-RSB Oliver v. Browe et al, No. 7:2011cv00289 - Document 52 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 07/30/2012. (kab)
Download PDF
CLERK' OFFI U.S. ST. : CE DI COURT . . ATDANVI VA LLE su yjw o. J 3û 2 1 UL 22 FRHENTDTDSRCRCIGNA j cts ITHUIERAI DSOTRUT urx w O T W SENTSI IVOII o vu N E ETS E T F C R T s Jut c R O A N O K E D I ISI N V O uv; D O NA LD R .O LI ER , V Pl ntf , ai if C i lActon N o.7: cvvi i 11- 00289 V. M EM O M N D UM O PI I N N O LI BROW E,M % , SEL By: L c u D ef endant s. H on.Jacks L.K i e on sr Se or U ni e St t sD i t c Judge ni t d a e s ri t Dona d R .Olve ,a V igi a i a e pr ee ng pr K , ie a c vi r ght c pl i t l i r r ni nm t oc di o f l d i l i s om a n . p ru n t 4 U.. j 1 8 wihj rs ito v se i 2 U. C. 1 4 .Plitf n me a u s a t o 2 SC. 9 3 t u idcin e td n 8 S. j 3 3 anif a s s de e f ndan s Li elBr e D r U z a A l,a D a d F.Cox,w ho a e a1 s a fa t W eser t s ow , . m i nd vi r l t f t he tn Vigi aRe ona J l(7al'.Pl ntf alge t tdee nsc us cuela unus l r ni gi l ai $ i' ai if le s ha fnda t a ed r nd ua ) puni hm e i vi a i oft Ei h A m e e oft U nie St t Cons iuton. D e e s nt n ol ton he ght ndm nt he t d a es tt i f ndmzs t fldamo inf rs mmayj g n , n p an ifrs o d d, kngt ematrrpef r ie to o u r ud me t a d litf e p n e ma i h te i o dip iin.Afe rve n t rc r , g a t fn a t' to f rs mma yj d me t s osto tr e iwig he e o d 1 rn dee d n s moi n o u r u g n . A no he i nat punc pl ntf i a f g a t J i on M a 3,2009,a pl ntf w e t rm e hed ai if n i ht t he a l y nd ai if nt t teJ i' me ia d p rme t o lf-a p i A n rep e ci e Tye o , 0 mg, n o h als d c l e a t n f r e t w an. u s r srb d ln l 5 0 .a d j s h d ldp an ift s et d do .Dr He es to d rdX-a o t ej w, ihs o d c e u e litf o e he o r . nd rho r ee rys f h a wh c h we no bony a m aii ,a a me ni a s tdit whi h r m aned e f tveuntlpli ifs bnor ltes nd cha c l of e , c e i feci i antf tans erf om t J li Februar 2010. l r f r he ai n y Def nda Dr A l s w pl i ifdur ng pl i if s f l w up vi i w ih D r Hende s . e nt . i a a ntf i a ntf ' olo st t . r hot Plitf a an c mpli dof a p i i h slf Te o o n iu a j n (t J' a dDr Al anif g i o ane j w an n i e t mp r ma db lr oit 1 ', n . i TM ) not t tpl nifsjw a aedmiained.D< Alm e c bedM orn,:0ûm g.a ed ha aitf a ppe r s lg . i sii ti , nd s he e pl i ift s D r K e ki n,a or s lge . Dr.Kevor an eval ed pl nt f on c dul d a ntf o ee . vor a n al t on r ki uat ai i f ' r He r hoti nota def ntt t sac i n. D . nde s s enda o hi to K J 9, 09, a une 20 di gnos d hi wih û os d l k oft lf TM J s conda y t tauma, a e m t t e oc cl he e t e r or ' nd ' or r d a M Rlf f t reva ua i 2 Ptr uan t D r K e ki s or r D r A l pr crbe de e n or ur he l ton. ls t o . vor an' de , . i es i d 3 pl i ifM oti Fl xe i,a Lora whih pl i ifbeg r cevi on J 1 2009. antf rn, e rl nd tb, c antf an e i ng une 0, The M Rlocc r d on J 23,2009,a s e pl ntf ha a t aroft t e ti r ur e une nd how d ai if d e he t f -ntal a tc a dic' By lte da e J y 1 2009,Dr Kevor a r c ri ulr s .' e tr t d ul 6, . kin e omm e d s gialteament nde ur c r t torpo iint d s , b l et j n, n alw it fe u ' s e sto he ic mo ii he oit a d l t o re p. t z o ' D r A l a r t ts de i d nott or rTM J szger f pl i if D r A l s . i ve s ha he c de o