-RSB De'lonta v. Johnson et al, No. 7:2011cv00175 - Document 32 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 07/17/2012. (kab)
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CL ERKS DFFI t. , ST COURT CE JS DI . ATROANOKE,VA FI LED I TH E UN I N TED STATES DI STR I C O U R T CT FO R TH E W ESTER N D I STRICT O F V I G IN I R A R O A NO K E DIVISIO N O PH ELI A ZRIEL D E C N TA , A LO Pl ntf , ai if V. GENE JOHNSON, 1 , M D ef endant s. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) JUL 17 2 1 92 JUL C, K DU EX CL ERK B: o p @uE v E !; . C i lA ct on N o.7: cvvi i 11- 00175 M EM O M ND U M O PINIO N By: H on.Jam es C .T urk Seni U nied St D i ri Judge or t ates st ct Ophela A z i lDe'ont a V igi a i a epr e i pr K ,fl a ci lr g s i re l a, r ni nm t oc ed ng o ied vi i ht . c mplitp ru n t 4 U.. j1 8 a dj2 0 c - wihj rs ito v se i 2 U. C. o an u s a t o 2 SC. 9 3 n 0 0 c 1 t u idcin e td n 8 S. jl a j1 331 nd 343.Pli ifna sa dee nt i bot t i i viua a ofii c pa iis antf me s fnda s n h her ndi d l nd fcal a cte Ge M .J on,f merDie t oft Vigi aDe rme ofCo rci ($ ne ohns or rcor he r ni pa t nt re tons ( VDOC' ;Li ' nda ) M o aba ame roft VDOC Ce rlCl stc tonSevi sCi ';G. ntl no, mbe he nta asii ai r ce CCS' K. ) W as ngt a VD O C Re ona O m buds a L. hi on, gi l m n; Edm onds W a de a t Buc ngha , r n t he ki m Co rci n l n e (( re to a Ce tr t BUCC', n B. . o e,h f r rBUCC Asitn W ad n. ' a d W Bo k r te o me ) ssa t r e Dee d n stldamoin frs mmayj d me t a dplitf r s o d d ma n t i matr fn a t ie to o u r u g n , n an if e p n e , kig hs te rpe f di pos to A f e r vi w i t r c d, he c tg an s de e n s'm oton f i or s ii n. t r e e ng he e or t our r t f nda t i or s mmayj dg n . u r u me t Pl i ifa lgest s i ade ut pr c ii me roft As e i ofYa h antf le hat he s vo , a tcng mbe he s mbles hwe a tla i ofJ s whih r quieshe t ea aKos rd e .Pl ntf be mean a r nto fiiton udaim, c e r ro t he i t ai if ca dhe e f t Ase esofYahwe i 2006whiehous a t Powhaa Cor ci lCe e (TCC' . he smbl hn l ed t he tn re tona ntr t ' ) On Aprl1 2008,t V D OC a ove pl i if sa i a i f t Com m on Fa e di t i 0, he ppr d a ntf pplc ton or he r e (C o monFae' a PCC. Pli ifakedt sopr c i ngCo dC m r') t I antf s o t e evi mmonFaeonSe e r28, r ptmbe 1Comm on Fa e i de i r s s gned t a comm oda e of e r whos r i o di t r ne ca o c t f nde s e elgi us e a y eds nnotbe me by t M a t r t he s e M e A1 f nu. l oodspurha e f Com mon Far.exc ptfut a v tbl .aece tfe asKos r A cor c i c s d or e e r is nd egea es r riid he . re tonal 2008 a t PCC 1 r omm e d t tpl ntf sr s begr nt d.TheVDOC CCS , nd he CA ec nde ha ai if eque t a e a o t PCC I ' r om m e ton o N ove be 1 2008, nd pl i tf w asnotelgi e ppr ved he CA S ec nda i n m r 3, a a n if i bl t r e ve Com m on Fa e f one yea . o ec i r or r The V D O C t a f r e pl i iff om PCC t BU CC on Aprl6, 0,be a e BU CC r ns e r d a ntf r o i 201 c us m e pl i ifss c iy a c a sfc ton r quie e t .Pl i ifso d eai t f t antf e urt nd l s ii a i e r m n s antf t ppe tng he oods pr pa ed a BUCC on Aprl7, 2010,because t ef e r t i hos oodswe enotKos rz Pli ifwan e t r he . antf td o r um e e tng VD o c- e r Kos rf a BUCC,a a co el c pl t d a Com m on es ai pr pa ed he ood t nd uns or om e e Fa e D i tl onna i For on A prl28, 0. Pl i tf e ai d t ts di notr ce ve r e nf ton m i 201 a n if xpl ne ha he d e i Com m on Fa e a PCC bee us ofhe vol a y wihdr w a . r t a e r unt r t a l The BU CC l m e on M a 3,201 r vi w e pl i t f ' a i a i n f Com m on Fa e, CA t y 0, e e d a n if s pplc t o or r a r om m ende ç a ton' bec us BU CC d notof e Com m on Fa e. Boo rr vi w e nd ec d t ci ' a e no oes fr r ke e e d t BCC I ' t a ton' r c m e ton,de i d t r com m end a di pos ton be a e he CA S t c i ' e om nda i no clne o e s ii c us BU CC i nota f ciiy t tpr desCom m on Fa e, nd s ntt BU CC I ' r po tt t CCS. s a lt ha ovi r a e he CA S e r o he Pli iffl d agre nc on M a 3,201 c antf ie i va e y 0, ompli ngt the r lgi usdi tr l ws ani ha r e i o ea y a r quied he t ea K os ra notCom m on Fa e.Edm onds de ed t g i va e on M a 23, e r r o t he nd r ni he r e nc y 201 whiepl i ifsCommon Fa e a i ton wa pe ngwih t CCS.Edm o notd 0, l antf r pplcai s ndi t he nds e t tt K os rdi ti no l nge a ove f ne l a rvi BU CC i a e . 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M on a ba on be foft CCS, ut rz d pl ntf sr ceptofaKos rdito J t l no, hal he a ho ie ai if e i he e n une 1 201 M on al no di nota ove Com m on Fa e bec us t tdi ti no of e e a BUCC, 7, 0. t ba d ppr r a e ha e s t f r d t buts ve a BU CC i a e r c i a K os rdi ta a r ul ofgr ndf t r d polci s a e rl nm t s e e ve he e s es t a a he e i e nd pr ce e .3 Thus M ont l no i ude pl i tf asone oft g ml a he e i a e d t o dur s a ba ncl d a n if he r df t r d nm t s ue o , pl i if suni ue c r um s a e a t a o i t ne sofhous ng pl i ifa BU CC . Pl i if a ntf q i c t nc s nd he ppr pra e s i a ntf t a ntf hasco i d t r c ve a K os r d e s nce J 30, 0. ntnue o e ei he i t i une 201 Plitf s b t da o d rf rar l iush a s a f nNo e e 2 2 0, u M ao anif u mit n r e o ei o e d c r o v mb r 3, 01 b t j r e g D a sde e t r ques ,s a i s ar sar nota ho i e i t V D OC . 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OnJ nua y 1 2011 Booke r evedpl i ifsr ques t ha ac ndl lghtng a r 3, , r ec i antf e t o ve a e i i c e ony,whi h alege y w a a t r r lgi ' pe s er m c l dl s t y e i ous' r onalne d. Pl ntf di notexpl i t t ve e ai i f d a n ha t r que tw a on be fofa he e s s hal nyone el e. Boo rde e t r ques bec e fr ort a e ,e n s ke ni d he e t aus i e l m s ve i partofa r i ous cerem ony,ar notalow ed;r i ous s wi ar consi f elgi e l elgi el ces e dered gr oup a t iis p an ifsrq e t s us frh r a da c mmo ain aen tspaaeys h d ld ci te ; litf' e u s wa j t o e ; n c o d to s r o e rtl c e ue v 3TheVDOC r plce isKos rD i m e wih Com m onFae. BUCC i onet VD OC f iii t tdoesno e a dt he et nu t r s he acltes ha t r l ry of e Co m on Far egu a l f r m e. 4Plitf e ince age rientt dior rt c esaf lng ofbengaf al ta d i amal body. anif xpere s nde d iy s de hat aus eei i em e rppe n e f e h i a e' pe s lr ques .5 Pr s s af ora e r e d vol ee m us be p e e ti or ac nm t s r ona e t i on t f n xpe i nce unt r t rsn n t r he oom t w a c i a es r i i uss r ce a g oup ac i t e ,whi h of e s r i s a f o t h nm t ' elg o e vi s nd r tvii s c t n t a ns t f r our esml s cea ia lt f r ulry s he edgr aci te .Ope ta e a fr es c d pa val biiy or eg a l c dul oup tvii s n l m s nd ie a e pr hi t d w ihi BU CC,e pe i l w ihi i vi uali a e lvi ar a, o s cu iy a r o bie t n s c aly t n ndi d nm t i ng e f r e r t nd s f t r a ons Edmondsde e pl i ifsr gulrg i va e, tngt tJ wih s r i socc aey e s . ni d antf e a re nc no i ha e s e vce ur on Thur da a t tno e r tm e s e ore o se s t extndt tme f rJ wih s ys nd ha xta i , pac , mpl yee xit o e he i o e s w or hi f rt ca e c r m ony. W as ng on' as it nts gne t Le l1 r po e afi m i s p o he ndl e e hi t s s s a i d he ve 1 es ns fr ng Edm onds de s on. ' ci i Pli ifa gue i he frtc am t tt d nil ofKos rm e s ahe s r,a t a ntf r s n r is l i ha he e a s he al, ad ca f nd he ca e ce e ony vi a e t Fis Am e e a t Relgi La U s and I tt i na i e ndl r m ol t d he r t ndm nt nd he i ous nd e ns iuto lz d Pes Ac (d PA') Pli ifaguesi he s c cam t tdee rons t iRLUl '. antf r n r e ond li ha fndant'de a oft s nil he K os rdi ta he d s r vi a ed due pr e sgua a e d by t Foure t A m e he e nd a ca f ol t oc s r nt e he t en h ndm e t n. 