Wall v. Wade et al, No. 7:2011cv00191 - Document 55 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 11/30/2012. (tvt)
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CLERK' oFFl u. nl . : ce :. sr tour ATM NVI E, LL VA FI $ . I T I IE SA E oswcr o Rr N HE J T D T T S ll 'c c ' N Fo R TH E w Esl' t D l El x sTm c' o F V I G I I r R N A Ro Ax o u o l l o x v sl d ( J u B Y: GARY W ALL, Pl i if a nt f , M EM O M N D U M O PI O N NI JAM ES W ADE,etaI, . Def endant s. By: jO i r sx Ci lAc i No.7: - v- 91 vi ton 11 c 001 V. o . H on. ks L.K ie Jac on sr Seni Uni e St t sD i t i tJudge or td a e src Ga y W a l a V igi a i a e pr ee ng pr K ,tl d a ci lr ght c pl i ptr ua t r l, r ni nm t oc di o ie vi i s om a nt ls nt o . 42U. C.j 1 a t Rei ousLandUs a I tt i i dPes Ac CI PA' 42 S. 983 nd he lgi e nd nsiutonalze rons t RLUI ), U. C.j2000c e s o.Pl ntf na asdee nt i bot i vi la ofi a ca ctes S. c, t e ai if mes fnda s n h ndi dua nd tcil pa ii : T. y,f me W ade oft RedOni Stt Prs (i Ra or r r n he on ae ion ; ROSP';Robe tRowlte,or rROSP ' ) r et f me A s i t ntW a de J St lar a RO SP Couns l 'J m e W a t RO SP Fo Se v c s ssa r n; . a l d, e or n s de, he , od r i e M a ge ;C. l r ,aROSP Food Se viesSupe v s ; nd J Ga m a aVigi a na r Seye s r c r ior a ohn r n, r ni De at n o Co rcins($ p rme t f re to i VDOC' Re ina Die t r Plitf a g sta d fn a t ' g o l rco . an if r ue h t ee d n s ) vi ae hi c tt i la sa ut y rg t pa tcpa ei Ra ol td s onsiutona nd tt or i ht o ri i t n mada 1i 201 a trpl i if n n 0 fe antf di notpr d oduce I l m i lt r tze t de ons r t a s nc r y he d I l m i belef Def nda t s a c ie a tr o m t a e i e el l s a c i . e ns tldamo inf rs mma yj d me t a dp an ifrs o d d ma igtematrrp f r ie to o u r u g n , n litf ep n e , kn h te ie o diposton.Afe r e ngt r or i alghtmos fvorbl t pli it Ifndt t s ii tr eviwi he ec d n i t a a e o antf i ha dee t aee ildt su r j fndans r ntte o tnma y udgme . nt 1Ra a n i amont l ,r i ousf ttadii lyobs r d byM usi ,i l ng a r nt oft Nai of m da s h-ong elgi as r tonal e ve lms ncudi dhe e s he ton l lm,lkepl ntf.Ra da r uie M usi t f tdurngt da a t ea d i t niht sa i ai if ma n eq r s lms o as i he y nd o t urng he g . 1. i y o i o r i pa e n da l 2009,a M us i i nat a RO SP2s m pl had t s gn up t pa tci t i Ram a n, n lm m e t whih r s t i a c e uled n boutha foft i a epopulton s yi t y we epr tc ngM usi s l he nm t a i a ng he r ac ii lm . RO SP s a fl t rde e m i d t tm a oft e i a e w e e i f t notpr c i i M usi s t f a e t r ne ha ny hes nm t s r , n ac , a tc ng lm . Be us i e e i Rn a f i t si c ty a dir ptve, ca e mplm ntng m dan or nma e s osl nd s u i ROSP ofk il t as i e nt d ane polc i 201 t ta l mplme e w iy n 0 ha lowedi t st r git rf Rn a n be we n J ne nma e o e se or m da t e u 25 a J y 25,201 a r uie e c i t t pr e r lgi m a e i lt pr vebeng a nd ul 0, nd eq r d a h nmae o es nt ei ous t ra o o i nm t s bout48 ofRO SP i a es sgned up f Ra a n i s nc r M us i . A lhough 360 i a e , a i ee lm 3 t % nm t , i or m da n 201 o y 1 i t sha s 0, nl 76 nma e d ome t ofI lm i m ae il t de ype sa c tra s o monsr t r i i snc iy. ta e elg ous i ert Theot r1 a i a swe e r