de lr y or a ntf . . i poke w ih t Dr Ke ki o Augus 1 2009, o dic st r o m e d s ge y. Dr Al c i r t . vor an n t 3, t s us he ec m nde ur r . i onsde ed he s ge y t beelc i ba e onhe c ur r o e tve s d r onve s to wih Dr Ke ki n.Dr Al di notbei vet t r ai n t . vor a . i d le ha plitf sc n iinwo dd tro aewih u s r ey.Dr A1a r t t h ij r s o o an if o d t o ul eeir t t o t u g r . i ves ha t e n u y h wn n t eM R1i no asro sme ia c n iinrq ii st ia itr e to at u ht ej w h s t e iu dc l o dto e urng t g c ln e v n in l g h a r ho m iai s lgnme c us pai t tc n beteae wihpan r ive s nt a es n ha a r td t i ele r . St r i f om J 1 2009,when pl i ifbcg r c vi pa n kil r ,Dr Al a tng r une 0, a ntf an e ei ng i le s . i i r as t am ountofLor a a V i odi pl i ifr ce ved ba e on hi c pl i sof nc e ed he t b nd c n a ntf e i sd s om a nt i r as pa n. H ow eve ,D r Al w asc e ne t tpl i ifw a e nc e ed i r . i onc r d ha a ntf s xagge a i hi s pt m s i r tng s ym o n or rt r ce ve m us l - e a ng a na c i pr s rptons Dr A l r ad i pl i if s m ed c l de o e i c e r l xi nd r otc e c i i . . i e n a ntf ia fl t tpli iftid t se t l r m ovena c i medii fom t pilditi i a eaon ie ha antf re o t alhiy e r otc c ne r he l srbuton r Augus 2,2009,a de e ntBr t nd f nda own t d Dr Al t tpl ntf bo htha d,i ie l'a ol . i ha ai if ug r t r ba l' nd f ta ra e 'c n ya d aSnc esc nd b ra t eJ i' c ne n.Thsif r to c usdDr j wb e k r' a d n ik r a y a t h als a te i n o mai n a e . A l t f t rques i w he he pl i t f a ly s f r d pa n s pt st w a r ntna c i i o urhe ton t r a n if dua l uf e e i ym om o r a r otc m edi i orc ea ed a pr e e t r c e i l us ort di ti e t na c i m e ci Ba e c ne r t et ns o e r atonaly e o s rbut he r otc di ne. s d 2Dr Kevo ki n i nota def ntt t sac i . r a s enda o hi ton. 3Fl xe i i a m us e r l xan m a ofcycl e rl s cl e a t de obenz pr ne. Lora i a pai r ive m a ofac a i phen and a i tb s n ele r de et m no h oc ydr odone,whih,gene aly,a et s em an i e e si Viodi c r l r he am i ngr dint n c n. o t sif r to a dp an ifsi rve a ain n, . ids o tn e Lo tbo n hi n o main n litf mp o djw lg me t Dr A1 ic n iu d ra n 4 a ntf ec ve c n tl a r January 1 2010,f : t o- y t pe ' a t 4, or ( w da a r' lhough pl i i fr ei d V i odi un i J nua y 22, a 201 Pl ntf r c ved N a oxen,500 m g. be we J nua y 29 and Fe uar 1 201 w he 0. ai i f e ei pr , t en a r br y 0, 0, n pl i ifwast a f r e t a he c r c i lf ciiy. a ntf r ns e r d o not r or e tona a lt 5 Br n w a t J i' H ea t Ser ce A dm i s r t rw hie pl i ifw asatt J i. ow s he a l s lh vi s nit a o l a nt f he a l Br own di notha any die ti ve ti pl i ifsci c m e ca ca e. Br ave st t d ve r c nvol men n antf lnial di l r own r ha s w a no i ved i dec s onst r f rpl i ift a o s de o als geo o t r e ve he s t nvol n ii o e e a ntf o n ut i r ur n r o ec i s gi ltea m e . Af e Br w n r vi w e pl i ifs c nt e r c ds Br n i or e D r A1 ur ca r t nt l r o e e d a ntf a e n e or , ow nf m d . i t tpl ntf pur has d ha d a si ky ca e . ha ai if c e r nd tc ndis De e ntCox,t J lsDe y Supe i e f nda he ai' put rntndent di no r cevea c , d t e i ny ompli a t ant bou pl ntf notr e vi a m ec ni a s tdi ta a s ci ldi t r r ai if ec i ng ha c l of e nd ny pe a e a y eques w oul be r vi w