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Ci o Bo r ev Flrs 5 U. 5 7(9 7 .To s ons iutonal pple o t t ns iutons t f en . oe , 21 S. 0 1 9 ) v tee tn panif ig acam u d rteRF d fn a t aee tldt s mmayj d me t samatro lw. h xe t litfbrn s li n e h RA, ee d ns r nie o u r u g n a t t fa e 4 1. 1 A p ryi e tte t s mmayj d me tifhepe dn s t ed s o eya ds ls r a t s n i d o u r u g n t t la ig ,h ic v r nd ico u e l i m a e i l on fl a a a fda t s t r a s ie, nd ny f i vis how t tt r i no ge ne i s a t a m a e i f c ha he e s nui s ue s o ny t ral a t a dta temo a ti e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. d R. v. 5 c .M aeil n h th v n s n i d o u g n s te f a ' . Ci P. 6() tra l 'Fe f c sa e t e nec s r t e t bls t e e e sofa pa t sc e ofa ton. A nde s n v. a t r hos es a y o s a i h he l m nt ry' aus ci ro Li ryLobbysI ,477U. 242, ( 986) A ge neis ofmaei fc e ssi,i bet nc. S. 248 1 . nui sue tral a t xit f n vi w i t r c d a al r as e ng he e or nd 1 e onabl i e e esdr wn t r f om i a lghtm os f vor bl t t e nf r nc a he e r n i t a a e o he non- ngpa t ar s bl fc-i rc drt n aveditf t non- nt JJ The movi ry, ea ona e a tfnde oul eur r c or he mova . -. IS m o ng pa t ha t bu de ofs vi r y s he r n howi - t ha i , ntng ou t t di t i tc t- t tt r i ng d t s poi i t t o he sr c our ha he e s a a e ofe de et s n bs nce vi nc o uppor t no o ngpary' ca e. Cel e Cop .v.Car t,477 t he nm vi t s s ' ' otx te t U. 31 , 2 ( 9 6 .l t mo a tstsisti b r e ,h nt en n mo n mus stfrh S. 7 3 5 1 8 ) f he v n aife h s u d n t e h o - va t t e o t s cfc a isbl f t t tde onsrt t e se eofage neis off c f ti l Fed. pe ii , dm s i e acs ha m tae he xitnc nui s ue a t or ra . R. v. 56( ;Celtx, U. a 3 23.A pat i e il t s Ci P. c) oe 477 S. t 22ry s ntted o umma yj me i t r udg nt f he r c d asa w hol c d notl d a r tona t i roff c t tnd i f vo oft no m ova . e or e oul ea a i l re a t o i n a r he nnt W ila v. ifn 9 2F. 8 0, 23(t Ci.1 91.Co v rey, u r j g n i l ms Orfi , 5 2d 2 8 4h r 9 ) n es l s mmay ud me t s i i ppr it i t evi nc i s fcintf ar s bl f c -i rt r t n ave diti f vor na opra e f he de e s ufi e or ea ona e a tfnde o eur r c n a oft nonhe movi pa t Ande s 477 U. a 2 ng ry. r on, S. t 48. Eve i t r i nodiput ast t e de ir fcs s n f hee s s e o he vi ntay a t, ummayj me i no r udg nt s t a opra e whe e t uli a e f t c l i nst be dr w n a e i di put Ove sr e v. ppr i t r he tm t ac ual onc us o o a r n s e. r t e t Kv. Ce . f I .Co.950F. 931 937( h Ci.1 ) A co tmayno r ol diputdfcs ntLie ns , 2d , 4t r 991. ur t es ve s e a t, we ght e de ,orma de e mi to ofc e biiy.Rus e lv.M i r i he vi nce ke t r nai ns r di lt sl c odyneCor ,65 F.d p. 3 1 1 ( hCi.1 ;Sos be v. umhy,797F. 1 1 (t Ci.1 ) A c ' 229, 239 4t r 995) e e M 2d 79, 82 4h r 986 . oul t ac e sast ue t evi nc oft non- ovi pa ' a r s ve a 1i e na c lc s a c pt r he de e he m ng l y nd e ol s l nt r l onfi t nd t i e e e i t non- ovi pary' f vor Cha bol a sdeFr nc v.Sm ih,597 F. 406, nf r nc s n he m ng t s a . r m ge a e t 2d 41 ( hCi.1 .t he opposngpa te tl t difrntsore ,oneofwhih i blt ty 4 4t r 979) d n W i ris elwo fee t is c s aanl c nr dce byt er c r , ota n ra o a l j r c udb le ei, c u t h udn t d p o ta itd h e o d s h t o e s n be u y o l eiv ta o r s o l o a o t ta v rin o t ef csf rp r o e o r igo amo infrs mmayj d me t' S ot h t eso f h a t o u p s s f ul n to o u r u g n . c t v. n ' Ha s 55 U. 372,380( ni , 0 S. 2007) Furhe e apa t ç n tce eage neis of . t nnor, ry t nno rat nui sue c m a e i lf c t ough m er s c a i n ort buidi ofone i e e e upon a t r' Be e v. t ra a t hr e pe ul to he l ng nf r nc no he . al ' Hady, F. 21 21 ( h Ci.1 .Theeor tg eeuns r 769 2d 3, 4 4t r 985) rf e,tmqr uppore s ulton .. i not td pec ai .s e o g t d fa as mmayj d me t t n. En i v. tlAs ' o Bu . Ed c Ra o n u h o ee t u r u g n moi ' n s Na' sn f s & u . di. o ' l .53F. 55,62( h Ci.1 . A pli ifc nnotus ar pons t amoi f s nc, 3d 4t r 995) antf n e es e o ton or umma' l y j udgme t c rc de iince i ac antc le dbyade e ntsmotonf rs nt o ore t fce is n ompli halnge f nda ' i o ummay r j d me t S eCla n e v. c vt, 5 F.d3 4 3 6(t Ci. 0 ) noigta apanif u g n . e o nig r M De it5 5 3 2 , 3 4h r 20 9 ( tn h t litf ma n ta n ac mpan t r u h ag me ti ab ifo p sn s mmayj g n) Gi u y o me d o lit h o g r u n n re p o ig u r ud me t; l r mo v. t s c l & Co.382F. 1 2,1 ( 1hCi. Gaes M Donad , 3d 31 315 1 t r 2004)ta . s mel D e e nt a g t tpl i ifdi no e us a m i s r tve r m e e f he c a m s f nda s r ue ha a ntf d t xha t d ni ta i e di s or r l i a boutt r lgi hea s a f Pl ntf r s he e i ous d c r . ai if e pondst ta f l e t e us i a d t no f ul ha ny aiur o xha t é s ue o w a t ofhe own....( antflwa onsrp-c l mena heat sausfom 1 23- 0untl1 1 1 r Pli it s ti el tl lh tt r 2- 1 i - 0- 1 whihdurngt ttmes ha noac e st a mal...SeeDeont v.Pe ron( hCi. c i ha i he d c s o ny i. l a a s 4t r 2011 . ( .sRep.( 31 ! 