Waddy v. Sandstrom et al, No. 7:2011cv00320 - Document 18 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 06/05/2012. (kab)
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Ct : ö/Fl #. Dtbft. tFT ee Q* 1$. t- N$ l3 . 3 AT RQANQKE, VA F$br L-) J 95 2 1 UN 22 I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I STR I T C O UR T C FO R TH E W E STERN DI STR I OF V I G I I CT R N A R O AN O K E D IVISIO N JONATHAN W ADDY, J A c. Z-E-, kEF8 ULI DUIC ( # it( . EY: . , DP EU / (DL FR' CASE N O.7: CV00320 11 Pl ntf , ai if M EM O M N D U M O PI I N N O VS. SGT.SANDSTROM , AL. c , By: G l n E.C onrad e Chi fUnied St e Di t i tJudge e t at s s r c D ef endant s. J t nW a ona ha ddy,a V igi a i a e pr e ng pr K ,fl d t sci lrght a ton r ni nm t oce di o ie hi vi i s c i . ptruantt 42U. C.j 1 algi t tt defnda prs ofi asusdr i str a ls o S. 983, le ng ha he e nt ion tcil e acal lls nd e c si f rea an t i x e sve o c g is h m.De e d n sh v fldamoinf rsl r j d me t a s rig fn a t a e ie to o l mmay u g n, se t n t tW a f l t e ha ddy aied o xhaus a nitatver mede asr uie t r42U. C.j1 ( . t dmi sr i e is eq rd mde S. 997ea) W a y r ponded, a ngt ma trrpef diposton.Afe r vi w oft r or t c t dd es m ki he te i or s ii tr e e he ec d, he our g a sdee nt'motonunde j1 ()ast W a y' camsofe esi f ce filr t r nt fnda s i r 997ea o dd s li xc sve or , alze o pr t c ,a r edic i i ton.The c r a s s o e t nd ac s rm na i ou t lo umma iy dimi s sW add sduepr e sa rl s s e y' oc s nd cons rc cl ms puruan t 28U. C.j1 5A( ( ) pia y ai , s t o S. 91 b)1 . I hi am e n s nded c pl i ,W a a l gest f l ng s que e ofeve sr e ntt om a nt ddy le he olowi e nc nt el va o hi cai . On Oc obe 5,201 W a wa i a c aed a Ke n M ount n Coreci na Ce e . s l ms t r 0, ddy s nc r er t t e ai r to l nt r W a wa t l ng wih Sgt Sa tom a Ofie J t a t y es ore hi t ough t ddy s aki t . ndsr nd fc r usus s he c td m hr he l undr a e oft prs n, n Sa tom s i k-ha ' i.lm goi t l k yolrbl k a sup a y r a he i o whe ndsr ad, ç- ts t ' l ng o oc z ac s f nots tng yotrdn n m out a r lng youre s ' The ofi e st W a or huti l m h nd oli ye .' fc r ook ddy' a m sand s r beg e c tng hi t t s gr a i a ea Sudde y, he of i r f r e W a a i tt an s ori m o he e eg ton r . nl t fce s o c d ddy ga ns he w a l c us ng hi t s i o n hi lp. W he W a r a t d by t i a ound,Sa t om l, a i m o plt pe s i n ddy e c e um ng r nds r gr bbe hi by t t oa a be n c nghi Sa tom s i ûYou lket r n y m out a d m he hr t nd ga hoki m. ndsr ad,i i o u our h ni r lgots e hi f yo ' Sa tom t n ti d t s a m ac i W a gge . om t ng or u. ndsr he r e o pr y ' e n ddy' m out s h. W add t se a y fom Sandsr m a f l t t too , r t ofi e skiked hi a y wit d wa r to nd el o he l r whe e he fc r c m nd s e f hi t ge up. J t g a d W add swrss ca i t handc f t c i ohi