e t d e e d, a ove orde ed by m e ca saf. Dr A1 a st ts hasno m e or ofpl ntf ppr d, ni di l t f . i ver ha he m y ai if c pl i ng t he a om a ni o r boutnotr e vi a s t e ,a m e c r c dss ec i ng of di t nd di al e or how t thi w e g w a ha s i ht s 206po undswhe hea ve a t J i i Aprl2009, 1po n ni d t he al n i 21 undsi J y 2009,a 21 pounds n ul nd 4 i D e e be 2009. C ox a r t ta1 m e l s r ed t J i i at a e co pa i e w ih a n cm r ve s ha 1 a s e v o a l nm es r m tbl t m e ha c s tdi t c ni al of e . II A p ryi e tte t s mmayj d me tkfhep e dng ,hed s o ey a ds l s r a t s nild o u r u g n t t la i s t ic v r nd ico u e i m a e i l on f l ,a a af i viss t ras ie nd ny fda t how t tt r i no g ne i s a t a m a e i f c ha he e s enui s ue s o ny t ral a t a dta temo a ti e tte t j g n a amatro lm ' Fe R. v. 5 () M aeil n h t h v n s n ild o ud me t s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 c . tra 4M edi r or r l c t ta t wo- y t r'mea pl i t f w a r duce fom 1 mg. ofLora e ch da t 5 cal ec ds ete t ha E da ape ' ns a n if s e d r t 0 tb a yo m g. chda f t da .Pl ntf di notr cei Lora aûert et da . ea y or wo ys ai if d e ve tb hes wo ys 5Th me ia rc r rfe t t t anifddn tv ieac mpan t me ia safa o ths a d rn a e dc le o d elcs ha plitf i o oc o lito dc l tf b u ijw uig n i t r e ng s c c lbe w e n s oppi Lo t b a sa tng Napr n. Pl n ifr ce ved Napr n e v ni i k al t e t ng r a nd t r i oxe ai tf e i oxen on J nua y 29, a r 2 0 b cus h c mplie o jw p i a hi me il p on me t h t a . 01 , e a e e o an d f a an t s da a p it n t a d y f c s a e t e ne s ar t e t bls t e em e sofa pary' c e ofa t o Ande s v. a t r hos ce s y o s a i h he l nt t s aus c i n. r on Li rvLobby,I , U. 242,2 ( 986) A ge neis ofmaei f te ssi,i be t nc.477 S. 48 1 . nui sue tral ac xit f n vi ng t r or a a lr as na e i e e e dr w n t r f om i a lghtm os f a e t t ewi he ec d nd l e o bl nf r nc s a he e r n i t avor bl o he non- ngpa t ar s bl f tfnde c drt naveditf t nonmovi ry, ea ona e ac-i r oul eur r c or he mova .Jz The nt #. m o ng pa t hast bur n ofs vi ry he de howi - t ha i, ntng outt t diti tco t t tt r i ng d t s poi i t o he src ur - ha he e s an a enc ofe de e t s bs e vi nc o uppor t nonm ovi pa t sc e. C e ot x Cor v.Ca r t,477 t he ng ry' as ' l e ' p. te t U. 31 325(986 .l t mo n stsi st sbur n,he t non- ntmus s tf t S. 7, 1 ) f he va t aite hi de t n he mova t e orh s c fc, m isbl f t t tde pe ii ad s i e acs ha monsr t t e se eofage neis off tf ti . Fed. tae he xit nc nui s ue ac or ral R. v. 5 c ; ltx 4 7U. a 3 2- .A p ryi e t ldt s mmayj d me ti te Ci P. 6() Ceoe , 7 S. t 2 23 a t s ni e o u r u g n f h t r co d a a whol c d notl a a r tona t i r o f tt tnd i f voroft non- o nt e r s e oul e d a i l re f ac o i n a he m va . W i imsv. ifn 9 2F.d8 0 8 3( t Ci.1 91.Co v rey s mma yj d me t s la l Grfi , 5 2 2 , 2 4h r 9 ) n es l , u r u g n i i ppr it i t e de i s fce f ar as na e f tfnde t r t n ave diti f vor na oprae f he vi nce s ufi int or e o bl ac -i r o e ur r c n a oft non- o ngpa t Ande s n,477U . a 248. he m vi ry. ro S. t Eve i t r i nodiput a t t evi ntayf t,su r j n f hee s s e s o he de ir acs tnmay udgme i not nt s a o it whe et uli t f cua concusonst bedr ppr pra e r he tma e a t l l i o awn a