-RSB Martins v. Akers et al, No. 7:2011cv00252 - Document 36 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 7/31/2012. (tvt)
Download PDF
@ FRK' OFFI U.t. S CE 1 MST .couR' ATROANOK r E, VA FI LED I THE UNI STATESDI TRI COURT N TED S CT FO R TH E W ESTERN DI STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A R O A NO K E D I I O N V SI J 31 2 1 UL 22 J U BM , Do cu nx r . *' q cL K E O LU Y O M I M AR TI S, N Pl ntff ai i ! C i lA c i n N o.7: c 00 52 vi t o 11- v- V. M EM O M ND U M O PI I N N O BETTY AKERS, 1 , # D ef endant s. By: H on. JamesC.Tur k Seni Uni St esD i ri Judge or ted at st ct Ol uyom iM a tns aVigi ai aepz ee ng pr K ,fl acvi rgh sc ri , r ni nm t oc di o ied i l i t ompl i ant purua tt 42U. C.j 1 wihj iditonvesedi 28U. C.j 1 s n o S. 983 t urs ci t n S. 343.Pli ifna sas antf me deend nt Bet Ake s anu s a t Ne Ri rValyRegona J i (tai' ;Dr M os s a f a s ty r , re t he w ve le i l al ç 1' . e , J ) doc o a t J l C/ M ur t r t he ai; O phy,a Ca an att J l Dr J M a s adoc ora t Aug t pti he ai; . ohn r h, t t he usa Co rcin lCe tr(ACC'; n Dr M akAmo el , d co a tePo aa Cor cin l re to a n e : i ' ad . r ) n te a o tr t h wh tn re to a Ce e (t '.Pli ifalege t tdefnda svi ae t Ei hAme ntspr bii ntr & PCC' antf l s ha e nt oltd he ght ) ndme ' ohi ton ofc ue and unus lpuni hm ent D e e nt f l d m oto t di m i s a f s m a y r l ua s . f nda s ie i ns o s s nd or um r j d me t a dt etmef rpan if ors nde pie Afe rve n panifss b sin , u g n , n h i o litf t epo x rd. tr e iwig litf u miso s tec u t rnsd fnd n s moinst d s s a df rs mmayj d me t h o r g a t ee a t' to o imis n o u r u g n . Ther co d r ve st f l ng f c s OnM a 1 2009,pl i ifsi e r e al he olowi a t . y 3, antf lppedwhieplyi l a ng ba ket l a t J i,hur hi ankl andwa tke t t J i' m e c lde rm e .A nu s s ba l t he al t s e, s a n o he a ls di a pa t nt re e m i d hi ,deer ne pl ntf had as ln a e, nd pr s rbe M oti 400m g.t c a xa ne m t mi d ai if wole nkl a eci d rn, , wi e da f rt e days Pl i ifdiag ee wih t di gnossbe aus ofhi pa te re e plyi y o hr e . antf s r d t he a i c e s s xpe inc s a ng s t. Ake sdecde t hous pl i ifi t m e c de rm e f ro e v i butpl i if pors r i d o e antf n he dial pa t nt o bs r aton, antf s i he was$OK ' a want d t go ba k t hi c l D e e ntA ker obs r ed t tpl i ifha ad $ ' nd e o c o s el. f nda s e v ha a ntf d f lr ul ange ofm oton i t ankl bef e alow i hi t go back t hi cel. Pl ntf w asadvi i n he e or l ng m o o s l ai i f sed t alr m e c sa fi t a e c tnuedt s l,whi h i di fom waki up a do o e t dial t f f he nkl on i o wel c t dr l ng nd wn s a r a ge tng i o a t bunk. t i s nd ti nt op Pl i ifa ke Ca an M ur t movehi t adif r ntc l i t pod ort t antf s d pt i phy o m o fe e el n he o he m ed c lpo J lpr edur r qui e pl i ift fl a m ' t i at r i a d. ai oc es e r d a ntf o ie i en nm e eques f m i he ha a t t or f d med c lc nc r abou a c l a sgnme o t fl gre nc a ia o en t el s i nt r o ie iva es boutnotbei move t a ng d o dif r ntc l.Ca an M ur doesnotr m e rpl i ifa ki hi t bemov a fe e e l pt i phy e mbe antf s ng m o ed, nd pl ntf di no fl a w rte i a e r que tf m org i va e f m a ai if d t ie it n nm t e s or r e nc or boutt c la s gmue . he el s i nt Pl i iftl d a gr e nce on M ay 1 2009,c pl ni abou t e r to oft a ntf i e i va 6, om ai ng t he xpi a i n he M o rn pr s rpton,a pli tf fl d med c lr s f ti e c i i nd a n if ie i a eque t onnson M a 1 a 1 2009,f r y 8 nd 9, o te m e oft s ole a e. Pl i ifr tm z d t t m e c lde r m e on M a 20,20 , r at nt he w l n nkl a ntf e t e o he di a pa t nt y 09 whe eanur ee m i t a e, e s li a postvemove e i pl ntf