hout d or m o t usus r bbe y' it , usng he ufs o ut nt s s n. ki W a alege t ta ar s toft Oc obe 5,201 i i ent he s f r physc ddy l s ha s e ul he t r 0 nc d , ufe ed i al ij re t h s1pa dm it, n hsne kwa s r f rad y a dah l.Th s ijlisr q ie nu is o i i n ss a d i c s o e o a n af e e nt e e urd r onl oi m e and b a ds W a a s s a est the hass f r d f om de e s on a n e y y nt nt and i . ddy l o t t ha uf e e r pr s i nd nxi t a hass e t e m e alhe lh s c alss a nd e n hr e nt a t pe i i t boutt i i nt he nc de . Theofk e sc r ed W a wih r f i t obe adie tor rt be c f The t r ha g ddy t e usng o y r c de o ufed. he rngofi e f ai fc r ound W a guit oft sc r bas d o t ofier 'r pors a i pos d a ddy ly hi ha ge, e n he fc s e t, nd m e pe ly of30 da i iolton, t c e tf 1 da i pr he i de e i nat ys n s a i wih r di or 5 ys n e arng t nton. W a a s rst tt def nt c pie t vi a ehi rght be us ofhi r ce us d ddy s e t ha he enda s ons r d o olt s i s ca e sa , e exc s ve f ce ag ns hi a f ie t pr e thi , o hta f l e di ci i r c r aga ns es i or ai t m nd a l d o ot c m br ug a s s plna y ha ge i t hi a ca e hi t ber cls ii d t a hi rs c iy prs m, nd us d m o e a sfe o ghe e urt ion.s ddy s e m o va e ks ne- y dn a . m ges Ope a i Pr e z e 866. s t outt a i s r tve pr ed e i a esi Vi gi a r tng oc dlr 1 es he dm ni ta i oc ur nm t n r ni De rme ofCore tons( pa t nt rci VDOC)prs mus f l t rs vegre nce .An i t mus ions t olow o e ol iva s nmae t fr tm a a go f ih e f tt i o ly r ol hi g iva ea is ke od at for o nf nnal es ve s 'e nc bouta i i ntby s itng r n ncde ubm ti a i or lc n nf ma ompl i . I dis ts id wih t r s et hi i or lc ant f s a ife t he e pons o s nf ma ompli ,t i ae ant he nm t m ay t n fl a r gul rgr e nce wihi 3 da oft i i nt wih t i or alc pl i ta he ie e a i va t n 0 ys he nc de , t he nf m om a n nd r ponse atached. es t 2 OP 866. pr vi st e lvel o r vi w f rr a g iva es TheW a de or 1 o de hr e e s f e e o egulr re nc . r n Supe i e r nt ndentoft f c lt c uc s Le lr vi a m us r pond t t r a gr e nce he a iiy ond t vel e ews nd t es o he egul r i va wihi 30 da .W hent Leve lr vi w pa r k i r t ne t t i ae,i i l st tte t n ys he l e e pe wor s e ur d o he nm t t ncude he il a a es whe et i aem a f r r hi a a i he i dis ts i wih t Le 1 nd ddr s r he nm t y o wa d s ppe l f s s a ifed t he vel r pons TheReg o lDiecorpr desLe l1 r viw ofgre nc notr lt d t me c l es e. i na r t ovi ve 1 e e iva es ea e o di a c z ortm e c put ton,a Le 1 i t fna l lofr vi . a e i om a i nd vel 1 s he i l eve e ew W a d flda i oma c mpan o Oco e 6 2 0 ted ya trteicd n .