e i diput . Ove sr e v. r n s e rte t Ky. Ce . f I .Co.950F. 931, ( hCi.1 ) A c t ynotr ol diput f t, nt Lie ns , 2d 937 4t r 991 . our ma es ve s ed acs wei t evi nc or m a de e m i tons ofcr di lt Rus el v.M i r gh he de e, ke t r na i e biiy. s l c odvne Cop , 65 F.3d , 1 1 ( h Ci.1 ) Sos beev. ur hv, F. 1 18 ( hCi.1 .A c ur 229, 239 4t r 995 ; e M p 797 2d 79, 2 4t r 986) o t ac e s a t ue t e de oft non- ovi pa t a r s vesa1 i er lc l c s a c pt s r he vi nce he m ng ry nd e ol l nt na onti t nd i e e e i t non- ovi pa t sf vo . Char m a sdeFr nc v. Sm ih,597 F. 406, nf r nc s n he m ng ry' a r bol ge a e t 2d 41 ( hCi.1 .bW he opposngpa te tl t difr ntsore ,oneofwhihi bltnty 4 4t r 979) t n i ris elwo fe e t is c s aa l c ta cedby t rc d,s t tnoras bl j y c dbeivei,acour s dnota pt onrdit he e or o ha e ona e ur oul le t t houl do t tve so oft fcsf pur e ofr i on amotonf s ha rin he a t or pos s ulng i or ummayj me . Scotv. r udg nt' t ' H ars 550U. 372, ri, S. 380( 2007) Furhemo e apa t ( nnotce t age neis of . t r r , ry s ca rae nui sue - m a e i f c t oug m e e s c a i ort buidi ofone i e e upon a her' Be l v. t ral a t hr h r pe ul ton he l ng nf r nce not . ' ae Ha dv,769F. 21 21 ( h Ci.1 ) Theeor tmlr uns r 2d 3, 4 4t r 985 . rf e,i e e upporeds c ai ...i not l t pe ulton s e o g t d fa as mmayj d me tmoin. En i v Na'As ' o Bu . Ed c Ra i n u h o e e t u r u g n to ' ns . tl sn f s & u , do. ' 1 ,53F.d 55,62( h Ci.1 ) A pli ifc nnotus ar pons t amoin frs nc. 3 4t r 995 . antf a e es e o to o ummay r j udgmen t core tde iincisi ac antc le t o rc fce e n ompli halngedbyadefnda ' motonf s e nts i or ummay r j udgme .SeeCl ni rv. cDevit 555F.d 3 336( hCi. nt oa nge M t, 3 24, 4t r 2009)( i t tapli if notng ha antf ma nota nd ac anttuougha g nti abrefop i s y me ompli l r ume n i posng ummayj me ) Gimour r udg nt; l v. ts M c nad& Co.38 F.d 1 2, 31 ( 1h Ci. 0 4 (a ) Gae s Do l , 2 3 31 1 5 1 t r 2 0 ) s me . N o A DMI STRATI REM EDY W ASA VAI NI VE LABLE TO EXHAUST. D e e nt a gue t tpl i i fdi no e f nda s r ha a ntf d t xhaus a i s r tve r m e esf hi c a m s t dm ni ta i e di or s l i . ThePrs Lii tonReor Ac pr dest ttg oa tons l bebr ion tgai f m t ovi ha inl ci hal oughtwihr s tt t epec o p io c n iinsu d rf 1 3 . .b ap io e c ni e i a yj i, rs no oh r rs n o dto n e j 98 ) ., y rs n r o tn d n n alp io r te c r c i f c lt untls a i sr tver ore tonal a iiy i uch dm nita i emedisa a ea ia ear e use ' 4 e s r va lbl e xha t d. 2 ' U. C.j1 ( .Thee S. 997ea) xhausi r rme i mandaor a ç ist a1 i t s t ton equie nt s t y nd t e o l nmae uis appl a utprs lf .' Po trv. sç,53 U. 516,5 532( bo ion leg)' re Nusl 4 S. 24, 2002) t opere usi .k pr xha ton de a c pla e w ih a a nc s de dlne a ot rc ii a pr ed a r e .' W o or m nds om i ne t n ge y' a i s nd he rt c l oc ur l ul s ' odf d v. o,5 U. 81, ( Nc 48 S. 90 2006) W henaprs pr desa a nitai gre nc pr e e, . ion ovi n dmi srtve iva e oc dur t i a e m us tl a g i va e r i i apa tc a c a m a pur ue i t ough al a ia e he nm t t ' e r e nc a sng i ri ul r l i nd s t hr l va l bl l vel ofa e s ppea t t ope l e us . 