st s ga r s xa ned he nkl not d we lng nd ii m nt n ai if oe , ve pl i ifa M oti a a col compr s , nd s ntpl i i ff a X- ay oft a e. The X -ay a ntf r n nd d esa e a ntf or n r he nkl r r ve l d s tts ues lng butno br n bone . Ake sa e a e of-is weli oke s r ddedpl i ift t ls t s eDr antf o he it o e . M os es. Pl ntf r t ne t t m e c lde rm e o J m e 2,2009, m pl ni t thi a e ai i f e ur d o he di a pa t nt n t co ai ng ha s nkl silhur. Thea ewa si l s l n,sa fc ule wih Dr M os s a Dr M os s tl t nkl s lghty wole t f ons td t . e , nd . e r f re pl ntf t a orhope cs r eo On J ne 3, 9,pl ntf s w t s ge who e e r d ai if o n t di u g n. u 200 ai if a he ur on, s pe t d apa ta l r pt e Ac le t ndon a or r d a M Rlt dee newhehe s ge y us c e rily- u ur d hil s e nd de e n o tnni t r ur r wasne s a y.Pl ntf r c ved afa t eboo a wa t d t lmi we g - a i aci tes ce s r ai if e ei r cur t nd s ol o i t i htbe rng tvii . D r M os m e w ih pl i ifon J 5,2009, xpl ne t s lge sdi nos s a . es t t a ntf une e ai d he tr on' ag i , nd or r an M RI The M RI whi h occ r d o J m e 1 2009,s w e a pa ta t c de ed . , c ur e n t 9, ho d r i l hi knes o s r i e s ii lt a o t A c lest ndon a c im e t tno co pl t r m e f lt c s t a , nt r tta e r f he hil e nd onfr d ha m e e upt , ul-hi kne s e r ort endon r r i exit et acton s ed. O n J 23,2009,pl i ifr t e t t s g on, ho r co m e d pl i ifcon i une a ntf e um d o he ur e w e m nde a ntf tnue wea i t f a t e boot A J y 1 2009,M R1s rng he r c ur . ul 4, howe a c pl t t ne r c pl t r ur o d om e e o a - om e e upt e f t Ac lestndo a apr bl r ur oft lga nt On J y 21, 2,hes ge s he hil e n nd oba e upt e he i me . ul 201 t ur on' ofiecal d t J lsm e c sa f ex anedt tpl ntf ' a ewa wor e,a a ke i fc le he ai' dial tf, pli ha ai ifs nkl s s nd s d f plitf h dr ij r dt en keo wa n twe rn tefa tr bo t esrs o d dt a Ji an if a enu e h n l r s o aig h r cu e o .Ak r e p n e h t al s c iy saf s w pl ntf i pr ry w e rng t boo . Pl i ifad ist the r i l e urt t f a ai if m ope l a i he t a ntf m t ha outne y t g e d f oft fve boo s r ps b onl C oo e y' f s e t s r p t ttght ne t boot i ht ne our he i t t a ut y û s l ' a t ned he t a ha i e d he l a ound t s l n ankl r he wole e. Pl i ifr t dt t s ge n' ofi onJ y 27, antf emme o he ur o s fce ul 2009.Theszge c i dt lr on ontnue he m e ca or rf pl i ift we rt facur boot ga pli ifa The a nd a e r ie di l de or antf o a he r t e , ve antf r ba nd xe cs i t c i s t ,a or e t tpl n ifus a Ther ba t e r i e t f tt i e a da f ns nz ton hee s nd der d ha ai tf e a nd o xe c s he oo w c y or t e t f urw e . hr e o o eks Pl n ifr t ne t t J lsme c lde rme o J y29, aitf e ur d o he ai' di a pa t nt n ul 2009,f ra unr lt d o n e ae m e ca is . Pli ifpr l pe f medt The aba e r s si t m e c de rme di l s ue antf opery ror he r nd xe cie n he di al pa t nt andwaspe mitd t do The a nd e r iesi hi c l a ntf r pore t t me ca r te o r ba xe c s n s el.Pli if e td o he di l de rm e o Aug t9,2009,r tng t a l epai asa t ee outoft n,a on A ugus 1 pa t nt n us a i he rkl n hr e nd t 6, 2009,s yi t the w as f e i m uc be t r a ng ha e lng h te . Pli ifr t ne t t s ge on Aug t27,2009,f raf l w up appoi m e t The antf eur d o he ur on us o olo nt n . s ge so fc r td t tt t a ha clni ly heae butpli ifnee d physca t r py ur on' fi e epore ha he e r d i cal ld antf de i l he a t i pe w e k f tz e w e ks ai i fw e t ph i lt a on Se e be 8,1 1 a w ce r e or l e e .Pl ntf nt o ysca her py r pt m r 1, 5, nd 1 2009. The s ge ext nde phys c lt r py f a he t e we ,a pl n ifw e t 6, ur on e d i a he a or not r hr e eks nd ai t f nt o phys c lt r py on Se e