 Ac o dn l t Su rmeCo r o n tu to n h u o ' ah' i 5 7 E.d t 7 . c r igy,he p e 'Lo t ut f Vigni shol ngt tGrybilha f ldt me tet rt pef manc orprj cepr of r i a' di ha a l d aie o e ihe he ror e eudi ong Stiklndwa notunr s na ebe a eçglve (hej ors r pons ,co e wa not rc a s ea o bl c us çgi n t ur 'l es es unsl s iefcief rf ingt h v t e ej r r sr c frc u e'Gr y il . r o teDe to n fe tv o al o a e h s u o s tu k o a s . a bl v Di. f h p . f i ' Corctons Re r No.1 740, t1 ( J y5,2011.Ast SuprmeCour ofVigi a re i , co d 01 a 4 Va. ul ) he e t r ni c re tye pan d,t efrt u o id c tdta s et o g ts ec udbei rils eh dn o rcl x lie th isj r r n iae h t h h u h h o l mpa t , h a o t a do t ts c dba ea de ii on t lw a t e denc pr s t a ti l a s ubt ha he oul s ny c son he a nd he vi e e en ed t ra , nd he pr umedt pe ii rwa i e untlpr ve g ly be es he ttone s nnoc nt i o n uit yond ar s bl doub , Jt ea ona e t' .s 't Si lry,heSuprmeCour ofVigi afundt s c c le dj orc dbei ril mial t e t r ni o he e ond halnge ur oul mpa ta bas d on hi r s e s e pons st t c tsvoi die. l The e or t sCour m us di m i s Orgi l e o he our ' r r d. r f e, hi t t s s i na Cli J2)a K. ams ( nd 43 #. Orgi Cl msJt #,andQ:A r Venie i nal ai y r N e ,Gr ybilas e t i f c i as it nc ofco e c ai s i r a i t ti lco e ' xt a l s r s nef e tve s s a e uns l l m n el ton o r a uns ls h n l go tej r v nr .I Cli M , a b lalg st a til o n e wa i fe tv f r a di f h u y e ie n am Gry il le e h t ra c u s l s nefcie o n fi n t o j c t t Co n at sd lb rt r d cino t ma tr u yls fo 6 t 3 al g o b e t o he mmo we l eieae e u to f he se j r it r m 0 o 3 i h' p ro s ( tNo. - a 2 3 .Gry il a fi dt s p o th salg to wi a ye i e c es n . Dk . 16 t - ) a bl h s al o u p r ti l ai n t n v d n e e e h t tt Commonwe t pur eulyrduc dt j ypo t i r a eisc nc ofobti nga ha he a1h pos f l e e he ur ol o nc e s t ha es ani g ly ve di t Conc us y a l ga i al a e i uf i e t e il Gr ybil o ha sr le . uit r c . l or le tons one r ns fci nt o ntte a l t bea e i f Nike s v. ,971F. 11 11 ( hCi.1 2) over edonot rcoundsbvGr vv. c ron Lee 2d 25, 36 4t r 99 , rul he r a Nehelnd,51 U. 15 1 - ( 996) Ac or ngl t SuprmeCour ofVigi a' hol ng t ra 8 S. 2, 65 66 1 . c di y,he e t r ni s di t tGrybilha s tsi dneihe t pef ma o prj cepr ofStiklnd,Gr vbilv. ha a l d aite t r he ror nce r eudi ong rc a a l Di. t De .ofCoreci ,Re or No.1 740,a 1 ( J y5,2011,wa no r of he pt r tons c d 01 t 5 Va. ul ) s t unr as bl a t s Cour m us dim i sCl m M . e ona e nd hi t t s s ai I Cli P, a bi alg stil o n e wa i efcief rf ingt o j c tot efc n am Gry l le e ra c u s l s n fe tv o al o be tt h a t l i t t tt j yls i fc (ile l a ve rma t twer g omos xuas r i di a ha he ur itn-a t sc xcuded ny nie n ha e:hl e l,esde n prdomi tl homosxua neihbor ,a o (ijunde 40ye r ofa a one(ilwih e naey e l g hood' ny ne sc r as ge, ny sc t aposi elbealpr e son..'( . 1- a 35) Hea g t te l i ofhomos xuas sbl i r ofs i ..'DktNo. 