-RSB Makdessi v. Clarke et al, No. 7:2011cv00262 - Document 113 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/28/2012. (tvt)
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clERK' OFFI U. DI COUA - s CE S. SX AT ROANOKE, VA F/ ED t . I THE UNI S N TED TATESDI TRI COURT S CT FO R TH E W ESTER N D I STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A RO AN O K E D I I O N V SI AD I EDD I M M EZ M A K D ESSI B E , JUN 22 2 1 02 J I . ULA BY; E L RK Y E CA SE N O .7: C V 00262 11 Pl ntif ai f , M EM O M N D U M O PI I N N O VS. HAROLD W .CLARKE, AL. c , By: G l E.C onrad en Chi fU nied St e D i t i tJudg e t at s s r c e D ef endant s. A di Eddi Ram e M a b e z kdes i a V i g ni iz a e pr e ng pr K ,tl t s c vi rght s , r i a lm t oc edi o i ed hi i l i s a tonpurua t 42U. C.j1 alegi t tdurnghi i re ai a W ale Ri Stt ci s nt o S. 983, l ng ha i s ncac r ton t lns dge ae Pr s ,1t e de e ntpr s of i a sf ie t pr e thi f om vi e e a t ha ofhi i on h f nda i on fci l a l d o ot c m r ol nc t he nds s c l t a ot ri t s i vi a i ofhi co tt i na rg s Thedef nda smove f elma e nd he nma e , n olton s nsiuto l i ht . e nt d or s mmayj g n , n M a de s rs nd d ma n t ematrrp f rd s o iin.Afe u r ud me t a d k si epo e , kig h te ie o ip sto tr rv e n t er c r ,hec u t o cu e ta temoinf rs mmayj g n mu tb ga td e iwi g h e o d t o r c n ld s h t h to o u r ud me t s e rn e i pa4 a de e i pa t n 1 nd ni d n r . A. Pl i ifsAle tonsand Evi e antf ' lga i denc M a s alege i hi c kdes i l s n s ompli a va i s e e st thi ce l t r ped a ant nd rous upplm nt ha s lma e a nd be thi s ve el ove a tlee hotrpe i one m or ng and t tt de e ntof i e se t r a m e r y r lr - l rod ni ha he f nda f c r ihe kne i a nc t c l a e m i ha M a s i orhe r ors w e de oft o oi w n dva e he elm t ght nn kde s , ad a vi nce he ng ng atc butt noa ton t pr e thi l t orgi veiidcompli ( No.1 pp. & ta k, ook ci o otc m. n he i nal rfe ant ECF , 2 4) M a s ialge t tW alensRi ofi asplc dhi i D- podi acelwihaknown , kde s le d ha l dge tcil a e m n 1 n l t Sga t dgs jpl 'M ihae Smih.I eal De embe 201 Smiha hi ga me r t ngser ici ey c l t n ry c ' r 0, t nd s ng mbes 1 M akdes i now i r r ed atKeen M ount n CorectonalCent . ai r i er si s nca ce at sa t bbedM a s .M akde s i o m e Sg . ng a Lt Fi l a utt sa ng a t dt m kdes i s i nf r d t Ki nd . e ds bo he t bbi nd ol he hene de pr e ton fom Sm ih.Ofke sl 4M a s i t c l wih Sm ih, we r On e d ot c i r t f r ef kdes i n he e l t t ho ve . D e m be 21, 0, w ee 9: a. . nd noon,Sm ih r pe a be tM a ce r 201 bet n 00 m a t a d nd a kdes ii hi c l, s n s el whies ve alofi r par l t a e and a tmes l l e r fce s toled he r a, t i ,ooked i ot ce l wiho i e v ni nt he l, t ut nt r e ng. Durng t a s ul,Sm ih c le M a s iaç nic ' nd s i he s a t t a ld kde s s t h'a howe hi aco ofal te M a s i s d m py et r kde s ha s n t t a s s a w a de a w e k bef e Sm ih t d M a d e t o he s it nt r n e or . t ol kdes it tSg .Ki ha gi n s ha t ng d ve c e oft l te t Sm ih a o he g ng m e be si t pod. Sm ih t n t r up t l te , opi s he e t r o t nd t r a m r n he t he o e he e t r t e i i t c ls t l t a t d M a hr w t n he el' oie , nd ol kdes i Slm g ng t kilyou. s , t' oi o l ' ' Durng t t e houras a t aga t rdicpl l de i ntte a çK. 'c m et t i he hr es ul, ngse s i e ea r de ii d s ç C.' a o he ce ldoo and t d Sm ih t c e n M a s iup f c l r ol t o la kde s or ount Anot rga t rna e Fl co c m e by . he ngs e m d a a a t d Smih t g tM a nd ol t o e kdes ist e son a c s' elvii nd omm is r ie sr ady f pik u wih me s a y tm e or c p t al ta a tas Fl o a at r ga t name Pe t t d Sm ih t C a hi tm e' Smih r ys nd r h. ac nd hid ngser d e y ol t o t ke s i .' t t c ea d bl of t foorw ih a c 0t t e w a e on M a l ne ood f he l t 1 h, hr w t r kdes i sf e, y a bu t ks a s ' ac bod nd toc , nd t n or r d hi t c e n hi s fw ih t foorc 0 h. Dur ng t a s t Ofk e Sum pt m a he de e m o l a m el t he l 1t i he s aul, t r er de s c iyr e urt oundse r t ry m i e a l d i o M a s isc l,butdi not ngt sopt ve y hit nut s nd ooke nt kde s ' e l d hi o t he fce s lo l wedt ga t r t movea oundt pod durng t a s ul, he ngse s o r he i he s a t as a t2 O fi r a s alo s ul. at h t pod wasl ke down. lhoug he oc d 3 W hen ofk er ope d t celdoo sf r m o loff ta a ta h,Sm ih ha t s ne he l r or e va ood r ys nd r s t nded Ma kdes is t e s o t one oft ga t r ou s de t c l door M a s ir n outoft c l s ' el vi i n o he ngs e s t i he e l . kde s a he e l i ot pod,a Smih a Fl c r a trhi , ug hi a be thi on t sar .Afe a nt he nd t nd a o an fe m ca ht m nd a m he t is tr n ofi e fr d agun, a s ir n a y fom hi at c r .M a tc r ie M kde s a wa r s ta ke s kdes iti t t l Ca . li r s red o e l pt Galha , 2 M akdess orgi l i iie t si vi asOf i Sut , butl eramended t subsiut i i naly dentt d hi ndi dual fcer ner at o tt e Ofie Ti ty Su t r ( Nos 35 3 fc r moh mp e . ECF . - 6) 3 Ma s e kdes i xpanded ont salegaton i hi am e ent , ECFNo . - 6) hi l i n s ndm s s 35 3 . Lt Fi ds a Sg .K i t the ha t d Lt Fi l t da be or t thi lf wasi da ra . el , nd t ng ha d ol . e ds he y f e ha s ie n nge nd hene dpr edi c t butt ofkest dhi ûg