be 1 23,25,29, nd 30 a O c o 2 a 6,200 On O c obe 7, i a he a pt m r 8, a nd t ber nd 9. t r 2009,t s ge or r d pl i ift wea hi s l fom t br c butt c i phys c l he ur on de e a ntf o n m e f r he a e o ontnue ia t r py,whih pl i ifr umed on Oc obe 8,9,1 a 21 2009.Pl ntf wasta f re he a c antf es t r 6, nd , ai if r ns e r d f om t J i t t PCC o Oc obe 23,2009. r he a l o he n t r Pl i ift d a nur e abouthi he u n a rva a t PCC . PCC s a fas i d hi t a a ntf ol s s el po r i l t he t f s gne m o t r foorc l a di nota oma i ly pr deph ialt r py. Pli tf fld r ssa hid-l e l nd d ut tcal ovi ysc he a a n if ie eque t nd compl nt untlhes w Dr Amone t who s he e pl i ift s eaphysc lt r pita t ai s i a . te, c duld antf o e ia he a s t he PCC. Thet r pits d pl ntf s d bem ove t af ciiy t tha s c ai e e pme , he a s ai ai if houl d o a lt ha s pe i lz d qui nt butDr Am onet s i not ng elec dbe do a tge tng hi physc t r py a t PCC. . te ad hi s oul ne bou ti m i al he a t he Plitf alege hedi notr c vea physca t rpy a ç tlmpedaoundi pai 'a t anif l s d e ei ny i lhea nd jus i r n n' t he PCC un i hi t a f rt t A CC on Apr l21 201 tl s r ns e o he i , 0. Pli ift dDr Marha tt hee ij ya hi ACC me c itkesr ni ACC antf ol . s bou he lnur t s dial na cee ng. sa fas i d pl i ift at bunk on t t r foor Dr M a s a horz d pli ift s ea tf sgne antf o op he hid l . . rh ut i e antf o e n orhope cdoc o a a l alhos t , t di t r t oc pial who o de e a M RI r co me d physc t a a r rd n , e m nde ial herpy, nd s ugge t d s ge y a a l s r or . The M Rlr vea e sgnii a s rt s ue butt tt tt s e ur r s a t es t e l d i f c nt ca i s ha ha he t nd w a no l rt n. Pl i ifc pl i d t the silha lm ied m obiiy a r ng of e on s onge or a ntf om a ne ha tl d i t lt nd a e m oton,bu he di no r ce ve a f rhe t e t e a t A CC untlhi t a f ron D e e be 7, i t d t e i ny u t r r a m nt t he i s r ns e cm r 201 t a he c r t o lf iiy. 0, o not r or ec i na ac lt Pli ifalgest hesillmpsa e re e pani hi ij edtndo Pl nifs antf le hat tl i nd xpeinc s i n s nur e n. aitf l igh salg d yc us dS e eehp a dk e p o lms' e a et eo iia ij r wa n t i n a le e l a e d v r i n n e r be 'b c us h rgn l nu y s o mp s tm ey teaed. Pl i ifr quess$5m ilon a r i . i l r t antf e t li s elef 1. 1 On N o m ber29,2011 Dr A m one t fl d a m oton t di m i st c a m sa ns hi ve , . te ie i o s s he l i gai t m be a e pl ntf a l ge y f ie t sa e a cl i upo w hi h r i m a be gr nt d. Dr c us ai i f le dl a l d o t t am n c elef y a e . Am onete certfed t a copy oft m oton and s t ii hat he i uppori br efw er m aied t pl ntf athi tng i e l o ai if s 4 ad es ofr c d on t s m eda On Nove r29, 1 t Clr i s d ano i t t dr s e or he a y. mbe 201 , he e k s ue tce ha a s d pl i i fofDr A m one t s m oto t dim i sa ga pl i t f t e y- da t dvi e a ntf . te' i n o s s nd ve a n if w nt one ys o rs e pond. Thenotc s ii a l s i ie pecfc ly ad: I Pli ifdoesnotrs t g . f antf epond o Dr Amonetjspla ngs t Cour wil te ' e di ,he t l a sl t tPl ntf ha l ti er s i t c e a ort tPl ntf a e s s tme ha ai if s os nt e t n he as , nd/ ha ai if gr e wi wh tg . netjsae i ri)rs nsv pla i g s.I Plitf t a Dr Amo te tts n h s epo ie e d n t) f an if h wihe t c i wih t ca e,i i ne es a y t tPli ifr pond i a s s o ontnue t he s t s c s r ha antf es n n a po raefs o . . Ho v r iPlitfdo sn tfl smers o s j rpit ahin . . we esf anif e o i o ep n e e wlhi t t y- ( 1 da pe i t Cour ma dimist ca ef t n he went one 2 ) v rod. he t v s s he s or f iur t pr ec e. a l e o os ut ( ie( 22)( rgi e Nbtc no. o i nal mpha il) ss. Pl i ifdi notr s antf d e pond t Dr Amone t smoton t dim is no mai t pl i ifwas o . te' i