1 t . r ues ha xcuson e l p e e tdhm fo b i tidb aj r t fhspe r. (d) Gry l' a g me t sp e s d rv n e i r m eng re y u y ç i es' I .. a bi s r u n i rmie o ' l o temitk n a s mp int a att yo hspe r'mu ticud idviu l wh s r hs n h sa e su to h t jt f i es' s n l e n i d as o hae i r s xua o i nt ton, ,orpoltca afi i ton. H o e r al t 1 w r qui e i t tGr ybilbe e l r e a i age ii l t la i w ve , l he a e r s s ha a l tidb a i rilu y fe fo e c pi n bis o p eudc r n o yc o e fo aco s re y n mpat j r r e r m x e to , a , r rj ie a d ml h s n r m r s a s ci oft c e ton he ommuniy.UniedSttsv.Me e t 8 F. 1 8,1 & n. ( h Ci.1 7) t t ae r dih, 24 2d 41 424 3 4t r 98 (idn ltg n n t n ildt as cfcn mb ro mi rte o aj r , nyt aj r rn o y fn ig ii a t o e tte o pe ii u e f noiis n u y o l o u y a d ml c e fom arprs nai pool.Theal ai t tGrybilhasriedrgadi t j or hos n r e e e ttve ) leg tons ha a l as e r ng wo ur s 44 t the al ge o htt havebe sr f rc us wee f und wa i bot byt Sup e ha le s ug o en tuck o a e r o ntng h he r me Cour ofV igi a a t s Cour . Furhe m or Gr ybilha m a no a tona s ii t r ni nd hi t t r e, a l s de ddii l pec fc algainst tt ot rj or weenoti rilorhaborda bisorprj c a i thi le to ha he he ur s r mpa ta r e ny a eudie gans m. The Supr e Cour ofV i gi a c r c l c t d t a i a e l alprnci e a not d t tt em t r ni or e ty ie he pplc bl eg i pl s nd e ha he rc r de n tae t a Ehej r r idc tdte wo l b f i a di a t l n b s ter e o d mo srtd h t t u o s n iae h y ud e ar n mp ri a d a e h i t a dec s on on t 1 w a t e de e. G r vbilv.Di . t De .ofCor ec i ,Re or N o. ii he a nd he vi nc ' a l ' r of he pt r tons c d 1 740,a l ( J y 5,2011) Furhe r t Supe Cour ofVigni sae t t 01 t 6 Va. ul . t nnoe,he rme t r i a ttd ha G r ybilha f ie t of e t ny e de e t s a l d al d o f r t a vi nc o how t ta oft ca ego i s ofpe e lsed i ha ny he t r e opl i t n hi c am we e e l s li r xcuded fom t ve r ' d.Acc r ngl t Su e Cour ofVigi a' r he nie. '1 o di y, he pr me t r ni s h li gt a Gry il a fie t s tsyete t pefr n eo p eu iep o go S rc ln o dn h t a bl h d ald o aif i r he ro ma c r rj d c r n f tika d h w a no u e s na e a t ,t s Cour m us d s i s Cl i P. s t nr a o bl , nd hus hi t t im s a m l Cli Q, a bi ag e t a tilc u sl sief ci ef rfii t o j c t n am Gry l r u s h t ra o n e wa n fe tv o al o be t o l ng c le tv q e to igo t j r r a df rfiigt iss o idv d a q sinngo te o lcie u si nn f he u o s n o aln o n it n n ii u l ueto i f h p tn il u o s ( tNo. - a 3 ) Un e Vign alw,ta ci na d fn a t a n rg t oe ta j r r. Dk . 1 1 t 6 . d r r ii a û l rmi l ee d n h s o ih l t i vi lvoi die. Buc nanv.Co o ndi dua r r ' ha ' mmonweat 38 S. 2d757,78 ( .1 .The lh, 4 E. 4 Va 989) r co d i c t d a t Supr m e Cou tofV igi a not d t tt he t i lcour ques i d t e r ndi a e nd he e r r ni e ha i r a t t tone he j r r a o th i a iiyt b i a t lt a t j r r, oid c tdt e c udn twee u o s b u ter b l o e mp ri ,h two u o s wh n iae h y o l o , r t a sr c , n ta ter mann j r r aln iae t a te c udb i a t l' Gr y i v Di. tu k a d h t h e i ig u o s lid c td h th y o l e mp ri . a bl . r a' l oft De . Core tons Rec dNo.1 740,a 1 ( J y5,2011.Thus t Suprme he ptof rci , or 01 t 7 Va. ul ) ,he e Cour