moved fo t Ra da pa tcpa i ls bec us t di not he 84 pplc nt r e r m he ma n ri i ton it a e hey d pr duce a I l m i m a e i s o ny s a c t ral . Pli tf wasoneoft e i t r m o d fom t 201 Rn a n ls. Pli ifha a n if hos mnaes e ve r he 0 m da it antf d sg dup f Ra da on J y 1 201 a as d t ha hi Com m on Fa e m e ) s r ed i ne or ma n ul , 0, nd ke o ve s r4 as e v durng t ni ht On J y 30,201 Se ye s W ade a St la d as pl ntf t pr i he g . ul 0, l r , , nd a l r ked ai if o oduc e e de ofr lgi s nc rt i o de t pa tc pa e i Ra a n. Pl ntf e a ne t thi vi nce e i ous i e iy n r r o r i i t n m da ai i f xpl i d ha s r lgi pr ry ha bee l tdzi hi ta f rt ROSP a ga W a asa e c t ei ous ope t d n os lrng s r ns e o nd ve de t t - our j d me ta ans t eCo n at o Vign aa pr o t a t eVDOC ls h srlgo s u g n g i t h mmo we 1 f r ii s o f h t h h o t i eiiu 2ROSP i c i r anSAdmi sr tveLo Te m Se egai Uni ' ni t tisi ts e e f rt s onsdeed t nitai ng r gr ton t'mea ng ha t nmae , xc pt o he c dr -nm aesaf aeke i t rcel f rappr m aey23 hour perda Thi t ofs c ehousng i a e i t t f, r pt n hei ls o oxi tl s y. s ype e ur i s de ine frt VDOC' mos vi e ordeinti t . sg d o he S t olnt fa nmaes 3Thi polc wa uni compa e t mos ot rVDOC fciii whe eaRei ousPa sLitde al i t ' s iy s que r d o t he a ltes r lgi s s t is nmaes pa tcpa i wih s ik r i ouss r ce .Ge r ly,heRelgi Pa sLitofi t pr tcngl lm i us d rii ton t pect elgi evi s ne al t i ous s s nmaes acii sa s e t ve iyt na sofi t sgni up t pa tci t i Rama n.Bec emos ROSP i t a ei l tr o rf he me nmaes i ng o ri pae n da aus t nmaes r n ong e m a nitai s gr gai t ymayno c e t f r lgi s rvc a ROSP saf coul notr y ona dmi sr tve e e ton,he t ongr gae or ei ous e ies nd tf d el Relgi Pas Lit Howe r ROSP i t sma rquetr lgi ie fom aCha ai andma pos e s i ous s s. ve , nma e y e s ei ous tms r pl n y ss r l iusi ms lk aQua k io pa rrg i terc ls ei o t ,ie rn, uf, r rye u ,n h i el. g e 4Com monFa ei aVDO C m e de i d t m e tt nutii la r lgi ne ofaw i va it ofr i ous r s nu sgne o e he rtona nd ei ous eds de rey elgi g o ps icu igMu l .Se . ..Ma io v Viani, 7 F.d l 8 1 3(t Ci. 0 6 ; o lav. g ln , r u ,n ldn si ms e e2, dsn . r i a 4 4 3 l , 2 4h r 2 0 )Ac ol An eo e No 701c - 0 8 2 0 U.. s. . : -v0l 0 , 0 6 S DitLEXI 6 5 4 a * 2 1 , 0 WL 9 8 31 a * ( . Va S p . , 0 6 . S 2 7 , t 1 - 3 20 6 3 7 , t 4 W D. . e t 1 2 0 ) VDOC ofk i sm us a ovea i ae' r ei ofComm on Far t al t ppr n nm t s ec pt e. 2 pr pe t .5 Pli tf e ai d t thepari paed i Ra a n i 2008 a 200 a as s o ry a n if xpl ne ha tci t n m da n nd 9 nd lo howe d t m t tt VDOC a ove hi t r c veComm onFa ebe a eofhi l lm i bele s6 he ha he ppr d m o e ei r c us s sa c if . W a rviwe t d ume s s i C tdo tmea a hi ; ndt dSel r t rmo de e e d he oc nt; ad,Tha n' n nyt nf'a ol yes o e ve pl i iff om t Ra ada ls . a ntf r he m n i t Pl ntf i m edi t l t l a I or a Co pl i ,t w hi h W ade r ponde ai i f m a e y i ed n nf m l m a nt o c es d: l af iiy doesnotha r i i uss r i sf rt r i ousgr i que ton, f aclt ve elg o e vce o he elgi oup n si t n r lgiuslt r t es d beobt i d fom t Cha an f t ofe rt he ei o ie a m houl ane r he pli or he f nde o ra .Ra da sg u p ro e d do