o s s, l o antf r t nedt t cour asund i r bl a pl i ifha bee i a c r td a t s m ef iiy euz o he t elve a e, nd antf s n nc r e ae t he a aclt durng t r e nttme.Pur ua t t cou tsNove r30, 1 notc t c ttndst t i he elva i s nt o he r' mbe 201 , ie, he our i ha pl ntf hasl ti e e ti pur ui c a m saga ns Dr Am one t a a e w ih D r ai i f os nt r s n s ng l i i t . te nd gr es t . Am o te sa g e si t m o i t dim i s A c or ngl t c tg a sD r A m one t s ne t ' r um nt n he ton o s s . c di y, he our r nt . te' m oto t di m i s in o s s. 11 1. Dee nt M as Aker, os s a Mur fl moinsf s fnda s rh, s M e , nd phy ied to or ummayj r udgme ,o ntt wh c plitf r s o d d A pat i e t ldt s mmayj d me tûf h p e dn s te ih an if e p n e . ry s n ie o u r u g n t t e la i g ,h t i dic r a dic oslem ae il on tl a a a fda t s s ove y nd s l tr t ra s ie, nd ny fi vis how t tt r i no ge ne is ha he e s nui s ue a t a maeilfc a t tt mo nti e ildt j gme asamatroflw.'Fed. s o ny tra a t nd ha he va s ntte o ud nt te a ' R. Ci P.56() M aeilf t aet ene esayt esa iht ee nt ofapa t sca eo v. c . tra acs r hos c s r o tbls he lme s ry' us f a ton.Andes v.Li ry Lo l .477U. 242, ( 98 .A ge neis o maeil ci ron be t bbv. nc, S. 248 1 6) nui sue f tra f texi t i ,i vi i t r d and a1 r onabl i er ac s s f n ew ng he ecor l eas e nf ences draw n t ef om i a lghtm ost her r n i f vor bl t t non- ovi pa t a r a ona e f c - i r c d r t r a ver c f t nona a e o he m ng ry, e s bl a tfnde oul e u n di t or he mova .J Themovi pat hast b de ofs ng- iha i,poi i outt t ditit nt #z ng ry he ur n howi d t s ntng t o he src cour - t tt r i a a e eofe de et s t ha he e s n bs nc vi nc o uppor t nonm ovi pa t sc s .'Cel e t he ng ry' a e' otx Com . Car t,477U. 31 325( 986) I t mova stsist sbur n,t nt nonv. tet S. 7, 1 . f he nt aife hi de he he m ova m us s tf r h s c fc, m i s bl f c s t tde onsr t t exi t nc ofa ge ne i s nt t e o t pe i i ad s i e a t ha m t a e he s e e nui s ue off tf ti .Fe R.Ci P.56( ;Ceoe 477U. a 322- A pa' i e il t ac or ral d. v. c) ltx, S. t 23. ly s ntted o t s mmayj d me ti t rc r a awh l c udn t e darto a tiro fc t fndi fv r u r u g n f he e o d s o e o l o la ain lre f a t o i n a o oft no mova .W ilamsv.Grfi 952F. 820,8 ( hCi.1 ) Conve sl he n- nt li ifn, 2d 23 4t r 991 . rey, s ummayj r udgme i i ppr it i t e de i s tcintfraras ef c-i t nt s na oprae f he vi nce s ufi e o e onabl a tfnder o r t n ave di ti f voroft none ur r c n a he movi pa t Ande s 47 U. a 248. ng ry. ron, 7 S. t Eve i t r i nodiput a t t e de ir fcs s n f hee s s e s o he vi ntay a t, ummayj r udgme i not nt s a o i t whe e t uli a e f c ua c l i t be d a ar i dipu e. Ove s r e v. y. ppr pr a e r he tm t a t l onc us ons o r wn e n s t r te t K Ce . f l . ,950F. 931 937( hCi.1 ) A c tma notrs vediputdfcs nt Lie ns Co, 2d , 4t r 991. our y e ol s e a t, wegh t e de e orm a de e na i o c edi lt Rus e lv. ir neCor ,65F. i he vi nc , ke t nni tons f r biiy. s l M c ody p. 3d 1 2 ,1 3 (t Ci. 99 ) So e e v. r h 7 7F.d 1 9 1 2( t Ci.1 8 ) A c u t 2 9 2 9 4 h r 1 5 ; sb e Mu p y, 9 2 7 , 8 4h r 9 6 . o r ac e sa tu t evi nc oft no m ovi pa t a r ol a1 i t r co lc sa c pt s r e he de e he nng ry nd es ves 1 n e nal nfit nd i e e esi t non- ovi pa t sf vor Cha bonna s de Fr nc v.Sm ih,597 F. 406, nf r nc n he m ng ry' a . r ge a e t 2d 41 (t Ci.1 .