ofVi g ni c r c l hel t tGr l had f l t s ts y e t rpr oft St i kl nd t r i a or e ty d ha aybil aied o a i f ihe ong he r c a ts.l Acc di y,hi Cour mus dimisCl m Q. e t d. or ngl t s t t s s ai 45 # Orgi Cl m N: For nscTe tng o dLi ns . i nal ai e i si fBe ne l Cl i N ,Gr ybilc ai sti lc n am a l l m r a ouns lw a i f e tve f f lng t e ur t s a e e s ne f c i or aii o ns e he t t f e i l bor t y t sedt vi tm ' be lne ,whih Gr ybilcli swoul ha e ne ae or nsc a aor e t he ci s d i ns c a l am d ve xo r t d hi ( . 1 1a 35- .Atti ,e de wa pr e t tt vi i st ha bl m. DktNo. - t 36) ral vi nce s oduc d ha he ctm' 00t nd ood weef r oundi Grybilshome.(/ 08Tr 11 1 .Cons que l i i unce r a Grybil n a l' 226/ . 8, 23) e nty t s la, nd a l pr desno c ntexpl ton,how a evi nc f ovi oge ana i ny de e ound on t be s t w oul ha pr he d hee s d ve oved he d he t , onduc ed afe e ul t y.7 N orha Gr ybilof e e a s i ntf ct s i on t be s e s c xc pa or 1 s a l f r d ny c e ii e tng t tr t til t s he ra , o uppo t s c ai t tt be s e evi nc w oul ha e r hi l m ha he d he t de e d ve xone a e hi ,ha i be n r td m d t e i r duce a t i l U nderge r l ac e e l alprnc pl s a i a e t ha a pr e ngs nt o d t ra . ne aly c pt d eg i i e pplc bl o be s oc edi , t sf l e doom sG r ybil sc a m ofi f e tve a s s a e ofcou e be aus (û ihouta hi aiur a l' l i ne f c i s it nc ns l c e tw t s c f c a fr a i s pe ii , f im tve howi ofw ha t m i sng e de e ort tm ony w oul have be n,û ng t he s i vi nc es i d e a ha asc t r ote n begi t a y St i kl nd' s a r 'be a e çti ve y difc tt be our ca m ve n o ppl r c a s t nda ds c us i s r f i ul o a s swhe he co e ' pe f m a e w a defc e t a ne r y i pos i e t de e ne whe he s es t r uns l s r or nc s i i n , nd a l m s bl o t nui t r tep tto e wa p eu ie b a yd fce ce i c u e' p ro ma c .'And ro v h eiin r s rj d c d y n eiin is n o nsls ef r n e ' ' es n . Coli ,18F. 1 1 (t Ci.1 ( tngUnie Sttsv.La ,926F. 69 701 lns 3d 208, 221 5h r 994) quoi td ae ne 2d 4, ( hCi.1 ).Se aloBa stev. mps 91 F. 932,940( hCi.1 (û'ege t 7t r 991) e s set Tho on, 5 2d 4t r 990) ûf ra -h f ii oft a lanton hi c a m t to he e de e s d ha bee pr e ed du i t a lng he ppe l s l i ha t r vi nc houl ve n es nt r ng he s nt nci pha e ofhi ti li t a e e ofa pr f roft tm ony f om a w ines orwine s e e ng s s r a s he bs nc of e es i r t s t s es hecli hi at ne s dha c le ' . ams s tor y houl ve ald.) ' 1 Gr l appear t beleve t s eet woul be e ul or becaus t y woul confr Gr l' 7 aybil so i he h s d xc pat y e he d im aybils ver i ofevent ,r he t t vitm ' However a bes t s s coul be addii son s at r han he c i s. , t t he heet d tonale denc of vi e Gr l' ver on ofe sand coul not on t rown,pr exc pat y,as pr ence ofDNA on t aybils si vent d , hei ove ul or es he s sal c heet one annotpr t enc erbet en Gr l andt vi i wascons ual ove he ount we aybil he ctm ens . 