Bryant v. Johnson et al, No. 7:2011cv00075 - Document 54 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 8/21/2012. (tvt)
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a1PR/: OFFI u.. 8m eCE 1 5l ATM ILE, L VA I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I STR I T C O U RT C FO R TH E W ESTERN D ISTR I T O F VIR G IN I C A R O AN O K E DIV I N SIO F1 L c CC 2 ' JULI AC. . RK E AL - K H IR 1.M .B RY A N T, A Pl ntf ai if, C i lA ct on N o.7: vvi i 11-c 00075 M EM O R AN D U M O PIN IO N G EN E M . H N SO N ,e al, JO t . D ef endant s. By: H on.Jackson L .K i ser Seni U nied St es D i ri Judge . or t at st ct A lA khi 1.M .Br ,a V i gi a i at pr r yant r ni nm e oceedi pr >q t l d a c vi r g s a ton ng o , i e i l i ht c i - purua t 42 U. C.j 1 a t Relgi Land Us and l tt to lz Pe s Ac s nt o S. 983 nd he i ous e nsiu i na ied rons t (û PA',j2000cc e.s q.ByaSu e nedAme dCompl ntpli ifna sa G RLU1 ' ) ,t e pplme t nde ai , antf me s de e nt Ge M . ohns f m e Diecoroft Vigi a De rme ofCon- to f nda s ne J on, or r r t he r ni pa t nt eci ns (1 t VDOC' ;f me VDOC De yDie t J hn Jbe VDOC W e tr Re ona DiecorJ ' or r ) put rcor o a ; sen gi l r t ohn Gama Ra l M ahe W ade oft Kee M ou an Core tonalCe e (t CC' ; r n; ndal t na, r n he n nti rci ntr i KM ' ) K M CC A s i t ntW a de J Ki e ;K M C C l a e Cl s i a i Aut iy D . a s; M CC ssa r n . sr nm t a s t ton k hort V s K Chi fofSe urt E. ewbe r a K M CC co r c i e c iy N r y; nd r e tonalof i er Ca i R . . ely,Li ut na fc s pu n D K l e e nt P.Co Se ge ntG. r Sege tM . til W al W e O' nn,Chidr s P. l,J x, r a Hon, r an Hafed, k, bb, Qui l es, Tugge . Br , and K .Alen. own l 1 The f t a e a m s f t sea e e m plf t c le s ofpr s a i s r ton A ae s nd l i or hi s xe iy he ha l nge i on dm nit a i . KM CC ofi ilr ceved atp t tpli ift e t d t har saf. Pli ifwasm ov t fca e i i ha antf hr aene o m t f a ntf ed o s gr ato durng t i si i n,a hea gue t thi pl e e i s gr to i d t e eg i n i he nve tgato nd r s ha s ac m nt n e egai n s ue o r t la i f r proreom pl i t a e a i ton o i a n s boutKM CC . K M C C s a ft n r vi w e pl i if s e t f he e e d a ntf onduc a t nd lPl ntf n esVas ,N e b r Kely,Hor Hati d, W al W eb O' nn,Chidr s Tuggl Br ai if am s w er y, l n, fel k, b, Qui l es n e, own,a nd A le i t ri vi alc pa tes Pl i ifna e Johns ,J ,G a n,M at na,an K ie i boh ofi ala ln n hei ndi du a cii , a ntf m s on abe nma he d s r n t fci nd i vi lca iis Pt ntf nam e Coxi an i vi lca ct i t A mendedCom plitbutna e Cox i ndî dua pacte . ai if d n ndi dua pa iy n he an m d n onl a of i alc pa t i t s ppl e t t A l ende Compl nt Fort r s dicus e i t s y n fci a ciy n he u em nt o he n d ai . he ea ons s s d n hi ' M e or m andum Opi on,Cox woul b e il t q ii d i m u t i pl ntf had c i d t na e he i a ni d e ntted o ualfe m niy f ai if ontnue o m rn n i vi c ciy. ndi dual apa t r om m e a hi he s urt c a sf ca i a pl i tf cons ec nd g r ec iy l s i i ton, nd a n i f eque l r f ed t ea s ve e n nty e us o t e nt e cons i m eal K M CC s af as pl ntf t s ep on a s e t be w ei ecutve s. t f ked ai if o t cal o ghed,he r used,and ef K M CC s af had t f ce hi t si pl s ep on a s e f a f seconds. H e fl m uli e t f o or m o m y t cal or ew ied tpl g iva c s sy n t t i c l wa (i h 'a s b e tdhm t t ers o ds a e , c h re n e , a i g ha h s el s i l y' nd u j ce i o h ik f ie ss whih e ft di notget A cor i d . rectonalof i di notpolt y s f cer d iel peak t hi ,and he belevest sdi r pect o m i hi s es w a r nt da age . N o oft s co pl nt e il hi t hi r ue t r le ,a 1gr nt ra s m s ne he e m ai s ntte m o s eq s ed e i f nd a dee ns'motonsf s fnda t i or ummayj me . r udg nt A ferl ni ofpl ntf s aleged t eat t har KM CC saf ,H ati d aut i t ear ng ai if l hr s o m t f f el horzed pl ntf stans e t s e ton o Dec mberl 2008. Pli tf de ed ma ng a t ea a ai if r f r o egr ga i n e 5, a n if ni ki ny hr t nd a us Ha f e d a ot rs a fofr t i tng aga ns hi f hi pr o c pl i s a cc ed t i l nd he t f e ala i i t m or s i r om a nt boutK M CC s af and condii 2 t f tons. Cox conduct pl ntff sI heari on Januar 27, 2009. Based on pl ntf s pri ed ai i CA ng3 y 4 ai if or i r tonsand t a cus ton a nfac i he c a i boutt e s pl ntf ss c iy cl s ii a i i r as w hi h hr at , ai if e ur t a s f c ton nc e ed, c t n r qui e pl ntf s tans ert a m or s ur ,Le lV f iiy. Pl ntf f ulsM a he he e r d ai if r f o e ec e ve ac lt ai if a t t na, 2Pl n i fa t hesva i gr e esa l te st pr s of i a st s r t r a i ton c a m . ( Conp . ai tf tac r ous i vanc nd el r o ion fci l o uppo t he et la i l i Am. l l ( o.l )Ex A- ) The eg iva c sa d lt r c n en db c e - pt ies h ic t, e r a in, o dq a t y, n n 8 . Q. s re n e n et s o c r e a k d u o lt, ar u s r c e to f o u n i a d e t t is sJ i c Plitf ful M ahe f no ta f ri pli if o a herf ii de pi algedl he s ues 1 udie. an if a t t na or t r ns erng antf t not acl y s t lc y . h s t e . knowi ba edon pl ntf' lter andgre es ofpl ntf' pr em swihK M CC saf. ng, s ai ifs et s ivanc , ai ifs obl t t f 3A nI he i i c CA arng s ondu e whene a i aei s duld f a a ctd ver n nm t s che e or n nnua r ew, f malduepr e she rng, l evi or oc s a i ora i or alhe r ng,de n nf m ai pendi on t he i spur e. A f r al pr es hea i i r quiedwhene r ng he arng' pos o m due oc s rng s e r ve ter i anoppo tniy f t i aet berm ovedfom t ge r lpopul i orr c vear toni goodtm e h es ru t or he nm t o e r he ne a aton e ei educi n i e r iglv l ( yo Af. 4)Th l h aigotc rc mpee at a sL v l au to S er whc u e a ann e e. Ta lr f! . e CA e rn f e o lts û s e e Ev lain het' ih s s i cl ' poi s t t e l t t i ae.The fcor co de e durngt l he i r ew a es rt l l, nt ysem o vauae he nm t a t s nsi r d i he CA arng evi r ecu iy eves i tt i a s gnm e s pr a pa tci ton,wor c a s t a i ,j basg me t,nsi to a ifa to s a d ns iutonal s i nt , ogr m r i pa i k l s ik ton o sin ns i tuin l nrcin , n t a yoh r e iin afcigteimae (d I5)Th ttl mb rof an dp i sd tr n sa i t' n te d cso s fetn h n t. l .J . e oa nu e e r e ont eemie n nmaes s urt l l ec iy eve . 4Pl ntf f l a greva a ng n e e ton t en ce r nd a y ai if ied i nce boutbei i s gr ga i be we D e m be 2008 a J nuar 2009. Ga man a e d r gr e t tpl ntf stm e i s gr gaton exc d t tm e pe m it d by V DOC polc , b Va s au horze pl i ifs ha ai if i n e e i ee he i r te i y ut s t i d a ntf ' c i d s gr ga i be us H afed ha notyettld arpor a ontnue e e ton ca e til d 'e e t boutpli ipst eas i antf hr t. Kie , nd Vas f nota ntng s e o he t n Co t co uc pli if s1 he rng sra s or ppoi i om one t r ha x o nd t antf CA a i becaus Cox w asa t e argetoft aleged t he l hreat Pl nt f accus def s. ai if es endant w ihouts s t upportof i easng hi s iy cl sii i and i tt i a pr s t ncr i s ecurt as fcaton ns iutng i on ransf asr alaton forhi er et i i s com pl nt aboutK M CC t a Congr ai s o essm an,t VD O C l pect G ener ,and ot V D OC he ns or al her of i i l . fca s Soon a t rt I hea i pl i ifs oppe ea i e t rf a r lgi f t a pl i if f e he CA rng, a ntf t d tng, ihe or e i ous as , s a ntf aleg , f ahunge srke,a dee nsalge.A Quaii M ent He t Pr esi l l es or or r ti s fnda t le lted al alh of sona (û HPD or e t tpl ntf swei bemeaur o Febr r 6,2009,butpli ifrf e tQM ' derd ha ai if ) ght s ed n uay antf eus d al or l derst be w ei o ghed. By Febr y 9,2009,pl nt f had ref uar ai if used t eatsevent cons i m eal and w as o een ecutve s or r d t a s rp c l w hi h pl ntf c a m sw asr t la i f e r i i a r lgi f s , n de e o ti el, c ai if l i e a i ton or xe c s ng e i ous a t i vi aton oft FistA m endm e and RLU I . Thatsam e day, Cox,H or Tuggl Br n, ol i he r nt PA 5 n, e, ow Chidrs ,W e W al,a O' nnes re pli ift t srp e l door Pli ifwhowa l e s bb, lt nd Qui eotd antf o he ti el . antf, s w earng handcuf and l ions r us Cox' trs ordert sep on a s e t be w ei i fs eg r , ef ed si t o t cal o ghed. Pur uan t H or s s equen or r Tuggl he d pl i if s l f a m , o n he d hi r g a m , s to n' ubs t de , e l a ntf ' e l r Br w l s i ht r a W al a O' nnhedpli ifslgsa hesoodi fontoft s l Purua t Cox' nd k nd Qui l antf e s t n r he cae. s nt o s or r Chidr s s ood be nd pl i ifw