ûW he o i pa testl t dfee so i ,oneofwhih i bltnty 4 4h r 979) t n pposng ri elwo ifrnt tres c s aa l co r ditdbyt r c d,s t tnoras bl j yc ul beivei, c ts dno a pt nta ce he e or o ha e ona e ur o d le t a our houl t do t tvesonoft f csf rpur e ofr i onamotonfrs ha ri he a t o poss ulng i o ummayj me . Sc t v. r udg nt' ot ' Hars 550U. 372,380( ri, S. 2007) Furhemor apat ' nno ceaeage neis of . t r e, ry ç ca t r t nui sue m a e i f c t ough m er s c a i ort buidi ofone i e e upon a he . Bea e v. t ral a t hr e pe ul ton he l ng nf r nce not r' ' l Hadv,76 F. 21 21 ( h Ci.1 .Theeor tg eeuns r 9 2d 3, 4 4t r 985) rf e,tmlr upporeds ulton ...sno t pec ai i t e nought dee as o fat ummayj me moi ' El sv. tlAs ' ofBus & Educ. di r udg nt ton. mi Na' sn ' . Ra o. l ,5 F. 55,62( h Ci.1 . A pli ifca tus ar pons t amotonf s nc. 3 3d 4t r 995) antf nno e es e o i or ummay r j udgme t c rc de iince i ac antchalnge byadefnda ' moto f s nt o ore t fce is n ompli le d e nts in or ummmy j udgme .Se Cl ni rv. c vi' 555F.d324,336(t Ci. nt e oa nge M De t, t 3 4h r 2009)( i t tapl ntf notng ha ai if ma nota ndac ai t oughagume i abrefopposngs y me ompl nt hr r nt n i i ummayj gme l Gimou r ud nt; l r v.Gae , c l & Co.38 F. 1 2,1 5( 1hCi. 04)(a ) ts M Donad , 2 3d 31 31 1 t r 20 s me. A. De e n sa guet tpli iff ie t e us ad i sr tver m e esf s ve a f nda t r ha antf al d o xha t m nitai e di or e r l camsaii a t J i.ThePrs nLii tonReor Ac pr vi st tdr oacin s l be li rsng t he al io tgai f m t o de ha snl to hal b o g t t rs c t p io c ndt nst e g 1 8 j. .b ap io rc n i di a yji, r u h wi epe t o rs n o io md r j 9 3 ., y rs ne o fne n n al h i prs orot rc r c i lf iiy untls h a nita i r m e e a a e a ia ear ion he ore tona aclt i uc dmi sr tve e di s s r val bl e e use ' 42U. C.j 1 () Thee usinrquie nti ma aor a û pplest a1 xha td.' S. 997ea . xha to e rme s nd t y nd i i o 1 a i t s t a prs lf .' Po trv. se 534U. 51 524,532( muae uis bout ion iegl' re Nusl, S. 6, 2002) t o r . t pe pr e us i de a c pla w ih a age y' d adlnesa ot rc ii a pr dur lr e . xha ton m nds om i nce t n nc s e i nd he r tc l oce a ul s' ' W oodf dv. o,5 U. 81, ( or Ng 48 S. 90 2006) W he aprs pr desa a nitai gre nc . n ion ovi n dmi srtve iva e pr e e,a i a e m us f l a gr e nc r i i a pa tc arc ai a pur ue i t oug a 1 oc dur n nm t t ie i va e a sng r i ul l m nd s t hr h 1 a ia elvesofa lt ( opel e us.'I ;Di v.Pace 291F. 485,490- ( h valbl e l ppea o i ry xha t' d. xon pr , 3d 91 7t Ci. r 2002) EL Ia nitai r med i notc i r dt ha be na ia ei aprs r . IAJA dmi srtve e y s onsdee o ve e valbl f ione, t ough no f ul ofhi ow n,w a pr ve t d f om a ii hi s l ofi.' M oor v. nne t 51 hr a t s s e ne r va lng m e f t' e Be te, 7 F. 71 725( hCi. ) ûg nprs ofkil prve i t fom usngt 3d 7, 4t r 2008 . lMshe ion t as e nt nmaes r i he a i s r tve pr es ... t pr es t te s s o pa bec esuna ia e i r lt ' dm nit a i oc s , he oc s ha xit n per om va l bl n ea iy. ' Ka v.Stpp,458F.d 678,684( hCi. ba e 3 7t r 2006) Ani t sfiur t e us i a . nmae' al e o xha t s n a fr a i de e e t ta de e ntha t bur n t pr f im tve f ns ha f nda s he de o ove. J onesv. k,5 U . 1 21 Boc 49 S. 99, 6 ( ) 2007 . TheNRV J lsSupe i t nde a r t tt J i had af ai' rn e nt ve s ha he al onnalgre ivanc polc efeci e iy f tve d i t r lva tm e ofpli ifscai .Tha gre nc pr dur al wsa i aet urng he ee nt i s antf l ms t iva e oce e lo n nm t o gre a i s onl afe pr pe m e nsha be n us d t i or aly r ol t i s Onc t i ve n s ue y t r o r a ve e e o nf m l es ve he s ue. e he i ae' greva e i s it ar s et t gre nces ul bepr de wihi 9da . I nm t s i nc s ubm ted, e pons o he i va ho d ovi d t n ys f t i a e i nots ts i w ih t sr pons ,t n t i a e m a a a us ng a Appe lFor , he nm t s a i fed t hi es e he he nm t y ppe l i n a m w hi h i r ad l a ia e. The i m a e i r quie t s i a a c s e iy va l bl n t s e r d o ubm t n ppea w ihi 48 hour a t r l t n s fe r vi t grevance response,and