46 G i n t tG r ybildi notm a a s ve ha a l d ke ny howi ofhow t bed s tevi nc w o d have ng he hee de e ul bee e ul t y,ore n wha t t s sw oul ha s n had t y bee i r n xc pa or ve t he e t d ve how he n nt oduc a ti l t ed t r a , he S p e Co r o Vign ash l igta Gry il a fie t stsyt ep eu ieo u rme u t f r ii' o dn h t a b lh d ald o aif h rj d c r pe f r a e pr r o m nc ongsofSt i kl nd w a no l r a ona e. G r ybilv. i.oft Dep .of rc a s t m e s bl a l D r he t Core tons Re or No.1 740,a 1 ( J y5,2011.Ac or i y,t sCou tmus dimis rci , c d 01 t 5 Va. ul ) c dngl hi r t s s Cl i N . am E. I fectve Assi ance ofA ppelat Couns Cl m s nef i st l e el ai Gr ybilm a s s ve ala l ga i t thi a l t c a l ke e r le tons ha s ppela e ouns lr e ende e i f e tve r d ne f c i as it nc of c ns . I Cl i B,Gr ybila l ge a la e co elw a i f ec i f f ii ssa e ou el n a m a l le s ppe l t uns s ne f tve or a lng t rieas e ii til b e to , e adigt ef rn i tx c lg s' h p t tc l e t n ta o as p cfc ra o j cin rg r n h o e sc o ioo its y oheia tsi y h t mo wa o e r ldb tetilu e Dk . 15 .I Cli D( ) Gr y il se t ta a p lae s v rue y h ra j dg .( tNo. - ) n am 1, a bl a s rs h t p elt c ouns lw a i f ec i f f ii t m e twih hi t di c st gr e s ne f tve or a lng o e t m o s us he ounds on whi h t a al c o ppe . ( tNo.1 1a 2) l Cl m D( ,Grybila g a lt c e wasi fe tvebec us he Dk. - t . n ai 3) a l r ues ppelae ouns l nefci a e fie t f l Grybilsi tu tonsrgadi whihis st rieo appe .(d.. ald o olow a l' nsr ci e r ng c sue o as n al l ) l h l igta Gr y il a f i dt me tete t p ro ma c o p eu iep o go n o dn h t a bl h d al o e i r he ef r n e r rj dc r n f e h S rc a t Supr m e Cour o V igi a he d t tt C el c i ofi s s t a es on a a t i kl nd, he e t f r ni l ha he d e ton s ue o ddr s s ppe l i l t o t di cr to ofa la e c s ef t he s e i n ppe l t ouns l a c e , nd ouns lne no a es e y pos i e i s on e ed t ddr s ver s bl s ue a al'Grvbilv.Di.oft De .ofCor tons Re or No.1 7 a 8( J y5,2011. ppe .' a l r he pt reci , c d 01 40, t Va. ul ) I e a lt c nde d, ppela e ouns ' c ce ofwhi h i s t pur ue i l r el be els hoi c s ues o s s a g y yond r pr c e n i e oa h, ve f pot nta l m e iorous i s s a e notpur ue be a e S ppe l t couns li gi s gnii a e i ly rt i s ue r s d, c us s la e a e s ven i fc nt l tt t de l p a s r t gy t tm a om i m e iorous c a m s i or rt a d bur ng i s s i a iude o ve o t a e ha y t rt i l i n de o voi yi s ue n al lungl. Bur tv.Ang one, F.d 17 1 ( hCi. ega j e' ke ' el 208 3 2, 89 4t r 2000) Se aloJ nesv. . e s o Bane , U. 745,751( 983)Ct ihe Ande sno a ohe de sonoft sCour s ss r s 463 S. 1 Net r r r ny t r cii hi t ugget, 47 howe r t tt i ge de e an ha aco tt tona rg t co pe a nt d c ve , ha he ndi nt f nd t s nsiu i l iht o m l ppoi e ouns lt e o pr s no rvol poi s r ques e by t cle , fc es nf i ous nt e td he i nt i ouns l a a m a t rofpr e s o e, s te of s i nal j g n, e ie n top e e tho ep it.) us ame tn wihGr y l t rv e ud me t d cd s o t r s n t s on s' .Th , ei g t a bilo e iw ' p tnil li f ra p a wa n t e ur d j s a iwa n t e ur dt a a p laec u s l o e ta cams o p e l s o rq ie ,u t s t s o r q ie h t p elt o n e r s e r potnta gr aie ve y e il ound f a al orf l Gr ybilss or ppe , olow a l' uggese g oundsf a a . td r or ppe l Ac or ngl t SuprmeCour ofVigi a' a iai ofStiklndt Cli B,D() a c di y,he e t r ni s pplc ton rc a o ams 1, nd D( wa notunras bl Thus t sCo tmus dimisGrybilscai . 