1 ) )' P1' s no. ) ( 1. ' A prs rm us e ione t xhaus ala ia e a m i sr tver me e be or flnga cai t l va lbl d nita i e di s f e ii lm purua t 42U. C.j 1 s nt o S. 983.42U. C.j1 () Se W oodf dv. S. 997ea. e or Nqo,548U. 81 85 S. , ( )(ttngt till usi i nol rl tot dicetonoft dititc tbuti 2006 sai ha texha ton s onge eft he sr i he src our, s ma t y' Pore v. se,53 U. 51 53 ( ndaor ); tr Nusl 4 S. 6, 2 2002)(ttngt tj 1 ()a i t ç l sai ha 997ea pples o ç al 6 im ae s t, t rt y i l ge r lcic t nc orpa tc a e s es a whe he n t uis whe he he nvove ne a r umsa es riul r piod , nd t r t yalgee e svef ceors ot rwr );800hv.Chur r 532U. 7 , ( ) he le xc s i or ome he ong' t ne, S. 31 739 2001 (i ngt tj1 e()r r a nitai e usi pro t t tlngofafde a cvi fndi ha 997 a equies dmi srtve xha ton ir o he ii e rl i l r g s s te n i t f m ofr le t i a e s e i nota ia e t ough e us i of i ht ui ve f he or e i f he nm t e ks s va l bl hr xha ton a miitaierme is.Prs n r mu t t u tiiit t l g iv n e bu mus as tmey d nsrtv e d e ) io es s no j s ntae i y re a c s t t lo i l me a ppea a de alofr left o h allve sofa ia ea nita i r viw. W oodf d,548 l ny ni e i hr ug l e l va lbl dmi sr tve e e or U. a 93( di t tj 1 ()rquie t o re ha ton'ofi tttonala nitai S. t hol ng ha 997ea e rs s pe x usi ' nsiui pr dmi srtve rme esbeor flnga f rls tc le ngprs c tons. e di f e ii ny edea ui halngi ion ondii ) VDOC De rme Ope ai Pr e e(t ' 866.,l t Gre ncePr e e,s pa t nt rtng oc dur $ DOP') 1 nmae iva oc dur i a m e ha s f r i a est r s ve c pl i s ap a a i s r tve de i i ,a c le c ni m o nm t o e ol om a nt , pe l dm ni ta i c s ons nd ha l nge polc esa pr dur s The pr es pr vi sco r c i na a i sr t s m ea t i ntf i i nd oce e . oc s o de r e to l dm ni t a or ns o de iy pot ntal o e sa i ne es a y, r e tt e pr em s i a tm e y m a r A l i s s a e e i pr bl m nd, f c s r co r c hos obl n i l nne . l s ue r gre bl e pti s sa iva e xce s ue boutpolces pr e es a de ii oft Vigi aPa ol Bo r i i , oc dur , nd c sons he r ni r e a d; di c plnmy he r ng pe li a orpr e a e r s s a e a f er lcour dec s ons l w s si i ai na tes nd/ oc dur l r or ' t t nd ed a , t ii , a , a r gultons a ot rm at r be nd e a i ; nd he te s yondt VDOC' co r . he S ntol l na esa e ore ed t t i a e gre nce p oc dur w he t y e e t V DO C and m t r i nt o he nm t i va r e e n he nt r he whe t y a e t a f r ed t di f r ntf ciii s Pr ort s itng a gr e nc ,t i a e m us n he r r ns e r o fe e a lt e . i o ubm ti i va e he nm t t m a a good f ih e f t o i or aly r ol t c pl i by s itng a i o m a co pl i ke a t f or t nf m l es ve he om a nt ubm ti n nf r l m a nt f m , hi h i a ia e i ho i unis I noti or a l r s ve t i a e m us fl a or w c s va l bl n us ng t . f nf m ly e ol d, he nm t t ie r gul rgr e nce wihi t r y c l nda da f om t da e oft oc ur e e ori i nt Onl e a i va t n hi t a e r ys r he t he c r nc nc de . y o i s pe g i va e m a be a e s d. R e ulz gre nc s m a r e ve t ee l ve sof ne s ue r r e nc y ddr s e g a i va e y ec i hr e l r ew .A f lt s W a evi aciiy' rden or Supernt i endentconduct t fr t,ttv I'r ew oft s he is t evel ' evi he gr evance. l t i at i unsatsfed w ih t de er i i t i at m ay appealt i f he nm e s ii t he t m naton, he nm e he de e m i ton wihi tve ca e rda t t a ve 1 ,' hi h i us ly done by t Reg o l t r na i tni l nda ys o û e l 1' w c s ua l l he i na Om buds a Di ect . Le l1 w ast f na l ve ofr vi w f pl i if s i s . m n/ r or ve 1 he i l e l e e or a ntf ' s ues 7 Pl ntf fl d a r gul rgreva e on D e em be 3,201 c pl i ng t the or rf a ai i f ie e a i nc c r 0, om a ni ha r de or r lg o hea s a fw a de e Edm o de ed t r gul rgre e i i us d c r s ni d. nds ni he e a i vanc on Dec m be 27, 0, e e r 201 e ai ng t twhie r lgi s r e m a be o de ed a t Fl nna Co r c i lCen e f xpl ni ha l e i ous ca v s y r r t he uva r e tona t r or W ome he s a ve a enota a o d pr pe t ie f ofe r a BUCC be a ei i a n, ad c r s r n ppr ve o ry t m or f nde s t c us t s m a e i tt ton. Pl ntf da ed hera alofEdm onds r pons asD e m ber27, 0. The l ns iu i ai i f t ppe ' es e ce 201 Re ona O m buds an' of i e r ei d t a a on J nua y 11 2011 afe t fve ca e r gi l m s fc ec ve he ppe l a r , , t r he i l nda - da pei t a a expied.TheRegi lOmbuds nrj ce t a alasuntmeya y rod o ppe l r ona ma ee td he ppe i l nd r t ne t unpr s e greva t pl n i f e ur d he oce s d i nce o ai t f . Pl ntf w r e t Re onalOm b m a t pr t tt de i i a t as f ai if ot he gi uds n o o es he c s on nd o k or r c s d a i c tng hers rp- el s a usuntlJ nua y 6,2011 he i biiy t pos es pe s l ec m i er ton, ii ti c l tt i a r , ' r na lt o s s r ona pr ry untlJ nuar 11 2011 a BU CC' f l e t pr s m a lbe w e n Dec m be 29, ope t i a y , ; nd S aiur o oce s i t e e r 201 a J nua y 2, 1 The Regi na O m buds a r s ndi by l terda e J nua y 31 0, nd a r 201 . o l m n, e po ng e t td a r , 2011 e a ne t tt BU CC m air , xpl i d ha he loom w a o n o De m be 29 a 30,201 butw a s pe n ce r nd 0, s c os d b t e n D e m ber31 201 a J nua y 2,20l1 f t holday w e ke The l e ew e ce , 0, nd a r , or he i e nd. O m buds a uphe d t de i i n t tpl i ifu i el fl d t a a eve afe a ountng f m n l he c s o ha a ntf ntm y ie he ppe l n t r cc i or t tm et BUCC m aloo wa cl e Thus pli ifsat hme sa de e n s he i he ir m s os d. , antf tac nt nd f nda t ' e de e s vi nc uppor def nda s c l i n t tpl ntf di notc t e nt ' oncuso ha ai if d ompl wih DOP 8 1f y t 66. or a alng t Le l1r vi w w ihi fve ca e rda ,e n afe ac ountng f t d t ppe i he ve e e t n i l nda ys ve t r c i or he ays he BU CC m a l oo w a notope a i ir m s r tng. 1TheV DOC DiecororDe t Diecorc r t puy r t onducst fna adm i sr tv r viw f t f w isu a aa et t he i l nitaie e e or he e s es ppe lbl o Le 11 vel 1. 8 $( na nitai r me i notc i rdt ha be na lbl i aprs r ùA) dmi srtve e dy s onsdee o ve e vaia e f ione , t ough no f ul ofhi ow n,w a pr ve ed f om a ii hi s l of i. M oor v. e t e 51 hr a t s s e nt r va lng m e f t' ' e B nne t , 7 F. 71 7 ( hCi. ) Gg l nprs ofii sprve i t fom usngt 3d 7, 25 4t r 2008 . lW he ion fcal e ntnmaes r i he a i s r tve pr s ... t pr es t te s son pa rbe om e una l e i r a iy. dm ni ta i oce s , he oc s ha xi t pe c s vaiabl n e lt ' ' Kabav.Stpp,458F. 678,684( hCi. 6) antf rieae i he rs ns t ts e 3d 7t r 200 .Pli if etrts n r epo e ha he c d nottm e y a a be a e s S a on s rp- l m e t he lh s a us'be w ee Dec m be oul i l ppe l c us he k s w ti ce l n al a t t t ' t n e r 23, 2010,and Januar 10,2011,and alegedl w ihoutacces t m ai. Pl ntf srecei and pt y l y t so l8 ai if' sgnaur oft Leve la alon De e r27,2010, li whih s a lge y di notha i t e he l ppe c mbe dtrng c he le dl d ve a e st m a l c r ve t he a l d i biiy t a ce sm a l A lho pl i tf sgne he cc s o i, ont o r s r lege na lt o c s i . t ugh a n i f i d r a alon D e e be 27,201 s doesnotaleg t ts ha ppe cm r 0, he l e ha he nded he a r ppea t a BU CC ofi i l lo fca f ma lng orhow a BUCC ofi ilr f e t pr s he a a du i he Gsrp- e lme a or ii ny fca e us d o oce s r ppe l rng r çti c l nt l he lh saus' Co e nty, antf f ist e t bls how VDOC a nt o S ti c lme a a t t t .' ns que l pli if a l o sa ih ge s r t rp- el nt l s hea t s a us ' w hi h pl i ifdoesnotdefne orde c i pr vent d he f om tm el a lh t t ,' c a ntf i s rbe, e e r r i y ppea i lng. Pl i i fsr la e on D e' nt v. a s N o.1: c 11 2011 U . D it LEXI a ntf e i nc Lo a Pe r on, 09- v- 67, S. s . S 1 8986, 1W L 795934( D. Fe 24,2011,smiplc d.l De' av.Pe s a 201 E. Va. b. ) i s a e n Lont aron, dsrc c u t ee mi