hu t helup-don' sy awor ' ede ot ve usody, he f r ol m,isl t he l ta d. ' Ofi er pl c M akde s i cufsa t hi t t prs n hos t l whe em e ca sa f tc s a ed s i n f nd ook m o he io pia , r di l tf te tdhi ij re .Afe M a d si odt ed co t th ha b e r p d t ed co s i h rae s nu is tr k e s t l h o tr ha e d e n a e ,h o t r ad e s d be t a po t d t a o s de hos t lf a r pe ki. Two of i er t M a houl r ns r e o n ut i pia or a t fc s ook kdes ii t Xs n he ryr m,û t tdt TORTURE g m)bypus ngonL s br nrbsa a1( s wounds' a oo t are o s hi hi hi) oke i nd 1 hi) ,' a t d hi nott s y a w or t a nd ol m o a d o nyone a t hos t la utLt Fi l or Sgt Ki ori he t he pia bo . e ds . ng, d n w youc ba kwha ha ne t yo i not ngc ome c t ppe d o u s hi ompage t wha wilha n. W he rd) o t l ppe ' ' n ofk i l r t ned M a t a s e ur kdes ifom t ou s de hos t l he r m a ne i t pr s hos t lf a s r he t i pia , e i d n he ion pia or f w we ksa wa t pl e i pr eci c t a Ke n M ount i Core tonalCe er e e nd s hen ac d n ot tve usody t e an rci nt . l hi orgi lcompl i ,M a s s d VDOC Die t rHa ol Cl r and Sgt Ki n s i na ant kdes i ue r c o r d a ke . ng, Lt Fi l ,Ca .Gali r and J D oe of i e sa W a l nsRi e. M a . e ds pt lha , ohn fc r t le dg kdes is to t e s e ut hr e o ra ngcli a ns t s deenda s:( )a trMakde s t dSgt Ki a Lt Fil velppi ams gai t he e f nt 1 fe si ol . ng nd . eds t tSmihha sabbe hi i Dec mbe 201 t yfie t pr ec hi fom Smih;( whe ha t d t d m n e r 0,he ald o ot t m r t 2) n Ki and Fi ds f ie t pr ec M a s iafe t s a ng,Sm ih r pe a a s ule ng el a l d o ot t kde s tr he t bbi t a d nd s a t d M a sio De mbe 21, 0*a ( onDe e r21 201 ofi r s w e de et tt kde s n ce r 201 , nd 3) c mbe , 0, tces a vi nc ha he a s twa oc ni butdi noti e e s aul s cu ng, d ntrv ne.M a s a lgedt tdurng t as a t hewa kdes i le ha i he s ul, s r pe punche i t f e,a ki ke i t he and rbs50t 90 tm e .He s f r dt a d, d n he ac nd c d n he ad i o i s ufe e wo br n rbs c sove bot e t r uie s ic s br n nos ,and c lps Fors e tm e oke i , ut r h yes hat eq r d tt he , oke e ut i . om i a t rt a t c he bl f om hi r c um whe ve he us d t ba hr . A s a r ul oft fe he ta k, ed r s et ne r e he t oom es t he i i nt M a s a l edl s f r d fom a sa ni ht a es and ment a emoto l nc de , kdes i leg y ufe e r mne i, g m r , al nd ina dite s M a s' compl i s htmone a y da sr s . kdes is ant oug t r mage of$25, 000. s 000, Th d fnd n sflda a we a dmo df rs mmayj g n o t eg o n t t e ee a t ie n ns r n ve o u r ud me t n h ru d ha Ma kdes if l t e us ad i sr tver m e es4 ( Nos 26- 70- ) l rs ns t s aied o xha t m nita i e di . ECF . 28, 71 n epo e o de e nt 'm o i n, a f nda s t o M kdes if l d t o pl a ngsi w hi h he na e a to lofi r a s ie w e di n c m d ddii na tce s s dee ansa s fnd t nd oughtt e o xpando hi fcua algai rltdt hi cams ( Nos 35 n s a t l le tons eae o s li . ECF . 36 Thec tconsr dt s s si a motonst ame andgrntdt m.( No. ) our tue he e ubmisons s i o nd a e he ECF 37 I t epladi ,M a s adde dee nt Ti t Sumptr Davi Belmy,Gln ) n hes e ngs kdesi d fnda s mohy e , d la e B o Thom a H a l B r ndon W oodwar Cl r nc Shupe,a D e s Sl s i t f ng t s yd, s l, a d, a e e nd nni us , den iyi he e m e a t of i e sas i n s he f c r s gned t D - pod on D e e be 21 201 H e a l ged t tt e o f c r o 1 c m r , 0. le ha hes f i e s wal d by hi c ldoi s c iy c c durng t tm eoft a s t bu di no sop t ke s el ng e urt he ks i he i he s aul, t d t t he a s t ort tt know i y a l s aul, ha hey ngl lowed t g ngs e soutoft i c ls de pie a l kdown he a t r he r e l s t oc be us t of i e sw a e M a ca e he f c r nt d kdes idea M a s ia s a l ge t tbe or t as a t t s d. kde s l o le d ha f e he s ul, he defndantofi est eaene hi wihc e tc r hr t d m t omme ss hasç( sndni rArb lkeyoudon' nt uc dA) a gge a i t desr et lveoff tx pa si t sprs a ... ome s ul bre yotjne ka tke e v o i ll a yer n hi ion nd s one ho d lak u c nd a go jo t'( No. 5 p 2 M a d s i le e t th fld giv nc sa u s hc mme t y u u . ECF 3 , . ) k e s alg d ha e ie re a e bo t uc o ns ' beo eDe e r21 2010, s c iyofi r,hewade a Clr (g re ,t m . fr c mbe , but e urt tces t r n, nd ake k no gdj,he s i ( No 3 , . ) ECF . 5 p 2 Ma kdes ia s s ppl e e hi ale i a s l o u em nt d s l gatons boutr po tng t K i a Fi dst tSm ih e r i o ng nd el ha t ha s a d hi t o w e be or t D e e be 21 201 a s ul. W hen t e ofk e s di no d t bbe m w eks f e he c m r , 0 s a t hes t r d t mo Ma s a ve kdes i way fom Sm ih,M akde s puthi bl r t si s oody s r a unde pa si a e l pe hit nd r nt n n nve o 4 Th c u t nid d fnda s mo in f s e o r de e e e nt' to or ummayj dg ntu rj1 97 ( )u n fndi r u me nde 9 e a po i ng ma eralf t i di e ast whet prs of i al i e f r w ih M a s ' atempt t exhaus t i acs n sput o her ion fci s nt r e ed t kdes is t s o t a mi srtv r me e .( Nos 6 - ) Th e ha si is ermansatibl dipuet a d nitaie e dis ECF . 8 69 e x u ton s u e i ra e s t h t def nt may devel atti . enda s op ral 5 M a de s a lge ta hemaldc isofa1 sc mpant a d g iv nc st Clr e.