J l 2 , 01 1 ( e d ma n in p e id n e n uy 5(2 0 . ROSP d e n t a e ) o s o hv r lgi s rvc s t f l ngr l sa y t t si tt i Yo a er quied ei ous e ies o he olowi u e ppl o hi nsiuton. u r e r t h verlgo smaeils c a (lk ll) ( lll p a e r go rlgo o a eiiu tra u h s ggu ti, Qu ran, ry r u r eiius p mp est t e ti t t Ra d nmo t lngfsig. Fo ds r iewe t o a hlt ha p ran o he ma a nh o atn ) o e vc n t e eyimae 'sc lt is c t ea o er lgo smaeil Eih ry uh dno v r n t gl el o n pe t h b v eii u tra. t e o a rlgo smaeil rr f e t p e e t tral glh si wh y uwe e ei iu tra o eus d o rs n mae il. ' i s y o r ) l r m oved f o t Rn a n pas ls . e r m he m da s it ( . ath. ECF n . - )8) Plitf a p ae t i g iv n et W a d nRa a dRe in l Pl' t ( s c o 21 1 . an if p e ld h s re a c o r e y n go a D ie t Ga m a w ho bot uphel W a s r s r c or r n, h d de' e pons e. On A ugus 11 201 t tr tm or ng ofRam a t , 0, he i s ni dan, ai ifdi note tbr kf s a pl ntf d a ea a t nd conc a e s m eoft f i hi c l.ROSP s urt saf f undt f lt rt s me da e ld o he ood n s e l ec iy t f o he ood a e he n y a t e tne t c r pli tf wih pos e sng c r ba Fac d wih sa v ton a nd hr ae d o ha ge a n if t s s i onta nd. e t t r a i nd r pe t d s nc i f tyi t e tdlrngt ni ht pli ifa edmi t da a vi ae hi e a e a tons or r ng o a zi he g , antf t ng he y nd ol td s r lgi bei f e i ous le Pli iffld aRe a Gre nceonAugus 1 201 c pl ni how hewa beng antf ie gulr i va t 5, 0, om ai ng s i f c t vi a e hi r i ous be i fde pie r c vi Com m on Fa e bec us he wasa pr tci or ed o ol t s elgi le s t e ei ng r a e ac i ng M usi .As it ntW a de Rowlte s e nty a oac d pl i ifa a ked i hewa e lm ssa r n e t ubs que l ppr he antf nd s f ntd 5Th saec u tu g n is e o J n 2 , 01 , si plitf' fv rfr$ 7.0 Plitf as fldalt r e tt-o rj d me tsu d n u e 8 2 0 wa n an ifs a o o 9 6 . anif lo i et e e fo aS no Asitn Atone Ge ea, oe plie ta tej d me t udh v t b p i b te r m e ir ssa t tr y n rlwh x an d h th u g n wo l a e o e ad y h De at n o Corcin G e a s teeweefu d dgiv n e rg rigt e ls p o ry . . ( . ath p rme t f reto s b c u e h r r o n e re a c s e adn hll ot rpet. .' PI' t . ' s c ( n . 0 1 3b . Plitf d e n t l g ta h s we t slte t Wa e ECF o 5 -) ()) anif o s o al e h t e ho d hi etr o d . e 6Pli ifsc ldooras diplye anotc ofpli ifsr ei ofComm on Far . antf el lo s a d ie antf' ec pt e 3 t beputbac on t Ramada ls i Rowltec dve iy t tt VDOC l tpli ifs o k he n it f e t oul rf ha he os antf r lg ouspr ry. Pli ifr ponded,tl twasm y de iet be n wih. Tha ' why lme t ei i ope t antf es t-ha sr o gi t ts t he r quie de i butt doesnotc ngenoradd e smy Greva e ofbei r movedof t e r d adlne, hat ha rs i nc ng e f he ls f no r as by W a a St la d a duet hi va r pons t m y l or it or e on de nd a lr nd o s gue es e o nf mal Co ant , o t sda 1sildo tknow why Iwa r m ove fom t Ra mpli s t hi y tl n' se d r he mada ls i t tr t n it n he is plc ' ( Co l! 1 ) Ro et rpl d,s a , wr t s mehngo hscibo r , n a el Am. mp . 