( f. d y ie n nf r l o lit n tb r , 01 ,h a fe h n i e t De1 Ex.1 EnclA) Ont sfr W a c ane t tonOcobe 5, 0,Sandsr ha tid , . hi om, ddy ompli d ha t r 201 tom d re t c o hokehi a s a OC s a i hi mout andt tOfi e J t ha tid t br a hi m nd pr y pr y n s h ha fc r usus d re o e k s wr s s a t i t , lhough W a ha done not ng t pr vo t sa s t A s r a r s ddy d hi o o ke hi s aul. e ge nt e ponde on d Oc obe 22,201 sa i t tW ad sal ga i we euns t ntaed a t tt medial t r 0, t tng ha dy' le tons r ubsa i t nd ha he c saf oe mi dW a d n tdn ij re . tf wh xn ne d y o e o nu is W a fl ar ul rgre nceon No m be 2,201 ma ngt s m eale to asi ddy ied eg a iva ve r 0, ki he a l gai ns n t eatc e if r l o lit b t d ngt a h sl a dwrssh dbe nij re .(d) Th h ta h d n o ma c mpan , u a di h t i i n it a e nu id I . e p wa de is d a Le Ir pons o Nove r21 201 d t r i ng W a sg iva et be r n s ue vel es e n mbe , 0, e e m ni ddy' re nc o 1 unf m ded. ot W addy a ald t Le 1r s ns i lt N o ppe e he vel e po e n a e vembe ore l De mbe 201 by r ary ce r 0 m alng t Le Ir s ns t t r i ldie t .W a di nots ii he vel e po e o he eg ona r cor ddy d ubmi t o i na t he rgi l gre nc o i or c iva e r nf mal ompli wih hi a al howe r l t a W add ma ld t s ant t s ppe , ve . nse d, y ie he e doc l e st hi m ot rf Cs e e ng. n Dec m be l 201 W a r ce ved a tm nt o s he or taf ke pi ' 'O e r 5, 0, ddy e i m e or ndum fom t r gi ldie t r sof i e,da e De m be 7, 1 w hi s a e : m a r he e ona r c o ' fc t d ce r 20 0, ch t t s 1 I t LevelIr ponse, t war sa est ac di t r t oft i dent W a n he es he den t t hat cor ng o epors he nci , ddy became ve baly abusvewhen meetng wih Sgt Sandsr ,who r oved hi OC s a canit r;W addy r l i i t . tom em s pr y se wa t e r sr i d fre c r t t s ca ho ig u t( s h n e tane o s o to he pe il usn ni SHU) a d i ta i, a ya tmp e t pul ; n n rnst W dd te td o l a a Of i J t a id açcom eal t w y, fcer us us pple d ong echni 'or r W addy t keep wal ng,and W a que,' de ed o ki ddy c mp id.( f. 1 Enc. o le De1 Ex. , lA) W he a a i t Le l1decson, e t orgi lgre ncef m wiht n ppe lng he ve ii s nd he i na i va or t he Le lr s vel e pons a yourr a onsf ra a , on: wih a orgi li or a e nd es o ppe l al t nv i na nf m l ma e i l a s t ras nd uppori doc tnz ument. Re ubm i youra s s t ppea pac get t sofi e l ka o hi fc wihi 5 c l rda . t n aenda ys ( f. 1 En lB)( mp a i i o ii l.Th flo n n t a pe r da t ee do t De1 Ex. , c. e h ss n rgna) e o lwig oe p ae t h n f he l te : C THER : A ta h t orgi lRe a Greva e a i or a Co pl ntt t LEV EL e tr I O t c he i na cul r i nc nd nf m l m ai o he Ia p a a dr s b t o LEVEL 1 rve ' (d. p e l n e u mif r 1 e im ' l ) W a i med ael wr t t hi m o he a as d he t s ndt g i va a ddy m i t y o e o s t r nd ke r o e he re nce nd i or a c pl i t t r gi nf m l om a nt o he e onaldiec or A f w w e ksl t r W add r c ve a s ond r t . e e ae, y e ei d ec m em or ndum f om t r ona d r c o , t d J nua y 4,2011 whi h s a e G o l appe a r he egi l i e t r da e a r , c t t d: ç tr Y al e ee dt 5c e