( k s i le s h t ie ope lhi o li s n re a e o a k ECF No. 5, 8 3 p. ) a a e s d i t t é . Hepl nnedt m alt se de e o oft m ion on De e z nd ddr s e t o he C ' FBI ' a o i hi vi nc ut he s c mbe 21 201 buthe ne rs w t e l a n a t t as a t6 M a kdes ia s a l ge t ton s l o le d ha 0, ve a he nve ope gai fer he s ul. , D e e be 20,201 he t d Fi l t thi lf w asi da ra he ne d pr e tve c t cm r 0, ol e ds ha s i e n nge nd ede ot c i us ody, a t ts ve la f a ofD - pod w ilpr t se nd ha ur il nce oot ge 1 l ove hi ncoun e oc ur e t r c r d. B. D e e nt 'Evi nce f nda s de Dee nt ha move f s fnda s ve d or ummayj r udgme ,ofei afdavisfom t f l ng nt frng fi t r he olowi i vi l : Def nda sClr ,Galha , el , l,Sumpt ,Bel m y,Boyd,Ki a ndi dua s e nt a ke li r Fi ds Ha l er la ng, nd l tgaorYae .( Nos 82- Defnda sofe e de et tVDOC ofii sdonot nvesi t ts ECF . 83) e nt fr vi nc ha fcal plcei t si t s m ec li t y a eknown e m is A1 oft s de enda ssa et tt y a nma e n he a el f he r ne e . 1 he e f nt tt ha he we e no a a e be or D ec m be 21, 0 t tM a s iha a pr e sw ih Sm ih, ho ha r tw r f e e r 201 ha kde s d ny obl m t t w d be n hi ce l a e s nc Aug toft tye r The a s de m a ng de oga or r m ar a ut e s lm t i e us ha a . y l o ny ki r t y e ks bo hi . The of e t f l i a tonale de e. m y f r he olow ng ddii vi nc Ca . li wa t W a c Comm a ron Dec mbe 21 201 and wa no i d of pt Ga lhar s he t h nde e r , 0, s tfe t i i e i D- pod onl a tri oc ured.W he Galha r po td t D- pod, s w he nc d nt n 1 y fe t c r n li r e re o 1 he a M a s is ti on t toorw ih bl on hi f ce G a lha as d M a s iwha ha kde s itng he l t ood s a . li r ke kde s t ppene d, a Ma nd kdes is i he a hi c l a e ha be n t g i f t l tt e hotr a hi c l a e s ad nd s elm t d e i htng or he as hr e ls nd s elm t ha r pe hi . Ba e on t ss a e e , a lha c r ed M akde s w ih a di c plnar of e e d a d m sd hi t t m nt G li r ha g si t s i i y f ns f rfgh i M a o i tng. kdes iwasco c e oft scha geon J nua y3, 1 a pe lze wih 1 s nvit d hi r a r 201 , nd nai d t 4 da i i ol ton. ys n s a i Lt Fi l w asnoti D - pod a t tm e oft i de on Dec m be 21 201 a . e ds n 1 t he i he nci nt e r , 0, nd a rve i t tuni a t M a ri d n ha t fer kdes iand Sm ih we e s pa ae and r sr ned. Fi l de e a s t r e r td e tai eds ni s ny know l dge t tSm ih sabbe M a e ha t t d kdes ii e r y D e m be 201 Fi l sa est tt r i no s n a l ce r 0. e ds t t ha he e s 6 M a s has s it acopy ofapr t confs aton notc , daed Dece ber21,2010, kdes i ubm ted opery ic i ie t m i c i t l tga orY a esr m oved a t e si and apac ndiatng hat nvesi t t e elvi on kage ofl wor fom M a s ' cel. egal k r kdes is l ( No. 4- , 3) ECF 7 1 p. rc d(ei i de rpor,dici i yr c d,orme c lrc d)ofs hasabbi a t t e or s rous nci nt e t s plnar e or dia e or uc t ng nd ha i one had oc ur ed,of i a sw oul ha s pa a e M a s ia Sm ih a c f c r fci l d ve e r t d kde s nd t nd onduc e a td n i tga i Fi l al o ha no r coledi orr or t tM a s it d hi on Dec m be 20, nves i ton. e ds s s e l on ec d ha kde s ol m e r 201 t thi lf w a i da ra he ne ded pr e tve c t 0, ha s i e s n nge nd e ot c i us ody. Ofi er B. ooda d,C.Shupe a D.Sl swe eni s f ofi e son De embe 21 tc s W r , nd us r ght hit fc r c r , 201 a w e e no pr enta t f c lt whe t i de i D - pod oc ur e t tm om i 0, nd r t es t he a iiy n he nci nt n 1 c r d ha ng. Ofi r Hal and Be lm y we efoorofi e si D- pod on De embe 21 201 and fce s l la r l fc r n 1 c r , 0, wer r s nsbl f m a ng pe i c s urt c c . Bel my sa est tdurng o ofhi e e po i e or ki rodi ec iy he ks la tt ha i ne s r ounds M a , kdes ic l d hi ove t t c l a a ke how he w a doi s ale m r o he e l nd s d s ng.Sm ih w a o t t t s n he op burk,a M a s , l nd kdes i who sti on t botom burk,a a e fne a expr s e no c e ns itng he t l ppe r d i nd esd onc r . Bela y w asoutoft pod on l h b e k w he M a s ir n outoft ce l H a lr m e ber lm he unc r a n kde s a he l . l e m s l ng i M a s ' c lo t t te s ve a tm e t tm o ni butdi notno ie a hi ooki n kdes is el n he op i r e r l i s ha r ng, d tc nyt ng unus l Ha lde e t ta o he i t swe e ou sdeM a s ' t terc l durng t ua . l nis ha ny t r nma e r t i kdes is op i e l i he a s ul . I a e w o d ha be out i t i ow n c l d i t stm e onl f i pod s a t nm t s ul ve en s de he r els ur ng hi i y or nr r aton,whi h m us be c ec e i c t onduc e on t botom te . Of i r H a la Bela y s a e t t td he t i r fce s l nd l m t t ha t y frtbe n ea r oft as a ta 11: am .whe M a s ir n o ofhi cel f l wed he is c m wa e he s ul t 55 . , n kde s a ut s l, olo by Sm ih. t OfierBoyd wasa sgne t t D- c r r fc s i d o he 1 ontol oom on Dec m be 21 201 a Ofi r e r , 0, nd fce Sumpt wasas i er sgnedt t gunm a pos.Ata oxi ael 9: a. .Sumpt rwa c le t o he n t ppr m t y 45 m , e s al d o t gun t rt as itw ih sa fbr a t r ,s Bo t ove t gunmanpos,a Sg .Ki he owe o ss t t f e ks he e o yd ook r he t nd t ng t Overcont olr ook r oom oper i atons. At 11: a. . when K i w as openi cel doorsf of enderst setoutt rl 55 m , ng ng l or f o hei unch tays r a tas f c l cton,M a s ir n ou wih bl on hi a s a t d down t s a r . Sm ih nd r h or ole i kde s a t t ood m nd t r e he t i s t 6 f l d a bega srki M a olowe nd n ti ng kdes ii t hea a f cewih hi fss Ki a s n he d nd a t s it . ng nnounc o t ed n he r di t ti a e wer f ghtng