1 ;Di v.Pa e, 291F. 485, lo s pr r y xha t' d. xon ' g 3d 490- (t Ci. 91 7h r 2002) . û( nadmi srtver me i notconsdeedt ha bee a ia ei aprs r t o hno ûAj nitai e dy s i r o ve n valbl f ione,hr ug f ul ofhi ow n,w a pr vent f om a ii hi s fofi.' M oor v.Bennetç,517 F. 717, a t s s e ed r va lng m el t ' e t 3d 725(t Ci.2008) (k l nprs ofkil prve i tsfom usngt a nitai 4h r . tW he ion t as e nt nmae r i he dmi srtve pr e s...t pr es t te sson pa rbe omesuna ia ei r a iy. Kabav.Stpp, oc s , he oc s ha xit pe c va lbl n e lt ' ' e 458 F. 678,68 (t Ci. 3d 4 7h r 2006) Ani t sf l et e us i a a fr i defns t ta . nmae' aiur o xha t s n fimatve e e ha dee nthast btr nt pr J nesv.Boc 549U. 1 21 ( fnda he lde o ove. o k, S. 99, 6 2007) . TheJ lhadaf ma gre nc pr e ecald StndadOpeai Pr dur (i ' ai or l iva e oc dur le a r rtng oce e ûSOP' ) 1 02 whie pl i i fw as a t J i . SOP 1 02 de i s a ç i va e 'i s a û good f ih 6. l a ntf t he a l 6. fne t e bl ' s ue s i gr a at c mp an iv l n s mera o p tniln u y ij tc , rwr n h vigmei a ars lo o lit n ovig o e l r oe ta ij r ,nusie o o g a n rt s e ut f isu j t s , ic i n to , ro p e sve e swhc ce ry flswihnt es o eo t e t nusne s d s rmiain o p r si n s ih lal al t i h c p f h re ncer po epr edur ' SOP 1 02a 2. A t givabl 'is i kac ant iva /es ns oc e. '( 6. t ) t re e' s ue s & ompli nonw hi c e ry doe notf lw ihi t s ope oft gr e nce r pons pr ed e r r e sofis ch l a l s al t n he c he i va /es e oc ur ega dl s t mei...' Fore mpl ka tontke bynonjalfclt pes l...doesnotf lwihi t rt .' xa e,çci a n i a iiy ronne al t n he pur e oft gre er pons pr e e. (d. viw he ivanc /es e oc dur ' l ) ' Cox r ewed pl ntf s g i va e r or a f evi ai i f r e nc ec ds nd ound onl o gr e nce a utt J i ' y ne i va bo he a ls m ed c s r ce . Pl i i ffl a i or a g i va w e on J nua y 8,201 s a i i al e vi s a ntf ied n nf m l r e l a r 0, t tng: M e c lNeglg dia ience: ( a 3,2009, Iwa a suledby (not ri tl On M y 1 s sa t a he nmae . AtDr Kevor a sr ques,MRl weetke a (heHos tl s ngt tmy . kin' e t s r a n tt pia) howi ha J w wa fa t e a ta lh v n TMJ utmaeyraii t a myjw a s r curd nd h t a e o , li tl e lzng h t a r quie s ge y.Dr Al ha a knowldge ove t l te g m o hst tIa e r s ur r . i s c e d r he as i ht nt ha m a a tng s ge y. Iw a t d by t he nur e t Iw a waii f D . . f r w ii ur r s ol he ad s hat s tng or O C. o mys gey.On g ce r30, ur r De mbe 2009, 1notfe t medi l ) iid he ca. ( .sI or lGre nc ( 1 2a 9. A J i Ca ai deemi dt is wasnon- i bl Pl' nf ma iva e no. 9- t ) al pt n tr ne he sue greva e a a s d pl i ift the coul a a t non- i bl de e m i ton t St p 1 The Ca a n nd dvi e a ntf ha d ppe l he greva e t r na i o e . pt i s cii ly no e pe fcal t d: Com pl i sr ga di t s t ntve m e c c r a e ou s de t s ope oft a nt e r ng he ubs a i di al a e r t i he c he g iv n ep o e u eb c u ei rle o t ej i saft ma er c mme d to s re a c r c d r e a s t eis n h al tf o k e o n ai n r ar ngt s cii me ca te t nt pr dedt t i t l ....The eg di he pe tc di l rame s ovi o he nmaels a i s r ton oft J ldoesnotha t e r i e t de e m i t a ua y dm ni ta i he ai ve he xpe ts o t r ne he deq c oft m edi lca e pr ded. The t e t e pr vi t t i a e i t s e he ca r ovi r a m nt o ded o he nm t s s he ol di c e i oft J i Physci n. The s c f c t pe ofm edi lca e pr de i s r ton he a l ia pe i i y ca r ovi d s notgove ned by t polc e a pr ed esoft J i. r he ii s nd oc ur he a