t deci on on t appeali a fnaldeci i Al i at ecei ng he i he si he s i s on. l nm es, i l ng pl n if a e o int d t t g iva pr e ur whe t y a ve a t J i. ncudi aitf, r re e o he re nce oc d e n he ni t he al The Supe i e n r vi we pl ntf' gre ncefl a dic r d pl ntf sM a 1 rnt nde t e e d ai ifs iva ie nd s ove e ai if y 6, 2009,gre nc a utbe ng c r f a M oti pilt thedi no r ceve Ake sr ponde iva e bo i ha ged or rn l ha d te i . r es d t t gre nc on M a 20, o he iva e y 2009, ndpli ifdi no a al her s ns Acc di y, a antf d t ppe t e po e. or ngl pl ntf di no e us a c pl i ta ai if d t xha t om a n boutnotr e vi a M oti The Supe i e en a r t t ec i ng r n. rnt nd t ve s ha he di notfnd a gre nce f om pl i if a d i ny i va r a ntf bouta de a i s i a doc or a de a i r c vi l y n ee ng t , l y n e ei ng te t n f r h al eijl o ac n ei c l a sg me t r ame t o t e r nt y, r ha g n el sin n . kl r Pl i ifa guesi r s ns t the d d f l t gre nc pr ed e by c antf r n e po e ha t olow he iva e oc ur di ompltng ei t f r tse ,a t ptng t s ve t pr e i o m a l ' Thus pl i if a ishe di no he i s t ps tem i o ol he obl m nf r ly. ' , a ntf dm t d t f l e us t gr e nce by pur ui a c ai pa tt i o m a s a Pl ntf si a e uly xha t he i va s s ng ny l m s he nf r l t ge. ai if nm t r que tf m s a s do notqua iy a ç i va s'unde t J i ' polcy. Alhough pl i tf e s or l o lf s i e nce ' gr r he a ls i t a n if c pl i t the di notr c ve a t o m a e a ton' oft g i vmw e pr dur ,he om a ns ha d e ei t r l xpl na i ' he r e f oce e a knowldgest ti t sr ceveahand k ofJ i polcisa pr ed e whe a rvi a c e ha nma e e i boo a l i e nd oc ur s n ri ng t t J i,a he doesnots y t the di notr e ve a ha he a l nd a ha d ec i ndboo w he he a r ve Pl i if s k n r i d. a ntf ' ar entt he coul notexhaus cl m s ar sng aferM ay 2009 becaus he wastansf red i gum hat d t ai ii t e r er n Oc obe 2009 i s i . Pl ntf doesnotale a i biiy t fl a gr e nc durng t t r s pec ous ai i f l ge ny na lt o ie i va e i he 8 r lva sxee nt i mont pe i he wasa t J i ora trhewasta f r e Ac or ngl pli tf h rod t he a l fe r nse r d. c di y, a n if di note d xhaus a ia e a i sr tve r m e esa t va l bl dm ni t a i e di boutt e nt a t J i,a A ke s M os s he ve s t he a l nd r, e, a Mur aee il t s nd phy r ntted o ummayj r udgme . nt B. A pl n ifm us s w t tadef nda a d wih delbe aei fer et as rous aitf t ho ha e nt de t i r t ndif enc o e i m e ca nee t s ce d on a Ei h Am e m e c am f rt unc tt i lde a of di l d o uc e n ght nd nt l i o he onsiutona nil me ca asit di l ssmwe.Eselev. mbl,429U. 97,1 ( 976) Dei rt i fee erquie t l Ga e S. 04 1 . lbeae ndifrnc e rs a s a e a t t ha bee per ona l a a e off t i c tng a s t nta r s ofs rousha m , t t c or o ve n s ly w r ac s ndi a i ubs a i l i k ei r a t a orm us ha adualy r cog z d t e s e ofs h a r s Fa m e v.Br nna 511 nd he d t ve l e ni e he xi t nce uc i k. r r e n, U. 825,838( 99 .t lbeaei fe e ema bede tae byeihe a t li e or S. 1 4) t i rt ndifr nc y De monsrtd t r cua ntnt r c es dir ga d. Mite v. r 896F. 848,851( hCi.1 .Se Pars e rlLe e kl s se r ' lir Beon, ' 2d 4t r 990) e rih x e. e v. e ea d 3 2F.d29 , 0 (t Ci. 0 4 (ifh e i e c mu ts o t theo fca i Clv ln , 7 3 4 3 3 4 h r 2 0 ) t- e v d n e s h w ha t fiiln gq q e to s b e tv l r c g ie t th sa to sweetn p rp it i l h o t a rs ') u si n u j ci ey e o n z d ha i cin r i a p o rae n i t f h t ik.'