i D - pod,a Boyd a tva e t pod' e e ge y buz r a o ha nm t s e i i n 1 nd c i t d he s m r nc ze . Ki beg n t c os t c l door ,butbef r t y a 1cl ed,t o he i aesr n o a ng a o l e he e l s o e he l os wo t r nm t a ut nd wake t r Smih a M a s i Boyd o de e t eofende st sop a r t nt t i l d owa d t nd kde s. r r d hes f r o t nd eur o her c ls butt y r f ed. Boyd t tr d abl nk w a ni r e l, he e us hen i e a r ng ound f om t s g a s g d t t r he hot un s i ne o he D- c r r . The al ofende s e ptM a s is o d w ha t y w e e doi a l on 1 ont ol oom n, l f r xce kde s t ppe t he r ng nd ay t gr he ound.Ki de e t tM a ng ni s ha kdes ie rc s ve ompli dt hi a ane o m boutSm ih orf rng f hi t ea i or s lf a de e gi ng a lte t ga m e r lbei M a s ia as t h. ie nd ni s vi ny el r o ng mbe s a lng kde s s nic Att hos tl media safa i t Physca Evi nc Rec r Ki ( he pia, c l tf ppled he i l de e ove y t PERK)t o M a s i The r uli c r ii a e ofa l i i c t d t tno s m i ltui w a pr e i t kde s . es tng e tt c t na ys s ndi a e ha e na l d s es nt n he PERK t t N o DN A pr ie f e gn t M a s iw a f es . of l or i o kde s s ound i t s r pi c l c e f om n he c a ngs ole t d r und rhi fnge na l a t rt a t r ton. W he quesi ne by i tga or ,Sm ih de e e s i r is f e he le ca i n to d nves i t s t ni d r pi M akde s a deni a 1know l dge oft l te M a a ng s i nd ed l e he e t r kdes ides i d. s crbe 11 Ana r o s mmayj d me ti a p o raewhe çh p e dig ,h d s o e ya d wad f u r u g n s p r p it n ç e la n s t e ic v r n t dicoslem ae i l on fl a a afi viss s l tr tra s ie, nd ny fda t how t tt r i no ge neis ast a ha he e s nui s ue o ny maeil a ta dt t h mo a ti e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. Fe . Ci. tra fc n ha t e v n s nild o u g n s te f a ' d R. v P. ' 5 c .Forapa t se denc t rieage neis ofmaera fc s fcintt a d 6() ry' vi e o as nui sue t il a t ufi e o voi s ummayj r udgmenti mus beis ht tar a ona ejlyc dr ur aveditf t no ,t t 'uc ha e s bl t oul et n r c or he nr movi pat ' Anderonv.Li t Lobby.l ,477U. 242,248( 98 .I ma ngt s ng ry. ' s bery nc. S. 1 6) n ki hi dee na i Chec ti r quie t viw t f t a dr w r as tnui ton, ç our s e r d o e he acs nd a e onabl i e e esi alght t e nf r nc n i mos fvorbl t t nonmovi pa t ' Sha v.Sto 1 F. 7 ,798(t Ci.1 . t a a e o he ng ry.' w r ud, 3 3d 9l 4h r 994) 7 A. D e e f ndant i t i O fk i C apac t e s n he r t al ii s Neihe asa enorisofi a sa i i t i ofi i c pa ii a epe s f pur es t r tt t fcil ctng n her fcal a ctes r r ons or pos ofj1 983.W ilv. i ca De tofStt Polc 491U. 58( 989) Theeor t t e e l M chi n p' ae ie, S. 1 . rf e,o he xtnt t M a s ii s ng t de e nt i t i of i a c pa te f m one ar da age , he a e hat kde s s ui he f nda s n he r fci l a cii s or t y m st y r i n fo s i, ndt ec u t rn st ermoinf rs mma yj dg n a t a1 u hcams mmu e r m ut a h o r g a t h i to o u r u me t s o 1 s c li . B. Ei h Am endm entCl m s ght ai The Ei ht Am e m e oblga espr s of i i l t t ke r s bl pr a i t g h nd nt i t i on fc a s o a ea ona e ec utons o pr t c pr s ne s f o vi e a t handsofot rprs r . Far e v.Br nna 511 U . 25, o e t i o r r m ol nce t he he i one s m r e n, S. 832- (994)( ti i er lquottonmaks.A prs rale ngt tprs ofiil ha 33 1 omilng nt na ai r) ione lgi ha ion fcas ve fie t kee hi r a ona ys f fo ot ri t mus s t t()o j ci y,t prs r ald o p m e s bl ae r m he nmaes t how ha i b e tvel he ione wa ic r eae u d rc n iinsp sn as b tnil iko s ro h r a d (i s b e tv l , s n ac rtd n e o dto o ig u sa ta rs f eius am n i u j ciey ) t de e ntwasdelbe a ey i fer ntt t ec tons I a 83 he f nda i r t l ndif e o hos ondii . d. t 4. To es a i h t tt r s ofexpos r t f t e ha m vi a est Ei ht A m end e , he t bls ha he i k u e o u ur r ol t he g h m nt t rs mus be ç ur orve y lkel t ca es rousil s andne dl s s f rng'and gi rs t ik t s e s r i y o us e i lne s e e s ufe i ' ve ie o Cufi e l i ne danges' Helngv. c l v,509U. 25,33,34- ( 993) lgl r t fcinty mmi nt s r.' li M Kime S. 35 1 . t- hee f mu tb atu sa ta rs o s ro h r 'a û be tv l it lr bers o h r t t s e s b tnil ik f eius am, n o j ciey n oea l ik f am'ha p e e t p io o fcasfo p e d n t a t e weeûu j cieyb a ls f rp r o e o te rv n s rs n fiil r m la i g h t h y r s b e tv l lmee s o u p s s f h Eiht Amend nt''Ba ev.Re s 553U. 35,50( gh me .' z e, S. 2008)( tngFa me ,511U. a 8 quoi r r S. t 42, 8 a 847n. ) 46, nd 9). A p io e mu tas d mo srt t a, u j ci l,h p io o fca h dalu tce ty rs n r s lo e n tae h t s be t y te rs n fiil a c fi in l ve s cul bl s a e ofm i ' t de i r t i f e e r quie e . Fa m e ,511 U . a 834. A pa e t t nd, he lbe a e ndif r nce e r m nt r r ' S. t pr s ofi a de ons r esde i r t i f e e e i he know sofan e s i r s t i a e i on tci l m tat lbe a e ndi f r nc f xce s ve i k o nm t he lh o s f t a dir ga dsorf ist r s a t r a e y nd s e r a l o e pond r as e onabl t t tr s 1 a 84 45. y o ha i k. d. t 4- 8 Li biiy unde t s s a r t r quie t o s i . Fi s , he a lt r hi t nda d hus e r s w how ngs r t t e d n emu ts o t tt o tca i q eto s be tveyr c g ie a vie c s h w ha he fi il n u sin u jci l e o nz d s tnta rs ofha m . l i note ubsa il ik r ts nough t tt ofi r s ul