ih t N OV A s e d. de , l e s t hi a ntf t he hi l B Co t nor e Tuggl Br W al a O' nnt plc pl ntf ont s l t be x he derd e, owu, k, nd Qui o a, ai if he cae o e weg d.Pl ntt û xecs dg s rgh nott bef c dt beweg dbec us t r sno ihe ai i' t rie hij i t o ore o fe ihe a e hee' ( DOC polc orsat lwsorfderllwst tgi st m t rghtt weg ( mjont s l Vj iy t e a e a a ha ve he he i o ih hi he cae 5coxavc st tN e ryt d he t movepl nift t srp c l Ho n a r t tt QMHP or r dpl ntf r ha wber ol r o aitf o he ti el. r ve s ha he de e ai if moved t t s rp c l o he t i el. 6A NO VA s el i a t l handhel s el ofPl xi ast pr e sa of i rf om ph i la t c a c hi d s al, d hi d e gl hat ot ct n fce r ysca ta k nd an ad i s o a e ec r c s m nit r n l toni hock t a pe s i c a twih t fon oft s el . o r on n ont c t he r t he hi d orus f c f L s r us t c e t beweg ' e ore or hil ef al o ons nt o ihed.'Coxa r t tpl ntf rssedby ves ha ai if e it ki ng att ofscersand pus ng hi s fof t doori fontoft scal w hen t oficer cki he f hi m el f he n r he e he f s lfe hi up. Pl ntf de e ki ng a t o f c r a alege he m e el lfed hi l gs whi h it d m ai if ni s cki t he f i e s nd l s r y it s e , c w er bei hel by t o ofi e ng d w f cers,t pr o eventbei w ei ng ghed. Cox r pe t t or rt be w e ghe t d Chidr st putt N OV A s e d a i t e a ed he de o i d, ol l es o he hi l ga ns pl ntf sba a a hor ze Chidr s t us t N OV A s el i pl i i fs ilr f ed t be ai if ck, nd ut i d l e s o e he hi d f a ntf tl e us o wei d 1 D es ie he r ng t w a ni a utt N OVA s el ,pl ntf aga n r it d t o de ghe hi d ai if i es s e he r r p t a i he r ng bo he . by m ovi hi l gs a r f i t be w e g d. Chid e sus d t N OV A s el t s k ng s e nd e us ng o i he l r s e he hi d o hoc pl i iff one s ond,a pl i ifs ilr us t go on t s l . Pl i i fs ysCox g ve a a ntf or ec nd a ntf tl ef ed o he ca e a ntf a a t r or rf pl ntf t be wei hed,pl i t f aga n r us t g ton t s al ,a Chidr s hid de or ai i f o g a n if i ef ed o e he c e nd l es aga n s ke pl ntf w ih t N OV A s e d f one s cond. Tuggl Br i hoc d ai if t he hi l or e e, own, a k,a W l nd O ' int ma dt ge pl ntf ont s l a i i t srpc l8 Qun hen nage o t ai if he cae nd nsde he ti e1. Pl i i ft a ntf houg t e l w asflhy, H or i pec ed i a de e m i d i w a c e n. ht he e l it but n ns t t nd t r ne t s l a 9 Pl i ifundr s e i t c l a s af di c r t cc hi n i i pl ntf ' unde w ea . a ntf e s d n he el, nd t f s ove ed oba o dde ns de ai i f s r r A n s me c l asese pl ntf o ehesrppe t nuredi notfnda ij y,a ure dialy s s d ai if nc ti d,he s d i ny n ur nd pl n i fdi no voi e a co pl i . Pl i ifw a t n g ve boxe s r st w e r a r m a ne ai tf d t e ny m a nt a ntf s he i n r ho t o a nd e i d i t sr p c luntlM a c 2,2009.0 n he t i el i r h 1 ?Coxac knowldgest s di notcalN e e hat he d l wbery f a ova t us fr . r or ppr l o e o ce 8Pl niffld greva esa aitf ie i nc boutt eeve s a Ga manconcudedt tpl n ifsac ain ofe e svef ce hes nt, nd r l ha aitf cus to xc s i or was'ounde ' Howe ,pl ntf f ulsG am anf note ai nga l tm aer on why safnee d t m ove k f d.' ver ai if a t r or xpl ni egii t eas t f de o plitft asrpc l,Plitf Eldmo egiv n e a dalg sta teQMHPddno i ve a yhn t d anifo ti el an i e r re a c s n le e h th f i tE kl n t ig o o ha wih( an it b igplc di tesrpc l' t plitf en ae n h ti el' l . 9pl i ifr pe t y des i t c lasiflhy' orE l a 'wihouta s cii i or ton e ptt tt e a ntf e a edl crbes he el %it ' é e n' t unc ny pe fc nf ma i xce ha h t ltdi notfus pr l a t c ls eld ofurn andf c . ( . Rep.n . - j5 . oie d l h opery nd he el m le ie e es Pls s (o 484) 8) 1 0 ' l tt i 1r cor s r l ctt t on Fe u y 9,2009,s a fga pl ntf hi pe s ns iutona e d efe ha , br ar t f ve ai i f s r onalpr ry by 4: p.m .a ope t 00 nd sopped ffe n- i t obse vatonsby 5: p. . Pl ntf r s e srp- el sat on Fe ua y 1 , 2009,wih t it e m nu e r i 30 m ai if e um d t i c l t us br r 3 t ffe n m i e obs va i . Pl ntf sopped f s i a r ei a1 nor alprvie on Febr y 1 ,2009. it e nut er tons ai if t a tng nd ec ved 1 m i l ges uar 4 M at hena and Gar an deni pl ntf s s equentgrevances abouthow t cel' m ed ai if' ubs i he ls unce nlne ss j ce hi tot posi lt ' c nta tngdie es Pl ntf algest t la i s ub e td m t he sbiiy'of o rci s as . ai if le ha t M a hena a Ga m a f l d t pr r y i tga e t i s be t nd r n aie o ope l nvesi t he s ue yond w a c ng vi o f age t hi de oot f om a pod cam er G ar an uphel t deci i t m ove pl nt f i o t sti cel becaus s af r a. m d he son o ai if nt he r p l e t f beleved pl ntf w ason a hunger sri w hi pl ntf chalengesas a ûf se and s ous' i ai if t ke, ch ai if l tal peci ' r ttm ade ori sued by t s iy s af t sel ort r cl cr es ort r f iy epor û s he ecurt t f hem ves hei ose- oni hei am l m e be s ' Pl i i fa guest thi pl e e i a s rp ce lw a r t i t o f hi r lgi f s m r .' a ntf r ha s ac m nt n t i l s e ala i n or s e i ous a t and t G ar an tshoul have known' t pl ng pl ntf i sri cel f m i i s hat m t d ' hat aci ai if n t p l or ssng event een m eal vi at VD O C polcy. s ol ed i Pl i ifhad a s co l he r ng on Fe ua y 27,2009, i w hi h Cox a ntf e nd CA a i br r dur ng c ûdi es ed' pl ntf . Cox s d pl ntf w asa Ct cali at 'w ho i Cknow n t be i sr pect ' ai i f ai ai i f kypi nm e' sc o di r pec f .' Pl ntf beleves he i entted t dam ages f Cox' tdi r pect' s es t ul' ai i f i s il o or s û s es .' I1. A pat i e il t s ry s ntted o ummayj r udgme (ft pla ngs t dic r a dicl ur nt C he e di ,he s ovey nd s os e i m at i s on f l and any af i t s er al ie, fdavis how t t e i no genui i hat her s ne ssue ast any m at i f o eral act a t tt movan i e ildt j nd ha he t s ntte o udgme a amatroflw. Fe R. v.P.56() Maeil nt s te a ' d. Ci ' c. tra f e s a e t e ne es ar t es a ih t el m e sofa pa t s e us ofa t o Ande s v. a t r hos e s y o t bls he e nt r y' a e c i n. r on Li rvLobbvsl ,477U. 242,248( 986) A ge neis ofmaeralfd e ssi,i be t nc. S. 1 . nui sue t i a xit f n vi w i t r cor a al r a ona e i e e s d a t r r m i a lghtm os f vor bl t t e ng he e d nd l e s bl nf r nce r wn he ef o n i t a a e o he non- ovi part a r m ng y, easonabl f - ndercoul r ur a ver ctf t non- ovant J Th e actfi d et n di or he m - e i . m ovi pa t ha t bur n ofs i - ( ha i , n i ou t t d s rc c t- t tt r i ng ry s he de how ng k t s poi t ng t o he i t i t our ha he e s t a a e ofevi nce t s n bs nce de o uppot t nonm o ng pa t sc e.' Cel ex Corp.v.C a r t 477 ' he t vi ry' as ' ot t et, U. 31 325( 98 .l t mova s ifest sbur n,t nt nonS. 7, 1 6) f he nt atsi hi de he he mova mus s tf t nt t e orh s cii ad i s bl f t t tde o t a e t e s e e ofa ge ne i s off c f t i l Fe pe fc, m s i e ac s ha m nsr t he xi t nc nui s ue a t or r a . d. R. v.P.56c) Ceotx,477U. a 3 23.A pa t i e il t s Ci (, le ' S. t 22ry s ntted o ummayj me i t r udg nt f he r or a a whol c d notl a a r tona ti r off tt fnd i f voroft non- ova . ec d s e oul e d a i l re ac o i n a he m nt W ila v. itn,952F. 820,8 ( h Ci.1 ) Conves y,s lims Grfi 2d 23 4t r 991. rel ummar j y udgme i nt s i ppr pr a e i t e denc i s f c e tf a r a o bl f c - i rt r t n a ve di ti f vor na o i t f he vi e s uf i i n or e s na e a t fnde o e ur r c n a oft no movi pa t Ande s n,477 U. a 248. he n- ng ry. ro S. t Eve i t ei nodiput a t t e de ir f t,s n f her s s e s o he vi nta y acs ummayj r udgme i not nt s a opr a e whe e t uli a e f c ua c l i t be dr w n a e i di put Ove sr e v. y. ppr i t r he tm t a t l onc us ons o a r n s e. r te t K Ce .Liel .Co.950F. 931 937( h Ci.1 ) A c tma notr s vediput f t, nt f ns , 2d , 4t r 991. our y e ol s ed acs wegh t e de e orm a dee mi tonsofc e biiy.Rus el v. i r i he vi nc , ke tr nai r di lt s t M c odyneCor , F. p.65 3d 1 1 ( hCi.1 ) Sos be v.Mur 797F. 1 1 ( h Ci.1986) A c ' 229, 239 4t r 995 ; e e phy, 2d 79, 82 4t r . oul t a e sast ue t e de oft non- ovi pa t a r s vesal i e na c l c s a cc pt r he vi nce he m ng ry nd e ol 1 nt r l onti t nd i e e e i t non- ovi pa t sf . Cha bonna de Fr nc v.Sm ih,597 F. 406, nf r nc s n he m ng ry' avor r ges a e t 2d 41 ( hCi.1979) C he opposngpa testlt difrntsores o ofwhihi bltnty 4 4t r .s n W i ri el wo fee t i , ne c s aa l c ta