5. wlte e i ç y' o e o t i n i l ad a d ' e ok ' p wake a y whiepl i ifr a e y yele çIwa tt pa tci t i Ra l d wa l antf epe t dl ld,i n o ri pa e n mada 1wa my n! nt Ra a n,Row l tel' m da et ' W a de Ra s e nty c i r dpli ifsRe a Gre r n y ubs que l onsde e antf gul r i vanc ast ounde ' Ra e ç unf d.' y sa e t tpli ift d Rowlte,( o,Iwilpur uet si cour, afe Rowltea ke i tt d ha antf ol et ç N l s hi n t' tr ' et s d f pli ifwa e t beputbac on t Ra da ls.Pl ntf e ai i hi a alt Ga ma antf nt d o k he ma n it ai if xpl ned n s ppe o r n t hene rs d,ç lwilptruet si c q'butGa m a uphe d Ra sr s e. 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(nd te ia a t rt me y f s h a rnge ent s lr i w iht D ie t ,orhi de i ne ' or uc ra m s hal esde t he r cor s s g e. ' 4 $1 ,0 i p ntv d ma e fo e c d fn a t a dtan a dto a r le t sc u t e ms 00 0 n u iie a g s r m a h ee d n , n t ly d iin l eif hi o r d e g j s, r p r a de utbe' u tp o e, n q i l. a ' II. A p ryi e tt dt s mmayj d me tlf h p e dng ,hed s o r a dd sl s r a t s nil o u r u g n t t e la i s t ic vey n ico u e e i ma e i son fl a a a fda t s t tt r i noge nei s a t a m ae ilf t t ral ie, nd ny f i vis how ha he e s nui s ue s o ny tra ac a dta t emo n i e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. Fe R. v. 5 () Maeil n h t h va t s n ild o u g n s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 c. tra ' f c sa et ene es a y t esa ih t e e nt ofapa t sc us ofac i Ande s v. a t r hos c s r o t bls he l me s ry' a e ton. ron Lie t Lo by l c, 7 U. 2 2 2 8( 9 6 .A g n i is eo maeilfc e it i,n b rv b s n .4 7 S. 4 , 4 1 8 ) e une s u f tra a t xss f i viwi t r or a a1 r a ona ei e e e dr wnt r fom i a lghtmos f vor bl t t e ng he ec d nd 1 e s bl nf r nc s a he e r n i t a a e o he non- ngpa t ar as bl f ttnde c drt naveditfrt non- nt Jz The movi ry, e ona e ac-i r oul eur r c o he mova . . . p m ovi pa t hast bur n ofs ng ry he de howi - tha i , ntng outt t diti tc t t tt r i ng l t s poi i t o he src our - ha he e s an a e ofe de et s bs nce vi nc o uppor t nonmovi pa t sca e. l e Cop . Ca r t, t he ng ry' s ' 'Ceot x v. tet 477 U. 317,3 ( 98 .I t mo s tsist sbur n,t nt non- ntmus stf t S. 25 1 6) f he vant aife hi de he he mova t e orh s cii ad isbl f c st tde pe fc, m s i e a t ha monsr t t e se eofa g nui i s off c f rtil Fe ta e he xitnc e ne s ue a t o ra . d. R. v P. 6 c ; ltx, 7 U. a 3 2 2 pat i e tte t sl r j g n it e Ci . 5 () Ceo e 4 7 S. t 2 - 3.A ry s n ild o t mmay ud me t f h r or a awhol co d notlad ar tona tiroff tt fnd i f voroft non- o n . ec d s e ul e a i l re ac o i n a he m va t W ila v. itn,952F. 8 8 ( h Ci.1 ) tMer uns lims Grfi 2d 20, 23 4t r 991. t e upporeds ulton...i no t pec ai s t e o ht d fa as mmayj d me t to ' En i v. tl sno Bus & Ed . do n ug o ee t u r u g n moin. ns Na 'As ' f . uc Ra i, ' lc, 3F.d5 , 2( t Ci.1 9 ) A plitf c n o us ar s n et amo inf rs mmay n .5 3 5 6 4h r 9 5 . an if a n t e epo s o to o u r j d me t oc re td fce isi ac mplitc aln e byad fn n ' moinf rs mmay u g n t o rc eiince n o an h le g d ee da ts to o u r j g n .Se Cl a i e v M c vt, 5 F.d 3 4, 3 ( t Ci. 0 9 ( o igt a apan if ud me t e o nng r . 