haver cog z ha he fce s ho d e nied i; he a m a l m us ha pe ce ve t rs Ri h v. u ,1 F. 336,340 n. t t y c ly t ve r i d he ik. c Br ce 29 3d 2( h Ci.1 .Se 4t r 997) cond,hee denc mus s t tt ofkili q si t vi e t how ha he t a n ueton s j ci l r ogniedt thi a tonswee(na o it i lghtoft trs ' ub e tvey ec z ha s ci r ç ppr prae n i i ha ik. ' J .Aswiht s j tvea r ne selme ,i i no e #= t he ubeci wa e s e nt t s t nought tt ofii ha he fcal s d ha r ogni edt thi a tonswe e i ppr i e;t ofii la t ly houl ve ec z ha s c i r na oprat he fc a cual m us ha r c ni ed t hi ac i nsw e e i ufi e . See Br n v.H a s 240 t ve e og z hat s to r ns tci nt ow ni , F.d 3 3 3 091(t Ci. 0 ) 3 8 , 9 - 4h r 2 01 . Alhoug t delber t i fe e esa r r quie as t h he i ae ndifr nc tnda d e r s howi ofa t l ng c ua k o e g a t b t ee ns iEsaq eto o fc s be t od mo tain n wld e s o oh lme t,t' u sin f a t u j c t e nsr to i i t us lwa , ncudi i er nc fom cr um sa i le denc ' Fa me , n he ua ys i l ng nf e e r ic t nta vi e.' r r 511U. at8 11 S.Ct 1 S. 42, 4 . 970.Thus $ fcfnde ma co l t t(n ,t a ti r y ncude ha a a o fc r k e o as bsa ta rs fo t ev r f c t tt rs wa o vo . fie) n w f u tnil ik r m h ey a t ha he ik s b ius' ' l But i i note d. , t s noug t ta r as bl ofk e w oul ha f h ha e ona e t r d ve ound t r s t be he ik o o v o .Rih 1 9 F.da 3 9 4 .Rah r t ers o ij r mus b i oo vo s b ius c , 2 3 t 3 - 0 te ,h ik f n u y t e d b iu s t tt fc-i rc dc l t tt g fc r di know ofibe aus he ha he a tfnde oul oncude ha he ofie) d t c e c d notha f l t know ofi.' Brc v. a.Be c Cor .Ct . 58 F. 1 , oul ve aied o t' i e V ah r r, 3d 01 1 (t Ci.1 ) Ast SuprmeCour e ane i Fa r apl ntf c n 05 4h r 995 . he e t xpli d n nne, ai if a ma aprm af ci c s unde t ssa d by s ke i a e a e r hi tndar howi tha as t nta rs of ng t t ubsa i l ik t ge iu h n wa l n sa d n , e v sv , l- o u ne , re p e syn td s ro s a u) s o g tn i g p r a ie weld c me td o x r sl oe by pr s n ofi al i t pa t a t c r um s a s s i o tci s n he s , nd he i c t nce ugges t tt de e n t ha he f nda t ofi i lbei s d had be n e tc a ng ue e xpos d t i or a i c e ni t rs a t e o nf m ton onc r ng he i k nd hus m us ha know n a t ve bouti.... 511U . a 8 11 S.Ct 19 t ' ' S. t 42, 4 . 70. Se ,e. ,Odom e g. v. C.De . Cor.349F. 765,771(t Ci. )( i i fndi t t S. pt of r, 3d 4h r 2003 notng,n i ng ha t pr s n g r wer aw a e oft rs t t pl i if t tt gua dspr vi usy he i o ua ds e r he i k o he a ntf , ha he r e o l a co e nd nt mpor neo l ha bee wa ne t tt pli ifsa s ia swoul a usy d n r d ha he antf ' s al nt d a tc hi i gi t c ncea hadbee i tuc e t r ta k m f ven he ha nd n nsr t d o emovepl ntf fo ai if r m hi rcrai ca i lghtoft srs .Si lry,afcfnde mayc l t t s e e ton ge n i hi ik) mial a ti r oncude ha t o fca' r s ns t apec ie rs wa s p tn l ia e u t a t j siy he fiils e po e o rev d ik s o ae t n d q ae s o u tf y a i e e e t tt of i i lac ualy r c ni e t thi r pons t t rs was n nf r nc ha he f c a t l e og z d ha s es e o he i k i ppr it unde t cr umsanc s na opra e r he ic t e . Pars v.Clvelnd,372 F. 294,303(t Ci. rih e a 3d 4h r 2004)(mpha i i orgi l. e ss n i na) The t e cl i s a l ed i M a hr e a m leg n kdes is c pl i a e r ly t s m e cl i a i t s ' om a nt r ea l he a a m ga ns muli ede e tpl f ndan s:t te c oft def nda sa e wih dei r t i fe e et a t ha a h he e nt ctd t lbe a e ndif r nc o sgniia , wn rs t tM a s woul bes rousy ha m e by hi c lma e,Smih.Som e i fc nt kno ik ha kdes i d ei l r d s el t t o t ed fn a t aee t ldt s mmayj dg n a t t sEih hAme d n cam. f h ee d n s r ni e o u r u me t s o hi g t t n me t li 9 1 D e endantC l ke . f ar Anofiilc nbehedla eunde j 1 i hi i vi lc pact onl i hi to tca a l ibl r 983 n s ndi dua a iy y f s swn i vi ua aci ns... olt d t Consiuton. As r tv. qbal 556 U. 662,1 S. . ndi d l to vi a e he tt i ' hc of I , ' S. 29 Ct 1 1 49 ( ) û-l r i noviai la lt unde j1 3.'Re nev. re Count 937, 9 2008 . tf he e s r c rous ibiiy r 98 ' ve Chals v Comm's 882F. 870,874( h Ci.1 ) r, 2d 4t r 989 . Dee a t a g t t ak, sVDOC drco ,se t ldt st r j g n , fnd n s r ue ha Clr a ie t r i n i e o t t mma y ud me t be us M akde s doe nota l ge or sa e f t s i t tCl ke had pe s lknowl e t t ca e si s le t t ac s how ng ha ar r ona edg ha M a s ' ho i a sgnm e pos d any sg fc trs ofs rousf ur ha M a s kdes is usng s i nt e i nii an ik e i ut e nu. kdes i a l st the fl gre nc a s r i hi ne t be hous d i a s ngl c l bas d on hi pa t lege ha ied i va es s e tng s ed o e n i e el, e s s e re e beng c le wih known e m i ,bengs xualy as a t d by c lma e ,orbeng xpe inc s i e ld t ne es i e l s ule el ts i r t it d a i tby sa f a t them a ld co e o a1hi gre nc st Clr Cl kesa e eala e ga ns t f , nd ha ie pi s f l s i va e o a ke. m' t t s t the w a nota a e ofa as a ton M a s ibe or t s l w s t Cl r a s s a e t thi ha s w r ny s ul kde s f e hi a ui . a ke l o t t s ha s ofi em a ll tc i ogbook doesnoti c t t ther cevedany c ndia e ha e i ompl i sfo M a s a ant r m kdes i boutsaf tf a W a l ns Ri t le dge. M a s if ist f e s any e de on whi h he coul s kde s a l o or ca t vi nce c d how t tCl r a t l ha a ke c ualy r ce ved a ofM a s i sgre nc