l (nf malGre nc Re p.no.1 2 a 1 . l or iva e s ( 9- t 0)) Pl ntf ' cl m si ve t m e c lca e he r c i d a t J i,whi h perCox' ai i f s ai nvol he di a r e e ve t he a l c s afi vi,i l s pr di a m ec ni a s tdi t Thus SO P 1 02 defnespl i if si t fda t nc ude ovi ng ha c l of e . , 6. i a ntf nsant cl i s a non- r e bl i s s a pl i ifco d no ha s ug a i s r tve r vi w ofhi am s g i va e s ue , nd a ntf ul t ve o ht dm ni t a i e e s m e ca cl i s A c or ngl no a i sr tve pr e sw asa l e t exha tf pl i if s di l a m . c di y, dm ni ta i oc s vaiabl o us or a ntf ' compl nt a t medialcaeandmec ni ls tditand j1 ai s bout he c r ha ca of e, 997e()doesnotba a r pl i if s c ai s Se K a m m eri v.La n,553 F. 669, - 38 U . A pp. . 2 a ntf l m . e e lna ppi 3d 675 66, 4 S. D C. 40, 246- ( C.Ci.2008)(t quii a i t t e 47 D. r t Re rng n nmae o xhaus a a nitai gre epr es t n dmi srtve ivanc oc s t a c n o a d e st es b e to h so h rc mp an wo l sr en n o t ep r s so h t a n t d r s h u j c f i r e o lit u d e v o e f h u po e f e usi ofadmi sr i rme e .). xha ton nitatve e dis' PLAI FF FAI TO ESTABLI THAT DEFENDANTSV I NTI LS SH OLATED THE EI GHTH A MENDMENT. A pl i i fm us s a ntf t how t ta de e nta t d w ih delber t i f e e e t a s rous ha f nda c e t i a e ndif r nc o e i medialne t sa ea c am unde t Eiht Ame e f t unc tt to lde a of c ed o tt l i r he g h ndm nt or he onsiu i na nil medc a ssa e.Esel v. ial sitnc tle Gmubl,429U. 97,1 ( 976) Dei rt i fee erquie e S. 04 1 . lbe ae ndif rnc e rs asa ea t t ha bee pe sma l a r off c si c tng a s t nta rs ofs rousha m, tt c or o ve n r c ly wa e a t ndia i ubsa il ik ei r a t a t m us have ac ua l r cog z d t e s e e ofs a r s Fa m erv.Br nna 511 nd he c or t t ly e ni e he xit nc uch ik. r e n, U. 8 8 ( 994) û lbeaei fe e ema bedemonsrtdby et ra t li e tor S. 25, 38 1 . t i rt ndifr nc y De tae ihe cua ntn rc e sdir r ' M ite v.Be n,8 F. 848,851( hCi.1 .Se Pars e rlLe e kls segad. lir ' or 96 2d 4t r 990) e rih x e. e v.Clvda 3 F. 294,303( hCi. )(çT1 e de emus s t tt ofca i e nd, 72 3d 4t r 2004 Gg he vi nc t how ha he fiil n q e to s be tv l r c nie t a h sa to swee t p r praei lg to t t ik.'. u sin u jciey e og z d h t i cin r i p o it n i h f ha rs ') na ' def nda ac sr kl s l by di r r ng a s t t a r s ofda rt ti eihe known t t e nt t ec e s y s ega di ubsan i l i k nge ha s t r o he de e ntorw hi h w oul be a r ntt a r as na e pe s i t de e nt spos ton.'' f nda c d ppa e o e o bl r on n he f nda ' ii M ite ,8 F. a 851 5 A heat c r pr vi rm a bede i r t l i f e e twhe t lir 96 2d t - 2. lh a e o de y lbe a ey ndif r n n he te m entpr de i s gr s y i om pe e ,i eq t ore s i ast s k t r at ovi d s o os l nc t nt nad ua e, xce s ve o hoc he c c e e o i i ol r bl t f ndam e a f r s l a 851 A m e c lne d s r ouse ug ons i nc r s nt e a e o ' u nt l aines . d. t . di a e e i no h t gi rs t aco tt i cli i ve ac ton t tplce t i t ata s tnta o ve ie o nsiutonal am nvot s ondii ha a s he mnae ubsa il rs ofs rousha m ,s h asl soflf orper a ntdia lt ora c ton f whih lc of ik e i r uc os ie m ne s biiy, ondii or c a k te m entpe pet ess ver pai Sos be 797 F. a 181 83. r at r uat e e n. e e, 2d t Pl n iff ist es a ih Dr A l' d i r t i f e e . A s um i w iho de i ng ai t f a l o t bls . is elbe a e ndif r nce s ng t ut c di t ta t a oft tl ti r - r i ul r di c ' sa s i m e c lne d,t r or es a ihest t ha e r he tef-nt a a tc a s ' i erous di a e he ec d t bls ha Dr A1te tdplitf s a p o e wihac mbn to o d a n si tss rfra t a . ir ae an if j w r blm t o iain f ig o tc et, eer lo s c a i t a va i na co i a no na c i pa n m e c tons D r Al de e m i t t pe i ls , nd r ous r t c nd n- r otc i di a i . . i t r ned ha s geywa no ne s ayafe o er i pl ntf sj w ai nti oveo rtmewihpai ur r s t ce s r tr bs vng ai if a lgnme mpr ve i t n m edi a i . D r A 1 bas s he c l i on herm e c le r i e ahe c uli wih a her c tons . i e r onc uson di a xpe ts r ons tng t not physc a teai pli if a r viwi hi m e c lr c d.Pl i ifpr e r d t ha Dr A1 i in, r tng a ntf, nd e e ng s di a e or antf ef re o ve . i o d r a s r ey wh l h wa a teJ i, u pli ifsd sg e me t t Dr A1 a o t h r e jw u g r ie e s t h alb t ant ' ia r e n wih . i b u t e f c s ofteame doesnotsaeaj1 3cli oure r t nt tt 98 am.W rg v.Coli ,766F. 841 8 ( hCi. iht lns 2d , 49 4t r 1 )Ruselv.Shefe,5 F. 31 31 ( h Ci.1 )( rc im) Pli ifsalgains 985) s l fr 28 2d 8, 9 4t r 975 pe ura . antf le to t tDr A 1 m a a i or ec m e c lde i i by m odiyi pl i i f sva i uspr c i i ha . i de n nc r t di a c son f ng a ntf ' r o es rptons m a r tec at tcai f neglgenc butcai ofme c mal a i and neg i ncea enot y el t or l m or i e, l ms dial pr ctce lge r cog z bl i aj1 pr e ng.Esel,429U. a 1 06.Se J hns v.Oui nes 1 nia e n 983 oc edi tle S. t 05e o on no , 45 F. 1 1 69( h Ci.1 ( tngt tte tngdoco smus a t l d a t i eenc 3d 64, 68- 4t r 998) noi ha rai tr t cualy rw he nf r e t ta i t ss ha n nma e' ympt ssgniyt pr e eofapari a c ton and t taf lzet om i f he es nc tculr ondii ha aitr o dr w s a i er nce m a pr en a c ai f ne i nce butno a cl m unde t Ei h a uch n nf e y es t l m or glge t ai r he ght Ame ndme ) Si lry, ai iffist etbls t tDr A1 wase ri or dofpl ntf nt. mial pl ntf al o sa ih ha . i ve nf me ai ifs 8 me h n c l otde c mp an so t a Dr A1 wa s be tv l a r o s c ac mplit c a ia s f it o lit r h t . i s u j ci ey wa e f u h o an . Acc di y, . ii e il t s or ngl Dr A1 s ntted o ummayj r udgme . nt Pl i ifa s f ist e t i h a Ei h A m e e c a m a ns Br n orCox. a ntf l o a l o s abls n ght ndm nt l i gai t ow Pl i iff ist s a ntf a l o how t tBr ha own orCox w a pe s na l i ved w ih a de a oft e t e , s r o ly nvol t ni l r a m nt delb r t y i e f r d w ih D r Al ' tea m ent ort il a horz orw e e de i r t l i e a el nt r e e t . is r t , ac ty ut i ed r lbe a e y i f e e t D r A l' a r nt unc tt i ndif r nt o . i s ppa e , ons iutonalm i c uct M ite ,8 F. a 854. N ot ng s ond . li r 96 2d t hi i pl ntf m e ca t ea m e e nce how a 1 y pe s w oul unde s a t tDr A l c d be n ai i fs di l r t nt vi s a r on d r t nd ha . i oul d l e aeyi ifrnt ymo io igp an ifs a ain n a dprs rbigv ro sp i ei rtl ndfee b nt rn litf'j w lg me t n e ci n ai u an b m e ca i ns Pl i ifdoesno es a i h t tt J i pr de hi f t the c d no e t di to . a ntf t t bls ha he a l ovi d m ood ha oul t a , a no clni als gns ors m pt sofm a nour s e e s i pl i if s m e ca r or Dr A l nd i c i y om l i hm nt xit n a ntf ' di l ec d. . i m a ged pl i tf ' pai s pt sw ih va i na c i a non- r t c pai r le r i he at na a n i fs n ym om t rous r otc nd na co i n e i ve s f e f o st a we eh r e t npan ifp e erd icu i t c n yb ra dj wbra e c n is o d h t r a d r ha litf r fre ,n ldng he a d a n a e k r a de he pur has f om t com m i s r A c or ngl pl ntf f ist e t i h t ta de e nt c ed r he s a y. c di y, ai i f a l o s abls ha f nda i l c ed c ue a unus puni hm e i vi aton oft Ei ht A m e nti t r l nd ual s nt n ol i he g h ndm en . t 1 1. 