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EQUI TABLE RELI I NOW M OOT. EF S Pli tf i no l rhous d a ROSP,a t ,e t bl r le wih r s tt hi a n if s onge e t nd hus quia e ei f t e pec o s i ac rto t eei mo t I c ma v. mit 5 7F.d2 , 8 - 7(t Ci. 0 7 .Panif nc re ain h r s o . n u a Oz n , 0 3 81 2 6 8 4h r 2 0 ) lit f w ast a f r e f om RO SP t a l s r s rc i f iiy,a t pos i lt t tpl i ifm a r r ns e r d r o es e t i tve ac lt nd he s biiy ha a ntf y e e e ROSP a ar s tofa i r as d s urt cl stcai duet dir ptvebe ora nt r s e ul n nc e e ec iy as i ton i o su i havi nd d s il a yc n ito i to s e uaiet fn aj siibl cam f rij n tv rle . Se icpi r o vcins s o p c ltv o i d u tca e li o n u cie eif1 e n 2 L. v. A. Lyons 461U. 95,1 08( 983 ( di t tLyonsdi notha sa ngt s e a , S. 05- 1 ) hol ng ha d ve tndi o e k n ij n to p o iiigteLo Ang lsPoieDe a t n fo e l yn c ke od be a s nu cin r hbtn h s ee l c p rme t r m mp o ig ho h ls c u e h c udn t sa ls t t wo db s be tdt ac o e o di t eft r) O' h av. e o l o e tbih ha he ul e u jce o h k h l n h uu e ; S e Li ltn 41 U. 4 8 4 7( 9 4 ( odn ta n c s o c nr v rye se t is e t eo , 4 S. 8 , 9 1 7 ) h lig h t o a e r o to e s xitd o su t ij n to a o thee f r e n o ci n la b c us i wa t b a s me ta çp anifl n u ci n b u t n o c me t f rmia lws e a e t s o e su d h t l litfs l : Re ma a e s scamsf da gesagans asa eo asaeofi a t ro y t Spe ng Clus a so 1 ndel n ddr s e li or ma i t tt r tt tcil mde nl he ndi a e xi f ILUI Pli iffist algea f t s si t hi cl msa ns deenda sc d q iy a a tona e I PA. antf al o le ny acs ugge tng hat s ai gai t f nt oul ualf s ci bl cl msund t Com mer Cl es tonofRIUI a 1de i t consr tt cli f pl ntf. ai er he ce aus eci - PA, nd clne o tuc he am or ai if 1 Equia erle woul silbemooteve i pl ntf wasta f r bac t ROSP. VDO C ofk i st m i t d 2 tbl eif d tl n f ai if r nsered k o t al er na e t polcys i c t tr r d physcalposes i ofe de edoc e i asnc el lm i bele .Se Fed. he i ub udie ha equie i s son vi nc um ntng i er sa c if e R. i. 01b-d (emit gs as o tj dca n tc o g n rl k o fcswihntetil o r'trioil Evd 2 ( )( ) p r ti u p ne u iil oie f e eal n wn a t ti h ra c u t ertra n y s j rs it na a ysa eo tep o e dn lDe oav Wa e No 7 1 -v 0 9 , 01 U. DitLEXI 4 3 , t uidci t n tg f h r c e ig; pa l . d , . : lc - 01 8 2 2 S. s. S 4 40 a o * -0( i o , .(e o nii i ac mpa inc s t th smeROS Ra d npoiysbi ieh sc a g d . 7 1 W l n J) rc g zng n o no ae ha te a s P ma a lc u udc a h n e ) 6 wilc l onduc t i a tvii wihi t 1w a s a d pr e uton a c c i a we la t her c i tes t n he a nd o voi os c i nd onviton s l s e o u et t ec aln e c u s o c n u tsi t b f lo db p tto es'. xp s r o h h l g d o re f o d c ad o e o lwe y ei n r' e i ) C.PL NTIFCANNOTRECOVERDAMAGESVI j1 AGAI TDEF AI F A 983 NS ENDANTSI T R N HEI OFFI AL CAPACI ES. CI TI tA)s i a an tasaeo fca i h so h ro fca c pa iyi n tas t g is te $ ut g is tt fiiln i r e fiil a ct s o uia an t h ( ofi a butr t i as ta i tt ofi ilsofi e.Ass h, ti no dif r ntfo as t fcil aher s ui gans he tca ' fc uc i s fe e r m ui a ns t Stt is f' W ilv. ihi nDe tofStt Polce 491U. 58,71( 989 (ntr l gai t he ae tel. l M c aa p' ' ae i , S. 1 ) i ena ctto o te ) Th Elv nhAme d n b r s isi fd r l o rsfrmo e d ma e iai n mitd . e e e t n me t as ut n e ea c u t o n y a g s a an ta S n o e tn S e' Ed l nv. o d n 41 U. 65 , 63( 9 4 .Thsi miy g is n l c nsn ig tt . ema J r a , 5 S. 1 