cedbyt rco d,s t tnoras bl j y c ul bele i,acour s dno a onrdit he e r o ha e ona e ur o d ive t t houl t dopt t tvesonoft fcsf pur e ofr i o amotonf s ha ri he a t or pos s ulng n i or ummayj me .'Sc tv. r udg nt' ot Hars 550U. 372,380( ri, S. 2007) Furhemo e apa t t nnotcraeage neis of . t r r , ry t ca et nui sue m a era f c t oug m e e s c a i n ort buidi ofone i e e e u t i l a t hr h r pe ul to he l ng nf r nc pon a t r' Bea e v. no he . ' l Hady,769F. 21 21 ( hCi.1 .Thee oe,dl eeuns r 2d 3, 4 4t r 985) rf r imlr uppore s c ai ...i no td pe ulton s t e ug t deea asl r j me moton. Enni v. tlAs ' ofBu-, Educ. di no h o f t tmma y udg nt i ' ' s Na' sn s &Ra o, 1 ,53F.d 55,62( h Ci.1 . A pli ifc nno us ar po et amotonf s ne. 3 4t r 995) antf a t e es ns o i or ummay r j udgmen t core tde iince i ac antc le t o rc fce is n ompli halngedbyadefnda ' motonf s e nts i or ummay r j udgme .SeeCl ni rv. c vit 555F. 324,336( hCi. )( i t tapli if nt oa nge M De t, 3d 4t r 2009 notng ha antf ma notamendac ai t ough agume i abre opposng s y ompl nt hr r nt n if i umma yj r udgme t' l nl Gimour , v.Gae .McDonar & Co.382F.d 1 2,1 5( 1hCi. ts ll , 3 31 31 1 t r 2004)(a ) s me . Pl ntf aleges i t A m ended Com pl ntt A len w asa m em beroft cel ent y ai if l n he ai hat l he l r t eam i ved w ih w ei ng hi on Febr y 9,2009. A len averst he w as notw orki at nvol t ghi m uar l hat ng t K M C C on Fe ua y 9,2009,c d notha be n a m e be oft c l e r t a ,a ha he br r oul ve e m r he el- nty e m nd d no i ve e w ih pl i if Pl i ifc ede t the c nvol m nt t a ntf . a ntf onc s ha annots how a evi nc t tA le ny de e ha l n wa prs nt Fi ngno diput ofmaei fc,Ale i e ildt s s e e . ndi s e tral a t ln s ntte o ummayj r udgme f t nt or he cl m sari ng f om t event on Febr y 9,2009. ai si r he s uar A . PLAI FF CANNOT RECOVER D AMAGES AGAI JOHNSON OR JABE FOR THEA LLEGED NTI NST RLU I V I PA OLATI ON. Pl ntf s e da a a i tJ hns a J be i bot t rofi i a i vi ai i f e ks m ges ga ns o on nd a n h hei t c al nd ndi dual capacii R LU I does notaut i cl m s f m oney dam agesagai tJohns and Jabe i tes. PA horze ai or ns on n t rofi a ca ii .M adionv. r ni,474F. l1 1 ( h Ci. ) RLUI alo hei fcil pactes s Vigi a 3d 8, 33 4t r 2006 . PA s doe nota horze c a m s f m o da a s a i tJ s ut i l i or ney m ge ga ns ohns n a J be i t i i vi o nd a n he r ndi dual 11 ngl a ntf c pacte Re l nv. e 569F. 1 1 (t Ci. a iis. ndema Rous , 3d 82, 89 4h r 2009) A ccordi y,pl i if . m ay notr ecover dam agesf t R LU I cl m . or he PA ai B. PLAI FF MAY NOT RECOVER FOR CLAI A GAI D EFENDANTS I THEI I VI NTI MS NST N R NDI DUAL CAPACI ES. TI D e e nt J f nda s ohns J be G a m a M at na, i er V as , e be r Kely, Cox,H or on, a , r n, he K s , s N w r y, l n, Hafed,W al,W e O' nn,Chidrs , til l t bb, Qui l e s Tuggl Br e, own,a Ale a sr t tt j1 nd ln se tha he 983 cl i s a s red aga ns t m i t i i vi ua ca cii a e pr ve e by t doe rne of am s e t i t he n he r ndi d l pa tes r e nt d he t i quaii i lfed mmuniy.Quaiid i t lfe mmuniyper t C venmentofi i spef mi dicei r t mis t r go tcal ror ng srtonay l Re m a addr s s cl m s f damagesa n ta sat o a s a e ofs a unde onl t Spe ng Cl e a sof l ndel n es e ai or gai s t e r t t fci l r y he ndi aus xi RLUI . Pl i iff l t alege a f t s PA a ntf ais o l ny ac s ugges i t athi c a m sa ns J on a J c d qualf as tng h s l i gai t ohns nd abe oul iy a tona e cl ms unde t Com m e c Cl us s c i ofRLU I , a lde i t c tuc t cl m f pl i tf . c i bl ai r he r e a e e ton PA nd clne o ons r t he ai or a n if f tons...go be s el dfo la lt f rci lda unci t j hi de r m ibiiy o vi mage i ofra t i c s ns a s her onduc doe not t s vi at cl l est i hed s at or orcons iutonalrght ofw hi a r ol e ear y abls t ut y tt i i s ch easonabl per woul e son d havelnown. Halw v.FizMead,457U. 8 81 ( 98 .Quaiidi t ' ro ' t rl S. 00, 8 1 2) lfe mmuniypr des t ovi i m uniy f om s tr t rt n a m e e de ens t la lt m t r ui a he ha r f e o i biiy.Thus w he he a de e ntc n c ai , t r f nda a l m qualf e i m uniy i a pur ques i of1 w a i pr ry de e m i d pr ral Sa i rv. iid m t s e ton a nd s ope l t r ne eti . uc e Kaz 533U. 1 4,200- ( )overul o ohe gr t, S. 9 01 2001, r ed n t r oundsbyPe ron v.Calha 555U. as la n, S. 223 ( 2009)( mitngl rc t t dicei t deemi whihquaiid i per ti owe ours he s rton o tr ne c lfe mmuniyprng t o t anayzefrt. o l is) O nc a de e ntr i est qua ii d i m uniy de e e,apl i ifbe st bur n t e f nda a s he lt e m t f ns a ntf ar he de o s how t tade e ntsconduc vi aedt pl i ifsrght andt de e ntm us pr t t ha f nda ' t ol t he antf i , he f nda t ove ha t rghtvi a e w a notc e r y e t bls d a t tm e oft i de t r ei qualfed he i ol t d s l a l s a i he t he i he nci nt o ec ve ii i mmuniy.Hen yv.Pur l,5 F. 374,378( h Ci.2007) t- unlwf nes oft aci t r nel 01 3d 4t r .dlhe a ul s he ton - mus bea rntwhe asese fom t pes tveofa ob e tvel r s bl ofi a t ppae n s s d r he rpeci n j ci y ea ona e tcil c r d wihknowl ofesa ihe lw. Lope v.Robi on, 4 F. 486, ( hCi. hage t edge tbls d a ' ' z ns 91 2d 489 4t r 1990 .Se Andes v. ei on,483U. 635 640( 98 (û- si no t syt ta ofi il ) e ron Cr aht S. , 1 7) çl s t o a ha n tca -hi acton i prot ed by qualf ed i m uniy unl t ver acton i queston haspr ousy been i s ect ii m t ess he y i n i evi l hel unl w tl ...bu i i t s y t ti t lghtofpr - s i l w t unl w f nes m us be d a kl t t s o a ha n he i e exi tng a he a ul s t a r n .) Afe rviwi pl ntf salgai ,1fndt tpli iffist s t ta ppa e t' . tr e e ng ai if le tons i ha antf al o how ha ny ' def endantvi at any ofpl ntf sri s. A ccor ngl , t def ol ed ai if ght di y he endant are entted t qualfed s il o ii i m uniy f om dam agesi t ri vi m t v n hei ndi duateapadtes. i 8 1 D e e nt alege vi a i ofVD O C polci a pr ce e do no pr s nt . f nda s' l d ol tons i es nd o dur s t ee a aci bl j1 cai n tona e 983 l m. Pl ntffalegest ai i l hroughoutt A m ended Com pl ntt def he ai hat endant f l t f l s aied o olow va i V D OC polci s a pr ed e w he i er c i w ih pl i i f r pondi t g i va s rous i e nd oc ur s n nt a tng t a ntf , es ng o r e nce , pr di s vi enf ci di ci i keepi pl ntf i i tgatve det i f m or ovi ng er ces, or ng s plne, ng ai i f n nves i i enton or e t n t n da ,orm a nt i ng t pr s A c a m t tpr s n of i i l ha notf l e t i ha e ys i a ni he i on. l i ha i o fc a s ve olow d he r owni pe ntpolce orpr dur doesnotsaea a tona ej 1 cam.SeeUnied nde nde iis oce es tt n ci bl 983 li t Stt v.Ca ees 440U. 741 752- ( 978) Rico v.Cnt ofFara Va.907F. 1 aes cr , S. , 55 1 . c i , y. ifx, , 2d 459, 1 ( hCi.1 ( di t ti saelw grnt mor pr e a rght t nt Co tt in 469 4t r 990) hol ng ha f tt a a s e oc durl i s ha he nsiuto r quies asat sf l et a debyt tlw i notafde a duepr es is ) Acc r ngl e r , t e' aiur o bi ha a s e rl oc s sue . o di y, def endant ar entted t qualt i m uniy f pl ntf scl m s t t vi at VD O C s e il o iied m t or ai if ai hat hey ol ed polci and pr i es ocedur es. Cox, n, Hor Tuggl Br e, own,W e W ak, l es, ln,a O' nnaee ild bb, l Chidr s Ale nd Qui r ntte t q lte i m uniy f a l gedl us ng e es i f c i vi a i oft Ei ht o ua ii d m t or le y i xc sve or e n ol ton he g h Am e m e by us ng a s k s e d. nd nt i hoc hi l Pli irae us Co Hon, antf e es x, r Tuggt, o W e W ak, l es , ln, ndO' nn e Br wn, bb, l Chidr s Ale a Qui ofusng exe s ve f c i vi a i n oft Ei t Am e i es i or e, n ol t o he gh h ndm e , us ng t N OV A s e d. A nt by i he hi l prs ralgi e si f cemus obeciel s t tadeenda tnfi e unnec s ay ione le ng xce sve or t j tv y how ha f ntû lctd i esr a wa onpan a s frng.'W hilvv. ber, U. 31 320(1 .SeeW is nv. nd nt i nd ufe i ' te Al s 475 S. 2, 986) lo Sçsr 5 U. 294,29B (991 ( di t ta Eiht Ame iç , 01 S. 1 ) hol ng ha n g h ndme cai fre esi f ce nt l m o xc sve or rquie a obeci deprvain ofabasehuma ne da t tprs ofi al s j di l e rs n j tve i to i n e nd ha ion tci s ub e vey a tdwihas tcintycul esaeo mi .The eor t pr i r i whehe t ce t ufi e l pabl tt f nd) r f e,he oper nquiy s t r he f orce appled wasti a good f t ef ol t m ai ai orr t e di ci i orm alci l and i ûn aih f ' o nt n es or s plne t i ousy s s i l f tw vexy pur adi tealy or l pose ofcausi har .' W hilv, U. a 320- .Thes bjci ng m ' le 475 S. l 21 u e tve c ponen e om t ncom pa s is f c or a t ne d f t a i a i n off r e, he r a i hi s es ûuch a t s s he e or he pplc t o o c t el tons p bewee t ne d a t a t n he e nd he mountoff cet twa us a t e e ofij yi lce ' J or ha s ed, nd he xtnt nur ntitd. . 