. g ' de e n a t r c e sy by dir ga di as tnta rs ofda rt ti et rknown t t f nda t c s e kl s l se r ng ubsa il ik nge ha s ihe o he de e n orwhi h w oul be a f nda t c d ppar n t a r a ona e pe s i t de e nts pos to ' e t o e s bl r on n he f nda ' ii n. ' M ite ,8 F. a 851 52.A heat c r pr de maybede i r t l i fe e twhe t lir 96 2d t lh a e ovi r lbe a ey ndif r n n he t e t e tpr ded i s g os l i om pe e ,i q t ore e s ve ast s k t r a m n ovi s o r s y nc t nt nade ua e, xc s i o hoc he c ce eori i ol a et f m e alf i e s L. a 851 A m e ca nee s rouse h ons inc s nt er bl o unda nt am s . ds t . u di l d e i noug t g ve rs t a c tt i na cl i i vesa c ndii t tpl e t i na e a a s bsantal o i i e o ons iuto l a m nvol o ton ha ac s he m t t u t i rs ofs rousha s h asl soflf orpe ma ntdia lt oraco ton f whi lc of ik e i nu, uc os ie r ne s biiy, ndii or ch a k tea m e pe pe ua e s ve e pai Sos bee 797 F. a 1 r t nt r t t s e r n. e , 2d t 81 83. Cli ofme c lmapr cieandneglge dignossa enotcogni bl i aj1 ams dia l a tc i nt a i r za e n 983 pr e di Ese l 429U . a 1 0 Se Sos be ,797 F. a 181;J m s v.Oui ne , oc e ng. t le, S. t 05- 6. e e e 2d t ol on no s 1 F. 1 1 - ( hCi.1 )( i t tteai docor mus a t lydrw t 45 3d 64, 6869 4t r 998 notng ha r tng t s t cual a he i e e e t ta i a e' s pt m s s g f t pr s nc ofa pa tc a c ton a t ta nf r nc ha n nm t s ym o i niy he e e e r i ul r ondii nd ha f l et d aw s h a i e e em a pr s ntacli f rne i nc ,butnota ca m unde t aiur o r uc n nf r nc y ee a m o glge e li r he Ei t Ame ghh ndmen) A prs rsdia e me wihme c pes nne ove t co s of t. ione ' s gre nt t dial ro l r he ure teame doe notsaeaj 1 cai W rc v.Coli ,766F. 8 849( hCi.1 ; r t nt s tt 983 l m. iht lns 2d 41, 4t r 985) Ruselv.Shefr 5 F. 318, 1 ( hCi.1 ( e im) sl fe , 28 2d 3 9 4t r 975) per ura . Pli iff ist esa ih t tAke sorDr M os swasde i r t l i fe e t as ro antf a l o t bls ha r . e lbe a e y ndif r nt o ei us m e c lne d. A ke sw a ed t hous pl i ifi t m e c lde t e t obs r hi s ole di a e r nt o e a ntf n he di a parm nt o e ve s w l n an e b pl ntf r t ned t hi c l W he pl i i fc pl ne a uti r a e pa n,Ake s kl , ut ai i f e ur o s el. n a ntf om ai d bo nc e s d i r a r nge f rpl i ift s eDr M os . Dr M os 'i veme wih pl ntf ' a dei lmied ra d o antf o e . es . es nvol nt t ai ifs nl s i t t r er i pl i ift a or hope c s ge w ho o de ed pl i tf stea m e a t rdi c rng o ef rng a ntf o n t di ur on, r r a n if r t nt fe s ove i t pa ta t roft A c lest ndo vi a M R I A ke s c ul notha bee a a e t tpl i tf he ri l ea he hil e n a n . r o d ve n w r ha a n if ha a pa ta l t n A c le t ndon whe he fr ta ved a t J i' m e ca de rm e wih a d r i ly-or hil s e n i s ni t he a l s di l pa t nt t s ln a e Pli iff l t esa ih Ake s orDr M os s delbe ae i fer nc a f is wole nkl . antf ais o t bls r' . e ' i r t ndif e e nd al t esabls t ta de a i te t ntb Ake sorDr M os c ed a wor ec ton. o t ih ha ny l y n r a me y r . es aus ny s ondii Pl i iff ist e t ih t tDr M a s wasdei r t y i fe e t as i m e e l antf a l o sabls ha . r h lbe ael ndif r nt o erous dia ne The r c desa ihe t tDr M a s r viwe pli ifsm e c lhit r whe pli if ed. e or t bls s ha . rh e e d antf di a so y n antf a ved a t AC C a r f r d pl i ift a s c a itdoc ort f t ri s i t pl ntf ' ni t he nd e er e a ntf o pe i ls t o ur he nve tga e ai if s t n Ac le he l The s ils co l d t ta M RIwoul behel ult a s st t ndon, or hils e . peca it ncude ha n d pf o s es he e buti t M R1 s e t t ndo w a i a t s ge y wasnotnec s y a physca t apy f he how d he e n s nt c , ur r es ar nd i l her wa a opraeGorsrngt ni a wor i onmobiiyoft Ac le a t gatoc s ppr it ç te he ng nd kgng) f lt he hils nd he sr c pl x.' The M RIr ve l d t tt A c le t ndo ha he l a bei w ih e s s a ts ue om e ' e a e ha he hil s e n d a ed, l t t xce s c z i s . Pu s ntt t s ci ls ' i t u tons Dr M a s pr c i na oxe a s r t e r i