e f rp r o e o s mmayj d me tta plitf wa p e e tdfo itit o r d tr n d o u p s s f u r u g n h t an if s rv n e r m exha tng DOP 8 1' a i sr tver di sbe us aPCC i tga o t d he nott fl usi 66. s dm nitai eme e ca e nvesi t r ol r o ie gr e nce w hie a i s i to a PCC wasa tve.9 Pl i tf f l t es a ih i t sca e how i va s l n nve tga i n t ci a n i f ais o t bls n hi s s c dno tm el fl t a ala BUCC,a aditi c tse he oul t i y ie he ppe t nd srd our' xcus lf pl i ifsf iur a or antf ' a l e t e us a cl i i D e' v a v. r on doesnotc e i ly e us pl i iff o D OP o xha t a m n t ont Pea s at gorca l xc e a ntf r m 8 1' r quie e si t sca e Acc di y,de e 66. s e r m nt n hi s . or ngl f ndan s e t bls t tpl i iff ie t t s a i h ha a ntf a l d o 8Pl ntf s ysi he r pons t ts wason srp c lsausuntlJ nua y l , 20ll at ai if a n r es e ha he ti el tt i a r 0 , lhough s t d t Re ona he ol he gi l Om buds a t ts wa o Gsr p ce luntl6t ofJ nua y. m n ha he s n éti l i h a r ' ' 9Thecl msr s i t aci do notr lt t t camss b i ce. ai aied n hat ton eae o he li u udi e us a i sr tve r medisa xha t dm nita i e e bouthe he d s a fc am , antf f ist esa ih t tt r a c r l i pl i if a l o t bls ha he g iva pr ed ewa una ia e a t d e nt aeentte t sl yj re nce oc ur s valbl, nd he efnda s r ild o tmmar udgme f nt or t c a m sa utt he d s a f he l i bo he a c z . A. PLAI FFCANNOT RECOVER D AMAGESA GAI D EFENDANTS FOR THE A LLEGED NTI NST RLU I V I PA OLATI ON. Pl ntf s e damag a i td e nt i bot t rofi a a i vi lc pacte . ai if e ks es gans ef nda s n h hei fcil nd ndi dua a ii s R LUI doesnota hor z cl m sf m one da a s a i tdef nt i t i ofi i PA ut i e ai or y m ge ga ns enda s n he r f c al ca cii .Sosa v.Texa , pa tes smon s U. S. ,1 1S.Ct 1 ,1 ( 1 (br tngSmihv. 3 . 651 663 201 ) a ogai t Ale 50 F. 1 ( 1hCi. ln, 2 3d 255 1 t r 2007))M a s v.Vigni,474F. 11 1 ( hCi. ) dion ri a 3d 8, 33 4t r 2006) . RLUI alo doe no a horzec amsf rmone da a sa i tde e nt i t i PA s s t ut i l i o y m ge gans f nda s n he r i vi lc pactes Re d l nv. us 5 F. 1 2,1 ( h Ci.2009)' Ac or ngy, ndi dua a ii . n ema Ro e, 69 3d 8 89 4t r .0 c di l pl i ifm a notr ove da antf y ec r mage f t RLUI cai . s or he PA l m B. PLAI FF MAY NOT R ECOVER DAMAGES FOR CLAI SA GAI D EFENDANTS I THEI NTI M NST N R I VI NDI DUAL CAPACI ES. TI Def nt a g t tt cai a s re a i tt m i t i i vi lc pa ii a e enda s r ue ha he l ms s e td ga ns he n he r ndi dua a ctes r bardbyt docrneofqualte i re he ti ii d mmuniy.Quaiidi t lfe mmuniype misû r ntofii s t r t d nme fcal gove pef mi dicei r fmci ...gobe s ede fom la lt f cvida gesi ofra ror ng s rtonay t tons t ) hil d r ibiiy or i l ma ns a s t i c nduc doesnotvi a e cl ry e t bls d s a ut r orco tt i lrght ofwhi h a he r o t ol t ea l s a ihe t t o y ns iutona i s c ra o bl peronwoul ha known. Hal v.Fiz rl 457U. 8 818( 98 . e s na e s d ve ' row ' tgead, S. 00, 1 2) Qualfe i iid mmuniypr de i t ovi s mmuniyfom s trt rt nameedee et la lt Thus t r ui ahe ha r fns o ibiiy. , 1 Re m a a e s cl m sf da a sagans asat orsaeofi al u rt Spendi Cl ea sof 0 ndel n ddr s es ai or m ge i t t e tt fci s nde he ng aus xi RLUI A.Paniffi t alg a yfcsi h rc mgan s g et gt t e camsa antd fn a t c ud P litf al o l e n at n e o lit u g si ha h r li g is ee d ns o l s e n quaiyasa tonabl unde t Com m e c Cl es to ofRLUI a t c tdeci t c tuc t cai lf ci e r he r e aus ecln PA, nd he our lnes o onsr t he l m f rpl ntf . o ai if 10 whe he ade enda ca da m qua iid i muniy i apur q si ofl w a i pr ry t r f nt n i lfe m t s e ue ton a nd s ope l detr ne prtil Sa irv.Kaz,5 U. 1 4, 01( ) over ldp. ot rgounds emi d era. uce t 33 S. 9 200- 2001, rue n he r hxPe ronv. la n,555U. 223( . a s Calha S. 2009)( r ti l rc t t dic ei t deemi pemitng owe ours he sr ton o tr ne whi qualfe i ch iid mmuniypr t a l efrt. t ong o nayz is) Onc ade e ntr iest qua iid i e f nda a s he lfe mmuniy de e e,apl i ifbe r t bur nt t f ns antf a s he de o s how t ta de e ha f ndan ' c t s onduc vi a e t pl i if sr g ,a t de e ntm us pr ve t t t ol t d he a ntf ' i ht nd he f nda t o ha t rghtvi a e w a no cl a l e t bls d a t tm e oft i i ntt r e ve qua i i d he i ol t d s t e r y s a i he t he i he nc de o ec i lfe i mmuniy.Hen vv.Pur l,501F. 374,378( hCi.2007) tf eunlwf nes oft a ton t r nel 3d 4t r . d' a ul s he ci -h mus bea p rn whe a s s e fo tepes e tv o a o j ci eyr a o a l o fca t p ae t n se s d ' m h rp cie f n b e tv l e s n b e fiil r chage wihknowl ofe t ihe l ' Lo zv. ns 91 F. 486, ( hCi. r d t edge sabls d aw. pe Robi on, 4 2d ' 489 4t r 1 9 ) Se An es nv. ec t n 4 3U. 6 5 6 0(98 )(i- si n t os yt a a o tca 9 0 . e d ro Cr ih o , 8 S. 3 , 4 1 7 sl s o t a h t n f il -hi i ac i n i pr ec ed by qua ii i m uniy unl s t ve y a ton i q s i haspr vi l be n to s ot t lfed m t es he r c i n ue ton e ous y e he d unl w f ... i i t s t ti t lg ofpr - xi tng 1 w t unl w f nes m us be l a ul but t s o ay ha n he i ht e e s i a he a ul s t a rnt' . ppae .' ) Pl i ifa guesi he fr tcai t tt de alofKos rm e l , he d s r,a t antf r n r is l m ha he ni he a s a a ca f nd he c ndl c r ony vi a ed t Fi s A m e m e a RLU I . Pl i t f ar s i he s co a e e em ol t he r t nd nt nd PA a n if gue n r e nd c am t tde e nt 'i ta de a oft Kos rdita he d s r vi aed d pr e s l i ha f nda s niil nil he he e nd a ca f ol t ue oc s . Pli ifa gue i he t r ca m t tnotr cevi t Kos rditf ei y f da antf r s n r hid li ha e i ng he he e or ght our ys i erer d w ih he ge r i ntt di or rtea m e ta a l ge y c us a r e efec s of nt f e t r nde de iy s de r t n nd le dl a ed dve s f t s fs g r somac c a ps na e ,a weghtl sof27pounds Pli ifar ue i he fna el-ur e y; t h r m ; us a' nd i os . a ntf g s n r i l c ai t tJ hns f l t t a n,s r i e a pr ul t polc esr quii s di t st l m ha o on aied o r i upe v s , nd om ga e i i e rng ubor na e o c pl w ih RLUI . Fort f l i r a ons t de e nt a e e il d t qualf e om y t PA he olow ng e s , he f nda s r ntte o ii d i m uniy f t m t or hese cl m s. ai 11 1 De enda sa ee il d t qua iid i . f nt r ntte o lfe mmuniy f pl i ifsRLUI a Fis t or antf ' PA nd r t Am e ndme c am saboutt de a o Kos rm e s a he d s r,a t c ndl nt l i he nil f he al, a ca f nd he a e Cer ony. em De enda sesa ih r to e r as bl r aedt l ii ae pe og c i e e t an f nt t bls a i nals e ona y elt o egtm t nol i al nt r ss d l s-e titve, m peli gove nme a i t r t t de a pli ifsa es t t Kos rdit ea tr src i co lng r nt l n e ess o l y antf ' cc s o he he e f e ght f ur d w hie pr e s ng he a i a i ,pr ve i pl n iff om t ng up pr s or i p o ays l oc s i r pplc ton' e ntng ai t f r yi i on r s r e wih a i vi ualr i o c r m ony i s c us d f gr ac i te ;a e ou c s t n ndi