'Z a 32l(ntr quottonmaks atr i ,a ciatonomitd) Theob e tveelme t i enal ai r , leatons nd t i te . j ci e nt ge r l r r m or t n aJçmi m i us off r . Huds n v.M c ila 503 U. 1 9- 0 ne aly equies e ha . ni s e o ce o M lin, S. , 1 ( 992) t i t whoc ansofaû ho s 1 . t nmae An ompli pus r hove't tc us no dic r bl ij yamos ha a es s eni e nur l t c ranl fist saeavai g ght Ame me le esi fr ecl m. W iki v. ddv, e ti y al o tt ld Ei h nd nt xc sve o c ai ' l ns Ga ' U. S. ,1 S. .11 11 ( 0 .Coulsr ogni t tc rcina ofi i smus a t 30 Ct 75, 78 201 ) ' ec ze ha ore to l tcal t c t ti has e,underpress and f equenty w ihoutt l y ofa s tn t ure, r l t he uxur econd chance.' W hil 475 ' tey, U . at320. Consequenty,Im ustgi pr s of i al ûw i r ng def ence i t adopton S. l ve i on fci s l de- angi er n he i a e utonofpolce a pr ciest ti t rj nd xec i iis nd a tc ha n hei udgme aene dt prs r i enal nt r ede o e eve ntr orderand di ci i and t m ai ai i tt i s plne o nt n ns iutonals ecuriy.' Huds 503 U . at7. t ' on, S. Ba e on pl i if s A m ende Com pl i ta t undi put d e de ,Cox a Chidr s sd a ntf d a n nd he s e vi nce nd l e s di notaut i orus t N O V A s el m alci y orsadi tcaly f t ver pur d horze e he hi d i ousl s i l or he y pose of causi har . : O ver sev era1days pl ntf per st l di obeyed or ng m 2 derst be w ei o ghed so , ai if si enty s prion of ci s coul ensur pl ntf ' f twasnota t eatt hi ow n healh. See,e. ,Far ow s fi al d e ai i f s as hr o s t c. r v. et 320F. 1 1 44( 1hCi. )(e ogni ngt tweghtl sma beasro W s, 3d 235, 243- 1 t r 2003 r c zi ha i os y eius medi lne f pur esoft Ei t Ame me ) mmeditl beor plitf wa plce ca ed or pos he ghh nd nt.I aey f e anif s a d i t s rp ce lf r obs va i Cox a i or r d pl i ift be w e g n he t i l o er ton, ga n de e a ntf o i hed,butpl i ife i d a ntf ontnue t chalenge of i o l f cers'aut t as i t he di nothave t f l or horiy, sertng hat d o olow dersw ih whi he di t ch d no a e Pl i ifr pe t y ac t gr e. a ntf e a edl know l dgeshe w asw a ned t tChidr s woul us t N OV A e r ha l es d e he s el t s hi d o hock hi i he di notc pl wih or r t be w e ghed.D e piehe r ng t w a ni m f d om y t de s o i s t a i he r ng 1 The VDOC , de son t cons de t unau horze us oft s k s e d t be e es i i notde e mi tve of 2 s ci i o i r he t i d e he hoc hi l o xc sve s t r na i t Ei t Am e e a l i. he ghh ndm nt nayss a boutt N OV A s el pl i ifphys ca l r s s e t s c or w ih s h f r e t pr bi he hi d, a ntf i ly e it d he e ond der t uc o c o ohi t t cor ectonalof i ,w ho each hel a shackl lm b,f pl ng hi on t scal he r i f cers d ed i rom aci m he e. Chid e sa i aone-ec s k lke Cox ha war d.Pl ntf a isi t Ame d l r s ppled s ond hoc i d ne ai if dm t n he nde Com pl ntt tCo gav hi a he c nc t com pl wihouta m or f c he a n ai ha x e m not r ha e o y t ny e or e, gai phys c ly r us a Chidr sa i d a he one s c s k. A fe a yi t N OV A i a l ef ed, nd l es pple not r - e ond hoc t r ppl ng he s e d f rt o,one s cond bur t ,pl i iftna l s ood on t s a e a w asw e ghe hi l o w -e s s a ntf i ly t he c l nd i d. Som e t off ce w asneces y t com pelpl nt f ' com plance i lghtofhi ype or sar o ai i f s i n i s contnued i r gence. Pl ntf sper i t r us t do such a si pl and i i nt ansi ai if' s s ent ef al o m e ncons equental i t k a s e ng on a s al de o t a est e e ofpl i if s c l as s t ppi c e m ns r t he xt nt a ntf halenge t i tt i l o ns iutona di c plne a e m plfest nee f f c Cl a l t cklng pl i i font t s al w oul not s i i nd xe i i he d or or e. e r y, a i a ntf o he c e d s ts y t goalofobt i ng an a ur t w e g . Pep rs a i a c m on a e w hie s a f a i f he a ni cc a e i ht pe pr y n om ra l tf s r ur oundi pl i ifw oul lke y do m or ha m t ot r t . t c pe pl i i ft s e c t ng a ntf di l e r o he s ha o om l a ntf o t p m he n s al w hie s f rng t lnge i ef e t oft s a The t o,one- ec bur t ca e no c e l uf e i he i rng f c s he pr y. w s ond s s us d m e c c plc ton, i phys c f c a no lnge i ef e t ,unlke pe di al om i a i unlke i al or e, nd i rng f c s i ppers ay,a pr nd pli ifdi nots fra ij yfom t NOVA s el Se e. ,Colt v.Sc t 961F. antf d ufe ny nur r he hi d. e, :. lns ot, Supp.1 1 6- 7( D. 1 ( tngnoco tt ina vi ain wheec r ci l 009, 0l 1 E. Tx. 997) noi nsiuto l olto r ore tona otk e sus d a s x r e hoek s el w he a i a e r f ed t s i t a s rp s r , bec us t s e d hi d n n nm t e us o ubm t o t i ea c h a e he hi t wast las rsrci me ofmanai ngc r oft prs r.Thet one-ec he e t e titve ans it ni ontol he ione) wo, s ond bur t ef e t t vol a y com pla e afe da ofvi a i or r , a noij yr ule s s f c ua ed unt r i nc t r ys ol tng de s nd nur es td. Tuggl,Br e own,W al andO' nn' g apsonpli ifslmbswe eX mi mi us soffr k, Qui s r s antf i r ni s e oce t tdi notvi a e t Ei h Am e ha d ol t he ght ndm e .A cc r ngl Cox,H o n, Tuggl ,Br nt o di y, r e own,W e bb, W al Chidr s , ln, O' nn a e e il t qua ii i uniybe us t y di notus k, l e s Ale and Qui r ntted o lfed mm t ca e he d e exces ve for i vi aton oft Ei h Am endm ent si ce n ol i he ght . G a m an,M a he K i er N e r t na, s , wber y,a K e l a e e il d t qua i i d i m uniy f r nd ly r ntte o lfe m t or alege y f lng t pr ry t a n,s r s i tga e f l polc a t ke l dl aii o ope l r i upe vi e, nves i t , olow i y, nd a di ci i y acton f Cox and H or salegedl unpr es onalbehavi and abuse s plnar i or n' l y of si or ofi at nm es. Pl ntf accus G ar a M at ai i f es m n, hena,Ki er,N ew ber y,and K ely off lng t pr l s r l aii o oper y tan,s r s i tga e f l polc a t dici i r a ton f Cox a Hor s r i upe vie, nvesi t , olow iy, nd ake s plna y c i or nd n' ale dl unpr es i lbe vi a a e o i t s antf c nnots on be fofot r lge y of sona ha or nd bus f nma e .Pli if a ue hal he i aeswho m a ha be n a l dl a e by Co and Ho n. Se Ltin v.De e r of nm t y ve e lege y bus d x r e la f nde s W idlf 5 U. 555,5 61(99 ( di t tsandi rquie ij y,c ai a l ie, 04 S. 60- 1 2) hol ng ha t ng e rs n ur aus ton, nd rdr sa lt ;M as lv.Mea e e sbiiyl rhal dows l F. 904, ( hCi.1 , 05 3d 906 4t r 997)(ame . s ) Supevior la lt unde j 1 ma notbeprdiae ont t or ofr s r s y ibiiy r 983 y e c td he he y eponde t a s ror M onelv. p' ofSoc.Sevs, U. 658,663n. ( 978) di 1 r uie a upei . l De t , r .436 S. 7 1 .Se on 983 eq rs s w i ofpe s lf ul on t pa tofa de e nteihe ba e on t def nda ' per ona ho ng r ona a t he r f nda t r s d he e nt s s l c onduc o a her s c t r not ' onduc i e cu i oft de e nts polc es orc t s See Fi he v. t n xe ton he f nda ' i i us om . s r W a hi onM er ia Ar aTrnstAut .690F. 11 11 43( hCi.1 , s nzt topoltn e a i hor, 2d 33, 42- 4t r 982) a ogae onohe g oundsbyCnt ofRi ri y. ç ughln,500U. 44( 991 (i ng br td t r r y. vesde M La i S. 1 ) tndi t tj1 r uiesas ngofpe s lful o t pa tofadee nteiherba e ont ha 983 eq r howi rona a t n he r fnda t s d he de e nt spe s f nda ' r onalco nduc ora he ' c t not r s onduc i e uton oft de e nt spolc esor t n xec i he f nda ' ii c t ) usoms. Pl i if doe notdes i how Co a H o n a l ge y a e pl i ifbe nd usng t a ntf s erbe x nd r le dl bus d a ntf yo i he N OV A s e d,a pl i if s c a m a hi l nd a ntf ' l i boutt N OV A s e d m us f i bec us Cox a H o n di he hi l t al a e nd r d notus e s i f ce i vi a i oft Ei h A m endm e . Fur he m or , pl i ifdoe not e xce s ve or n ol ton he ght nt t r e a ntf s pres any evi ent dence t G ar an,M a he Ki er,N ew ber y, orK ely knew of, der or hat m t na, s r l or ed, c ondoned H o n a Cox' us oft N OV A s el Pl i ifdoesnotr f e Cox' a r e t r nd s e he hi d. a ntf e ut s ve m n t s di no i or N e be r o ot rs r o st s w oul us t N O V A s e d. Se hat he d t nf m w r y r he upe i r hat he d e he hi l e CivofCa onv.Ha rs 48 U. 378 38889( t nt ri, 9 S. , - 2002)( di t ta a tonabl jl 3 hol ng ha n ci e 98 i qua oftai ng cl m oc ur onl whe t f iur t ta n a ount t de