6 1 7 ) i mmt t u ' e e t d r soft St t ,' nc udi s a e age i sand s a e of i r a tng i t i ofi a xt nds o t m a he a e ' i l ng t t nc e t t fce s c i n he r tci l c pact M tHe t Ciy Sc Dif Bd. Educ.v.Doyl 429U. 274, (977) Grvv. a iy. . alhv t h. s. of e, S. 280 1 ; a La , F.d4 6 4 0( t Ci. 9 5 .Vignah sn twav di s veeg i nt a di ws 51 3 2 , 3 4h r 1 9 ) r ii a o ie t o r in mmu i n s s y notaç ron'frj1983a tons W il491U. a 71 86.Acc di y, ai ifma no d s 'o pe ci . l, S. t , or ngl pl ntf y t rc dama vi j1 3a i tdee nt i t i ofii c ciis e over ges a 98 gans fnda s n her fcal apa te . D.PLAI F MAYNOTRECOVE DAMAGESVl j1 AGAI DEF NDANTSI THEI NTIF R A 983 NST E N R I VI NDI DUAL CAPACI ES. TI Def nda sa s r t tt Fis A m e m e cl i s a s r e aga ns t m i t i e nt s e t ha he r t nd nt a m s e t d i t he n he r i vi lc ctesa eprventdbyt docrneofquai i ndi dua apa ii r e e he ti lfed mmuniy.Quaiidi niy t lfe mmu t pemisçgo r ntofi asperor ngdic einayfnctons...(obe s el dfom r t t venme fcil f mi srto r u i t 1 hi de r la lt f cvi da a i of ra t i c i biiy or i l m ges ns a s he r onduc do notvi a ecla l esabls d saut y o t es olt e ry t ihe tt or r c tt i ons iutonalrght ofw hi h a r as bl pe s w o d ha kno n. H a i s c e ona e r on ul ve w ' dow v.Fiz r d, ' t ae al 4 7U.. 0 , 8( 9 2 .Qu lfe i nt p o d si nt fo s irt e t a amee 5 S 8 0 81 1 8 ) aiid mmu iy rvie mmu iy r m ut ah r h n r def ense t labiiy. Thus,whet a def o i lt her endantcan cl m qualfed i m uniy i a pur quesi ai ii m t s e ton oflw a i pr ry deer ne prtil Sa e v. t 533U. 1 200 01( ) a nd s opel t mi d era. ucir Kaz, S. 94, - 2001, 7 ove r ed pqo h rc o n k Pe ro v. la a 5 5U. 2 3( 0 9 ( emi iglwe c u t r ul t e r u ds y a s n Calh n, 5 S. 2 2 0 ) p r t n o r o rs t . t diceint deemi whih q lfe i he s rto o tr ne c uaiid mmuniypr t a yz frt. t ong o nal e is) Onceade e ntr iest q lfe i muniy d e e apl i ifbea st bur n t f nda as he uaii d m t ef ns , antf r he de o s how t tade e ntsconduc vi a e t pli ifsrgh , ndt def nda mus pr t t ha f nda ' t olt d he antf i t a he e nt t ove ha t rgh vi ae wa notc e ry esa ihed a t tm eoft i i ntt r cevequalfed he i t ol td s l a l t bls t he i he nc de o e i ii i mmuniy.Helvv. nel501F. 374,378(t Ci. t rr Pur l, 3d 4h r 2007) tfheunlwf ne soft a ton . û' a ul s he ci mu t ea p r n wh na s se fo t ep rp cieo a o j cieyra o a l ofca s b p a e t e se sd r m h e s e tv f n b e tv l e s n be fiil c ag dwihkn wld eofetb ihe lm ' Lo zv. bns n, 4F.d4 6 4 9( t Ci. h re t o e g sa ls d a ' pe Ro i o 91 2 8 , 8 4h r 1 9 ) S eAn e s nv. ec tn, 3U.. 3 , 4 ( 9 7 (-h si n tt syta a o fca 9 0 . e d ro Criho 48 S 6 5 6 0 1 8 ) é -i s o o a h t n fiil t l a ton i pr t c e by qualf e i m uniy unl s t ve y a ton i quesi ha pr vi l be n ci s oe td ii d m t e s he r c i n ton s e ous y e hed unl wf ... i i t s y t ti t lg ofpr - xitng 1w t unl wf ne sm us be l a ul but t s o a ha n he iht e e si a he a ul s t a p rn . Ahe rv e n p an ifsalg to s Ifn t a plitf f ist s o t a a y p ae t' ). r e iwig litf le ain , i d h t anif al o h w h t n de e ntvi a e t Fis A m e m e and t td e nt a e e il d t qua ii d i m uniy. f nda ol t d he r t nd nt ha ef nda s r ntte o lte m t The Fr e Exe c s Cl us oft Fis Am e e e e t pr s n i a e . O ' e r i e a e he r t ndm nt xt nds o i o nm t s Lone v. Esaeo S b z , 8 U. 3 , 48( 9 7 , o rs nv Gar c t 23 F.d6 , 5 ( t Ci. tt f ha a z 4 2 S. 42 3 1 8 ) M rio . ra hy, 9 3 48 6 6 4h r . 