es r ua o he pe a it s ns r c i , . r h es rbed pr n nd t e ch xe c s , whih we ee ane t pli ifon Aug t1 201 Ac or ngl pl i iff ist e tbls c r xpli d o antf us 0, 0. c di y, antf a l o sa ih t tDr M a s w a d i r t l i if r ntt a s ro m e ca nee Pli ifsdia e m e t ha . xh s elbe a ey nd fe e o ny ei us di l d. antf s gr e n wih how Dr M a s i r r t d physca t r py it pl itf steam e pln i nota t , rh nco po ae i l he a n o an if r t nt a s s f c e ba i f a Ei h A m e m e cl i . uf i i nt s s or n ght nd nt a m Pl i i fa l gest the a ke Ca a n M ur t l thi be c ed i hi c lorm ove a ntf le ha s d pt i phy o e m ount n s el d t t m e c lpod,butpl ntf sr ques w a notgr nt Pl ntf c pl i t the w a o he di a ai i f e t s a ed. ai i f om a ns ha s r quie So lmp up a down t nt sar o rsx tmesada f rc e rd d i t nd we y t is ve i i y o ounttm e a me l . i s nd a s' ' Pli ifs ys t n t h my a ewa a utf rtmesisnor lszea m uli e antf a ,û Eve houg nkl s bo ou i t ma i nd tpl pes nnels w a dli uie a i, wa silma t lmpdownt se , c pu mei ro a ng nq rd bout tI s tl de o i he tps whih t n e te p i a dma emyij r e e wo s . xrme an, n d nu y v n re' ' To s e w ih a uncons iutona m e c te t e c a m aga ns non- e c prs n ucc ed t n tt i l di al r a m nt l i i t m di al i o pe s nnel pl n ifm us s r o , ai t f t how t ts h t o fc al aspe s ly i ve w ih a de a o ha uc he f i i w r ona l nvol d t ni l f te t e , i r t y i e f r wih aprs docorste t nt ortcil a horz d orwe e r am nt delbe ael nt re ed t ion t ' r a me , a ty ut i e r de i r t l i f er ntt t pr s n phys c a sm i c uc whe e eve a 1 y pe s w o d lbe a e y ndif e o he i o i i n' s ond t r n a r on ul und r t nd t tt m e ca ca e pr de i be ng de i r t l i f e e . M ite ,8 F. a e s a ha he di l r ovi r s i lbe a e y ndi f r nt li r 96 2d t 8 4.S p r io yp io o fcasaee tte t rl o tep ofsin lu me t ftan d 5 u e vs r rs n fiil r n i d o ey n h r e so a j dg n o r ie l m e ca pe s di l r onnel 1 . d. Pl ntf f l t e t bls t tCapti M ur i t re ed wih te t e o was ai if ais o sa ih ha an phy n e f r t r am nt r pe s l a a e ofa a t l r og z f t i c tng a s t nta r s ofs r ousha m . r onaly w r nd c ualy ec ni ed ac s ndi a i ubs a i l i k e i r Pl i ifd snota l ge t tM ur a t ly eve s orw a o he w i e awa e ofpl ntf s a ntf oe le ha phy c ua l r aw s t r s r ai if a eij y.Furher e,Mur whoh nome c tani woul ha noba i t kn nkl n ur t mor phy, as dialri ng, d ve ss o ow t tpl i i f slm pi or s ole a l e r s t d f om a t n t ndon i t a of a sm pl s a ned ha a ntf i ng w l n rkl e ule r or e ns e d i e pr i an e.Noo a t J i,i udi Mur kne plitf sa eij yi veda Ac le kl ne t he al ncl ng phy, w anif nkl nur nvol n hils t ndonuntlt orho di s geo e l t d pli if The ef r ,pl i ifslmpi u a e i he t pe c ur n vaua e antf . r o e antf ' i ng p nd dow n t s a r di no pr e a obvi l s rousm e ca ne See e. ,Gal o v. o q he t i s d t es nt n ous y e i di l ed. , g. eg Sc t 2011U. DitLEXI 1 2, t* 1 2011WL 675 S. s. S 2200 a 8- 0, 2563,a *3( Nev.Sep.8,2011 t D. t ) (ole tngc est s c lci as o uppor t tas aneda ea c oni a epanwihoutafa t eae tha pri nkl nd hr c nkl i t r cur r notte i me ca nee ' û rous di l ds). s I . V Fo t f eg ng r as ,t c tgr nt Dr Amonet smoton t dim is Dr r he or oi e ons he our a s . te' i o s s; . M as smoinf rs mmayj d me t a dAk r, s s a dMu p ' moinf rs mma y rh' to o u r u g n ; n es Mo e , n r hy s to o u r ' J me . udg nt TheClr i die t d t s nd co e o t sM e o a um Opi on a t ac ompa ng ek s r ce o e pi s f hi m r nd ni nd he c nyi Or rt pl i i f de o a ntf . ENTER:Thi Jy, dayofJ y, 2. s ,A , ul 201 ) 2 .< , Se -orUnied St t D i ti udge n -i t a es sr c