3) s e ona e. ,hi ur t s s a l' l ms l Cli D( ,Grybilalege t ta lt c e wa i feci be us hee ee n am 2) a l l s ha ppelae ouns l s nef tve ca e ntrd ii t a c co pi a or' el tons p w ih t i lco e d o c e a co r up' t i lc 'n o o- ns r t ' r a i hi t ra uns l k onc al nd ve - ' ra ouns l s t e' c lc ofi ees a s xualrltons pwihGrybilsco- fndant ( t No.1 la 2) onfit ntr t nd e eai hi t a l' dee . Dk . - t . The Supr m e Co tofV igi a f e ur r ni ound t tt sc a m s tsi neiherpr oft St i kl nd t t ha hi l i a i ted t ong he r c a es be us tg eii rfigdlt ofera e de et ta laeco elkne oforatmpt t ca e splttone ale o f ny vi nc ha ppelt uns w te ed o c once la alege m i conduc by ti lc uns l' Gr vbilv.D i . t De . Cor e tons a ny l d s t ra o e . a l ' r of he pt of r c i , Re r No.1 740,a 10( J y 5, 1.Grybilha no prs ntda e de eoft c cod 01 t Va. ul 201 ) a l s t e e e ny vi nc he oc pia o r a i hi or asnot d e r i r a c e bl e de oft unde l ng a l ge ons r t r el tons p , e a le , ny r di e vi nce he ryi le d c lc ofi e e t Concl or a l ga i nsa e nots fci ntt s onfi t nt r s . us y le to r uf i e o uppor a c a m ofi f e tve t li ne f c i a ssa eofco el c ronv. ,971F. 11 11 ( hCi.1 ,over l o ohe s itnc uns .Nike s Lee 2d 25, 26 4t r 992) rued n t r crundsbyGr v. t ra 518U. 15 ( 996) The eor,t SuprmeCou tof o ay Nehe lnd, S. 2 1 . r f e he e r Vi gi a' a i a i of Sti kl nd w a nott r a ona e a ac or ngl t s Cour m us r ni s pplc ton rc a s m e s bl nd c di y, hi t t dimisCli D( . s s am 2) I . V Cert fcate ofA ppeal lt ii abiiy Rul 11 oft Rul Gover ng Sec i 2254 Cas i t U nied St es Di ti Cour s e he es ni ton es n he t at s rct t r r t t Courti ue or deny a certfcat ofappeal lt w hen i ent s a tnalor equies hat he ss ii e abiiy t er i der 48 da ve s t ' f r lha aspeii r A c riia eofa a a lt wilnotis unl s t kd r e o'a ede a be ttone . e tfc t ppe l biiy l s ue e s he pe ii ne t s m a a s t nta s i o t de alofa c tt t o r g . 28 U . C. tto r t ha de ubs a i l how ng f he ni ons iu i nal i ht' ' S. j2253()2) I o de t dos t peii rmus s w t tras bl j it c ddia e c( . n r r o o,he ttone t ho ha e ona e urss oul s gre a utt peiin' me isort tEheis prs ntd(r)a quaet de evee ou a me bo he tto s rt ha s sues e e e ae de t o s r nc r ge nt t t pr e f t r'Milr v. k el,537U. 322,336( )( i Slc v. c nil o oc ed urhe.' le-El Coc z l S. 2003 quotng a k M Da e, 529U. 473, 4 ( )(ntr lquottonma ksomitdl.Ha ngco i rdt rc da S. 48 2000 i ena ai r te ) vi nsdee he e or nd t r e ntl gals a r , he Cour fndst tGr ybilha no m a t r qui ie s t nta he el va e t nda ds t t i ha a l s t de he e s t ubsa i l s w i a a ce tfc e ofa pe l biiy i t r or D ENI . ho ng, nd ri i at p a a lt s he ef e ED Concl on usi Fort r a o di c s d a he e s ns s us e bove t Pe ii f a W rtofH a asCop us i DEN I i , he tton or i be s ED n ise ie y a t Re ponde ' M oto t Di m i s i G R ANTE D . 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