1 Fort f e ngras ,1gan deenda s motonf s he orgoi e ons r t f nt' i or umma yj r udgme .Be a e nt c us pl i if sr ques e di cove y eiheri nots fci nty de c i ordoesnotr a e t a a ntf ' e td s r t s uf i e l s rbed el t o ny defc e y i t r c d,de e nt moton t sa dic ve y i g a t a pl i ifsmoto iinc n he e or f nda s' i o ty s o r s r n ed nd antf in f s bz ubpoe s i de ed. na s ni 6 6 Pl ntf s r ddeendan swihhi Fis l er t i a Fis Re t f Pr ton ofDocu enson ai if e ve f t t s rt ntrogaores nd rt quess or oduc i m t No e e l , 0l .Dee d nsfldamoinfrs mmayj d me t No e e 2 20l ,ha rl do v mb r 6 2 l fn a t i e to o u r u g n on v mb r 9, lt t ei n e atc ddocu e s Thec tsa pl ntf sdico r r uet be us t ata heddoc e spr deda1 ta he m nt. our tyed ai if s vey eq ss ca e he tc um nt ovi ot oft i or a i pli ifr que t bu t co tga pl ntf heopporuniyt r s a tonaldic r not he nf m ton antf e sed, t he ur ve ai ift t t o eque t ddii s ove y addr s byt docum e s Pl ntf fl 4sec l e r t i ,'t w hi t cour o der defnda st esed he nt. ai if ied t ond ntrogaores ' o ch he t r ed e nt o r pond. The cour gr nt pl ntf an e e i oftm et r ew def nda s'a w e st i e r t i a es t a ed ai i f xt ns on i o evi e nt ns r o nt r oga ores nd rs o dt termoinfrs mmayj d me tb th c ut e e paniffrhe la efrds o eyu e sh e p n o h i to o u r u g n, u te o r d nid litf u t r e v o ic v r nls e 9 TheClr i diec e t s c esoft sM e a e k s r t d o end opi hi mor ndum Opi on andt a ompa ng ni he cc nyi Or t pl ntf a couns lofr cor f de e nt . der o ai if nd e e d or f nda s EN TER :Thi s da ofJ y,201 y ul 2. f Se ni Unied St t s D it i t udge t a e src so dbyatd vtta h c udno p ee tfcses niloj siyhso o io t temo infrs mmay h we f a i h t e o l t rsn a t se ta t u t i pp st n o h to o u r i f i j d me t u g n. Pl ntf fld a a fda tlsi t r co dsori e r t i hesilw a e buthedi nots ai if ie n fi vi itng he e r ntrogaores tl ntd, d how goodc e aus , e panwh h ddn trq ethi i o ainatrrc iigd fn ns moinfrs mmayj d me ta dwh x li y e i o e u s t s nfnn to fe e evn ee da t' to o u r u g n, n y t i or in wasnec s r t t elm e soft saci Pli ifas tl am oton f as he nf mato es ay o he e nt hi ton. antf lo ied i or ubpoe t f r eDr na o o c . Kevor a t ans ri erogat i , pl ntf di notpr det c tordefnda swih ac oft kin o we nt r ores but ai if d ovi he our e nt t opy he p o o e q eto s Se Fe R. v P. 13 (e uin plitf t sretewrte q e t n o e eyoh r r p sd u sin . e d. Ci. 3 () rq r g anif o ev h itn u si s n v r te i o pat .Furher e,Dr Ke r a sr s eswoul notbep obai ofDr Al' alege delbe aei feenc ry) t mor . vo kin' e pons d r tve . is l d i r t ndifr e of anifs a ij r Mo e v r c u t a n t a tee pe sso panifsbe at a dpanifak tec u t plitf'jw nuy. ro e, o r c n o p y h x n e n litf' h l n lit s s h o r l f t de t r o ny he eques i t coul c t f he ' annotpay. t 10