zd tmelmi.Nof t rr pons wilbeprvi d. ( Ex.1 xc de he alnda ay i i t urhe es e l o de ' Deh. , ' Enc.C) Thef l ngnot a ae a t e oft lte : l olowi e ppe rd t he nd he etr OTHER: Se ond a tmptt a c te o ppea L1d ii wihoutpr di orgi l l ecson t ovi ng i na g i va a i o ma m ae il .W add r eved lte da e 1 07- 0 on 1 re nce nd nf r l tra s y ec i e tr t d 2- 201 21 - 0 dr c i hi t r s bm i L1a alwihi 5 c e rda , f ie t 5 1 ie tng m o e u t ppe t n alnda ys he al d o com pl y. (d L=) W a r ceved alte fom hi m o he on Fe ta y 9,2011 e l i t g i va e ddy e i e tr r s t r brz r , nc osng he re nc a t i o m a compl nt Shesa e t ts ha s n t r ona die t t wr pa r . nd he nf r l ai . tt d ha he d e t he egi l r c or he ong pe s W a wr t t r gi na die t a lte ,e ai ng whathadha ne A f w we ksl e , ddy o e he e o l r cor et r xpl ni ppe d. e e atr W a r c ve ar pl l te fo t r ona die t ' ofk e r tm lng a lhi pa r k t ddy e ei d e y et r r m he egi l r cor s t , et i 1 s pe wor o hi . Att t oft c py oft Le Ir pons s eo ha w rte a hi hlght d i m he op he o he vel es e, om ne d it n nd g i e n yel t pe le use rtr t ofe e . ( f. 1, . W a i eprtdt s low: i a xha td eun o fnd r' De1 Ex. EnclA) ddy ntr ee hi Ap ' s a e e a a i c ton t he ha co pl t d t a a pr s . t t m nt s n ndi a i hat d m e e he ppe l oce s 4 1 1 ThePrs Lii to Reonn ActII ion tgain f C PLRA' prvi ,a ngot rt ngs t ta ' o des mo he hi ,ha I prs rc ione annotbrnga cvi a ton co er ngprs c to untlhe ha trte use i i l ci nc ni ion ondiins i s i s xha t d a albl a miitai rme is Nu sev. re, 3 U. 51 , 2 ( 0 2 .Th se h u to v i e d n sr t e de . s l Po tr 5 4 S. 6 5 4 2 0 ) i x a sin a ve r quie e ta i t 1a1i t s t,whe he t y i vol ge r lcic l sa esorpari ulr e r m n pples o $1 nma e uis t r he n ve ne a r tm t nc tc a e s es ... t rt y alegee es i f c ors eot rwr 'a whe he t f m of piod , whehe he l xc sve or e om he ong,' nd t r he or r le t i ae s ksi a ia et oughexha to ofa i sr tver medis I To e if he nm t ee s va lbl hr usi n dm nita i e e . d. c ywih j1 ompl t 997e( ,a i t mus f l e c se oft e tbls da nitai a) n nmae t olow a h tp he sa ihe dmi sr tve pr edur t tt saepr vi st prs r a m e talde dlne wihi t tpr e zebe or oc e ha he t t o de o ione s nd e l a i s t n ha oc dtr f e flnghi j1 a ton.Se W oodfr v. ii s 983 ci e od Ngo,548U. 81 90-4 ( ) S. , 9 2006 . A . Exc s ve For e es i c De e nt ar ue t tW a f nda s g ha ddy' cai ofe es i f c a f iur t pr ec s d be s l ms xc sve or e nd a l e o ot t houl dimis d be us hef iedt pr pe l e us a iabl a i sr tver medi a r quie s s e ca e a l o o ry xha t val e dm nita i e es s e r d unde j1 ( .Thec ta e .AlhoughW a pr ryc ee t i or r 997ea) our gres t ddy opel ompltd he nf mal c ompli a t r gulrg i va c r c l i i t iput d t thef ie t s i t ant nd he e a re nce ore ty, t s md s e ha al