i r t nade cy r ni ai c s y n he a l e o r i m s o lbe a e i fee et t rght ofperonswihwhom t pe s ndifrnc o he i s s t he ronnelc i ocontc) Pl nifdoes ome nt a t. aitf notetbls d pe ii tai ng dei e e a eihe ()t ti de tl tane e oye s sa ih l ctc r ni fcincis nd t r 1 ha na quaey ri d mpl e s e ge i apatr ofunc tt i c nga d n ten onsiutonal onduc,o ( t tavi ai ofaf r rghti a t r 2) ha olton edeal i s G g y pr di t bl cons quenc of a f iur t e ui l w e or e e of i r w ih s cii t ol hi hl e c a e e e a l e o q p a nf c m nt fce s t pe fc o s t ha er uri st tons''Hilv.Ro s n Cny.733F.Supp.2d676,68 ( D. C. o ndl ec rng iuai a' l be o t , 7 E. N. 201 (ii Bd.Oft Cnt Comm 'sv. own,5 U. 397,407( 997) Pl ntf as fis 0) ctng he v. r Br 20 S. 1 ). ai if lo al t des r be Cox' orH or s pa t r ofunc tt i o ci s n' te n ons iutonalc uc . Se M e v. iv a Cnt of ond t e as C t nd y. Sa Fr ncso,681F.Supp. 11 11 ( D.Ca. 0)( i t ta a tona ej1 n a ic 2d 28, 42 N. l201 notng ha n ci bl 983 fiur t dici i cl m i notpr rf asngl i i ntofunc tt i lc al e o s plne ai s ope or i e ncde onsiutona onducl Se on t; xt v. nt Cnt De.Ct.702F.Supp.2d78 2010W L 1 Ke on v. t r, 4, 050058( D.Ky. 0 (a ) E. 201 ) sme . Cox' a l ged çdi r pec a s doe nots a e a c tt i s le û s es f' l o s t t ons iutonalc a m . Se e R. Coli v.Cund li e, . , lns v, 603F. 825,827(1 hCi.1 ,ctdf r bl i M oodyv.Gr ,885F. 865(t Ci. 2d 0t r 979) ie avo a y n ove 2d 4h r l 9)(a e ( publs d)(ttngasage r r et tmeevebala eofi t byguads 98 tbl) un ihe sai nealul ha r r bus nmaes r doesnotsaeac tt i cli .Ac or ngl Gama M ahe ,Kie , wber a tt onsiutonal am) c di y, r n, t na s r Ne ry, nd K e l a e e il d t qualf e i m uniy f t scl i . ly r ntte o ii d m t or hi a m 4. Ga m a M a hena K i e , as ,K e l Cox,Ha fel a Hor ar e il d t r n, t , s r V s ly, t i d, nd n e ntte o qualfe i m uniy f a l gedl vi atng t Fouree h Am e iid m t or le y ol i he t nt ndm e . nt Pl ntf accuses G ar an,M at ai if m hena,K i V ass, K e l Cox,Ha fel a Hor of ser, ly, t i d, nd n vi atng t Fourt h A m endm entby i ui f s , i ol i he eent ss ng ale naccur e,and s ousdi plnar at peci sci i y r eport f lng t i tgat and conductl hearngs;pl ng pl ntf i a srp cel and s; aii o nves i e CA i aci ai if n t i l s gr ga i ,a r yi o prordici i r c r st ta f pl ntf t adicplna y e e ton' nd el ng n i s plna y ha ge o r nser ai if o s i i r i tt i Pl i ifm us pr t ta def ntde i d hi ofa l gii a e lbe ' orpr t ns iuton. a ntf t ove ha enda pr ve m e tm t i l y t opery i er t s at a vi aton ofproceduraldue pr nt est o t e ol i ocess. See Bd.ofRecent of St e Cols.v.1 h, s at l 10t 408U. 564,5 (1 2) S. 70 97 .Thus t frtse t a yz apr durlduepr s cl m i t ,he is tp o nal e oce a oce s ai s o i ntf w he hert a l ged de i ton i c sa pr t c e i t r t Se Be r iv.Sm ih,l de iy t he le pr va i mpa t o e t d n e es . e ve at t 20 F.d 50 5 ( hCi.l ; alet v.Ari onCnt Emplve 'Supplment Re.Sys 1, 3 0, 02 4t r 997) M lte lnct y. o es e al t .I 91F. 630,634 (t Ci.1 . 3d 4h r 996) Pl i ifdoesnotha a cons iutonaly pr ec e r ghtt be hous d i a pa tc a a ntf ve tt i l ot t d i o e n ny ri ul r prs dg ha i aprs rsl to vaitonsofdal r i ,cha i c tonsof ion. icj nges n ione ' ocain, rai iy outne nges n ondii c i me (ncl nga nitai s r ton) a t denilofprvieges...kr)matr onfne nt i udi dmi srtve egegai , nd he a il ae tes whihe r prs rc nan ii t ' Gat v. vl ,946F. 340,343( hCi.1 ) Se c vey ione a tcpae. son Ta or ' 2d 4t r 991 . e Luke Scot 71F. 1 1 94( t Ci.1 ( i t tt efctofacasiiai av. t, 3d 92, 93- 5h r 995) notng ha he fe l sfc ton r dud i on t a lt t e r good-i e c edis i t s ul tve t cons iut a de i ton of e on he biiy o a n tm r t s oo pec a i o tt e prva i apr e e lberyi ees) antf doe notdesrbet aypiala sgnika hads p'i otctd i t ntr t.Pli if s c i t t c nd i t nt r hi 'n an r aton t t or nar i dent ofpr s lf . W i ns v. tn, U. 209, ( 05 . el i o he di y nci s i on ie l on Ausi 545 S. 224 20 ) ki Pl ntf r ei d num e ous1 hea i s w he e sm pl non- s r tona y c c a i nsw e e ai if ec ve r CA rng r i e, di c e i r al ul to r m a t tqua t te pl i i fa a hi he - i k i a e w ho ne d t be a a m or s c e f c lt de ha n ii d a ntf s g r rs nm t ede o t e e ur a iiy . Fur he m or ,H a t e d' a fda tde onsr t s t tprs of i a sr vi w e e de a t r e ti l s f i vi m t a e ha i on fei l e e d vi nce nd de em i d t tpl ntf wa adie tt e t t s f t ofKM CC sa fa t thes d be tr ne ha ai if s r c hr at o he a e y t f nd ha houl pl e i s gr t on a t a f r ed t a c r d i a ed n e ega i nd r ns e r o or e onalf c lt t tm a e d hi s u iy l ve . a iiy ha t he s ec r t e l A c or ngl pl i iff l t i iy any pr t c e i e es o t esabls t tGa m a , c di y, a ntf ais o dentf o e t d nt r t r o t i h ha r n M at hena,K i V ass,K ely, Cox,H at el and H or vi at t Fourt h Am endm e , and ser, l fi d, n ol ed he eent nt t ar entted t qualf ed i m uniy f t scl m . hey e il o ii m t or hi ai Ga m a M a he ,Kie ,Va s Kely,Cox, til a Hor a ee il d t r n, t na s r s , l Ha fe d, nd n r ntte o quaii i u t f al ged y vi a i t Fis Ame lfed mm niy or le l oltng he r t ndmen . t Pl i ifa us s G a m an,M a he ,K i e ,V a s K e l Cox, a fe d,a H or of a ntf cc e r t na s r s , ly, H t i l nd n r t la i ag i tpl ntf f f lng c pl i s gr e nce ,a l t e s l a e c a m sof e a i tng a ns ai if or ii om a nt , i va s nd e t r . nm t s' l i rtlai aege r lyte edwihs ptcs bec us trl r a tofdici i byprs n eaiton r ne al rat t ke iim a e teve y c s plne io ofi i si by defnii ûe ai t r i t s ns t ti r pondst prs rm ic fcal s i ton r t la o y' n he e e ha t es o ione s onduc .' t' Coc a v.M ori,73F. 1 0,131 ( hCi.1 (ii Ada v.Ri ,40F. 72,7 hrn rs 3d 31 7 4t r 996) ctng ms ce 3d 4 ( h Ci.l ) '0 s e onaj 1 rtlai cli pl ntf mus algef css fcen 4t r 994).l ucc ed 983 eaiton am, ai if t le a t ufii t t de ons r t t tt ale d r t i t y a tû ast ke i r pons t t e r i e o a o m ta e ha he l ge e ala or c ' w a n n es e o he xe c s f co tt i ly pr e t d r g ort tt a tis fvi a ed s h a r g . Ada s 40 F. d a 75. ns iutona l ot c e i ht ha he c t el ol t uc i ht' ' m , 3 t Pl ntf mus pr e s cii e de ei sabls i t tbutf t r t it ymoi t ai if t esnt pe fc vi nc û t ihgngl ha e or he ealaor tve,he co ane ofi i nt... dnotha oc ure ' W oodsv.Smih,60F. 11 11 (t mpli d ncde woul ve c r d.' t 3d 61, 66 5h Ci.1 .Pl ntf mus as de r 995) ai if t lo monsrt t thes frd s a rei c ora t l tae ha ufee ome dves mpa t cua ij y.ACLU ofM d.I v.W iomio Count M d.999F. 780,785( t Ci.1 93 . nur .nc. c c y, , 2d 4h r 9 ) Pl i if s c us y a l tons ofr t i ton a e i uf i e t es a ih a a tona e a ntf oncl or lega i e ala i r ns fci nt o t bls n c i bl r a i ton c a m . A da s 40 F. d a 74.Pl i i fdo notha a c tt i lr g t a e s et la i l i m , 3 t a ntf es ve ons iutona i ht o ec s t VDOC gre ncepr e esorl tt i Omb ma Se i a 70(i ngi tsd he iva oc dur nsiutonal uds n. e d. t fndi nmae o no ha ac tt i lrghtt a es greva epr durs .Pl ntf as fist de ci a t ve onsiutona i o cc s i nc oce e ) ai if lo al o srbe ca alcon c i be w e n s ndi num e ous gre nc s a l te s a t e def nda s us ne ton t e e ng r i va e nd e t r nd hes e nt ' rs e pons st pl i if s di obedi nce f tng,org i va e . Pl i i fm er l r le on t f c e o a ntf s e , as i r e nc s a ntf e y e i s he a t t c r a n e nt f l ed c r a n ot reve s a he doe notes a ih a r t la or m otve. hat e t i ve s olow e t i he nt , nd s t bls ny e a i t y i M or rpl ntf doe notde ci a adves i c o a t lij y.Acc di y,Gama eove, ai if s s rbe n re mpa t r cua nur or ngl r n, M a he ,K i e , a s K e l Cox, a fe d,a H o n a e e il d t qualf e i m uniy f t s t na s r V s , ly, H ti l nd r r ntte o ii d m t or hi cl m . ai Cox,Hor Tuggl Br n, e, own,W e W ak, l e s Ale a O' nnaee ild bb, l Chidrs , ln, nd Qui r ntte t qualfed i m uniy f alegedl bei delber el i f entand f lng t o ii m t or l y ng i at y ndifer aii o pr ectpl ntt . ot ai if Pli ifa c esCox,Hor Tuggl,Br antf c us n, e own,W e W ak,Chid e s Ale a O' nn bb, l lr s , ln, nd Qui ofbei de i r t l i f e e a f ii t pr ec pl i if fom Chidr s 'us oft N OV A ng lbe a e y ndi f r nt nd a lng o ot t a ntf r l e s e he s el 1ha ale de e m i t tt N O VA s e d di notc tt e e s i f c i hi d. ve r ady t r ned ha he hi l d ons iut xce sve or e n vi aton oft Ei h A m endm ent Consequenty,t e oft scoul nothave been aw ar of ol i he ght . l hes icer d e a consiutonalvi aton occur ng i t rpr tt i ol i ri n hei esence. See Far erv.Br m ennan,511 U . 