d elgi us e e n pa e e or oup tvii s nd pr ve i fr i i ae lvi a e .Pli iff ist e t bls t tade e ntvi ae a e ntng ie n nm t i ng r as antf a l o sa ih ha f nda ol td r lgi rgh by de ng pl i ifsor rf af l hea s r .Ac or ngl de e n sa e ei ous i t nyi antf de or emae d ca f e di y, f nda t r e il t qua ii d i m uniy f pl i if sRLU I a Fis Am e ntted o lte m t or a ntf ' PA nd r t ndm e c ai s nt l m . a, RLU I St PA andard RLUI i r e ntpa tpr vi st tno gove nme s li PA, n elva r, o de ha r nt hal mpos a s t talb de e ubsan i ur n on t r i ouse r i e ofa i a e unl s t gove nm e de ons r t s t tt bur n he elgi xe c s n nm t e s he r nt m ta e ha he de f t r ac urhe s ompelng gove nm e ali e e ta i t l a tr srci mea off t rngt t li r nt nt r s nd s he e s e ti tve ns urhe i ha i er t 42 U. C.j2000c 1a .E nz nt'ncl sdefnda s whowor frt nt es. S. c- () t Gove me 'i ude e nt, k o he VDOC.Se i j2000c 5( ( .A dubsa talbur n'onrlgi e cs occ si i e d. c- 4)A) û tni de ' ei ous xerie ur f t s E ts s tntalprsur ona ad rntt modiyhi be vira t vi aehi beif, s l) ubsa i e s e n hee o pu f s ha o nd o olt s les or... or sa pe s t c f ce r on o hoos bewe n f l ngt pr c pt o he r lgi and f reii e t e olowi he e e s f r e i on o f tng g o emme tl b neis o t eo eh nd a a a d nn o eo tep e e so h rrlgo . . g v l na) e ft, n h n a , nd b n o ig n f h r c pt f e ei in . ont ot rha ' Lovea ev. ,472F.d 1 1 (t Ci. he he nd.' lc Lee 3 74, 87 4h r 2006)(ne cttons itmal iai omitd) te . To dee m i whe he apli ifesa ihe aprma fci RLUI c am ,ac tmus t r ne t r antf tbls s i a e PA l i our t de i whehe apl i ifsnc ey hel t a we bei fa whehe t be ifi,i a cde t r antf i er l d he vo d le nd t r he le s n pli ifsowns he oft ngs r i o .Unie Sttsv.Se r 38 U. 1 1 (965) antf' c me hi ,elgius td ae eze, 0 S. 63, 85 1 . 12 t lgi e r i e' i l t i ous xe c s ' nc udesda e r s ofr lg on, he he ornotcom pele by, c nt a Re t ny xe ci e e i i w t r ld or e r l t as t ofrlgiusbei . 42U. C.j2000c - 7) Defnda sconc defrp ossof o, ysem ei o lef' ' S. c5( . e nt e o up e s mmayj d me tt t an ifma ha easn e eyh l r l i u b l fta s es o l e t u r u g n ha plitf y v ic r l ed ei o s ei h t h h ud a a g e Kos rdit wea ar lgi he d s a f a cond tt c ndl c r he e , r ei ous a c r , nd uc he a e e emony. b. Fis A m e m e St nd d rt nd nt a ar The Fr Exer i e Cl us oft Fi s A m e ee c s a e he r t ndm e e e t pr s i a e . O ' nt xt nds o i on nm t s Lone v. Esaeo Sha z, 2U. 342,348( 987 .Morionv.Gar chv,239F. 648,656(t Ci. tt f baz 48 S. 1 ) rs , ra t 3d 4h r 2001 .Howe r a i t sc tttonalrght mus bee uaedwihi t c e o ) ve, n nmae' onsiui i s t val t t n he ontxt f i a c a i n. The Supr m e Cour hasl ng ca i d t td r s a e i1equi nc r er to e t o utone ha t t r l cou pped t de lw ih o a t t i r s ngl u ge pr e s ofpr s a m i sr ton a r f m .' Pr uni rv.M ari z, he nc ea i y z nt obl m ion d ni ta i nd e or ' oc e tne 41 U. 396, ( 4)( cu .Thus t c t( ta c d deee et t ofi aswho 6 S. 405 197 ditm) ,he our s mus c or frnc o he fcil r aprs ove s i a c di tng ism a a pe t,i l ng s c iy,dici i a un ion, r eeng nd oor na i t ny s cs nc udi e urt s plne, nd ge a a i sr i ' Love a ,47 F. a 1 ner l dm nitaton. ' l ce 2 3d t 99. Thi de e e e i a hi ve by a r tona - s st s . The co tc i e sf f t st s f r nc s c e d a i l ba i e t ur ons d r our ac or o de e mi i aprs r ulton i r as bl r a e t al tm a epe ogi li e es: t r ne f ion eg a i s e ona y elt d o egii t nol ca nt r t ()( l ehe t r i aA ai ,ain lc n e to 'b t e teprs nrg lto 1 W h t r hee s û ld rto a o n cin' ewe n h io e uain v o a ton a t i e e tas e t by t gove nm e ,orwhe he t s i er s i r c i nd he nt r s s red he r nt t r hi nt e t s t or ea t r rt polc abirr orirtona'.2)whehe S tr tve s emot s o ende he iy r tay rai l'( s t r d enai al m e nsofe c sngt rg ... e i ope t prs i t ,' n i r t t a xer ii he i ht r man n o ion nma es'a nquiy ha a ksbr dl whe heri a eswe e de i d ofal f m s ofr lgi e r i e or s oa y t nm t r prve l or e i ous xe c s whehe t weeabl t patcpaei ot robs r a soft i fih;( wha t r hey r e o rii t n he e v nce her at 3) t i pac t de ied a co m oda i w o d ha on s c u t s a f i a es and t m t he s r c m ton ul ve e t i y t f , nm t , he al ai ofprs rs c ;a ( whehe t r e s a t ous e y loc ton ion e oures nd 4) t r hee xit ny t obvi , as a t r tve ' t t c le d r gul ton ora ton,whi h m a s le na i s' o he ha l nge e a i ci c y ugge tt ti i s ha t s d tras bl buti gnsea a e ggeae rs et prs c nc m s' s e ona e, s i t d) n xa rtd e pons o ion o e .' no I a 200( i Tur rv.Safe 482U. 78,89,92( 98 ) W hena yi t s f t s d. t quotng ne ly, S. 1 7). ppl ng he e acor, t co t us d e pe t de e m i tons ofprs n ofi i l . Unie St t v. ots 9 F. he ur m t d s ct he t r na i r io fca s' ' t d a es St t , 25 2d 8 8 ( hCi.1 ) 3, 6 4t r 991.Thepli ifbe r t uli t bur nofesa ihi t taprs antf a s he tmae de tbls ng ha ion r ul to o de i i n i unc tt i l Ha ev. ught993F. 1 eg a i n r c s o s ons iutona . us Va , 2d 079,1 ( hCi. 082 4t r 1 . 993) Anal s ysi Edm o 'a W a hi on' Gr e nc Res nds nd s ngt s i va e pons es Pli ifna e Edmondsa W a hi t a def nda sba ed o t i Le 1a Le antf m s nd s ng on s e nt s n her vel nd vel 1 greva er pons s r pe i y,a 1 i nc es e , es ctvel boutt a lge de a ofr lgi ac om moda i An he le d ni l e i ous c ton. ad i sr t ' a trt -a tde a ofa g i va e i notas fc e tbasst e t bls t t m nita ors fe -he f c ni l re nc s ufi i n i o sa ih ha a i s r t ' i ve e i t ac ua de i ton ofa c tt t o ors a ut y rght Se dm ni ta or s nvol m nt n he t l prva i ons iu i nal t t or i . e Boce v. o on, o. 1 c 001 201 U . D i t LEX I 1 r J hns N 7: 0- v- 94, 0 S. s . S 32679,a *26,201 W L t 0 51 74364,a*8( . Va.De 1 201 ( tngBr v.Bead,1 F.App' 923,925( d t W D. c. 5, 0) cii ooks r 67 x 3r Ci. r 2006) (i ngt talgai t tprs ofiil a a nitaor r ponde ) fndi ha le tons ha ion fcas nd dmi sr t s es d i ppr it l t i ae' l t rfl gre nce do note t ih t i ve toft e na opra ey o nm t s a e -ied iva s sabls he nvol men hos ofii sa a nitaor i t alge undel ngde i to , fd,438F.App' 1 ( h fcal nd dmi srt s n he le d ryi prvain)af x 67 4t Ci.2011.Pli ifdoesnotohewiede ci a ot r lva f t i vi Edmondsor r ) antf t r s s rbe ny her ee nt acs nvol ng W a hi on a t ,f ist e tbls ho Ed o o W a hi on s t ntaly bur neda s ngt nd, hus al o sa ih w m nds r s ngt ubsa i l de r lgi use c s orvi a e t Fis Am e e . e i o xer i e ol t d he r t ndm nt The K os rD i t he e Pl ntf f ist e t bls t tM ont ba s t li l bur ned pl i t f ' r lgi ai i f a l o s a i h ha al no ubsat aly de t a n if s e i ous e r ie ofeai Kos rf .M ont ba a o pli ifsr c ptofa Kos rdita xe c s tng he oods al no ppr ved antf e ei