2 01.Ho v r i mae ' rtAme d n rg t mu t e au tdwi i tec ne to 0 ) we e ,n ts Fis n me t ih s s be v lae t n h o tx f h i ar r ton. The Supr m e Cour ha l c i d t û t a e i1equi nc ce a i e t s ong autone hat i cours r 1 pped t de lwih e a t t i e sngl u ge pr e ofprs a nita i a r or .'Pr nirv.M ari z, he ncr a i y r nt obl ms ion dmi sz ton nd ef m ' ocu e tne 41 U.. 9 , 0 ( 9 4 .Th , S ta c r d frn et t o t il wh r nap io , 6 S 3 6 4 5 1 7 ) us I t mus c o d e ee c o he f as o u rs n k ove s eng a c di tng isman a pe t ,ncl ng s cziy,dic plne a ge r l r e i nd oor na i t y s c s i udi e trt s i i , nd ne a a nitai ' Lovelcev. e 472F. 1 1 ( hCi. dmi srton. ' a Le , 3d 74, 99 4t r 2006) . Thi def s erence i achi s eved by a ratonalbass t t 1consi f f orst de enni i i i es . der our act o t ne f aprs r gulton i r s bl r lt d t l gii t pe ogiali e ess ion e a i s ea ona y ea e o e tma e nol c nt r t : 8 ()( j ehe te ei aC ld r to a c n e to 'b t e teprs n 1 W h t r h r s ç i , ain l o n cin' ewe n h io va r ulton ora ton and t i e es a s re byt g r nt orwhehert s eg a i ci he ntr t s e td he ove nme , t hi itr ti û ormoeast r nde t polc abirr orirtonal'( whehe nees s t e t o e r he iy r tay rai ';2) t r s ç le na i m e nsofe r i i t rght... em a n o n t pr s i a e ,' n s t r tve a a xe c s ng he i r i pe o i on nm t s ' a i uiy t ta ksbr dl whe he i t we ede i d ofal f m sofr i o nq r ha s oa y t r nma es r prve 1 or elgi us e r ie o whe he t y we ea et pa tci t i ot robs r nce oft i xe c s r t r he r bl o ri pae n he e va s her fi , 3 wh ti a t h d srda c mmo ainwo l h v o s cli saf at ( ) a mp c t e eie c o d to ud a e n e t t tf, h' ry imae , n t eal c to o p io rs u c s a ( )wh t rt eee s a y n ts a d h lo ain f rs n e o r e ; nd 4 ehe h r xit n to ous ea y at m a i 't t chal nge r gulton ora ton, c ma ibvi , s le tves' o he le d e a i c i whih y s g ett ti i S o r a o a l, u i (n ta )a e g eae r s o s t u g s ha t s û t e s n b e b t s i se d n xa g rtd e p n e o n Prs c er .' i on onc ns ' J.a 200( i Tur rv.Sate 48 U. 78,8992( 98 ) W he a yi t ef t s 1 -s t quotng ne p l v, 2 S. 1 7). n ppl ng hes acor, mus E es c t dee nato ofprs ofk il . Unie Stt sv.St t ,9 F. 83,8 t t pe t he tnni i ns r ion t a s' ' td ae ots 25 2d 6 (t Ci. 9 ) Th plitf be r t eutmaeb ld no e tbihigta ap io r g aino 4h r 1 91. e anif as h li t t e f sa ls n h t rs n e ulto r r de iini unco tt i l Ha ev. uc ,993F. 1 1 2( h Ci.1 ) cso s nsiutona. us Va ht 2d 079, 08 4t r 993 . Pe t sr a ona e sts a t prnci esofqua ii d i uniy, e s bl ofi il r hi e s bl nes e t nd he i pl lfe mm t r a ona e fca s unde t c r umsa e e si a t ROSP i 201 woul notha unde sood t tt i r he ic tnc s xitng t he n 0 d ve rt ha her c onduc ofa ki f evi nc ofr i i ussnc rt vi aedt Fis Am e t s ng or de e elg o i e iy ol t he r t ndme .W hie nt l pl i ifha a cl a l e t bls Fi s A m e a ntf s e r y s a i hed r t ndm e r g t a di tcons s e