825,838 S. ( 994)( i t taf l et pr tc cli rquiesasaea t t havebe npe s lya r 1 notng ha aiur o oe t am e r tt cor o e ronal wae off si ca i a subs antalr s of s i harm ,and t ofi alm us have act l act ndi tng t i ik er ous he tci t ualy r ogni dt e se ofs h ars ;W ilsv.Oake ,493F.Supp.2d776,784( . Va ec ze he xitnce uc ikl li s W D. . 2007)( di t tplitf mus pr avi ain ofac tt i rghta aprr st t hol ng ha anif t ove olto onsiutonal i s eequiie o esa ihi bysa rla lt .Acc di y,lon,Tuggl Br wn,W e W al Chides, tbls ng tnde ibiiy) or ngl - r l e, o bb, k, lr s Ale a O' nnaee ildt quaii i niyf camsoffiur t pr ec a ln, nd Qui r ntte o lfed mmu t or li al e o ot t nd de i r t i f e e t t us oft N O VA s e d. lbe a e ndif r nce o he e he hi l Cox,Hor Tug e, own,W e W ak,Chidrs , ln, O' nnaee ild n, gl Br bb, l l e s Ale and Qui r ntte t qua ii d i m uniy f a l dl f lng t c e n t s rp c lor g ve pl ntf o lf e m t or lege y aii o l a he ti el i ai if cl ng s i on Febr y 9,2009. eani upples uar Pl i ifa us s Cox, or Tuggl Br n,W e W al Chidr s Al a O' nn a ntf cc e H n, e, ow bb, k, l es , l nd Qui en, ofcausi hi t be i cer ed i a ûflhy' and ûuncl 'cel . t-he Cons iu i d snot ng m o ncar at n ûit ' t ean' l i l tt ton oe m a t c f t bl pr s ns butne t r d i pe m i i nda e om or a e i o , ihe oes t r t nhum a ones' Far er,511 U . at ne .' m S. 832. An i at alegi an uneons iutonaleondii ofcont nm e l ng tt i ton inem entm us des be an t eri o j ci l s ro sd p i aino abai h ma n e a dh w ap io o fca s be t ey be t y ei u e rv to f sc u n e d n o ve rs n fiil u j ci l v kne ofa di r r t i w nd s ega ded he nhum a na ur oft c i m e . l a 837. ne t e he onf ne nt d. t Pl ntf fist des i a ob e tvey sro ha m orade i tonofami mal ai if al o crbe n j ci l eius r prvai ni nec siyofci lz lf.Pl ntf us sa j tv lkekit ' ndt lan't de ci t e st viied ie ai if e decies i ' lhy'a é e 'o s rbe he f unc cel' cl i ,butl sand concl i are i ufi entt st e a cl m . Bel At .Com .v. l s eanlness abel us ons ns tci o at ai l l Twombl 550U. 5 555( ) Pli ifdoe no ale t thes fr da ij yfom v, S. 44, 2007 . antf s t lge ha ufee ny nur r bei i t s rp ce l l t d,pl i ifc pl i d oft m e e pos i lt of c r tng va i ng n he t i l. ns ea a ntf- om a ne he r s biiy ontac i r ous il s s whi h i an i uf i i ntbas s f Ei h A m e lnes e , c s ns f c e i or ght ndm e la lt See St i kl rv. a e s nt i biiy. rc e W t r , 989F. l l 1( h Ci.1 (ûfaprs rha nots frd srousorsgnii a 2d 375, 38 4t r 993) d l ione s ufee e i i tc nt physc lormena ij yasar s toft c lnge c tons hesmpl ha notbe n ia tl n ur e ul he hale d ondii , i y s e s b e tdt cu la du us l u s me twihnt me nn o t r g t Ame d n.) u j ce o r e n n ua p nih n ti he a ig f he Eihh) n me t'. D W hie t Cons iu i n pr ec spr s r f om c ue a unus llvi c t o ,a i a e i l he tt t o ot t i one s r r l nd ua i ng ondii ns n nm t s no e il t r i be us he hasbee e t ntted o elef ca e n xpos d t uncom f t bl r s r c i ori onve en e o or a e, e ti tve, nc ni t eondii ofeonfnem ent lke a poory- ushi t t torunpl tons i ,i l ft ng oie easants els. See H enders v. m l on Vigi a 2007U. Dit LEXI 70207,a * 2007W L 2781 a *7( . Va.Se .21 r ni, S. s. S t 26, 722, t W D. pt , 2007 ( ) unpubls d) Rat ,ûgq t e e ta s c tonsa er titveo eve has ihe . her ûto he xtnt h t uch ondii r esrci r n rh, t y a e pa toft pe t t tG i i lof e r pa f <t i of e esaga ns s oi t .'' he r r he naty ha m na f nde s y o he r f ns i t o ey Rhod s.Cha n,45 U. 33 3 (1 1 . çs ' pma 2 S. 7, 47 98 ) Pl i ifal o f ist des i t e def nda s delbe a e i f e e e. Pl i ifdo not a ntf s a l o crbe hes e nt ' i r t ndi f r nc a ntf es conr r Hor ss j ci beift tt c lwa cea ors t ta oft s de e nt tove t n' ub e tve le ha he el s l n how ha ny he e f nda s s w t S it ' ha ca ed t ce lt be unc tt t o ly i a he t lh' t t us he l o f ons iu i na l nhum a A lhough pl i if ne. t a ntf e pl i t the di notha i m e a e phys e a e st s p, t hpas e,and ot om a ns ha d ve m di t , i al ec s o oa oot t he: i i nt s i i t s r p c l he doesnote ai how s a fa ol el de i d hi oft nc de al ns de he t i el, xpl n t f bs ut y prve m he mi m a ne s ii sofc viied lf . Se .e. ,lho s 45 U . 347.Ac di y,Co Hor ni l ce ste i lz ie e c. t de , 2 S. cor ngl x, n, Tuggl Br e, own, e W ak,Chidr s Alen,a O' nnaeenttedt quaiidi W bb, l l es , l nd Qui r il o lfe mmuniy t f t s cl r or hi ain. J ohns a J be a e e il d t qua i i d i m uniy f a l dl vi a i t Fi s on nd a r ntte o lfe m t or lege y ol tng he r t Am e ndm e w ih t i polc a tr lgi f s s nt t he r i y bou e i ous a t . Pl ntf a cus J ai if c es ohns a J be ofvi a i t Fis Am e on nd a oltng he rt ndme by f ii t pr de nt a lng o ovi a opri e ser ces opport tes,orr ppr at vi , unii easonabl ass s ance t a1 l tm at and accept e it o l egii e ed r i ousgr upsw he e elgi o n hoosng t f s i a eor nc w ih t rr pec i r i ousbelef . i o a t n c da e t hei es tve elgi i s Specii l pl ntf aleges: fcaly, ai if l A l i regar t t ûpolcy' pr fri by def so, n ds o he t i ' esz bed endant G ene M .Johns a s on nd J J be w hi h doe no e e t r lgi f s i r g s t pr s r ohn a c s t xt nd he e i ous a tng i ht o i one s hous d i s gr gato unis unl s you a e SunniorN a i ofl l m M us i s e n e e in t, e s r ton s a lm hat i f tng durng t m ont ofRa ad 03 A tt tm e, t M us i pr s ner as i i he h m an.1 1 he lm i o s whoc et pa tci t i t f tngofRa da )ar al hoos o ri pae n he asi ma ng e lowedt sgna oi f hour û gr m e ' s ea i t e t c um e ordi c r t pr de our k ee nt' w rng o iher ons a s a d he ovi d di rba (éuho - al'wihi t prs rbedf hourtmefa .Tha nne - g ts orme ' t n he e ci our ) i -rme t ( i l ' w hi h s i viegev pr ' c houl be c i r a a fm da e a eons iu i na r gh . d ons de ed s t m nt l tt t o l i t (i) Unf t tl i i no af de t a1wordrnowne r i ousgr ps sc orunaey t s t for d o 1 l e d elgi ou . A1 r i ous g oupst ta e r c l elgi r ha r e ogni e a be ng l ii a e i t sca e s d z d s i eg tm t n hi s houl be gi n t r ghtt f ti ac or nce w ih o r pec i r i ous bele s ve he i o as n c da t ur es tve elgi if . As i a t ppea s a t stm e t polc i notne s a y t s l a co pe lng r t hi i , he i y s ce s r o ewe m li i e e t I t twast be t ca e t n quie obvi l l m ada 'woul no nt r s . f ha o he s , he t ous y k Ra n' d t ha bee a m a t r w o t m ento ng. The r g t f s s nce e y a l w f l ve n te rh i ni i ht o a t i r l nd a uly ne ds t be e t i hed unde a lco tonsofc i m e ofprs r . A nd, e o s abls r 1 ndii onfne nt i one s t tr ghtm us be a l e a f nihe on a daiy bas s no s e y durng t ha i t vaiabl nd ur s d l i , t ol l i he m ont ofRa a n. The ef r ,1lnd t s m a t rt be a vi ato u rt h m da r o e ' hi te o i ol i n nde he 1 Ra a i am ont l r i ousf tobs r dby tadii M usi s Durngt sfs,m e sa emade 3 m dan s h-ong elgi as e ve r tonal lm . i hi a t al r a lbl o yt i ae who r quies i r i ousdit du i Ra ada f si a f t pup os of vaia e nl o nm ts e r pecal elgi es rng m n a tng nd or he e a om modai t eM usi i a e snc r r i ouspr cies DurngRa ada t V DOC m a s il cc tng hes lm nm t s' i e e elgi a tc . i m n, he kes peca a om modainsf t eM usi ofende st befd a ni .TheV DOC Speca Pr a sM a rav st t cc to or hes lm f r o e t ght il ogrm nage er ha pr dig i vi li eswih s ilfedi anunge nt whe rt y c et f twoul beex i ovi n ndi dua nmat t peca e ng me s neve he hoos o as d pensve andbu de om et t VD OC and issaf,woul dir t or l opeaton oft prs a woul per i r ns o he t tf d supt he dery r i he ion, nd d mt i a est bec e m a pul tve w he r s i g t ss ci pr s on w he rt y c et f t Addii ly, nm t o om ni a i n eque tn hi pc al ovii neve he hos o as . tona l prs f s vi ss af m us r por t w or ea le and sa l t rf rm ea pr par ton. Thi c nge i wo ki ion ood er ce t f t e t o k r ir ty ae o l e ai s ha n r ng hour us lyca esoveri c r ,r quie c ngesi w o ks dul t tc er duce s r son du i s ual us tme ha ges e r