he e t BUCC be us Common Fa ei nota lbl t r . Pl ntf c ca e r s vaia e he e ai if ompl i t tM on aba kn ans ha t l no ew pl i ifr lg ous y ne d t ea K os f a PCC. H owe r pl ntf vol a iy w ihdr w a ntf e i i l ede o t her ood t ve , ai i f unt rl t e fom t K os r c pa i e Com m on Fa e di tw hie a PCC. Pl i if s w ihdr w a f o ' r he he - om tbl r e l t a ntf ' t a l r m 1 4 e tng VDoc- e r d Kos rf odr a ona y de ai pr pa e he o e s bl monsr t d t tpl ntf no l rwa edt ta e ha ai if onge nt o e tVDoc- e r d Kos rf a pr pa e he ood,a hervol nt r wihdr wa r r d he t r p y f a nd u a y t a l equie r o ea pl or r lgi usdi t r a co m oda i n. ei o ea y c m to Pl i ifa s f is t e t bls t tBooke s t nta l bur ned he r lgi e r s o a ntf l o a l o s a i h ha r ubs a i ly de r e i ous xe ci e f e tng Kos rf . Booke di no ha t a hort t gr ntpl i ifsr ques f ra Kos r ai he oods r d t ve he ut iy o a antf ' e t o he ditbe a et VDOC' CCS i ve td wih t a hort t a ovea i ae' a ia i f e c us he S s se t he ut iy o ppr n nm t s pplc ton or Common Fa e. M ont ba a ame be oft CCS, t VDOC ofi i lwih t a ho iy r al no, s m r he was he fc a t he ut rt t a ovepl i ifsa ia i nott BUCC As itntW a de Boo rnet ra ove nor o ppr antf pplc ton, he ssa r n. ke ihe ppr d di a ove pl ntf s a i a i butm e e y f s ppr d ai if pplc ton r l onva d t a i to t t CCS. r ed he pplca i n o he Ac di y,pl i ifca cor ngl a ntf nnotes a i h t tBoo s t nta l bur ne pl i t f r lgi t bls ha ker ubs a i ly de d a n ifs e i ous e r s ofe tng a K os rdi t xe ci e a i he e . Pl i if sco pl ntc nt r on t a o m a e y ni c l nda a ntf m ai e e s he ppr xi t l ne a e r daysBooke cons d r d r ie e t I ' r o m e ton a t ry- i ca e rda t CCS c i r Boo ' a t he CA S ec m nda i nd hi t fve l nda ys he ons de ed ker s nd he I ' r omm e ton f pl i ifsComm on Fa e a i to No dely i pr ce sngt CA S ec nda i or antf r pplcai n. a n o s i he applca i n f K os rf a BU CC w oul ha oc r i pl ntf ha notvol a iy i to or he ood t d ve cured f ai i f d unt r l wihdr wn fom Comm o Fa e a PCC.l wa pli ifsvol nt r wihd a lfom Comm on t a r n r t t s antf u a y t r wa r Fa e atPCC,no gove nm e ala ton,t tne s ia ed a t ra i aton t r c ve V D OC r t r nt c i ha ce st t no he pplc i o e ei i hi i , a ntf pr pa e K os r f ods 1 D ur ng t s tm e pl i ifpur ha e a a e Kos rf e rd he o .l c s d nd t he oodsf om t r he BUCC c omm is y. Thus pl ntf c us d t ne t r a y f Kos rf ,pl n ifco d s ar , ai if a e he ed o e ppl or he oods aitf ul ea Kos rf odspr ded by t BUCC c t he o ovi he omm is r a t tmef Bookera M o aba s a y, nd he i or nd nt l no t pr e sa a ovepl i ifsr ques wa an i i e a bur n o pl ntf ' a lt t e t o oc s nd ppr antf ' e t s nc d nt l de n ai ifs biiy o a 1 Alho VDO C polc pr bisr pplc to f oneye r pl i tf di notr appl f rne ry l m ont a r 1 t ugh iy ohi t ea iain or a , a n if d e y o al 8 hs he wihdr w i f o Com m on Fa e. t a ng r m r Kos rf he oods. Se Lyng v. t s I a Ce eer Pr eci As ' 48 U. 439, 0 e Norhwe t ndin m t v ot tve sn, 5 S. 45 ( )(ilnci ntlefe t ofgove nme tpr a , c ma ma imor difc tt 19B8 çll de a fcs r n ogrms whih y ke t e fiul o pr t c c r a n r i i butw hi h ha no t nde y t coe c i vi l i t a tng c r r ac i e e t i elg ons c ve e nc o r e ndi dua s n o c i onta y t t i r i o belef'aei ufiintba e t saeacli unde FreExe cs Clus) To o her elgius i s' r ns fce s s o tt am r e r ie a e . t e e t r w a a m i r de ay i pr e s ng pl i if sa i t o of i i l a i nt lor he xt nt he e s no l n oc s i a ntf pplca i n, fc a s' cc de a ne i ntaci t tm a i pi t s m ede e on pl i ifsr i i pr tc a e glge tons ha y m nge o o gr e antf' elg ous ac ie r i ufi e t s ns tcint o uppo ta aci bl c nsiutona cli .Se eg.Da el v.W ilams 47 r n tona e o tt i l am e, . , ni s li , 4 U. 3 328( 986) Da ds v.Camon,47 U. 3 3 48( 986) W hilyv. bes 475 S. 27, 1 ; vi on l 4 S. 44, 47- 1 ) te Al r, U. 31 320( 986) Esel v. mbl,429U. 97,1 06 ( 9 . S. 2, 1 ; tle Ga e S. 05- 1 76) ii i. The He Sca f ad r Pl i ifa l esi t compl i ,k ki m Cor.Ct.s t ntaly bur ne antf leg n he ant C Buc ngha r r ubsa i l de d p anii'le e cs o r lgo , yd n igh rr l iu he dat e(cgrg, a d t litf s x rie f ei in b e yn e ei o s a ti s aj ' n ,i g r ' By Buc ng Co r Ct. mi srton,dee nt nmnegi)heen de ngpli ifhe ... ki hmn r. r ad nitai fnda s sc ri nyi antf r rlgo ss g f . . ( mpl 1 - 2)Plitf c r t r c e a an tEd nd a dBo k r ei iu cmj . .' Co . 1 1 . an if amo p o e d g i s mo s n o e ' by ge r l a l gi t tt t ki ha Co r Ct . a t t ki hn Cor . r ne aly le ng ha he ç Buc ng m r . r' nd he s ' Buc ng m r Ct . a i s r ton' vi l t he r lgi r g sa dm nit a i ' o a ed r e i ous i ht boutt he d s a f l A lhough pl i if he a c r .z t a ntf s ctc lyie tfe M ao Da i a d n igt eo d rf rah a s af M ao Da i i n ta pe i al d n iis j r vs s e yn h r e o e d c r, j r vs s o i de e nt Pl i ifdoe nots ci ly i ntf an def nda ' a orom i s on a f nda . a ntf s pe ica l de i y y e nt s ct s i bout pl i if s o derf a r i oushe d s a f Fur he m or ,pl i ifdoe no defne orde c i a ntf ' r or elgi a c r . t r e a ntf s t i s rbe whats m eansby a relgi Ghead s f'orwhy i i r i ous y necess y f her M or he i ous ç car ' t s elgi l ar or . eover, pli ifdoe no e an how no o de i apa tc a he d s a ffom ave rs t ntal antf s t xpli t r rng riulr a c r r ndo ubsa i ly pr s ur d he t m odiy be vi ,e pec aly s nc a û ca f' o cove t he os e i y c n be es e r o f ha or s i l i e t r ' t s r he ad t ns bl a 1 J on, M o al 2 ohns nt bano,a W a hi t n a enotpa toft BU CC adm i sr ton. nd s ng o r r he nitai 16 madeofa c0t Ac or ngl pl ntf f l t e tbls t tade e ntvi a e ar lgi ny 1 h. c di y, ai if ais o sa ih ha f nda olt d e i ous rghti vi t he d s r . i nvol ng he a ca f The Ca e Ce e o ndl r m ny Booke e t bls sac r sa ihe ompelng govemm e a i e e tf de ng pl ntf sJ nua y li l nt l nt r s or nyi ai if a r 2011r s f t c ndl c r m o Booke de e pli ifsr ques t ha t cmz e eque t or he a e e e ny. r ni d antf e t o ve he dl e r mony be a efr i as trt rs a pli ifsr ques wasa a i vi la no on ee c us ie s ecliy ik nd antf ' e t s n ndi dua nd t b h l o ag o p.Plitf rs o d di h ro p sto t s mmayj g n wiht ag me t e af f r u an if e p n e n e p o i n o u r ud me t t he ru n i t tpli ift svot by ( ha antf û wa ed BUCC)J im Gr past s rtr whom dute aet s t udas ou he eceay is r o ubmi rquett t't pa tci t i (lwihhol da f tvas,lke lghtngoft ca e.... e s kie o ri pae n Je s y y esi ll i ) i i he ndl ' ' ( .sOpp.Summ . .