ort tCl r by a ot m ea kne t tM a s is e i ny kde s ' i va es ha a ke ny her ns w ha kde s ' ce l a e o saf a W ale R i pos d a s g fc ntrs ofs r ousha t hi . Thus lm t r t f t l ns dge e i ni i a ik ei nn o m , Ma kdes if is t esabls a ge ne i s ofm a e i f c a t t de i r e i f e e s a l o t ih nui s ue t ral a t s o he lbe at ndif r nce ee e ofhi cli ag ns t sde e n .M a s ic nnothol Clr vi a i usy la e lm nt s am ai t hi f nda t kde s a d a ke c ro l ibl unde j 1 frvi ai alege y c r 983 o oltons l dl ommitdb hi s di t .l ,1 S.Cta 1 49. te y s ubor naes nbal 29 .t 9 Theef e t cour wilgrntt motonfrs r or ,he t l a he i o ummayj r udgme ast Clr . nt o ake 10 2. D e e f ndant B .W oodar C . s d, Shupe, and D .Sl s us Dee a t a g t the eng ts it fie sa ee t ldt s mma yj g n , fnd n s r ue ha t s ih hf o fc r r n i e o l r ud me t t z be a e M a s is a esno f c s s i t t y ha a pe s c us kde s t t a t how ng hat he d ny r onalknow l edge t tSm ih ha t pos d ars ofha m t M a e ik r o kdes ibe or De mbe 21, 0,ort tt y we epr s n i t po s f e ce r 201 ha he r e e t n he d durng t a s ul t tm or ng. The cou ta ee .M a i he s a t ha ni r gr s kdes is a l a i do notc ea e a s ' leg tons r t ny ge ne i s ofm a e i lf c f om w hi a f c fnde co d r as bl i e t D e e nt nui s ue t ra a t r ch a ti r ul e ona y nf r hat f nda s W ooda d,Shupe,a Sl swe edelber t y i fe e t any t ea t M a s ' s f t on o r nd us r i ael ndif r nt o hr t o kdes is a ey r b fr De e r21 2 01Th c u t l g a ttemoin frs mma yj d me ta t te e e o e c mbe , 01 . e o r wi rn h t o u r u g n s o h s l o d e nt. ef nda s C. D ef endant Fi ds,K i G ali s el ng, lhar,Sum pter,Belam y,Boyd,and H al l l Thes def nda sal de a know l e e nt l ny ny edge ofa rs ofha m t M a ik r o kdes i The a gue t t s. y r ha i t f c oft i e denc M a s iss isonsa ei ufi i t s n he a e her vi e, kde s ' ubm s i r ns fcent o uppo tar s bl r ea ona e i er nc t tany oft e de e nt kne be or ordurng Sm ih' as a ton M a s ii hi nf e e ha hes f nda s w f e i t s s ul kde s n s c lon De mbe 21, 1 t tM a s wa i da rofha m fom hi c lmat Ta ng t el ce r 20 0, ha kdes i s n nge r r s e l e. ki he e de e i t lghtm os f vor bl t M a vi nc n he i t a a e o kdes i howe r t e ttnds s t i tf c s i s, ve , he our i ufk en a t n ds u et p e ld s mma yj d me tf rte ed fn a t. ip t o rcu e u r u g n o h s ee d n s M a d si l g s i r s ns t tes mmayj d me tmo in,ha Fils Ki , n k e s al e ,n e po e o h u r u g n to t t ed , ng a d e Gali rha r ceved ort kedt hi r ga di g i va esM a s iha tld bef r Dec mbe lha d e i al o m e r ng re nc kde s d ie oe e r 1 M akdess ar i guest asni s f of cer , t s dee a t h dt ej b o rmo n i ts hat ght hit fi s he e fnd n s a h o f e vig nmae ' m ai f om t pod' maibox and m i havet l r he s l ght aken M a kdess ' lte t t as it ntwar and gi i is e tr o he s sa den ven t t Ki w ho alegedl gavet ltert gang m embe ,i udi Sm ih, o t r tM akdess a a s t o ng, l y he e t o rs ncl ng t t a ge i s nich. ( No. 2, 4) M a e s as ale s h we r t tKi hi efha ake t t emai x, n he ECF 9 p. kd s i lo lge , o ve,ha ng ms l d y o h l ad bo alegesno f t i ca i t W oodar Shupe,orSl shad a per onali er ton w ih Ki Thes l ac s ndi tng hat d, us ny s nt ac i t ng. e alega i a e i ufk i t s a e a ac i l tons r ns t ent o t t ny tonabl cl m agai tt e def e ai ns hes endant See Bel At. o.v. s. l l Cor Two v,5 0 U. 5 555( 7 (i ngt tt s. ecam, antf mus ma s fiintEfa tal mbl 5 S. 44, 200 ) tndi ha o tt li pli if t ke u fce û lcu a g algains.. t riearg tt r le a ovet s c aie Iv . .' (ne na qu tto maks le to .o as ih o eif b he pe ultv e el . .) itr l o ain r ' o te ) mitd . 11 21 201 a utbengs xualyasa t bya1ofhi prviuscel ts( No.92, 12; , 0 bo i e l s uled 1 s e o lmae ECF pp. 92- , 14) butfie t tkese t i si t ort asi M a s t asngec lor 1 pp. - , ald o a tps o nvetgae o sgn kdesi o i l el p o e tvec t y,a her ue t M a s ialege t thet dFi l a Ki pe s naly r t c i usod s eq sed. kde s l s ha ol e ds nd ng r o l t tSm ih had sa ha t t bbedhi t we ksbe or t Dec mber21 201 i de ,butt yt no m wo e f e he e , 0 nci nt he ook aci t i si a e, o s pa ae M a s ia Sm ih, t o he wiepr t c M a s i The ton o nve tg t t e r t kde s nd t or o t r s o e t kde s. c t i t tM a s i s a l ga i a e de e a e s f c e t pr s ntdipu e i s s of our f nds ha kde s ' le tons nd vi nc r uf i i nt o e e s t d s ue m a e i lf tast whe he e ch oft e de e nt m us ha know n f c s be or Dec m be 21, t r a ac o t r a hes f nda s t ve at f e e r 201 on whih t y m us ha pe c ve t thousng M akde s i t s m ec lwih Sm ih 0, c he t ve r ei d ha i s i n he a el t t c e t d a s t nta a i m i ntrs t tSm ih w o d c us M a s is rousha rae ubs a i l nd m ne i k ha t ul a e kde s e i nn. Si l ry,M a s ' a lgai ns i c e t d,s ppo tar s na e i e e et tt s ofier mia l kdes is le to , f r die u r ea o bl nf r nc ha he e fc s a s kne t rf iur t m o one oft c lm a e c tt e a unr as bl r po e t t l o w hei a l e o ve he e l t s ons iut d n e ona e es ns o he rs 8 pa rs 372 F.3dat303. Acc di y, hec t l de t m o i f s ik. ri , or ngl t our wil ny he ton or umm a y r j d me ta t Dee d n sGal r Fil s a Kig. u g n s o f n a t