s ha n r che es ha aus e d upe vii rng nor hour,and i e e t num be ofs curt saf wor nga ni .Pl n ifale st thei aSu mal s ncras s he r e iy t f ki t ght aitf lge ha s nni M us i . lm Fi s Am e rt ndm e ' Relgi Fr e nt s i ous e dom and a vi a i under42 U . C . ol ton S. j2000c ( c RLUI . PA) Pl ntf m i ed sevent cons i m eal i Febr y 2009,alegedl because he w as ai if ss een ecutve sn uar l y f i i accor astng n dance w ih unspecii Sunnil am i belef Pl ntf belevest Jol son and t fed - sl c i s. ai i f i hat m J be ha t a t iy t e e V D O C polci s a a ve he u hort o xt nd i e boutR a a n f tng t a1 r lgi g oups m da asi o l e i ous r a obs r r who wih t f s outi ofRa a n a t pr det s nd e ve s s o a t sde m da nd o ovi he ame t s r c o i bod e vie ptons gi n t M us i i a esdurng Ra a n f i a e w ho f ta a i e f r a pe s ly ve o lm nm t i m da or nm t s as t nytm o ny r ona l relgi r i ous eason. Pl ntf f l t i iy Johns s orJa sper ai if ais o dentf on' be' sonalconduct orf tor anot , aul her per o sc uc or f ul i e cutng J s n' ond t a t n xe i ohns s o J spolci orcus om s t tca ed a on' r abe' i es t , ha us vi aton oft Fis A m endm ent See Fi herv.W as ngt M etopolt A r Tr tA ut . ol i he r t . s hi on r ian ea ansi hor, 690F. 11 11 43( h Ci.1 ,a og e onot rgr 2d 33, 42- 4t r 982) br atd he oundsbyCnt ofRi ri v. y. ve sde M c- i 500U. 44 ( 991 (i ngt j 1 rquiesas ngofpe s nalful ont laughln, S. 1 ) fndi hat 983 e r howi r o a t he pa tofa de e nte t rbas d on t de enda ' pe s lc r f nda ihe e he f nts r ona onduc ora he ' c t not r s onduc i tn e utonoft dee ntspolcisorc t s.J on' a J be' postonsi t VDOC xec i he fnda ' i e usonl) ohns s nd a s ii n he hirr hyaeno s t intbas ofj 1 labiiy.SeeM onel436U. a 663n. (ttng ea c r t ufk e es 983 i lt l, S. t 7 sai r s nde ts i i notas fce bassf j1 la lt . epo a uperor s ufiint i or 983 ibiiy) Pl i iff i st e t bl s t tJ a ntf a l o s a i h ha ohns a J be ora o he de e ntw ho e c ed on nd a , ny t r f nda xe ut J ohns s o J be' polci s kne t tpl i i'w ase r i i a r lgi r ght Pl i i fdoe on' r a s i e , w ha a ntt f xe c sng e i ous i . a ntf s nota rt the e r i or e any K M CC saf-ha he wasf s i f r a r i ousr s , N o ve ha ve nf m d t lt t a tng o elgi ea on doc e a i e s s i pl ntf pr s r c dst ti c t he i or e K M CC s a ft the um nt ton xi t n ai ips i on e or ha ndi a e nf m d t f ha wasr i ous y m otvat t f tduri Janual and/ Fcbr y 2009. D ef elgi l i ed o as ng ' y or uar endant avert s hat pl i ife antf ngage i ahungersrke e t rf notr c vi t Com m on Fa e Di t4o f r dn ti , ihe or e ei ng he r e1 r o havi a hi he s curt c as i i ato Fur he m o e, a ntf f l t i tf a polc c t , ng g r e iy l s fc i n. t r r pl i if ais o den iy i y, us om orpr tc t tc us d ade a ofar i ousrg t f tbe aci e ha a e ni l elgi i ht o as yond t f c t tKM CC ofii l he a t ha fc as m ove pl i ift a s rp ce l pl i ifdoesnota l t ta pr s s a ff r e hi t e f d a ntf o t i l ; a ntf lege ha ny i on t f o c d m o at ood orbr k t f s . ea he a t Eve i t de e nt w e e aw a e t tpl i ifw a o e vi a uns c fed Sunni n f he f nda s r r ha a ntf s bs r ng n pe i i M us i r lgi f s , ohns sa J s a l ge polc abou Ra a n f s r ce opto lm e i ous a t J on' nd abe' le d i y t m da ood e vi i ns di no vi a e t Fi s Am e m e . The Fr Exer i e Cl us oft Fis A m e d t ol t he r t nd nt ee c s a e he r t ndm e e e nt xt nds t prs i t .O' v. tt ofShaba ,482U. 342,348( 987) M orionv. o ion nmaes Lone Esae zz S. 1 , rs . Gar ht 239F. 648,65 (t Ci. 1.lowe r a i e' co tt i lrg smus rag v, 3d 6 4h r 200 ) - ve , n nmat s nsiutona iht t l be e l ed wihi t c extof i ar r ton. The Supr m e Cour hasl c tone t t va uat t n he ont nc ce a i e t ong au i d ha t r s a e ile ppe t de w ih t i e i y ur ntpr e s ofprs a i sr to û t r l qui d o al t he ncr asngl ge cou obl m i on dm ni t a i n a rf m.'Pr unirv.M atne 41 U. 396,405( 974)( cum) Thus lS ta c d nd eor ' oc e ri z, 6 S. 1 dit . , û mus c or de e enc t t ofk i l who r a prs ove s ei a coor na i ism a as c s f r e o he t a s un i on, r e ng nd di tng t ny pe t , i udi s c iy, s plne,a gene ala i sr ton.'Lgydaç y.leç 472 F. 1 1 ncl ng e urt dici i nd r dm nita i ' -ç- ---, 3d 74, 99 - ( hCi. ) 4t r 2006 . Thi def r nc i ac e d by ar tonal sst s. lco i rf f t st dee m i i s e e e s hi ve ai ba i e t nsde our ac or o tr ne f a prson regul i i r i aton s easonabl rel ed t l tm at penol cali er t . y at o egii e ogi nt es s' ( )( l t t ei aû i rtolalc ci 'bewee t prs 1 W heher her s û d,ai l onne ton' t n he ion val r a i or a ton a t i e e ta s red by t g r ent orw he he t s egul ton c i nd he nt r s s e t he ove nm , t r hi i e eti ûs r east r nde t polc abirr o irtona''( whehe ntr s s to emot o e r he iy r tay r rai l' 2) t r 5 k he na i m e ns ofe r i i t l g . . e a n o n t prs i a e ,' an û y tve a a xe c s ng he ' ht . r m i pe o i on nm t s ' i i r t ta ksbr dl whe heri a e wer de i d ofa 1f m sofr lgi nquiy ha s oa y t nm t s e prve 1 or e i ous exer sc orw het t wer abl t)par i pat i ot observanccsoft r ci her hey e e ( tci e n her hei f t ( wha i c t deie ac ommodain woul ha ons curt saf, aih; 3) t mpa t he srd c to d ve e iy t f 1 Com m on Fa e i a s cis V DOC i a e m e off l comm onl pe m it d by num e ousf t . 4 r s pe fc nm t nu -btds y r te r aihs i ts a t aloc tonofprs rs c 'a ( whehe t r e s a nmae , nd he l ai ion e oures nd 4) t r hee xit ny , So ous e y ale na i ' t t c le d r gul i ora ton, hi h m a k bvi , as t r tves' o he ha l nge e aton ci w c y s ugges t ti i û ras bl buti Lnse dla e t ha t s k e ona e, s i ta n xaggeae r s et not rtd epons o pr son concer ' i ns.' 1 a 200 ( i Tur rv.Sate 48 U. 78,8992( 987).W he a yi t s fcor,1 d. t quotng ne l y, 2 S. 1 ) n ppl ng he e a t s m us Cr pectt det m i i ofpr son ol i al ' Unied St es v.St t 925 F. 83,86 t les he er natons i ï ci s.' t at ots, 2d ( hCi.1 1.Theplitf be r t uli t bur nofesa ihi t taprs rgultonor 4t r 99 ) anif as he tmae de tbls ng ha ion e ai de iin i unc tt i .Ha ev. ujht993F. 1 1 2 ( hCi.1 . cso s onsiutonal us Va l , 2d 079, 08 4t r 993) The evi nce dem ons r t t tR a a n i a m ont l r i i f s obs r d by de t a es ha m da s h-ong elg ous a t e ve t adii r tonalM uslm s, and i at obser ng Ram adan ar f atni 1 Due t t e ajem at i e nm es vi e ed ght.5 o h t f ng tm es,Food Ser ces s af m us r tt w or eari and say l erf Ram adan m eal eedi i vi t f t epor o k ler t at or pr rton.The er rme sus l ce t ovetmea t a j t ntofsaf' s he es epaai s equie nt ualy rae ri nd he d usme t fs c dul , w hi h lm is saf s r son durng nor a w or hour a c us a tonals c iy s a ft c i t t f upe vi i i m l k s nd a es ddii e urt t f o be pr entdurng Ram adan f ng. es i eedi Pr di i vi ovi ng ndi dualof e r wih s c a f edi a r nge e sw hene rt y c f nde s t pe i l e ng r a m nt ve he hoos e t f tw ihoutnotce w oul be expensi and bur om e t t V D O C and is s af o as t i d ve dens o he t t f. Furt m ore,alow i each i at t choos w hen t f tlke dur ng Ram adan woul gr her l ng nm e o e o as i i d ant ea h i a e t pow e t m a pul t V DO C s a fa t or r y ope a i n ofa pr s c nm t he r o ni a e t f nd he de l r to i on. Ac or ng y,pl ntf f ist e t bls t tJ lns sa J be' alege polc ofno al ng c di l ai if a l o sa ih ha ol on' nd a s l d iy t lowi pl i ift f s i ac r nce w ih t V D O C Ra a n f e ng polc whe R a ada i no a ntf o a t n co da t he m da e di iy n m ns t oc rng doesnotvi a e t Fis A m e cur i ol t he r t ndm e ,a J nt nd ohns a J be a e e il d t q lf e on nd a r ntte o ua i i d i m uniy. m t 1 I 2008, Ra a n bega i Se e be and endc i ( c o . l 2009, Ram a n bega i A u ta ende i 5n m da n n pt m r d n l t ber n da n n gus nd dn Se embe . pt r ( ) > . PLAI FFCANNOT SUCCEED A GAI ID EFENDANTSI THEI OFFI AL CAPACI ES. NTI NS' ' N R CI TI Pl nt f cannotr ai if ecoverdam agcsagai tt def ns he endant i t rofi alcapacii and s n hei tci tes equiabl r i aboutK M C C condii i m oot t e elef tons s . Pl ntf nam esJohnson,Jabe,Gar an,M at ai if m hena,K i er,and Cox i t rof i al s n hei fci c pactest r evedama sa ij tverlcf CL s tagans asaeofcali hi orhe a ii o ec i ge nd nunci ei . tAI ui i t tt fii n s r ofi