( 31 2. antf r lesoni t 'afda t, cha knowl et t Pl' J no. ) )Pli if ei nmaes fi vis whi c edg ha pl i ifi t Sec e a y oft BUCC J wih g oup.No a y,neihe pli tf no t i t s antf s he r t r he e s r t bl t r a n if r he nma e a rt tpl i ifw ast Se r t r oft BUCC J wi h gr whe pl ntf fl d t ca e ve ha a ntf he c e a y he e s oup n ai i f ie he ndl ce e r mony r que tort tt BU CC J wih g o e se a t ttm e Pl i iff l t s bm i e s ha he e s r up xit d t ha i . antf ais o u t a e de t s ny vi nce o uppot t a gum e tt ts fl t r ques on be l of a o he i a e. ' he r t n ha he ied he e t ha f ny t r nm t I ed, r que tt Booke e i ty s a e t tt c ndl s v c ç sa ve y r lgi nde her e s o r xplcil t t s ha he a e er i e t i r e i ous r uie ntt tJmus pr tc f mvf ih. ( eq r me ha t acie or at ' Booke Af Enc. (mphassa l) ' r f, lA e i dded . BKCC ofii sha aco li go r ntli e e ti ens i t s f t a fcal ve mpelng ve nme a ntr s n urng he a e y nd s c iy ofi t a t or ry o r tonsoft ef clt Relgi s r c sa g oup e urt mua es nd he de l pe a i h a iiy. i ous e vie nd r a tvii r qui e i r m VD O C s a fs r s on o e pe i nce volm t e s r i i n t wa c c i tes e r n- oo t f upe vi i r x re d t e r upe v s o o t h t e nt w hi h ofe s r i s a fr our esa s c a iabiiy f r gul r y s hedul d gr p he ve , c t n t a ns t f es c nd pa e va l lt or e a l c e ou a t te . Pe ti a s ngl i m a e t occ py g o f ciii t pr tc a a l ed y pe s nal c vii s nnitng i e n t o u r up a ltes o ac i e n leg l r o r lgi obs r e i ous e vanc w oul u e d ndul i e f r w ih pr s a i s r ton by m i a l a i s c iy y nt r e e t i on dm nit a i s loc tng e urt pe s l e . Fur he m or ,ope ta e a fr a e pr bie w ihi t i tt i n,e pec a l r om l t r e n l m s nd ie r ohi t d t n he ns iuto s i ly wihi i vi lil t lvi ar swher pli tf woul ha co t n ndi dua rma e i ng ea e a n if d ve nducedt ca e c r mony t he ndl e e i no g oup f iiy w asava l bl The nee t pr ve i a es ac es t t r w ihi lvi a e s f r ac lt ia e. d o e nt nm t ' c s o i e t n i ng r a i a o viu l j siib era o t man anisiuin l e u i a dd si ln a dp e e t s n b o sy u tfa l e s n o iti n t to a s c rt n icpi e n rv n t y t e t t i ts's ey.See e. , vi v.Or Count 607F. 543(t Ci.201 ) hras o nmae aft , g.Da s . y, 3d 8h r 0 ( susi c e nc ofafr i ac rci lfciiy) dic sng onsque es ie n ore tona a lt . Dee f ndan s a e entte t q lf e i m uniy f pl ntf scl i st t t r il d o ua ii d m t or ai i f a m ha de enda s de a oft K os rdi t he d s a f and c nd e ce e o vi l t f nt ' ni l he he e , a c r , a l r m ny o a ed due pr ocessor equalpr ecton, ot i Pli if ss c cl m i t tde e nt vi a e d pr es gua a e b t a ntf e ond ai s ha f nda s olt d ue oc s r nt ed y he Foure nt Am e te h ndm e by de ng he a Kos rdi tand r lgi ushea s a for r nt nyi r he e ei o d c r de . e t bls a Fouree h A m e e due pr es vi a i pl i ifm us pr t ta de e sa ih t nt ndm nt oc s ol ton, a ntf t ove ha f ndan t de i d he ofa l gii a e lbe t orpr ry i e e t Se Bd.ofReg s ofSt t Cols v. pr ve r e tm t i r y ope t nt r s . e ent ae l. Rot 408U. 564,570( 972) Pli ifsaleg tonsofbengde e aKos rditarlgi h, S. 1 . antf' l ai i nid he e, ei ous he d s ar ,a a ca e c r ony do nots a e a c a m ofde i ton ofa lbe t orpr ry a c f nd ndl e em t t ny l i pr va i i ry ope t i e e t a t due pr s cl m m us f l nt r s , nd he oce s ai t ai. Pl i ifi t a a a st des rbe a Fo t e h Am e m e r ghtt e lpr t c i a ntf ns e d ppe r o c i ur e nt nd nt i o qua o e ton t rlw.SeeHanesv. r r 40 U. 51 5 21( 9 ( susi lbea co t ci mde a i Kene , 4 S. 9, 20- 1 72) dic sng i rl nsnlton ofnr K c ant) o ompli s.Theco tc t est equa prtci cam a c l i t BUCC' ur onsnl he l oe ton li s halengng he S polc t r qui e ne BU CC i a est s e a o f Co m on Fa e a t iy o e r w nm t o e k ppr val or m r lhough a f w BU CC e i na esa r dy r ce ve a K os rdi t1 m t lea e i he e .3 Ct i o r a e pr e t d unde t Equa Pr e i Cl us ...f om i di t s ne s r ot c e pr r he l ot cton a e r nvi ous dici nai ' W olfv. c mel 41 U. 53 556( 974 .Toe t iha equa srmi ton.' f M Dol l, 8 S. 9, 1 ) sabls n l 1 Pl ntf as i ntfest de iato oft hea s r a c ndl cee ony a duepr s vi ai , buta 3 ai if lo de ii he prv ins he d caf nd a e rm s oce s oltons s pli ifac antf knowl ges t c l dpolc doe no r aet hea s r esorca ec r m onisf ne y ed , he halenge iy s t elt o d ca v ndl e e e or wl a rvi i a esa BU CC. r i ng nm t t 18 pr eci n cli pl ntf mus s t ts û be n te t d dif r nty fom ot r wih ot to a m, ai if t how ha he k has e r a e fe e l r he s t w hom he i s m ia l st t d a t tt une lt e t e w a t r s tofi t ntona o s i l ry iua e nd ha he qua r a m nt s he e ul n e i l r pupos f dici nai ' M ors nv. rag v,239F. 6 654( hCi. ) Thus eul s rmi ton. rio Gar ht ' 3d 48, 4t r 2001 . , pl ntf m us al ges fce f c st e t bls t tade e anti e i ly dic i i t d ai if t le ufi int a t o sa ih ha f nd nt ntona l s rm na e ag ns he ont bassofr lgi by f ii t pr dehe a r a ona eopporu t t pur ue ai t r he i e i on alng o ovi r e s bl tniy o s he f ih c pa e t o he sm ia l s t t d r lgi g oups Cr v. t 405 U . 31 321 r a t om r d o t r i l ry iua e e i ous r . uz Be o, S. 9, - 22( 972) Pli ifmus stf t l pe fc, c us yfcua algai t te tbls 1 . antf t e orh t cii non-oncl or a t l le tons ha sa ih s i o rmotve. W ila v. ns n,326F.d 5 584(t Ci. ) mpr pe i ' lims Ha e ' 3 69, 4h r 2003 . Pl i iff ist es a i h t ta de e nti r s a ntf a l o t bls ha ny f nda s e ponsbl f a polcy o c t of i e or i r us om di c i i tng a i tpl ntf by nota om a i ly g vi he a K os rdi t Se Cha a v. s rm na i ga ns ai i f ut tca l i ng r he e . e pm n CivofDer t808F. 45 465( hCi.1 6)(oncus yalgainsofdici nai not t toi, 2d 9, 6t r 98 c l or le to srmi ton s fce t e t ihla lt) J fev. d.Ree eBa ofChiago,586F.Supp.1 1 uf int o sabls ibiiy ; af Fe srv nk c 06, 09 ( D. 1. 98 )( od n ap an ifd n n tmeey iv k hs(eiin i t ec u s o t N. 11 1 4 h li g litf t n o r l n o e i rlgo l n h o re f he c cai snartvea aut tc lybee ildt puruerlef' l m' rai nd omaial ntte o s ei .).Eve i s di pli if n f he d, antf c nnote t bls t tr quii a i a e t de o ta e a s nc e y- l r l g ousne f r a s a i h ha e rng n nm t o m nsr t i er l he d e i i ed o s cildit y a r nge pe a ear ra ment i ar ul ofi t nto orpu pos 'ldic i nai n.By deful, s s es t n e inal r ef s rmi to u a t a lBU CC i a esa e gi s a r ze nutii ly ade t m ea s a m a a y f a l nm t r ven t nda di d, rtona l qua e l nd y ppl or s cil r i ousdi t l ng e h i t t ha ac t -r a e menu on r que two d pe a , elgi e .Alowi ac nma e o ve usom c e t d e s ul u ndul dir pti a e m e pr pa a i n,s r i e a c t . N ot y, a ntf ac y s u nm t al e r to e v c , nd os s abl pl i if knowl dge t t e s ha t polc a ise lyt a1ne ya vi i t a BUCC a no j the ,a t , he iy pple qual o l wl ni ng nmaes t nd t us r nd hus pl i ifpr s nt not ng m or t n a co l or alega i n ofdi c i i i n. a ntf e e s hi e ha nc us y l