d o ubm t he g i va ea i or lc re nc nd nf ma ompli f rt r gi naldie t t r vi w i t Le 1 a ant o he e o r c or o e e n he vel 1 ppea l pr es wihi t pr s rbe tm elm i, n a t beng gi n a s ond c oc s t n he e c i d i i t eve fer i ve ec hanc a e ii e nd xplct i t uc i on ho t do s ns r tons w o o. W a as e t t tOP 8 1doe no e iil sa et tt gre nc a i onna ddy s rs ha 66. s t xplcty t t ha he i va e nd nf l c ompl i m us beat c d t t a a oft Le llr s ant t ta he o he ppe l he ve e pons .He s es t wa c e ut : t s ompl t l l e ey t r oft r quie nt(halt orgi lg iva a i or lc ai mus be mawa e he e rme t t he i na re nce nd nf ma ompl nt t at he t t géeve 1r pons (ndllha ma ag efo toe us ala nitai tac d o he l l es e a ve de ood fr t xha t 1 dmi srtve rme es' ( .Rep.p.3) e di . Pl s , ' W hie t g i va e pr ed e doe noti l a ls ofpa r o k t tt i a e m us l he r e nc oc ur s nc ude i t pe w r ha he nm t t s t t r gi end o he e onaldiec orf a a r t or n ppea a Le l1 , he pur e oft pr e e a a w hol i l t ve l t pos he oc dur s es t pr dei ri r vi w a r s uton ofi a eg i va s I aesa eore e t t e o ovi mpa tal e e nd e ol i nm t re nce . nm t r i ntd o hes pr e leswhe t y fr te e aVDOC prs f c lt ForLe Ir viw,t pr e e oc dtr n he is nt r ion a iiy. vel e e he oc dur r quiest i a e t pr s nthi greva e a i onna c pl ntt t w a d n f r vi w . e r he nm t o e e s i nc nd nf l om ai o he r e or e e Logi di t t t ta Le l1 ,t r gi ldi e t m us have t g i va t r vi w i o de t c c a es ha t ve l he e ona r c or t he r e nce o e e n r r o deer newhe he ornott Leve Ir pons t t g i va wa a opra e.The Le l1 t mi t r he l es e o he re nce s ppr it ve 1 a alpr ed eplce t blr n on t i t t s nd t a a oft Le Ir s ppe oc ur a s he zde he nma e o e he ppe l he vel e pons t eo t r i ldie t ra doesnoti c t t tac oft g i ncewilbes ntt t he eg ona r c o nd ndi ae ha opy he reva l e o he r gi diecorby a ot rme ns e onal r t ny he a .Thus W a sa lge as umpton t thedi no ne , ddy' le d s i ha d t ed t greva e a i or a c pl i doc e safe Le lw a unr a ona e he ' nc nd nf m l om a nt um nt t r vel i s e s bl . M or ove ,W a scai ofi nor nceoft gre nc a alpr edtr sc nnot e r ddy' l m g a he i va e ppe oc le n ove comede e nt 'e de t thef ie t c r f nda s vi nce ha al d o ompl wih t epr dur s Se ton y t hos oce e . c i j1 9 ea d e n ticu ea y s c e c pint tec mplt e h usi nrq ie n . 9 7 () o s o n ld n u h x e to o h o ee x a to e ur me t The e or ti a oft pr pe g i va pr e e doesnotexc e c pla e. See r f e, çgnor nce he o r r e nce oc dur us om i nc ' ' M c i v. hr bbe 38 F.App' 500,503(t Ci. 0)(ii 800t v.Chur r 532U. swan Sc u , 2 x 7h r 201 ctng h ne, S. 731 741n.6( )( i t tco tc nnotr dtutlt orot re e i i saut y , 2001 notng ha ur a ea û iiy he xc ptons n tt or f e usi rquie nt wheeCongr sha pr de ohe wie';Cheetv. ni , F. xha ton e rme s r es s ovi d t r s ' ) lt Ha s 229 3d 6 4 6 8( t Ci. 0 0 (eusngt r a e e to it jl 9 ea b sd o imae si c t ae 8 , 8 8h r 2 0 ) r f i o e d xc pin no 9 7 () a e n n t ' na cl t r E u jcieb les' b u t ea miitaierme isp o e l ea ra o f rfii t e h us t be tv eif'a o t h d nsrtv e de r c dz s e s n o al o x a t s r ng pr pel . o ry) W a di notc m pl w ih r q r d pr d l e e n a t rt r onaldiec ori or e ddy d o y t e uie oce tr s ve f e he egi r t nf m d hi oft a opra e pa r k ne s a y f t a ala ga W a a s ond c nc t m he ppr i t pe wor ce s z or he ppe nd ve ddy ec ha e o 6 s i i.Thei tu tonswe et r ubmi t a ubm t t nsr c i r o es t he ppea wih t greva e a t i or l t he i nc nd he nf mal c ant W addyf iedt dos and,a ars tfie t c mpl wihj 1 () W a ompli . al o o s e ul,ald o o y t 997ea . ddy e nt ly a tmpt d t s ve ual te e o ubmi t a opraeappe lpa r r outi t tm elm iss tby t he ppr i t a pe wo k sde he i i t e tep o e t ea dt ei iil x e ing a tdbyt ergo a dr co .Prs no ûcasrj ce h r c dz n h nta e tnso rne r h e in l ie tr io f il ee td t ss hi ubmi so ast i l W a now hasno a ia ea i sr tver medypr e e. s i n mtme y. ddy valbl dm nita i e oc dur Fort s r as , hecour tndsno ma e ilf ti dipu east whe he W a f ie he e e ons t ti t ra ac n s t o t r ddy a ld t pr ry e us a nitai r me e a t hi e es i f c a f l et pr ec o ope l xha t dmi sr tve e di s s o s xc sve or e nd aiur o ot t cams Th r f r,hec u t o cu e ta ted fn a t aee tte t s mmayj d me t li . e eo e t o r c n ld s h t h e e d ns r nild o u r u g n unde j1 () r 997ea . B. Equa Pr t c i Cl m s l o e ton ai De e nt ar uet tW a f ie t e us a nita i r m e e a t hi c am of f nda s g ha ddy a ld o xha t dmi sr tve e di s s o s l i r i ldic i nai n. Thei onna c ac a s rmi to nf l ompli a g iva a ant nd re nce boutt a s ul do notm e i he s a t nton t r cilc he a a omm e st ofi e sa lge ym a durngt i i nt M or ove ,W a a t nt he fc r le dl de i he nc de . e r ddy dmis he di notfl any s pa a e gre nc s a l gi r ci ldi c i i ton. W a d ie e r t i va e le ng a a s rm na i ddy' f iur t s al e o me i t r i c nton he acal omm e si t ad nita i gre nc pr ve e prs ofk i sfom nt n he mi sr tve iva es e nt d ion t al r c onduc i ac e tng ont mpor y i si ton oft al dr c a e e toft i i nt one oft ar nve tga i he lege a i l l men he nc de , he prma ypur esoft j 1 ()e usi r quie nt Ont s fcs t c tco l i r pos he 997ea xha ton e rme . he e a t,he our ncudes t a d fn a t' to f rsl r j g n l e j1 9 ea , o fi r t e a s h t e e d n s mo in o l mma y ud me tmd r 9 7 () fr al e o xh u t u adm i sr tve r m e es m us be g a e ast W a ni t a i e di , t r nt d o ddy' alega i ofr ce di c i i ton. s l tons a s rm na i 11 l Any c am fl by an i t c lngngt c l i ied nma e hale i he onduc ofa C fc rore pl t n t ie of m oyeeofa gove n