lha, ed , nd n i M a s ial gest tDef nda sSumptr Boyd, Ki who we ei t co r kde s le ha e nt e, and ng, r n he ntol r oom f D- pod a dif r nttm e o t mor ngofDe mber21 201 mus ha known a or 1 t fe e i s n he ni ce , 0, t ve t s e poi be wee 9: a m . om nt t n 00 . and 11: a. .t tSm ih w asas a tng M a 55 m ha t s uli kdes i M a s. kdes i s a s r st ta ne i t c r r ,onl 35 f e f o M a s e t ha nyo n he ont ol oom y etrm kdes is c l m us ha hea d s ' el, t ve r Ma s cyi outf hepdurngt asa t ( No. p.3 Heaguest a one kdesi r ng or l i he sul. ECF 92, ) r hat ny he rng t e noi e m us ha know n t tSm ih wasa s uli M a a i hos ss t ve ha t s a tng kdes ii t c l,a m us s n he e l nd t 8 M akdess alo alegest he l ned f om ot i esi M a 2010 how Ki had ti t i s l hat ear r her nmat n y ng red o t outacontac t ha m ember oft Bl ake r t o ve s he oodsgang kilM akdes i t tM akdes conf ont Ki i l s , ha si r ed ng n a meetng w ih Fi dsaboutt scontac atempt a t on De ber21 201 Ki and ot i t el hi r t t , nd hat cem , 0, ng her ofie sp r os y fie t itr e ei S t sa s ul o pu p ey ltga gse so to t erc lst oi fc r u p el ald o ne v n n mih' s a t r r os l e n tr u f h i el oj n i Smih' e f t t ha m M a s .Thecour consder t e alegatonst be of er i s n t s f ors o r kdes i t i s hes l i o f ed n uppor of t M akdes iscl mst tt def s ' ai ha he endant ac e wih delber e i fer ncet known rs t M a si s td t i at ndif e o iks hat kdes woul behanned by hi celmat and ot s Def ndant K i and Fi dsdeny t t contacta t pt d s l e her . e s ng el hat he r tem , a t mee i aboutt contac ,everoc r and deny t t had any know ldge ofSm ih' nd he tng he r t cured hat hey e t s e f t t ha m M akdes untlM akdes ir n outofhi cel. f ors o r si i s a s l 12 ha known t tf iur t i tga ea i e v ne i t fgh wa a i dequae r s et t ve ha al e o nvesi t nd nt r e n he i t s n na t e pons ha l tM a ef kdes ia s t ntalrs ofs f rngs rousha m . Ta ngM akde s ' al ga i i t s t ubsa i ik ufe i e i r ki s is le tons n he lg m os f vor bl t hi a t no ova ,hec tfndst theha pr s nt d dipu e i ht t a a e o m s he nm nt t our ha s e e e s td i s s ofm a e i lf c a t w he he t s de e nt kne t ta a s ul w a oc ur i a s ue tra a t s o t r he e f nda s w ha n s a t s c rng nd kne t tt i f iur t i e v ne c tt e a i de t r pons t t rs t tM a es i w ha he r al e o nt r e onsiut d n na qua e es e o he ik ha kd s woul s frongoi har J= Acc di y,hec t l de t moin f s d ufe ng m. #. or ngl t our wil ny he to or ummay r j me ast Defnda sSumptra Boyd. udg nt o e nt e nd Ma kdes ialege t tDe e n sBel my a Hal,durngt i s c iy r s l s ha f nda t la nd l i he r e urt oundson Dec m be 21 201 m us ha s e t as a torisbl e r , 0, t ve e n he s ul t oody a t r a h i M a f e m t n kdes is c l. He s' el as a lge t tt mus ha hea d hi c yi a yeli l y f hep, t tt y t lo le s ha hey t ve r m r ng nd lng oudl or l but ha he ook noa tont rmovehi fom t c l t prventSmihfo c i ngt ha. hi ( No. ci o e m r he elo e t r m ontnui o l m. ECF m 92,p. Theco ttndsM a sisalegainss tce t pr e ge neis oftibl 6) ur i kde s' l to ufi into es nt nui sues ra e f c a t whe he t e de e n skne ofa ongoi r s t tSm ih w oul c us M a s i at s o t r hes f nda t w n ng i k ha t d a e kde s s rousha m a kne t tt i f l et i e v newa a unr s na er pons t t trs ei r nd w ha her aiur o nt r e s n ea o bl es e o ha ik. L. Th c u t e e temo inf rs mmayj d me ta t Dee da t Belmya dHal 4s e o r d nis h to o u r u g n s o fn ns l a n l. D . The Fi i t Pod ght n he De e nt Ki Boyd,a Halas e t ha t y fr tbec m ea r oft at r a i f nda s ng, nd l s r t t he is a wa e he le c ton be w e n Sm ih a M a s ia 11: a. .w he K i ope d t c ldoor f l h t a a t e t nd kde s t 55 m , n ng ne he el s or unc r ys nd tas a M a s ca eoutofhi c l,bl di W he Sm ih s f l d a beg r h, nd kdes i m s e l ee ng. n t oon olowe nd an s rki M a t i ng kdes iw ih hi f s s de e nt as e tt tt r ac e pr m pty a app o i t y t s t s i t , f nda s s r ha hey e t d o l nd r pr a el o t srs t tM a hi ik ha kdes iwoul beha d,by a s d nne nnouncngt fg ,a tvai t e r e y i he i ht c i tng he me g nc buzz r l ki up ot i a e 'c ls o de i t i a e t s op f g i and fnaly,frng a e , oc ng her nm t s e l , r rng he nm t s o t i htng, i l ii w ar ng s and res r ni t atackers. W hie defe ni hot t ai ng he t l ndant m ay be abl t pr t t s e o ove hat hey 13 rs o d dra o a y t c u t idsta Ma d sisalg t nsp e ld s mmayj d me t s e p n e e s n bl,he o r fn h t k e s' le ai r cu e u r u g n a o t a oft de e nt r r ngt tg i t pod. I def nda skne be wee 9: a o ny he f nda s ega di he i ht n he f e nt w t n 00 nd l1: 5 a. .t tSm ih w a as auli M a s ii t i c l,asM a 5 m ha t s s tng kde s n he r e l kdes ialege ,t n s l s he def nd s f iur t r s e ant ' a l e o e pond r s bl w ihi t ttm e pe i t pr e tM akde s c tt e ea ona y t n ha i r od o ot c s i ons iut d d i r t i f e enc t a f ur r s i l ng t rs t tSm ih a t ot ri a e elbe a e ndif r e o ny ut e i k, nc udi he i k ha t nd he he nm t s r e e f om t i c ls w oul as a tM a s ii t pod a e The ef e, he c tde est el as d r he r e l d s ul kde s n he r a. r or t our ni he moin frs mmayj dg n a t Dee a t F ed , n , lia , la