i lc pa iy i nota s tag ns t ofi i butr t ri a s tag ns t Ofi a ' O fc fc a a c t s ui ai t he lcal ahe s ui ai t he fcils fi e. A s s h,i i no dif r f o a s ta ns tl St t is l ' W ilv.M i Dep' ofSt e uc t s f e ent r m ui gai t le a e t e f ' l ch. t at event uis Polc 491U. 58 71( 989)(ntr cttonomit ) The El h A m endm entbarss t ie, S. , 1 i enal iai ted . if n ederalcour s f m oney dam agesagai tal ûtncons i St e.' Edel an v.Jor t or ns 4 tl entng at ' m dan,415 U. 651 663( 974) S. , 1 .Thi i s mmuniye e t iamsoft Stt 'i l ngsaeage i t xtnds o tr he aen'ncudi tt nces a s a e of i r a tng i t i of i i ca ciy. M t H e lhy Ciy Sc D i t Bd.ofEduc. nd t t fce s c i n he r f c al pa t . at t h. s . v. Doyl 429U. 27 280( 977) Gr v.La ,51F.d426, (t Ci.1 .Vigi aha e, S. 4, 1 , ay . ws 3 430 4h r 995) r ni s notwave iss r i i muniy t j 1 a RLUI damage a tonsa i no aS r on' i d t ove e gn m t o 983 nd PA s c i nd s t t s ' pe f pur e ofj 1 3damage aci .W il491U. a 71 86. or poss 98 s tons l, S. t , A saeof- alna d i a ofi ilca ct whe s df ij tverle i ad ro ' tt tci me n n tca pa iy n ue or nunci eif s t s n' i pe s e tt j1 ubjc o 983.l a 71n.0.Howe r pli ifi nol d. t l ve , antf s ongerhous da t KMCC, ndt , e t he a hus p an ifsrq ssf rij n tverle wihrs e t oh si ac rto t r aemo t I c ma litf e ue t o n u ci eif t ep c t i nc re ain hee r o . n u a v.Ozmi ,507F. 281 28 87(t Ci. nt 3d , 6- 4h r 2007) . Pl ntf i notentted t equiabl r i f t RLU I cl m . ai if s il o t e elef or he PA ai R LUI ,i r e ntpa t pr dest t10 go r e s li pos a s t n i lbur n PA n el va r , ovi ha 3 ve nm nt hal m e ubs a t a de on t r lgi e r i e ofa i at u e s t e gove nm e d onsr t t tt bur n he e i ous xe c s n nm e nl s l l r nt em t a es ha he de f her a com peli gover ent i er tand i t l tr t i i m eans off t ng t urt s lng nm al nt es s he eas es rctve urheri hat i ees.42U. C. 2000( 1 a.d ntr l S. j x- ( ) t r nt'i l t defnda s whowokf t Govenme ' ncudes he e nt, r or he VDOC.l j2000 5( ( .A k ubsa ilb d 'onrlgi e r s oc si i ' ll d. cc- 4)A) i tnta ur en' ei ous xecie cur f tC s s put s antalpr ubst i essur on an adher t m odiy hi behavi and t vi at hi belef ,or...f e ent o f s or o ol e s i s orces apes t c ebewee f l ngt pr e sofhe z lgona fretngf ron o hoos t n olowi he ec pt r eii nd o fii gover nt l nme al be is on t one hand,a a ndoni one oft pr c pt ofhe r lgi ... t ot r neft , he nd ba ng he e e s r e i on on he he ha ' Love ac 47 F. a 1 t k i o e r i e 'i l s ( e c s ofr lgi nd. ' l e, 2 3d t 87. t elgi us xc c s ' nc ude û l any xer i e e i on, whet rornotc he ompeld by,orc r t as tm ofr lgi bei '42U. C.j200Oc le entalo, yse ei ous lef' S. c To det m i w het a pl nt f es abls a pr m a f e RLU I cl m ,a courtm us er ne her ai if t ihes i aci PA ai t de i w he he a pl i if snc r y hel t a e be i fa w he hert be i fi ,i a c de t r a ntf i e el d he vow d le nd t he le s n pli ifsowns he oft ngs,elgi .lnie Sttsv.Se ge ,380U. 1 1 ( 965 . antf c me hi r i ous l td ae e r S. 63, 85 1 ) Onl a pe s lpr c i e t ti bot s nc r y le d and r t d i r lgi be i ff ls u rt y r ona a t c ha s h i e el l l oo e n e i ous le a l nde he pr tci ofRLUI Se Cuterv.W iki on,544U. 709,7 n.3( )( i t t oe tons PA. e t l ns S. 25 1 2005 notng ha under RLU I ,ûprson of i al m ay appr at y ques i w het a pr s PA û i f ci s opri el ton her i oner' r i ost s elgi iy, a s r e ast ba i f a r ques e a c m oda i i a he i ' a w he he hi û of s e s e t d he s s or e t d c om ton, s ut ntc ' nd t r s ' e sd pr r i ost 'sûsnc r 'l W ic i v.Yoder40 U. 205,21 1 ( 972)(ppl ngt s me elgi iy'i ûi e e'; s onsn , 6 S. 5- 6 1 a yi he a m erct Fis Am e e r lgi cli s .Clvi nc ofnonobs va i r e nton t ti o r t ndm nt e i ous am ) û' de e o er nce s elva he queston ofs nceriy' buti notCconcl i 01i nceriy.' Reed v.Faul ,842 F. 960,963 i i t ' s t us ve 'nsi t ' kner 2d ( hCi.1 (e og zi t tûa i ema a ptar lgi meeyt ha a st prs 7t r 988) rc ni ng ha tn nmat y do ei on rl o r s he ion safwih d ma t a ommodaehi new fih' .Ditnguihi bewee r i o a tf t e nds o cc t s at D si s ng t n elgius nd l secul belef si e or i ncer i di qcul. Scene. ,Fr ar i s, ncer nsi e, s ft t g. azee v.llnoi Em p' Sec. Dep'. li s t t, 489U. 829,833( 989 .Nevet e s snc iyofbelefi t cii lt e hol as c oft S. 1 ) rhels, i ert i s he rtca, hrs d pe t he i uiy lm us co i r whe he pl i ifs a s t d r l g o beleft tr uied hi t f t nq r t ns de : t r a ntf s ere e i i us i ha eq r m o as dui Ja r andFe ua y2009wasabelcfk i eeyheda ...i g s owns he of rng nuay br r i t nc rl l nd n hij s c me t ngs,r i ous'att tm e. Sceaer 380 U. at185. hi elgi ' hat i , S. Ifnd t pl i iff l t e t bls t att J nua y a Fe ua y 2009 f ta os f o a i hat a ntf ais o s a i h l he a r nd br r a as r e r m s nc r y he d r lgi be i f Pl ntf doe notpr de a ba i f m e t c ude t tt i e el l e i ous le . ai if s ovi ny s s or o oncl ha he f s ha a t ng t do w ih a r i ous obs va e. Pl i ifdoesnotr a e how he i a Sunni a t d ny hi o t elgi er 'nc a ntf el t s M us i t a r lgi usnee t f s i Ja l r ' Fe ua y 2009. Pl i ifdoesno de c i lm o ny e i o d o a t n nta l or br r a ntf t s rbe how t f tf her hi r i ous adherence 01waspur he as urt ed s elgi suantt any relgi belef o i ous i Fu t r or ,pl ntf doesnotpr dc a evi ce t the eve i or ed pr s s a fofa r he m e ai if ovi ny den ha r nf m i on t f r lgi ne t f tornee d t be pr de r e i ous ed o as de o ovi d oodspur ua t t V D O C Ra a n polc s nt o he m da iy when Ram adan w asnotoccur i rng. M o e r pl i if a s f ist e a n how t gove nm e i pos d a s t nta r ove , a ntf l o a l o xpl i he r nt m e ubs a i l bur n by w e g ng hi orpl c ng hi i a s rp c l,i w hi h pl ntf ha ac s t pe s l de i hi m ai m n ti e l n c ai i f d ce s o r ona pr t Pl ntf doesnotde c i how a g r e ala orpolcy f c hi t end t opery. ai i f s r be ny ovc nm nt ct i or ed m o he f te r i rt n w ha t unknow n t elg ousr a on' r qui e A c di y,pl ntf f ist as a le ha t he t ii r c s ' e r d. cor ngl ai if a l o s at a prm a f e R LU I cl m because he does notesabls t a si el hel r i ous te i aci PA ai t i h hat ncer y d elgi belefm otvat t Januar and Febr y 20(t f . i i ed he y uar ) ast 9 Even i pl nt f had est ihed pr l I ci evi f ai i f abls iua ' e dence ofa s antalbtr t a a ubst i tden o r i ous y s ncer f ,def elgi l i e ast endant adequat y expl ned t appl ng t Ram adan f ng s el ai hat yi he eedi polcy onl durng Ram adan i t l r t i i m eans off heri a eom peli i y i s he east es rctve urt ng lng govenme t i ees.l j2000c - () SeeCute ,544U. a 723( i t duedefrnc r nalntr t d. c 1a . tr S. t notng hat ee e mus begi nt t e incea e rie(fprs a j i a nitaor i etbls ng t ve o he xpere nd xpe ts ) ion nd al dmi sr t s n sa ihi necess y r atonsand pr ar egul i oeedur t m ai ki good or s iy,and dici i t ar es o nttn der, ecurt s plne hat e consse wihc i rtonofc t a lt tdrs c ) VDOC ofi al e ai dt t itnt t onsdeai oss nd inie e oures. tci s xpl ne ha i plm e i t Ra a f edi polc 1 1e h i vi i a ewho wa st f s a a m e ntng he m dan e ng iy 7 ' ac ndi dual nm t 0 nt o a t t ny tm e f any aleged r i ous r on w oul tndul di uptsec t and f s vi t ot x i or l elgi eas d l y sr uriy ood er ces o he i at and w oul per i each V D O C i at t m ani at prson r ources A ccor ngl nm es d m t nm e o pul e i es . di y, pl i ifi note il d t uns c fe equiabl r i f t RLUI cl i .6 a ntf s ntte o pe i i d t e clef or he PA a m 1 1 11. Fort f e ngr as ,Igr defnda s l i f s nl r j nznt he or goi e ons ant e nt'notons or ul nay udg e . The Cl r i die e t s nd c e oftls M e or ndum Opi on a t a om pa ng e k s r ct d o e opi s li m a ni nd he cc nyi O r rt pl i ifand c de o a ntf ouns ofr or f dc bnda s el ec d or l nt . EN TER :Thi s - day ofAugus ,20t , c t 2. . Seni U nied St es D it i J at s rct udge 1 Pl ntf ' r s ed eqgia e r le i t make def nt as i orta f rhi t a Lev lIf iiy. H e doe 6 ai if s eque t t bl e i f s o enda s sgn r ns e m o el I ac lt s notr qu ts cii e t bl r le aboutt RlulàN cl l ora s ii VDO C polc , whi w oul a yt a e es pe fc quia e e i f he w lz ain ' pec fc iy ch d ppl o ny V DOC f iiy i whi he woul be i r el t . ac lt n ch d nca c - ed a