ntle iy'ma bedimis unde 28U. C.j 1 5 b)1 i t c tfndst ta r me a ntt ' y s sed r S. 91 A( ( ) f he our i ha c a m i d rvol ,m a i ous o f is t s a e a d a m u n w hi h r lefm a be gr nt ' A n l i s t i ous lci f r al o tt i po c ei y a ed. ' i ae' co aitm a bes nm t s mpl n y umma iy dimis d t rt ss c i i i f ist aleg t noug rl s s e mde hi e ton f t a l o l e ç e h f c st s a e a c a m t r left ti pl usbl on isf e ' G i r a a v. obns 521 F. d 298, a t o t t l i o e i ha s a i e t ac .' a r t no J on, 3 302( hCi. )(uoi BelAt. p.v.Two y,550U. 544,570( 4t r 2008 q tng l lCor mbl S. 2007:.t cam û li A hasf cilplusbiiy whe t pli tf pl dsf cualc e t ta l t c t o dr w t a a a i lt n he a n if ea a t ontnt ha lows he our t a he r as bl i e e t tt defnda i la e f rt mic e ona e nf r nce ha he e nt s i bl o he s onduc a lge ' As r tv. uba , t le d.' hc of l l 556U. 562,1 S.Ct 1 1 ( 5. 29 . 937, 940 2009) . A . D ue Pr ocess W ad as e t t tt de e nt f s l c r hi wih adicplna yofe er l td dy s rs ha he f nda s aley ha ged m t s i i r f ns e ae t t O c obe 5, 0 i i e ,i vi a i n ofhi due pr es rght . D e e nt do notar ue o he t r 201 nc d nt n ol to s oc s i s f nda s g t tW a y' duepr s cam s dbedimisdunde j1 ha dd s oce s li houl s se r 997e() Thec ztco l , a. olr ncudes howeve ,t tW addy' duepr s c am f ison t m e isa m us bedim is unde 28 r ha s oce s l i al he rt nd t s s ed r U. C.j1 5 b () S. 91 A( )1. To pr va lon apr ed a duepr s cli , i t mus frtde o taet the e i oc ur l oce s am an nma e t is m nsr t ha w asde i d oft ie lbe t orpr ry' by gove nm e a a ton. Beve a iv. ih,1 F. pr ve û f , i ry, l ope t ' r nt l c i r t Sm t 20 3d 500,50 ( hCi.1 .Alhoughp io r aeafor ds d pr es rght whie 2 4t r 997) t rs nes r f de ome ue oc s i s l i a ce a e prs r 'lbe t i e e t a elmie t Chefe dom fo r sr i whih, l nc r r t d, ione s i ry nt r ss r i t d o l r e t r m e ta nt c whie note ee ng t s t nc i s h a t e c ed m a rast gi rs t pr t c i by t Due xc di he en e e n uc n m xpe t nne o ve i e o o e ton he Pr es Clus ofisown f r ,no t e si oc s a e t o ce nehels mpos satpi la sg fc ntha ds p on t e y ca nd i nii a r hi he i t i r a i t t or na y i i nt ofprs lf ' Sa n v.Col e ,51 U. 472,484 nma e n elton o he di r ncde s ion ie. ndi ' m r 5 S. ( 9 5 .Ch ng stnap io e ' lc to v rai n o d iyru ie c a e i c n iinso 1 9 ) a e ç rs n rs o ain, aito s f al o tn , h ng s n o dto f i c i me (ncl ngad nitai sgr ton) an t de alofprvie (rjmater onfne nt i udi mi srtve e egai , d he ni i lges ae t s whihe r prs rc a ii t gndwhih)ar c e ae byhi orgna sntnc t c vey ione an ntcpae a c e ontmpltd s ii l e e e o prs ' Gat v. vl ,946F. 3 343(t Ci.1 ) Furhe , ione sdonotha a ion.' son Ta or 2d 40, 4h r 991 . t r prs r ve c tt i l r cog z d lbe t i e es i apa tc a s urt cl sfcai ora onsiutonaly e nie i ry ntr t n riulr ec iy as ii ton c ns iutonalrghtt be c i i a pa tc a pr s n. H e itv.Hel s 459 U . 