Bo d a dHal t o u r u me t s o fnd ns ils Kig Galh r Belmy, y , n l, o a t M a s i scl m s t tt y f ie t pr t c hi f om t r s t to he i a e w oul s o kde s ' ai ha he a l d o o e t m r he i k ha t r nm t s d ha m hi ,bo h i i hi c la i t pod a ea on De m be 21 201 r m t ns de s el nd n he r , ce r , 0. C.Qualfe I iid mmuniy t t lte i niypr tcsofi r whoc û ii d mmu t oe t tces oua ommiconsiutona vi ai bu who,n t tt i l oltons t i lgh ofcea l esa ihe l c dr s bl be ivet tt i a tonswe el wf . He y i t l ry t bls d aw, oul ea ona y le ha her c i r a ul' nr ' v. nel 65 F. 524,531(t Ci. 1 ( tngSa e v. t 5 U. 1 206( ) Pur l, 2 3d 4h r 201 ) cii ucir Kaz, 33 S. 94, 2001, ove ze i pa tbyPe ronv.Calha 5 U. 223( m ld n r as la n, 55 S. 2009).Quaii i ) lted mmuniyi ve a t nvol s t se i r ( whehe t plitf salgai saeacam t tdef nt'c wo-tp nquiy: a) t r he anif le tons tt li ha enda s onduc t vi ae ac tt i orsaut yrg ;a i s ( whehe t trg wascl ry oltd onsiutonal tt or iht nd f o, b) t r ha iht eal e t bls d. Sa ir 533 U. a 206.I t c t t r ne t tt f c sal ge t ke i t sa ihe uce , S. t f he our de e mi s ha he a t le d, a n n he lg m os f vor bl t t nonm ova ,do no s i ht t a a e o he nt t how t tt of i er s c ha he fc ' onduc vi a ed a t ol t c nsiuina rg t te t emo a ti e t ldt s mmayj g n wi u f rh rds u so o t to l ih ,h n h v n s n ie o u r ud me t t t ' te ic sin t t ho u ofqua ii d i m uniy. I a 201 U nde t s c pr oft qua ii i m uniy a l i , lte m t d. t . r he e ond ong he lfed m t na ys s tgj t 1w di notputt ofi ronnotc t thi c ûif he a d he fce ie ha s onduc wo dbecl ryunlwf , t ul eal a ul s ummayj r udgmentbas onqualfe i ed iid mmuniyi a oprae.' Sa e ,533U. a 202. t s ppr it ' ucir S. t 14 D e e nt Fi l , i G a lha , l m y, f nda s e ds K ng, li r Bela Boyd, Hal ar t tt y a e e il d t and l gue ha he r ntte o q ii d i m uniy be aus M a ualf e m t c e kdes is a l ga i do no s s ' le tons t uppo ta cl m t tany oft m kne r ai ha he w be or 11: a. . D e m be 21 201 t tM a s ine ded pr t ton f om hi ce l a e a f e 55 m on ce r , 0 ha kde s e o ec i r s lm t nd our ha lea ound, howe r t tM a ot rga m e ber . The c t s a r dy f he ng m s9 ve , ha kdes i salega i nsa e s' l to r s fi entt pr entti e di put on t sm at i f uali ue. I M akdes ' ver on of uf ci o es r abl s es hi er al act ss f sis si e nt i cr die t no r as bl of i e c d ha beleve i w a l w f be vi rno t ve s s e t d, hen e ona e fc r oul ve i d t s a ul ha o t o t ke pr ven a i m e s esbe or t a s ul,o nott i e ve s a e t tve a ur f e he s a t r o nt r ne oone i t ongoi as a t r n he ng s ul, t a t t know n r s t tM a s iwoul be s r ous y ha m e J tast s m a e i o ba e he i k ha kde s d e i l r d. us he e t ral ds u e p e ld s mma yj dg n o M a d sisEihhAme d n cams te as ip ts r cu e u r u me t n k e s' g t n me t li ,h y lo p e ld atn i t a d f n a t aee t ldt s mma yj g n o teg o n o q ai e r cu e i dng h t ee d n s r n i e o u r ud me t n h r u d f u lt d t i i mmuniy.SeeRai yv.Conel 973F. 3 ,324( h Ci.1 (i ngt tdititc t t ne ry, 2d 21 4t r 992) tndi ha src our p o e l d n e d fnd n ' i nt ba e s mmayj d me t to be a s t rp ry e id ee a t mmu i s d u r u g n moi n c u e i s ya deemi tonofwha a t lyha ne i a ol eyne sar t decdewhet rdee nt tr nai t cual ppe d s bs utl ce s y o i he g fnda ) c dras na yha bele dt thi acinsweelwf ' ; a v.Spil n,925F. 90,95 oul e o bl ve ive ha s to r a ul' Gry ) lma 2d ( t Ci.1 91 ( n ig s mmayj d me tp e l e wh r r s lto ofcam d pe d o 4h r 9 ) t dn u r u g n rcud d e e e ou in li e n s n i cedi lt dee nai .Theef e t c tde e dee nt'motonf s r biiy tnui ton) r or ,he our nis fnda s i or ummay r j d me t nt eg o n o q lte i nt . u g n o h r u d f uai d mmu iy i l lI Fort s a ed r as ,t c tc l st tdef nda s m o i n f s m a y he t t e ons he our onc ude ha e nt ' t o or um r j d me tmu tb g a tda t a1camsa ans t ed fnd n si t ero tca c p cte a da u g n s e r n e s o l li g i t h ee a t n h i fi il a a i s n s i t a1 c a m sa ns D e enda sH . l r B . ooda d,S. o l l i gai t f nt C a ke, W r Shupe, nd D .Sl s butt tt a us , ha he m oton m us be deni d a t pl i if s Ei h A m e m e c ai s ag ns D ef nt Lt Fi ds i t e s o a ntf ght nd nt l m ai t enda s . el , 9 Becaus t cour hasalea f e he t r dy ound t Def hat endant Cl ke, W ooda d,Shupe,and Sl sa e s ar r us r e ildt s ntte o ummayj dg n o t me isofM a e s' Ei t Ame dme cams t c u tn e no r u me t n he rt kd s is ghh n nt li ,he o r e d t addr sar ent by t e de endant t t y a e e il t qualfed i uniy, es gum s hes f s hat he r ntted o ii mm t 15 Sg .Ki C a . a lhar Ti ot Sum pt r D a d Bela y,G l n Boyd,a Thom a H al f t ng, pt G li , m hy e , vi lm e nd s l or f ii t pr e thi f om as a t by hi c l a e bot i hi c land i t pod a e on a lng o ot c m r s uls s elm t , h n s el n he ra D e e be 21 201 A n a opra e or rw ile ert sda c m r , 0. ppr i t de l nt hi y. The Cl r i die t d t s nd c e oft s m e o a e k s r c e o e opi s hi m r ndum opi on a a om pa ng ni nd cc nyi o de t pl n ifa t c r r o ai tf nd o ouns lofr c d f t de e nt . e e or or he f nda s E NTER:Ths 1% d yo J n , 01 . i a f u e2 2 j Chi fU nie St t sD i t i tJ e e t d a e sr c udg 16