wih hi r lgi nt i ht o e it nt t s e i ous be i , Fi s A m e m e vi a i n oc ur w hen a prs n polc i r as bl r l t d t lef no r t nd nt ol t o c s io i y s e ona y e a e o a h e igalgtmaep noo ia o j cie a dp io a miitao sma q sinwheh ra c ivn e i t e lgc l be tv , n rs n d n srt r y ueto i te prs rsrlgi beifi a he i eCutrv. iki o 5 U. 709,725n.3( 05 ione ' ei ous le s ut ntc.Se te W l ns n, 44 S. 1 20 ) (çpqionofiil ma a oprael que tonwhehe aprs rsr ii iy,asetda t tg rs fcas y ppr it y si t r ione ' elgost s re s he bai f rar q etda c mmo ain,sa t e tc' ss o e u se c o d to i uh n i. ). De e nt we ef ce wih unne e s r i r s d c t a admi sr tvebur nsi f nda s r a d t c s a y, nc ea e os s nd nitai de n 200 whe ROSP i a e who di no ha snce er lgi be if a 9 n nm t s d t ve i r e i ous le s boutRa a n de nded m da ma ni -i e m eal D ef ght tm s. endant polcy ofas ng f phys calevi s' i ki or i dence ofrelgi sncert w hie i ous i iy l a c m oda i pr s ne s Fi s Am e en rghtt pa tc pa e i R a ada c or st c om tng i o r ' r t ndm t i o ri i t n m n onf m o 9 lgtmaep n l gc l be tv so c nr l gc ssa dmii zn o eain l irp in . e ii t e o o ia o j cie f o toln o t n nmiig p rto a dsu to s i De e nt 'decsonst r movepli iffom t 201 Rn a n ls a t u d t r m ova f nda s ii o e antf r he 0 m da it nd o phol he e l i g i va esr pons we eno pt tveora bir r f t r d t s l ii a epe og c l n re nc es es r t mii r ta y, urhe e he e eg tm t nol i a o j ci s a dddn t i lt ce rye tbl he , r-x siglw.Prs nof casaen t ibe b e t , n i o v oae la l sa i d p ee itn a ve s io t il r o la l i f ma ng ba gue s si gr y ar a ,a def nt a een il t qua ii i muniy. or ki d s e n a e s nd enda s r tted o lfed m t E. DECLARATORY RELI I NOT AP ROP ATE. EF S P RI Pli ifma no rcove da esf hi RLUI orj1 3cli ,a a e tbl antf y t e r mag or s PA 98 ams nd ny quia e r le ha be n m oo e Thea e eofl ga oreq tbl r m e est apl i ifno l r e if s e t d. bs nc e l uia e e di o antf onge hous d a RO SP a e t bouta polc t tno l i y ha onge e s spe s desm e t deny c i r ng r xi t r ua o ons de i de a a or r leff pli ifscli . Se Ce ennilLieI . v. t 88 F. 255, clr t y ei or a ntf a ms e nt a f ns Co. Poson, 3d 256 (t Ci.1 ( i t tadititc t t dicei t grntde aaor rle d nt 4h r 996) notng ha src our has he s rton o a clrt y eif t whe he j d me t ls r eau eu pupo ei ca iyn a stl t elg l eainsi is e a d . . u g n wil e v s f l r s n lrf ig nd eti h e a rlto n su , n . ng when i wiltr na ea a f d r le fom t unc rant i e urt a c r ve s gi ng t l e mi t nd for e if r he e ti y, ns c iy, nd onto r y vi rs t t ep o e dn ' ie o h r c e ig. ). 11 1. Fo t f rg i r a o s Ig a td fn a t' to f rs mmayj d me t st r he o e ong e s n , rn ee d n s mo in o u r u g n a o panifsfd r lq e to cams a 1d ci t e ries p lme tl u idcino e a y li tf' e ea- u si n li , nd e l o xecs u pe n a j rs it v r n ne o saelw cam, s ntt 28U. C.j1 a . tt-a li purua o S. 367() TheClr i dieced t s nd co e oft sM emor ndum Opi on andt ac ompa ng ek s r t o e pis hi a ni he c nyi Or rt pl ntf a c de o ai if nd ouns lofr co d f rde e nt . e e r o f nda s E T R:h -dy f oebr21. N E Ti U aoN vm e 02 , Se ni U nie St t s Di t i tJ e t d a e s rc udg 10