460, o tt i i o onfned n r i ul r i o wt m , S. 468 ( ) M e c v. no,4 U. 215, (976) 1983 ; a hum Fa 27 S. 224 1 . W a f ist sa ef c ss ddy a l o t t a t howi t tde e nt 'a tonsde i hi ofanypr t c ed ng ha f nda s c i prved m oe t lbe t i e e t W add s a l ga i do no i ca e t thi pe t oft por r co i m e i r y nt r s . y' le tons t ndi t ha s naly em a y nfne nt i i ol ton w or d a a ypi lha ds p on hi , he c pa e t t nonna rgor ofpr s n s ai ke ny t ca r hi m w n om r d o he li s i on lf Li wie he f ist d m onsr t t thi ta frt ahi ie. ke s , al o e tae ha s r nse o ghers urt f c lt ha r s t i ec iy a iiy s e uled n a ypi lha ds p. Bec us W a had no pr t c e lbe t i e e ta sa durng t t ca r hi a e ddy o e t d i ry nt r s t t ke i he di cplna y pr ee ngsa prs ta f r t epr ee ngsc nnotgi rs t a f r l s i i r oc di nd ion r nse ,hos oc di a ve ie o ny ede a duepr e sca m .Fort s r s , hecour s ma iy dimis sW a sduepr s cli oc s li he e ea ons t t um rl s s e ddy' oce s am u d rj1 5 b ( ) a lg l fio o s n e 91 A( )1, s e al rv l u . y B . Cons r c pia y The def nda sal o do no a e s s pa at l W a e nt s t ddr s e r e y ddy' a l ga i t tde enda s s le ton ha f nt c pie t vi aehi c tt i lrg s W a f ist al f t de ons r d o ol t s onsiutona iht . ddy al o lege acs monsr tngt tt tai ha he ofke sf me a t peofag ee ntt ha m ordic i i t a i thi , t r or d ny y r me o r s rm na e ga ns m howe ,a ver nd c l or ase tonsofc pia yaei uf in t saea a tonabl j 1 cai Se oncus y s ri ons rc r ns fce t o tt ny ci e 983 l m. e Br v. own Angelne 938F.Supp. 346( . Va.1 (i ngt twher algai of o , 340, W D. 996) fndi ha e le tons c n pia y aeme eyc n l o y wih u fcss o n c mmo pupo et ij r p an if o s rc r rl o cus r , t o t a t h wig o n r s o n u e litf, c antma bes ompli y ummaiyds se (ii ohe c es.The eor,t c ts rl imisd) ctng t r as ) r f e he our ummaiy rl ds se W a d sc n prc cam u d rj1 5 b ( )a fio o s imis s d y' o s ia y li n e 91 A( )1 s rv l u . l AJ Fo tw sae < s ns t c tg<nt dee ns moto f mt ç j me under < l ttd ea o ,he our a s fnda t' in or mmay udg nt j1997ea ont g o t tW a fiedt e us saeco t e esast hi e esi () he r und ha ddy al o xha t tt ur r medi o s xc sve f ce f itr t pr e t a e lpr t c i c am s Thecou ta s s m marl dim is s or , a lle o ot c , nd qua o e ton l i . r lo u iy s s e wi u p eu c W a d sd p o e sa dc n p rc camsu d rj1 5 b ( )a fiolu . t t rj die d y' ue r c s n o s ia y li n e 91 A( )1 s rv o s ho A n a opra e or rwile e t sda ppr i t de l nt r hi y. TheClr i die t d t s nd c esoft sm e a e k s r c e o e opi hi mor ndum o ni a a c pa ng pi on nd c om nyi or rt pl ntf . de o ai if ENTER: Thi S s da ofJ , 2012. y une , // Chi fU nie St t D i t i tJ e t d a es sr c udge