t o s r m nato De e nt a e e il t q lfe i f nda s r ntted o uaiid mmuniy f pl ntf sEi ht Ame m e t or ai if g h nd nt cli st tnoti medit y r c i ng aKos rdi tal dl i e f r d wih he am ha m ael e e vi he e lege y ntr e e t r ge ri ntt di or rt e t e a c us d s l - ur e y;s om a h c mnps nde de iy s de r a m nt nd a e e f s g r t c r ; naus ;a wei l s of27 pounds ea nd ght os . Pl i ifal antf legest tt de aloft Kos rdi tf e ght f dayswhiehe ha he ni he he e or i y-our l r a i ton w aspr s ed i er e e w ih he ge ri ntt di or rt e t e a c us d pplca i oce s nt f r d t r nde de iy s de r a m nt nd a e a r e e f c s ofs f s ge y;s om a h c n ps na e a wei l sof27 pounds A dve s f e t el- ur r t c r m ; us a; nd ght os . pl i ifm us s w t ta de e n a e w ih delbe a e i f e e t a s r ousm e c lnee a ntf t ho ha f nda t d d t i r t ndif r nce o e i di a d t s a e a c ai unde t Ei h A m e m e f t unc tt i lde alofm edi a o tt l m r he ght nd nt or he ons iutona ni cl as i t nc . Esele,429 U . a l Delbe a e i fer nc r r a s at a t rt ha be n ss a e t l S. t 04. i r t ndi f e e equies t e c o o ve e per ona l a a e off c si ca i a s t nta r s ofs rous ha m , nd t a t rm us ha s ly w r a t ndi tng ubs a i l i k ei r a he c o t ve acualyrcog ze t exitnc ofs hars Fame v.Brl n,511U. 825,838( 99 . t l e ni d he se e uc ik. r r ema S. 1 4) t elbe ae i fe enc m a bede r i r t ndif r e y monsr t by et racua i e orr kl sdir ga d. taed ihe t l ntnt ec es se r ' ' M ite v. r 896F. 8 851( h Ci.1 ) Se Pars e r lLeev. e l 37 lir Beon, 2d 48, 4t r 990 . e rih x e. Clveand, 2 F.d2 4, 03(t Ci. 0 )(g h e i e c mus s o t theo fca i q e to 3 9 3 4 h r 20 4 û T) e v d n e t h w ha t fiil n u si n $ s jci yr c nie t thi a tonsweedna r raei lg oft trs ''.(A dee nt ube tvel e og z d ha s ci r i pp op it n iht ha ik.' ( fnda ) acsr c e sy by dir r nga s tnta rs ofdange t ti eihe knownt t def ndmz t e kl s l sega di ubsa il ik r ha s t r o he e t orw hi h w oul be a r ntt a r a o bl pe s i t de e nt sposton. M ite ,896 c d ppa e o e s na e r on n he f nda ' ii ' li r ' F. a 8 2d t 51 52. Pl i iff l t il t a e how a de e ntw asa a e t ts di note tt nona ntf ais o lusr t ny f nda w r ha he d a he K os r f he oodspr pa e by BU CC s a fort the f pur has f om t c m i s r i e f r e rd tf ha r ood c es r he om s a y nt r e ed w ih he gende i ntt di or rt e t e ta ca ed s l - ur r s om a c a ps na ea' t r r de iy s de r a m n nd us e f s ge y; t ch r m ; us , a w e g l sof27 pounds Furhe m o e pl i ifdoe no de c i a s t i ntde i ton of nd i ht os . t r r , a ntf s t s rbe ufk e pr va i 20 aba i huma ne d snces r us d t e tt VDOC pr par d f , sc n e i he ef e o a he e e oods bough f fom t t ood r he BUCC c omm is r a doesnotal t ts di no r c i m e c ca e. s a y, nd lege ha he d t e e ve dial r J ohns n i e il t qua ii d i m uniy f pl ntf ' c a m t tJ hns f ie o s ntted o lfe m t or ai i f s l i ha o on a l d t t a n,s r i e,a pr ul t polc e r quii s di t st c pl w ih o r i upe v s nd om ga e i i s e r ng ubor na e o om y t RLU I . PA Pli ifalege t tJ hns f ie t tai s r s ,a pr antf l s ha o on a ld o r n, upe vie nd omul t polce r quii gae i is e rng s di t t c ywihRLUI Supewior labiiy u rj1 mayno beprdiaed ubor naes o ompl t PA. l s y i lt nde 983 t e ct on t t or ofr pondea s ror Se M pne lv.De tofSoc.Se vs , 6 U . 658,663 n. he he y es t upe i . e l p' r . 43 S. 7 ( 978) Se ton 1 rquie as ngofpe s lful ont pa t adee an et rba e 1 . ci 983 e rs howi rona a t he r of fnd t ihe s d on t de e ntspe s lco uc ormz he ' c he f nda ' r ona nd t ot rs onduc i e uto oft def ntspolcis t n xec i n he enda ' i e orc t s Fihe v.W a hi on M er ia Ar aTr nstAut . 690 F. 11 11 43 usom . s r s ngt topoltn e a i hor, 2d 33, 42- ( hCi.1 2) abr t pqot rcoundsh Cnt ofRi sdev. cv i 500U. 44 4t r 98 , ogaed - he r y v. veri M lauchln, S. ( 991.Toi ela lt onas r iorf afiur t tai s di ts apli ifmus 1 ) mpos ibiiy upe vs or al e o r n ubor nae , antf t pl da pr t t1 as di t acualyvi ae t pli ifsc tt i lrg s 2)t ea nd ove ha ) ubor nae t l oltd he antf onsiutona iht; he s r s rf l t pr ry tai t s di t ,t il tai a s r s ' tdei r t upevio aied o ope l r n he ubor na e hus lusr tng upe viors t lbe ae i fe e e'ot rght ofvi ae byt s or i t a 3)t f iu et tanacual ndifr nc 't he i s oltd he ub dnae; nd he alz o ri t ly c us d t s di t t vi a et pli ifsrg s Br v.M ic l 308F. pp. 68 a e he ubor nae o olt he antf i ht . own t hel, Su 2d. 2, 701( D. 2005 ( tngCivofCa onv. ri, 9U. 378, 9 (98 E. Va. ) cii t nt Hars 48 S. 388-2 1 9:. Ot rt n a ge r lalega i t tJ he ha ne a l ton ha ohns f ie t t a n,s r i e,a pr ul t on a l d o r i upe v s nd om ga e polci s pl i tf doesnota l ge J i e , a n if le ohns ss c f c a to o i s on t ts t nta l bur n he on' pe i i c r m s i ha ubs a i ly de r a lt t pr ctcehe r lgi Pl n ifa s f l t de c i ho J on ha a knowl dgeof biiy o a i r ei on. aitf lo ais o s rbe w ohns d ny e t f c sdes rbe i t c pl i ,a pl i tf f ist e t bls t ta s di t vi a e a he a t c i d n he om a nt nd a n if a l o s a i h ha ubor na e ol t d ci lrght. A ccor ngl supel sor labiiy agai tJohns m us f l vi i di y, wi y i lt ns on t ai. PLAI FF D OESNOT H AVE A V I NTI ABLE REM EDY AGAI DEFENDANTS I THEI O FFI AL NST N R CI CAP TI ACI ES. Plitf r q et d ma e a dij n tv rle a an tt d fn nsi tero tca an if e u ss a g s n nu cie eif g is he ee da t n h i fiil ca c tes The El ve h Am e e ba s s t i f de a co t f m one dam a aga ns a pa ii . e nt ndm nt r uis n e r l ur s or y ges i t n i d unconsntngStt ' Edema v. or n,41 U. 651 663( 974) si e i ae. ' l n J da 5 S. , 1 .Thi mmuniye e t t xtnds o ça msoft St t ,' ncudi sa ea ncisa saeofi e sa tng i t i ofii lca ct tr he a e'i l ng t t ge e nd t t fc r c i n he r fc a pa iy. M tHe lhyCiy Sc Dif Bd.ofDduc. Do e 429U. 274,280( 977) Gryv. . at t h. s. y. vl, S. 1 ; a Laws 51 , F. 4 430( h Ci.1995 .Vigni hasnotwave iss r gni 3d 26, 4t r ) ri a i d t oveei mmuniyt j1 t o 983 da a s a tons Acc di l pl i i fm a no r c rda a ag ns de e nt i t i m ge c i . or ng y, a ntf y t e ove m ges ai t f nda s n he r ofi a ca ciis W ilv. ih. n' ofStt Polc ,491U. 58,71( 989 .Pli ifi not fcil pa te . l M c De t ae ie S. 1 ) antf s e il d t e t bl r leff rt r as dic s d i t sopi on. ntte o quia e e i o he e ons s us e n hi ni V. F rt f rg i r a o s tec u t r nsd fn a t' to f rs mma yj d me t o he o e ong e s n ,h o r g a t e e d ns mo in o u r u g n . TheCl r i diecedt s nd c esoft sM e a ek s r t o e opi hi mor ndum Opi on a t ac ompa ng ni nd he c nyi Or e t pl ntf a c d r o ai if nd ouns lofr c d f de e e e or or f ndmzs t. ENTER: i l ïa o J l, 01 Ths y f uy 2 2. Se - t d St t D it i t dge n' unie a es s rc 22